20:17 As Jesus was going up to Jerusalem, 1 he took the twelve 2 aside privately and said to them on the way, 20:18 “Look, we are going up to Jerusalem, and the Son of Man will be handed over to the chief priests and the experts in the law. 3 They will condemn him to death, 20:19 and will turn him over to the Gentiles to be mocked and flogged severely 4 and crucified. 5 Yet 6 on the third day, he will be raised.”
[20:17] 2 tc ‡ A number of significant witnesses (e.g., B C W 085 33 lat) have μαθητάς (maqhtas, “disciples”) after δώδεκα (dwdeka, “twelve”), perhaps by way of clarification, while other important witnesses lack the word (e.g., א D L Θ Ë1,13). The longer reading looks to be a scribal clarification, and hence is considered to be secondary. NA27 puts the word in brackets to show doubts about its authenticity.
[20:19] 4 tn Traditionally, “scourged” (the term means to beat severely with a whip, L&N 19.9). BDAG 620 s.v. μαστιγόω 1.a states, “The ‘verberatio’ is denoted in the passion predictions and explicitly as action by non-Israelites Mt 20:19; Mk 10:34; Lk 18:33”; the verberatio was the beating given to those condemned to death in the Roman judicial system. Here the term μαστιγόω (mastigow) has been translated “flog…severely” to distinguish it from the term φραγελλόω (fragellow) used in Matt 27:26; Mark 15:15.
[20:19] 5 sn Crucifixion was the cruelest form of punishment practiced by the Romans. Roman citizens could not normally undergo it. It was reserved for the worst crimes, like treason and evasion of due process in a capital case. The Roman historian Cicero called it “a cruel and disgusting penalty” (Against Verres 2.5.63-66 §§163-70); Josephus (J. W. 7.6.4 [7.203]) called it the worst of deaths.