TB NETBible YUN-IBR Ref. Silang Nama Gambar Himne

Keluaran 23:1-13

Konteks
Justice

23:1 1 “You must not give 2  a false report. 3  Do not make common cause 4  with the wicked 5  to be a malicious 6  witness.

23:2 “You must not follow a crowd 7  in doing evil things; 8  in a lawsuit you must not offer testimony that agrees with a crowd so as to pervert justice, 9  23:3 and you must not show partiality 10  to a poor man in his lawsuit.

23:4 “If you encounter 11  your enemy’s ox or donkey wandering off, you must by all means return 12  it to him. 23:5 If you see the donkey of someone who hates you fallen under its load, you must not ignore him, 13  but be sure to help 14  him with it. 15 

23:6 “You must not turn away justice for your poor people in their lawsuits. 23:7 Keep your distance 16  from a false charge 17  – do not kill the innocent and the righteous, 18  for I will not justify the wicked. 19 

23:8 “You must not accept a bribe, for a bribe blinds those who see 20  and subverts the words of the righteous.

23:9 “You must not oppress 21  a foreigner, since you know the life 22  of a foreigner, for you were foreigners in the land of Egypt.

Sabbaths and Feasts

23:10 23 “For six years 24  you are to sow your land and gather in its produce. 23:11 But in the seventh year 25  you must let it lie fallow and leave it alone so that the poor of your people may eat, and what they leave any animal in the field 26  may eat; you must do likewise with your vineyard and your olive grove. 23:12 For six days you are to do your work, but on the seventh day you must cease, in order that your ox and your donkey may rest and that your female servant’s son and any hired help 27  may refresh themselves. 28 

23:13 “Pay attention to do 29  everything I have told you, and do not even mention 30  the names of other gods – do not let them be heard on your lips. 31 

Seret untuk mengatur ukuranSeret untuk mengatur ukuran

[23:1]  1 sn People who claim to worship and serve the righteous judge of the universe must preserve equity and justice in their dealings with others. These verses teach that God’s people must be honest witnesses (1-3); God’s people must be righteous even with enemies (4-5); and God’s people must be fair in dispensing justice (6-9).

[23:1]  2 tn Heb “take up, lift, carry” (נָשָׂא, nasa’). This verb was also used in the prohibition against taking “the name of Yahweh in vain.” Sometimes the object of this verb is physical, as in Jonah 1:12 and 15. Used in this prohibition involving speech, it covers both originating and repeating a lie.

[23:1]  3 tn Or “a groundless report” (see Exod 20:7 for the word שָׁוְא, shav’).

[23:1]  4 tn Heb “do not put your hand” (cf. KJV, ASV); NASB “join your hand.”

[23:1]  5 tn The word “wicked” (רָשָׁע, rasha’) refers to the guilty criminal, the person who is doing something wrong. In the religious setting it describes the person who is not a member of the covenant and may be involved in all kinds of sin, even though there is the appearance of moral and spiritual stability.

[23:1]  6 tn The word חָמָס (khamas) often means “violence” in the sense of social injustices done to other people, usually the poor and needy. A “malicious” witness would do great harm to others. See J. W. McKay, “Exodus 23:1-43, 6-8: A Decalogue for Administration of Justice in the City Gate,” VT 21 (1971): 311-25.

[23:2]  7 tn The word רָבִּים (rabbim), here rendered “crowd,” is also used infrequently to refer to the “mighty,” people of importance in society (Job 35:9; cf. Lev 19:15).

[23:2]  8 tn For any individual to join a group that is bent on acting wickedly would be a violation of the Law and would incur personal responsibility.

[23:2]  9 tn Heb “you will not answer in a lawsuit to turn after the crowd to turn.” The form translated “agrees with” (Heb “to turn after”) is a Qal infinitive construct from נָטָה (natah); the same root is used at the end of the verse but as a Hiphil infinitive construct, “to pervert [justice].”

[23:3]  10 tn The point here is one of false sympathy and honor, the bad sense of the word הָדַר (hadar; see S. R. Driver, Exodus, 237).

[23:4]  11 tn Heb “meet” (so KJV, ASV, NASB).

[23:4]  12 tn The construction uses the imperfect tense (taken here as an obligatory imperfect) and the infinitive absolute for emphasis.

[23:5]  13 tn The line reads “you will cease to forsake him” – refrain from leaving your enemy without help.

[23:5]  14 tn The law is emphatic here as well, using the infinitive absolute and the imperfect of instruction (or possibly obligation). There is also a wordplay here: two words עָזַב (’azav) are used, one meaning “forsake” and the other possibly meaning “arrange” based on Arabic and Ugaritic evidence (see U. Cassuto, Exodus, 297-98).

[23:5]  15 sn See H. B. Huffmon, “Exodus 23:4-5: A Comparative Study,” A Light Unto My Path, 271-78.

[23:7]  16 tn Or “stay away from,” or “have nothing to do with.”

[23:7]  17 tn Heb “a false matter,” this expression in this context would have to be a case in law that was false or that could only be won by falsehood.

[23:7]  18 tn The two clauses probably should be related: the getting involved in the false charge could lead to the death of an innocent person (so, e.g., Naboth in 1 Kgs 21:10-13).

[23:7]  19 sn God will not declare right the one who is in the wrong. Society should also be consistent, but it cannot see the intents and motives, as God can.

[23:8]  20 tn Heb “blinds the open-eyed.”

[23:9]  21 tn The verb means “to crush.” S. R. Driver notes that in this context this would probably mean with an unfair judgment in the courts (Exodus, 239).

[23:9]  22 tn Heb “soul, life” – “you know what it feels like.”

[23:10]  23 sn This section concerns religious duties of the people of God as they worship by giving thanks to God for their blessings. The principles here are: God requires his people to allow the poor to share in their bounty (10-11); God requires his people to provide times of rest and refreshment for those who labor for them (12); God requires allegiance to himself (13); God requires his people to come before him in gratitude and share their bounty (14-17); God requires that his people safeguard proper worship forms (18-19).

[23:10]  24 tn Heb “and six years”; this is an adverbial accusative telling how long they can work their land. The following references to years and days in vv. 10-12 function similarly.

[23:11]  25 tn Heb “and the seventh year”; an adverbial accusative with a disjunctive vav (ו).

[23:11]  26 tn Heb “living thing/creature/beast of the field.” A general term for animals, usually wild animals, including predators (cf. v. 29; Gen 2:19-20; Lev 26:22; Deut 7:22; 1 Sam 17:46; Job 5:22-23; Ezek 29:5; 34:5).

[23:12]  27 tn Heb “alien,” or “resident foreigner.” Such an individual would have traveled out of need and depended on the goodwill of the people around him. The rendering “hired help” assumes that the foreigner is mentioned in this context because he is working for an Israelite and will benefit from the Sabbath rest, along with his employer.

[23:12]  28 tn The verb is וְיִּנָּפֵשׁ (vÿyyinnafesh); it is related to the word usually translated “soul” or “life.”

[23:13]  29 tn The phrase “to do” is added; in Hebrew word order the line says, “In all that I have said to you you will watch yourselves.” The verb for paying attention is a Niphal imperfect with an imperatival force.

[23:13]  30 tn Or “honor,” Hiphil of זָכַר (zakhar). See also Exod 20:25; Josh 23:7; Isa 26:13.

[23:13]  31 tn Heb “mouth.”

[23:13]  sn See also Ps 16:4, where David affirms his loyalty to God with this expression.



TIP #16: Tampilan Pasal untuk mengeksplorasi pasal; Tampilan Ayat untuk menganalisa ayat; Multi Ayat/Kutipan untuk menampilkan daftar ayat. [SEMUA]
dibuat dalam 0.03 detik
dipersembahkan oleh YLSA