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1 Samuel 16

Samuel Anoints David as King

16:1 The Lord said to Samuel, “How long do you intend to mourn for Saul? I have rejected him as king over Israel. 1  Fill your horn with olive oil and go! I am sending you to Jesse in Bethlehem, 2  for I have selected a king for myself from among his sons.” 3 

16:2 Samuel replied, “How can I go? Saul will hear about it and kill me!” But the Lord said, “Take a heifer with you 4  and say, ‘I have come to sacrifice to the Lord.’ 16:3 Then invite Jesse to the sacrifice, and I will show you what you should do. You will anoint for me the one I point out 5  to you.”

16:4 Samuel did what the Lord told him. 6  When he arrived in Bethlehem, 7  the elders of the city were afraid to meet him. They 8  said, “Do you come in peace?” 16:5 He replied, “Yes, in peace. I have come to sacrifice to the Lord. Consecrate yourselves and come with me to the sacrifice.” So he consecrated Jesse and his sons and invited them to the sacrifice.

16:6 When they arrived, Samuel 9  noticed 10  Eliab and said to himself, 11  “Surely, here before the Lord stands his chosen king!” 12  16:7 But the Lord said to Samuel, “Don’t be impressed by 13  his appearance or his height, for I have rejected him. God does not view things the way men do. 14  People look on the outward appearance, 15  but the Lord looks at the heart.”

16:8 Then Jesse called Abinadab and presented him to Samuel. 16  But Samuel 17  said, “The Lord has not chosen this one, either.” 16:9 Then Jesse presented 18  Shammah. But Samuel said, “The Lord has not chosen this one either.” 16:10 Jesse presented seven of his sons to Samuel. 19  But Samuel said to Jesse, “The Lord has not chosen any of these.” 16:11 Then Samuel said to Jesse, “Is that all of the young men?” Jesse 20  replied, “There is still the youngest one, but he’s taking care of the flock.” Samuel said to Jesse, “Send and get him, for we cannot turn our attention to other things until he comes here.”

16:12 So Jesse had him brought in. 21  Now he was ruddy, with attractive eyes and a handsome appearance. The Lord said, “Go and anoint him. This is the one!” 16:13 So Samuel took the horn full of olive oil and anointed him in the presence of his brothers. The Spirit of the Lord rushed upon David from that day onward. Then Samuel got up and went to Ramah.

David Appears before Saul

16:14 Now the Spirit of the Lord had turned away from Saul, and an evil spirit 22  from the Lord tormented him. 16:15 Then Saul’s servants said to him, “Look, an evil spirit from God is tormenting you!” 16:16 Let our lord instruct his servants who are here before you to look for a man who knows how to play the lyre. Then whenever the evil spirit from God comes upon you, he can play the lyre 23  and you will feel better.” 24  16:17 So Saul said to his servants, “Find 25  me a man who plays well and bring him to me.” 16:18 One of his attendants replied, 26  “I have seen a son of Jesse in Bethlehem 27  who knows how to play the lyre. He is a brave warrior 28  and is articulate 29  and handsome, 30  for the Lord is with him.”

16:19 So Saul sent messengers to Jesse and said, “Send me your son David, who is out with the sheep. 16:20 So Jesse took a donkey loaded with bread, a container of wine, and a young goat 31  and sent them to Saul with 32  his son David. 16:21 David came to Saul and stood before him. Saul liked him a great deal, 33  and he became his armor bearer. 16:22 Then Saul sent word to Jesse saying, “Let David be my servant, for I really like him.” 34 

16:23 So whenever the spirit from God would come upon Saul, David would take his lyre and play it. This would bring relief to Saul and make him feel better. Then the evil spirit would leave him alone. 35 

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[16:1]  1 tc The Lucianic recension of the Old Greek translation includes the following words: “And the Lord said to Samuel.”

[16:1]  2 map For location see Map5 B1; Map7 E2; Map8 E2; Map10 B4.

[16:1]  3 tn Heb “for I have seen among his sons for me a king.”

[16:2]  4 tn Heb “in your hand.”

[16:3]  5 tn Heb “say”; KJV, NRSV “name”; NIV “indicate.”

[16:4]  6 tn Heb “said.”

[16:4]  7 map For location see Map5 B1; Map7 E2; Map8 E2; Map10 B4.

[16:4]  8 tc In the MT the verb is singular (“he said”), but the translation follows many medieval Hebrew mss and ancient versions in reading the plural (“they said”).

[16:6]  9 tn Heb “he”; the referent (Samuel) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[16:6]  10 tn Heb “saw.”

[16:6]  11 tn Heb “said”; the words “to himself” are implied, given the secrecy surrounding Samuel’s mission to Bethlehem (v. 2).

[16:6]  12 tn Heb “his anointed one.”

[16:7]  13 tn Heb “don’t look toward.”

[16:7]  14 tn Heb “for not that which the man sees.” The translation follows the LXX, which reads, “for not as man sees does God see.” The MT has suffered from homoioteleuton or homoioarcton. See P. K. McCarter, I Samuel (AB), 274.

[16:7]  15 tn Heb “to the eyes.”

[16:8]  16 tn Heb “and caused him to pass before.”

[16:8]  17 tn Heb “he” (also in v. 9); the referent (Samuel) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[16:9]  18 tn Heb “caused to pass by.”

[16:10]  19 tn Heb “caused seven of his sons to pass before Samuel.” This could be taken as referring to seven sons in addition to the three mentioned before this, but 1 Sam 17:12 says Jesse had eight sons, not eleven. 1 Chr 2:13-15 lists only seven sons, including David. However, 1 Chr 27:18 mentions an additional son, named Elihu.

[16:11]  20 tn Heb “he”; the referent (Jesse) has been specified in the translation both here and in v. 12 for clarity.

[16:12]  21 tn Heb “and he sent and brought him.”

[16:14]  22 tn Or “an injurious spirit”; cf. NLT “a tormenting spirit.” The phrase need not refer to an evil, demonic spirit. The Hebrew word translated “evil” may refer to the character of the spirit or to its effect upon Saul. If the latter, another translation option might be “a mischief-making spirit.”

[16:16]  23 tn Heb “and he will play with his hand.”

[16:16]  24 tn Heb “and it will be better for you.”

[16:17]  25 tn Heb “see.”

[16:18]  26 tn Heb “answered and said.”

[16:18]  27 map For location see Map5 B1; Map7 E2; Map8 E2; Map10 B4.

[16:18]  28 tn Heb “mighty man of valor and a man of war.”

[16:18]  29 tn Heb “discerning of word.”

[16:18]  30 tn Heb “a man of form.”

[16:20]  31 tn Heb “a kid of the goats.”

[16:20]  32 tn Heb “by the hand of.”

[16:21]  33 tn Heb “he loved him.”

[16:22]  34 tn Heb “Let David stand before me, for he has found favor in my eyes.”

[16:23]  35 tn Heb “would turn aside from upon him.”

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