26:1 “‘You must not make for yourselves idols, 1 so you must not set up for yourselves a carved image or a pillar, and you must not place a sculpted stone in your land to bow down before 2 it, for I am the Lord your God. 26:2 You must keep my Sabbaths and reverence 3 my sanctuary. I am the Lord.
26:3 “‘If you walk in my statutes and are sure to obey my commandments, 4 26:4 I will give you your rains in their time so that 5 the land will give its yield and the trees of the field will produce their fruit. 6 26:5 Threshing season will extend for you until the season for harvesting grapes, 7 and the season for harvesting grapes will extend until sowing season, so 8 you will eat your bread until you are satisfied, 9 and you will live securely in your land. 26:6 I will grant peace in the land so that 10 you will lie down to sleep without anyone terrifying you. 11 I will remove harmful animals 12 from the land, and no sword of war 13 will pass through your land. 26:7 You will pursue your enemies and they will fall before you by the sword. 14 26:8 Five of you will pursue a hundred, and a hundred of you will pursue ten thousand, and your enemies will fall before you by the sword. 26:9 I will turn to you, make you fruitful, multiply you, and maintain 15 my covenant with you. 26:10 You will still be eating stored produce from the previous year 16 and will have to clean out what is stored from the previous year to make room for new. 17
26:11 “‘I will put my tabernacle 18 in your midst and I will not abhor you. 19 26:12 I will walk among you, and I will be your God and you will be my people. 26:13 I am the Lord your God who brought you out from the land of Egypt, from being their slaves, 20 and I broke the bars of your yoke and caused you to walk upright. 21
26:14 “‘If, however, 22 you do not obey me and keep 23 all these commandments – 26:15 if you reject my statutes and abhor my regulations so that you do not keep 24 all my commandments and you break my covenant – 26:16 I for my part 25 will do this to you: I will inflict horror on you, consumption and fever, which diminish eyesight and drain away the vitality of life. 26 You will sow your seed in vain because 27 your enemies will eat it. 28 26:17 I will set my face against you. You will be struck down before your enemies, those who hate you will rule over you, and you will flee when there is no one pursuing you.
26:18 “‘If, in spite of all these things, 29 you do not obey me, I will discipline you seven times more on account of your sins. 30 26:19 I will break your strong pride and make your sky like iron and your land like bronze. 26:20 Your strength will be used up in vain, your land will not give its yield, and the trees of the land 31 will not produce their fruit.
26:21 “‘If you walk in hostility against me 32 and are not willing to obey me, I will increase your affliction 33 seven times according to your sins. 26:22 I will send the wild animals 34 against you and they will bereave you of your children, 35 annihilate your cattle, and diminish your population 36 so that your roads will become deserted.
26:23 “‘If in spite of these things 37 you do not allow yourselves to be disciplined and you walk in hostility against me, 38 26:24 I myself will also walk in hostility against you and strike you 39 seven times on account of your sins. 26:25 I will bring on you an avenging sword, a covenant vengeance. 40 Although 41 you will gather together into your cities, I will send pestilence among you and you will be given into enemy hands. 42 26:26 When I break off your supply of bread, 43 ten women will bake your bread in one oven; they will ration your bread by weight, 44 and you will eat and not be satisfied.
26:27 “‘If in spite of this 45 you do not obey me but walk in hostility against me, 46 26:28 I will walk in hostile rage against you 47 and I myself will also discipline you seven times on account of your sins. 26:29 You will eat the flesh of your sons and the flesh of your daughters. 48 26:30 I will destroy your high places and cut down your incense altars, 49 and I will stack your dead bodies on top of the lifeless bodies of your idols. 50 I will abhor you. 51 26:31 I will lay your cities waste 52 and make your sanctuaries desolate, and I will refuse to smell your soothing aromas. 26:32 I myself will make the land desolate and your enemies who live in it will be appalled. 26:33 I will scatter you among the nations and unsheathe the sword 53 after you, so your land will become desolate and your cities will become a waste.
26:34 “‘Then the land will make up for 54 its Sabbaths all the days it lies desolate while you are in the land of your enemies; then the land will rest and make up its Sabbaths. 26:35 All the days of the desolation it will have the rest it did not have 55 on your Sabbaths when you lived on it.
26:36 “‘As for 56 the ones who remain among you, I will bring despair into their hearts in the lands of their enemies. The sound of a blowing leaf will pursue them, and they will flee as one who flees the sword and fall down even though there is no pursuer. 26:37 They will stumble over each other as those who flee before a sword, though 57 there is no pursuer, and there will be no one to take a stand 58 for you before your enemies. 26:38 You will perish among the nations; the land of your enemies will consume you.
26:39 “‘As for the ones who remain among you, they will rot away because of 59 their iniquity in the lands of your enemies, and they will also rot away because of their ancestors’ 60 iniquities which are with them. 26:40 However, when 61 they confess their iniquity and their ancestors’ iniquity which they committed by trespassing against me, 62 by which they also walked 63 in hostility against me 64 26:41 (and I myself will walk in hostility against them and bring them into the land of their enemies), and 65 then their uncircumcised hearts become humbled and they make up for 66 their iniquity, 26:42 I will remember my covenant with Jacob and also my covenant with Isaac and also my covenant with Abraham, 67 and I will remember the land. 26:43 The land will be abandoned by them 68 in order that it may make up for 69 its Sabbaths while it is made desolate 70 without them, 71 and they will make up for their iniquity because 72 they have rejected my regulations and have abhorred 73 my statutes. 26:44 In spite of this, however, when they are in the land of their enemies I will not reject them and abhor them to make a complete end of them, to break my covenant with them, for I am the Lord their God. 26:45 I will remember for them the covenant with their ancestors 74 whom I brought out from the land of Egypt in the sight of the nations to be their God. I am the Lord.’”
[26:1] 1 sn For the literature regarding the difficult etymology and meaning of the term for “idols” (אֱלִילִם, ’elilim), see the literature cited in the note on Lev 19:4. It appears to be a diminutive play on words with אֵל (’el, “god, God”) and, perhaps at the same time, recalls a common Semitic word for “worthless, weak, powerless, nothingness.” Snaith suggests a rendering of “worthless godlings.”
[26:3] 4 tn Heb “and my commandments you shall keep and do them.” This appears to be a kind of verbal hendiadys, where the first verb is a modifier of the action of the second verb (see GKC 386 §120.d, although שָׁמַר [shamar, “to keep”] is not cited there; cf. Lev 20:8; 25:18, etc.).
[26:9] 15 tn Heb “cause to arise,” but probably used here for the
[26:16] 26 tn Heb “soul.” These expressions may refer either to the physical effects of consumption and fever as the rendering in the text suggests (e.g., J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 452, 454, “diminishing eyesight and loss of appetite”), or perhaps the more psychological effects, “which exhausts the eyes” because of anxious hope “and causes depression” (Heb “causes soul [נֶפֶשׁ, nefesh] to pine away”), e.g., B. A. Levine, Leviticus (JPSTC), 185.
[26:20] 31 tn Heb “the tree of the land will not give its fruit.” The collective singular has been translated as a plural. Tg. Onq., some medieval Hebrew
[26:30] 49 sn Regarding these cultic installations, see the remarks in B. A. Levine, Leviticus (JPSTC), 188, and R. E. Averbeck, NIDOTTE 2:903. The term rendered “incense altars” might better be rendered “sanctuaries [of foreign deities]” or “stelae.”
[26:30] 50 tn The translation reflects the Hebrew wordplay “your corpses…the corpses of your idols.” Since idols, being lifeless, do not really have “corpses,” the translation uses “dead bodies” for people and “lifeless bodies” for the idols.
[26:34] 54 tn There are two Hebrew roots רָצָה (ratsah), one meaning “to be pleased with; to take pleasure” (HALOT 1280-81 s.v. רצה; cf. “enjoy” in NASB, NIV, NRSV, and J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 452), and the other meaning “to restore” (HALOT 1281-82 s.v. II רצה; cf. NAB “retrieve” and B. A. Levine, Leviticus [JPSTC], 189).
[26:40] 61 tn Heb “And.” Many English versions take this to be a conditional clause (“if…”) though there is no conditional particle (see, e.g., NASB, NIV, NRSV; but see the very different rendering in B. A. Levine, Leviticus [JPSTC], 190). The temporal translation offered here (“when”) takes into account the particle אָז (’az, “then”), which occurs twice in v. 41. The obvious contextual contrast between vv. 39 and 40 is expressed by “however” in the translation.
[26:45] sn For similar expressions referring back to the ancestors who refused to follow the stipulations of the Mosaic covenant see, for example, Deut 19:14, Jer 11:10, and Ps 79:8 (see B. A. Levine, Leviticus [JPSTC], 192, and J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 471).