A well-written song 2 by Asaph.
78:1 Pay attention, my people, to my instruction!
Listen to the words I speak! 3
78:2 I will sing a song that imparts wisdom;
I will make insightful observations about the past. 4
that which our ancestors 6 have told us –
We will tell the next generation
about the Lord’s praiseworthy acts, 8
about his strength and the amazing things he has done.
he set up a law in Israel.
He commanded our ancestors
to make his deeds known to their descendants, 10
78:6 so that the next generation, children yet to be born,
might know about them.
They will grow up and tell their descendants about them. 11
78:7 Then they will place their confidence in God.
They will not forget the works of God,
and they will obey 12 his commands.
78:8 Then they will not be like their ancestors,
who were a stubborn and rebellious generation,
a generation that was not committed
and faithful to God. 13
but they retreated in the day of battle. 16
and they refused to obey 18 his law.
the amazing things he had shown them.
78:12 He did amazing things in the sight of their ancestors,
in the land of Egypt, in the region of Zoan. 20
78:13 He divided the sea and led them across it;
he made the water stand in a heap.
78:14 He led them with a cloud by day,
and with the light of a fire all night long.
78:15 He broke open rocks in the wilderness,
and gave them enough water to fill the depths of the sea. 21
78:16 He caused streams to flow from the rock,
and made the water flow like rivers.
78:17 Yet they continued to sin against him,
and rebelled against the sovereign One 22 in the desert.
by asking for food to satisfy their appetite.
“Is God really able to give us food 25 in the wilderness?
streams gushed forth.
But can he also give us food?
Will he provide meat for his people?”
A fire broke out against Jacob,
and his anger flared up 28 against Israel,
78:22 because they did not have faith in God,
and did not trust his ability to deliver them. 29
78:23 He gave a command to the clouds above,
and opened the doors in the sky.
78:24 He rained down manna for them to eat;
he gave them the grain of heaven. 30
He sent them more than enough to eat. 32
78:26 He brought the east wind through the sky,
and by his strength led forth the south wind.
78:27 He rained down meat on them like dust,
birds as numerous as the sand on the seashores. 33
78:28 He caused them to fall right in the middle of their camp,
all around their homes.
he gave them what they desired.
their food was still in their mouths,
78:31 when the anger of God flared up against them.
He killed some of the strongest of them;
he brought the young men of Israel to their knees.
78:32 Despite all this, they continued to sin,
and did not trust him to do amazing things. 36
and filled with terror. 38
they turned back and longed for God.
and that the sovereign God was their deliverer. 42
and lied to him. 44
and they were unfaithful to his covenant.
78:38 Yet he is compassionate.
He forgives sin and does not destroy.
He often holds back his anger,
and does not stir up his fury. 46
and were like a wind that blows past and does not return. 48
78:40 How often they rebelled against him in the wilderness,
and insulted him 49 in the desert!
how he delivered them from the enemy, 54
and his acts of judgment 56 in the region of Zoan.
78:44 He turned their rivers into blood,
and they could not drink from their streams.
as well as frogs that overran their land. 58
78:46 He gave their crops to the grasshopper,
the fruit of their labor to the locust.
78:47 He destroyed their vines with hail,
and their sycamore-fig trees with driving rain.
and hurled lightning bolts down on their livestock. 60
He sent fury, rage, and trouble
as messengers who bring disaster. 62
he did not spare them from death;
he handed their lives over to destruction. 64
78:51 He struck down all the firstborn in Egypt,
the firstfruits of their reproductive power 65 in the tents of Ham.
78:52 Yet he brought out his people like sheep;
he led them through the wilderness like a flock.
78:53 He guided them safely along,
while the sea covered their enemies.
78:54 He brought them to the border of his holy land,
78:55 He drove the nations out from before them;
he assigned them their tribal allotments 68
and allowed the tribes of Israel to settle down. 69
they were as unreliable as a malfunctioning bow. 76
and made him jealous with their idols.
78:59 God heard and was angry;
he completely rejected Israel.
the tent where he lived among men.
78:62 He delivered his people over to the sword,
and was angry with his chosen nation. 82
he was like a warrior in a drunken rage. 90
78:66 He drove his enemies back;
he made them a permanent target for insults. 91
78:67 He rejected the tent of Joseph;
he did not choose the tribe of Ephraim.
78:68 He chose the tribe of Judah,
and Mount Zion, which he loves.
as secure as the earth, which he established permanently. 93
78:70 He chose David, his servant,
and took him from the sheepfolds.
and made him the shepherd of Jacob, his people,
and of Israel, his chosen nation. 95
he led them with skill. 98
[78:1] 1 sn Psalm 78. The author of this lengthy didactic psalm rehearses Israel’s history. He praises God for his power, goodness and patience, but also reminds his audience that sin angers God and prompts his judgment. In the conclusion to the psalm the author elevates Jerusalem as God’s chosen city and David as his chosen king.
[78:2] 4 tn Heb “I will open with a wise saying my mouth, I will utter insightful sayings from long ago.” Elsewhere the Hebrew word pair חִידָה+מָשָׁל (mashal + khidah) refers to a taunt song (Hab 2:6), a parable (Ezek 17:2), proverbial sayings (Prov 1:6), and an insightful song that reflects on the mortality of humankind and the ultimate inability of riches to prevent death (Ps 49:4).
[78:5] 9 tn The Hebrew noun עֵדוּת (’edut) refers here to God’s command that the older generation teach their children about God’s mighty deeds in the nation’s history (see Exod 10:2; Deut 4:9; 6:20-25).
[78:9] 15 tn Heb “ones armed, shooters of bow.” It is possible that the term נוֹשְׁקֵי (noshÿqey, “ones armed [with]”) is an interpretive gloss for the rare רוֹמֵי (romey, “shooters of”; on the latter see BDB 941 s.v. I רָמָה). The phrase נוֹשְׁקֵי קֶשֶׁת (noshÿqey qeshet, “ones armed with a bow”) appears in 1 Chr 12:2; 2 Chr 17:17.
[78:9] 16 sn They retreated. This could refer to the northern tribes’ failure to conquer completely their allotted territory (see Judg 1), or it could refer generally to the typical consequence (military defeat) of their sin (see vv. 10-11).
[78:25] 31 sn Because of the reference to “heaven” in the preceding verse, it is likely that mighty ones refers here to the angels of heaven. The LXX translates “angels” here, as do a number of modern translations (NEB, NIV, NRSV).
[78:38] 46 tn One could translate v. 38 in the past tense (“he was compassionate…forgave sin and did not destroy…held back his anger, and did not stir up his fury”), but the imperfect verbal forms are probably best understood as generalizing. Verse 38 steps back briefly from the narrational summary of Israel’s history and lays the theological basis for v. 39, which focuses on God’s mercy toward sinful Israel.
[78:41] 52 sn The basic sense of the word “holy” is “set apart from that which is commonplace, special, unique.” The Lord’s holiness is first and foremost his transcendent sovereignty as the ruler of the world. He is “set apart” from the world over which he rules. At the same time his holiness encompasses his moral authority, which derives from his royal position. As king he has the right to dictate to his subjects how they are to live; indeed his very own character sets the standard for proper behavior. This expression is a common title for the
[78:49] 61 tn Heb “he sent against them the rage of his anger.” The phrase “rage of his anger” employs an appositional genitive. Synonyms are joined in a construct relationship to emphasize the single idea. For a detailed discussion of the grammatical point with numerous examples, see Y. Avishur, “Pairs of Synonymous Words in the Construct State (and in Appositional Hendiadys) in Biblical Hebrew,” Semitics 2 (1971): 17-81.
[78:51] 65 tn Heb “the beginning of strength.” If retained, the plural form אוֹנִים (’onim, “strength”) probably indicates degree (“great strength”), but many ancient witnesses read “their strength,” which presupposes an emendation to אֹנָם (’onam; singular form of the noun with third masculine plural pronominal suffix).
[78:65] 90 tn Heb “like a warrior overcome with wine.” The Hebrew verb רוּן (run, “overcome”) occurs only here in the OT. The phrase “overcome with wine” could picture a drunken warrior controlled by his emotions and passions (as in the present translation), or it could refer to a warrior who awakes from a drunken stupor.
[78:69] 92 tc Heb “and he built like the exalting [ones] his sanctuary.” The phrase כְּמוֹ־רָמִים (kÿmo-ramim, “like the exalting [ones]”) is a poetic form of the comparative preposition followed by a participial form of the verb רוּם (rum, “be exalted”). The text should be emended to כִּמְרֹמִים (kimromim, “like the [heavenly] heights”). See Ps 148:1, where “heights” refers to the heavens above.
[78:69] 93 tn Heb “like the earth, [which] he established permanently.” The feminine singular suffix on the Hebrew verb יָסַד (yasad, “to establish”) refers to the grammatically feminine noun “earth.”