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Markus 1:21-39

Konteks
Jesus’ Authority

1:21 Then 1  they went to Capernaum. 2  When the Sabbath came, 3  Jesus 4  went into the synagogue 5  and began to teach. 1:22 The people there 6  were amazed by his teaching, because he taught them like one who had authority, 7  not like the experts in the law. 8  1:23 Just then there was a man in their synagogue with an unclean spirit, 9  and he cried out, 10  1:24 “Leave us alone, 11  Jesus the Nazarene! Have you come to destroy us? I know who you are – the Holy One 12  of God!” 1:25 But 13  Jesus rebuked him: 14  “Silence! Come out of him!” 15  1:26 After throwing him into convulsions, the unclean spirit cried out with a loud voice and came out of him. 1:27 They were all amazed so that they asked each other, “What is this? A new teaching with authority! He even commands the unclean spirits and they obey him.” 1:28 So 16  the news about him spread quickly throughout all the region around Galilee.

Healings at Simon’s House

1:29 Now 17  as soon as they left the synagogue, 18  they entered Simon and Andrew’s house, with James and John. 1:30 Simon’s mother-in-law was lying down, sick with a fever, so 19  they spoke to Jesus 20  at once about her. 1:31 He came and raised her up by gently taking her hand. Then the fever left her and she began to serve 21  them. 1:32 When it was evening, after sunset, they brought to him all who were sick and demon-possessed. 1:33 The whole town gathered by the door. 1:34 So 22  he healed many who were sick with various diseases and drove out many demons. 23  But 24  he would not permit the demons to speak, 25  because they knew him. 26 

Praying and Preaching

1:35 Then 27  Jesus 28  got up early in the morning when it was still very dark, departed, and went out to a deserted place, and there he spent time in prayer. 29  1:36 Simon and his companions searched for him. 1:37 When they found him, they said, “Everyone is looking for you.” 1:38 He replied, 30  “Let us go elsewhere, into the surrounding villages, so that I can preach there too. For that is what I came out here to do.” 31  1:39 So 32  he went into all of Galilee preaching in their synagogues 33  and casting out demons.

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[1:21]  1 tn Grk “And.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

[1:21]  2 sn Capernaum was a town located on the northwestern shore of the Sea of Galilee, 680 ft (204 m) below sea level. It was a major trade and economic center in the North Galilean region, and it became the hub of operations for Jesus’ Galilean ministry.

[1:21]  map For location see Map1 D2; Map2 C3; Map3 B2.

[1:21]  3 tn The Greek word εὐθύς (euqus, often translated “immediately” or “right away”) has not been translated here. It sometimes occurs with a weakened, inferential use (BDAG 406 s.v. 2), not contributing significantly to the flow of the narrative. For further discussion, see R. J. Decker, Temporal Deixis of the Greek Verb in the Gospel of Mark with Reference to Verbal Aspect (SBG 10), 73-77.

[1:21]  4 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[1:21]  5 sn The synagogue was a place for Jewish prayer and worship, with recognized leadership (cf. Luke 8:41). Though its origin is not entirely clear, it seems to have arisen in the postexilic community during the intertestamental period. A town could establish a synagogue if there were at least ten men. In normative Judaism of the NT period, the OT scripture was read and discussed in the synagogue by the men who were present. (See the Mishnah, m. Megillah 3-4; m. Berakhot 2.) First came the law, then the prophets, then someone was asked to speak on the texts. Jesus undoubtedly took the opportunity on this occasion to speak about his person and mission, and its relationship to Old Testament fulfillment.

[1:22]  6 tn Grk “They.”

[1:22]  7 sn Jesus’ teaching impressed the hearers with the directness of its claim; he taught with authority. A study of Jewish rabbinic interpretation shows that it was typical to cite a list of authorities to make one’s point. Apparently Jesus addressed the issues in terms of his own understanding.

[1:22]  8 tn Or “the scribes.” The traditional rendering of γραμματεύς (grammateu") as “scribe” does not communicate much to the modern English reader, for whom the term might mean “professional copyist,” if it means anything at all. The people referred to here were recognized experts in the law of Moses and in traditional laws and regulations. Thus “expert in the law” comes closer to the meaning for the modern reader.

[1:23]  9 sn Unclean spirit refers to an evil spirit.

[1:23]  10 tn Grk “he cried out, saying.” The participle λέγων (legwn) is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.

[1:24]  11 tn Grk What to us and to you?” This is an idiom meaning, “We have nothing to do with one another,” or “Why bother us!” The phrase τί ἡμῖν καὶ σοί (ti Jhmin kai soi) is Semitic in origin, though it made its way into colloquial Greek (BDAG 275 s.v. ἐγώ). The equivalent Hebrew expression in the OT had two basic meanings: (1) When one person was unjustly bothering another, the injured party could say “What to me and to you?” meaning, “What have I done to you that you should do this to me?” (Judg 11:12, 2 Chr 35:21, 1 Kgs 17:18). (2) When someone was asked to get involved in a matter he felt was no business of his own, he could say to the one asking him, “What to me and to you?” meaning, “That is your business, how am I involved?” (2 Kgs 3:13, Hos 14:8). Option (1) implies hostility, while option (2) merely implies disengagement. BDAG suggests the following as glosses for this expression: What have I to do with you? What have we in common? Leave me alone! Never mind! Hostility between Jesus and the demons is certainly to be understood in this context, hence the translation: “Leave me alone….” For a very similar expression see Lk 8:28 and (in a different context) John 2:4.

[1:24]  12 sn The confession of Jesus as the Holy One here is significant, coming from an unclean spirit. Jesus, as the Holy One of God, who bears God’s Spirit and is the expression of holiness, comes to deal with uncleanness and unholiness.

[1:25]  13 tn Grk “And.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.

[1:25]  14 tn Grk “rebuked him, saying.” The participle λέγων (legwn) is redundant in English and has not been translated.

[1:25]  15 sn The command Come out of him! is an example of Jesus’ authority (see v. 32). Unlike other exorcists, Jesus did not use magical incantations nor did he invoke anyone else’s name.

[1:28]  16 tn Grk “And.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of previous action(s) in the narrative.

[1:29]  17 tn Grk “And.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.

[1:29]  18 sn See the note on synagogue in 1:21.

[1:30]  19 tn Grk “And.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of previous action(s) in the narrative.

[1:30]  20 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[1:31]  21 tn The imperfect verb is taken ingressively here.

[1:34]  22 tn Grk “And.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of previous action(s) in the narrative.

[1:34]  23 sn Note how the author distinguishes healing from exorcism here, implying that the two are not identical.

[1:34]  24 tn Grk “And.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.

[1:34]  25 sn Why Jesus would not permit the demons to speak is much discussed. Two possibilities are (1) the mere source of the testimony (demonic) and (2) that the title, with its political implications, may have had elements that Jesus wished to avoid until the full nature of his mission was clarified.

[1:34]  26 tc The mss vary on what is read at the end of v. 34. Some have “they knew him to be the Christ,” with various Greek constructions (ᾔδεισαν αὐτὸν Χριστὸν εἶναι [hdeisan auton Criston einai] in B L W Θ Ë1 28 33vid 565 2427 al; ᾔδεισαν τὸν Χριστὸν αὐτὸν εἶναι [hdeisan ton Criston auton einai] in [א2] C [Ë13 700] 892 1241 [1424] pc); codex D has “they knew him and he healed many who were sick with various diseases and drove out many demons,” reproducing exactly the first half of the verse. These first two longer readings are predictable expansions to an enticingly brief statement; the fact that there are significant variations on the word order and presence or absence of τόν argues against their authenticity as well. D’s reading is a palpable error of sight. The reading adopted in the translation is supported by א* A 0130 Ï lat. This support, though hardly overwhelming in itself, in combination with strong internal evidence, renders the shorter reading fairly certain.

[1:35]  27 tn Grk “And.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

[1:35]  28 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[1:35]  29 tn The imperfect προσηύχετο (proshuceto) implies some duration to the prayer.

[1:38]  30 tn Grk “And he said to them.”

[1:38]  31 tn Grk “Because for this purpose I have come forth.”

[1:39]  32 tn Grk “And.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of previous action(s) in the narrative.

[1:39]  33 sn See the note on synagogue in 1:21.



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