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Teks -- Isaiah 49:1-26 (NET)

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Konteks
Ideal Israel Delivers the Exiles
49:1 Listen to me, you coastlands! Pay attention, you people who live far away! The Lord summoned me from birth; he commissioned me when my mother brought me into the world. 49:2 He made my mouth like a sharp sword, he hid me in the hollow of his hand; he made me like a sharpened arrow, he hid me in his quiver. 49:3 He said to me, “You are my servant, Israel, through whom I will reveal my splendor.” 49:4 But I thought, “I have worked in vain; I have expended my energy for absolutely nothing.” But the Lord will vindicate me; my God will reward me. 49:5 So now the Lord says, the one who formed me from birth to be his servant– he did this to restore Jacob to himself, so that Israel might be gathered to him; and I will be honored in the Lord’s sight, for my God is my source of strength49:6 he says, “Is it too insignificant a task for you to be my servant, to reestablish the tribes of Jacob, and restore the remnant of Israel? I will make you a light to the nations, so you can bring my deliverance to the remote regions of the earth.” 49:7 This is what the Lord, the protector of Israel, their Holy One, says to the one who is despised and rejected by nations, a servant of rulers: “Kings will see and rise in respect, princes will bow down, because of the faithful Lord, the Holy One of Israel who has chosen you.” 49:8 This is what the Lord says: “At the time I decide to show my favor, I will respond to you; in the day of deliverance I will help you; I will protect you and make you a covenant mediator for people, to rebuild the land and to reassign the desolate property. 49:9 You will say to the prisoners, ‘Come out,’ and to those who are in dark dungeons, ‘Emerge.’ They will graze beside the roads; on all the slopes they will find pasture. 49:10 They will not be hungry or thirsty; the sun’s oppressive heat will not beat down on them, for one who has compassion on them will guide them; he will lead them to springs of water. 49:11 I will make all my mountains into a road; I will construct my roadways.” 49:12 Look, they come from far away! Look, some come from the north and west, and others from the land of Sinim! 49:13 Shout for joy, O sky! Rejoice, O earth! Let the mountains give a joyful shout! For the Lord consoles his people and shows compassion to the oppressed.
The Lord Remembers Zion
49:14 “Zion said, ‘The Lord has abandoned me, the sovereign master has forgotten me.’ 49:15 Can a woman forget her baby who nurses at her breast? Can she withhold compassion from the child she has borne? Even if mothers were to forget, I could never forget you! 49:16 Look, I have inscribed your name on my palms; your walls are constantly before me. 49:17 Your children hurry back, while those who destroyed and devastated you depart. 49:18 Look all around you! All of them gather to you. As surely as I live,” says the Lord, “you will certainly wear all of them like jewelry; you will put them on as if you were a bride. 49:19 Yes, your land lies in ruins; it is desolate and devastated. But now you will be too small to hold your residents, and those who devoured you will be far away. 49:20 Yet the children born during your time of bereavement will say within your hearing, ‘This place is too cramped for us, make room for us so we can live here.’ 49:21 Then you will think to yourself, ‘Who bore these children for me? I was bereaved and barren, dismissed and divorced. Who raised these children? Look, I was left all alone; where did these children come from?’” 49:22 This is what the sovereign Lord says: “Look I will raise my hand to the nations; I will raise my signal flag to the peoples. They will bring your sons in their arms and carry your daughters on their shoulders. 49:23 Kings will be your children’s guardians; their princesses will nurse your children. With their faces to the ground they will bow down to you and they will lick the dirt on your feet. Then you will recognize that I am the Lord; those who wait patiently for me are not put to shame. 49:24 Can spoils be taken from a warrior, or captives be rescued from a conqueror? 49:25 Indeed,” says the Lord, “captives will be taken from a warrior; spoils will be rescued from a conqueror. I will oppose your adversary and I will rescue your children. 49:26 I will make your oppressors eat their own flesh; they will get drunk on their own blood, as if it were wine. Then all humankind will recognize that I am the Lord, your deliverer, your protector, the powerful ruler of Jacob.”
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Israel a citizen of Israel.,a member of the nation of Israel
 · Jacob the second so of a pair of twins born to Isaac and Rebeccaa; ancestor of the 12 tribes of Israel,the nation of Israel,a person, male,son of Isaac; Israel the man and nation
 · Syene a town of south Egypt where there was an Israelite colony
 · Zion one of the hills on which Jerusalem was built; the temple area; the city of Jerusalem; God's people,a town and citidel; an ancient part of Jerusalem


Topik/Tema Kamus: Church | ISAIAH, 1-7 | Jesus, The Christ | Isaiah | Isaiah, The Book of | ISAIAH, BOOK OF | Israel | God | Gentiles | SERVANT OF JEHOVAH; SERVANT OF THE LORD; SERVANT OF YAHWEH | GOD, 2 | ATONEMENT | CHOOSE; CHOSEN | Seekers | Righteous | ACCOMMODATION | Heaven | INSPIRATION, 8-18 | PREY | RELATIONSHIPS, FAMILY | selebihnya
Daftar Isi

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Wesley , JFB , Clarke , Calvin , Defender , TSK

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Poole , Haydock , Gill

Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki
NET Notes , Geneva Bible

Catatan Rentang Ayat
Maclaren , MHCC , Matthew Henry , Keil-Delitzsch , Constable , Guzik

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per frasa)

Wesley: Isa 49:1 - Listen God turns his speech to the Gentiles, and invites them to hearken to those counsels and doctrines which the Jews would reject.

God turns his speech to the Gentiles, and invites them to hearken to those counsels and doctrines which the Jews would reject.

Wesley: Isa 49:1 - Me Unto Christ: Isaiah speaks these words in the name of Christ.

Unto Christ: Isaiah speaks these words in the name of Christ.

Wesley: Isa 49:2 - A sword As he made me the great teacher of his church, so he made my word, quick and powerful, and sharper than any two - edged sword.

As he made me the great teacher of his church, so he made my word, quick and powerful, and sharper than any two - edged sword.

Wesley: Isa 49:2 - Hath he hid He will protect me from all mine enemies.

He will protect me from all mine enemies.

Wesley: Isa 49:2 - Made me Like an arrow, whose point is bright and polished; which therefore pierceth deeper.

Like an arrow, whose point is bright and polished; which therefore pierceth deeper.

Wesley: Isa 49:3 - O Israel As the name of David is sometimes given to his successors, so here the name of Israel may not unfitly be given to Christ, not only because he descende...

As the name of David is sometimes given to his successors, so here the name of Israel may not unfitly be given to Christ, not only because he descended from his loins; but also because he was the true and the great Israel, who, in a more eminent manner, prevailed with God, as that name signifies, of whom Jacob, who was first called Israel, was but a type.

Wesley: Isa 49:4 - Then said I Lord, thou sayest thou wilt be glorified by my ministry; but I find it otherwise.

Lord, thou sayest thou wilt be glorified by my ministry; but I find it otherwise.

Wesley: Isa 49:4 - In vain Without any considerable fruit of my word and works among the Israelites.

Without any considerable fruit of my word and works among the Israelites.

Wesley: Isa 49:4 - My judgment My right, the reward which by his promise, and my purchase, is my right.

My right, the reward which by his promise, and my purchase, is my right.

Wesley: Isa 49:5 - To bring To convert the apostate Israelites to God.

To convert the apostate Israelites to God.

Wesley: Isa 49:5 - Not gathered Not brought home to God by my ministry.

Not brought home to God by my ministry.

Wesley: Isa 49:5 - Yet God will not despise me for the unsuccessfulness of my labours, but will honour and glorify me.

God will not despise me for the unsuccessfulness of my labours, but will honour and glorify me.

Wesley: Isa 49:5 - My strength To support and strengthen me under this and all other discouragements.

To support and strengthen me under this and all other discouragements.

Wesley: Isa 49:6 - He The Lord.

The Lord.

Wesley: Isa 49:6 - It is This is but a small favour.

This is but a small favour.

Wesley: Isa 49:6 - The tribes That remnant of them which shall survive all their calamities.

That remnant of them which shall survive all their calamities.

Wesley: Isa 49:6 - My salvation The great instrument and author of that eternal salvation which I will give to the Gentiles.

The great instrument and author of that eternal salvation which I will give to the Gentiles.

Wesley: Isa 49:7 - His Holy One The Holy One of Israel.

The Holy One of Israel.

Wesley: Isa 49:7 - To him To Christ, to whom, in the days of his flesh, this description fully agrees: for men, both Jews and Gentiles among whom he lived, did despise him from...

To Christ, to whom, in the days of his flesh, this description fully agrees: for men, both Jews and Gentiles among whom he lived, did despise him from their hearts; and the nation, of which he was a member, abhorred both his person and his doctrine; and he was so far from being a temporal monarch, that he came in the form of a servant, and was a servant of rulers, professing subjection and paying tribute unto Caesar.

Wesley: Isa 49:7 - Kings Though for a time thou shalt be despised, yet after a while thou shalt be advanced to such glory, that kings shall look upon thee with reverence.

Though for a time thou shalt be despised, yet after a while thou shalt be advanced to such glory, that kings shall look upon thee with reverence.

Wesley: Isa 49:7 - Arise From their seats to worship thee.

From their seats to worship thee.

Wesley: Isa 49:7 - Faithful Because God shall make good his promises to thee.

Because God shall make good his promises to thee.

Wesley: Isa 49:7 - Chuse thee And although thou shalt be rejected by thine own people, yet God will manifest to the world, that thou, and thou only, art the person whom he hath cho...

And although thou shalt be rejected by thine own people, yet God will manifest to the world, that thou, and thou only, art the person whom he hath chosen to be the Redeemer of mankind.

Wesley: Isa 49:8 - The Lord God the Father unto Christ.

God the Father unto Christ.

Wesley: Isa 49:8 - Heard thee Though not so as to deliver thee from death; yet so as to crown thee with glory and honour.

Though not so as to deliver thee from death; yet so as to crown thee with glory and honour.

Wesley: Isa 49:8 - For a covenant To be the Mediator and surety of that covenant, which is made between me and them.

To be the Mediator and surety of that covenant, which is made between me and them.

Wesley: Isa 49:8 - To establish To establish truth and righteousness upon earth, and subdue those lusts and passions, which are the great disturbers of human society.

To establish truth and righteousness upon earth, and subdue those lusts and passions, which are the great disturbers of human society.

Wesley: Isa 49:8 - Desolate heritages That desolate places may be repaired and repossessed. That Christ may possess the Heathen, who were in a spiritual sense in a most desolate condition.

That desolate places may be repaired and repossessed. That Christ may possess the Heathen, who were in a spiritual sense in a most desolate condition.

Wesley: Isa 49:9 - Prisoners To the Gentiles who are fast bound by the cords of their sins, and taken captive by the devil at his will.

To the Gentiles who are fast bound by the cords of their sins, and taken captive by the devil at his will.

Wesley: Isa 49:9 - Go forth Come forth to the light, receive divine illumination.

Come forth to the light, receive divine illumination.

Wesley: Isa 49:9 - In high places They shall have abundant provision in all places, yea even in those which commonly are unfruitful, such are both common roads and high grounds.

They shall have abundant provision in all places, yea even in those which commonly are unfruitful, such are both common roads and high grounds.

Wesley: Isa 49:11 - A way I will remove all hindrances, and prepare the way for them, by levelling high grounds, and raising low grounds.

I will remove all hindrances, and prepare the way for them, by levelling high grounds, and raising low grounds.

Wesley: Isa 49:12 - These My people shall be gathered from the most remote parts of the earth. He speaks here, and in many other places, of the conversion of the Gentiles, with...

My people shall be gathered from the most remote parts of the earth. He speaks here, and in many other places, of the conversion of the Gentiles, with allusion to that work of gathering, and bringing back the Jews from all parts where they were dispersed, into their own land.

Wesley: Isa 49:12 - Sinim Either of the Sinites as they are called, Gen 10:17, who dwelt about the wilderness. Or of Sin, a famous city of Egypt, which may be put for all Egypt...

Either of the Sinites as they are called, Gen 10:17, who dwelt about the wilderness. Or of Sin, a famous city of Egypt, which may be put for all Egypt, and that for all southern parts.

Wesley: Isa 49:14 - But This is an objection. How can these things be true, when the condition of God's church is now so desperate?

This is an objection. How can these things be true, when the condition of God's church is now so desperate?

Wesley: Isa 49:16 - Graven He alludes to the common practice of men who put signs upon their hands or fingers of such things as they would remember.

He alludes to the common practice of men who put signs upon their hands or fingers of such things as they would remember.

Wesley: Isa 49:18 - These Gentiles. Thy church shall not only be restored, but vastly enlarged and adorned by the accession of the Gentiles.

Gentiles. Thy church shall not only be restored, but vastly enlarged and adorned by the accession of the Gentiles.

Wesley: Isa 49:19 - Thy waste places Thy own land, whereof divers parts lie waste for want of people to possess them.

Thy own land, whereof divers parts lie waste for want of people to possess them.

Wesley: Isa 49:19 - Land of destruction Which before was desolate and destroyed.

Which before was desolate and destroyed.

Wesley: Isa 49:20 - The children Those Gentiles which shall be begotten by thee, when thou shalt be deprived of thine own natural children, when the generality of the Jews cut themsel...

Those Gentiles which shall be begotten by thee, when thou shalt be deprived of thine own natural children, when the generality of the Jews cut themselves off from God.

Wesley: Isa 49:21 - Who Whence have I this numberless issue? Seeing - Seeing I was in a manner left childless.

Whence have I this numberless issue? Seeing - Seeing I was in a manner left childless.

Wesley: Isa 49:21 - Desolate Without an husband, being forsaken by God, who formerly owned himself for my husband.

Without an husband, being forsaken by God, who formerly owned himself for my husband.

Wesley: Isa 49:22 - Behold I will call them to me.

I will call them to me.

Wesley: Isa 49:22 - Set my standard As generals do to gather their forces together.

As generals do to gather their forces together.

Wesley: Isa 49:22 - Thy sons Those who shall be thine by adoption, that shall own God for their father, and Jerusalem for their mother.

Those who shall be thine by adoption, that shall own God for their father, and Jerusalem for their mother.

Wesley: Isa 49:22 - Carried With great care and tenderness, as nurses carry young infants.

With great care and tenderness, as nurses carry young infants.

Wesley: Isa 49:22 - Carried As sick or infirm persons used to be carried.

As sick or infirm persons used to be carried.

Wesley: Isa 49:23 - Lick the dust They shall highly reverence and honour thee. These expressions are borrowed from the practice of the eastern people, who bowed so low as to touch the ...

They shall highly reverence and honour thee. These expressions are borrowed from the practice of the eastern people, who bowed so low as to touch the ground.

Wesley: Isa 49:23 - Ashamed Their expectations shall not be disappointed.

Their expectations shall not be disappointed.

Wesley: Isa 49:24 - Shall the prey Here is a double impediment to their deliverance, the power of the enemy who kept them in bondage, and the justice of God which pleads against their d...

Here is a double impediment to their deliverance, the power of the enemy who kept them in bondage, and the justice of God which pleads against their deliverance.

Wesley: Isa 49:25 - For I I the almighty God will undertake this work.

I the almighty God will undertake this work.

JFB: Isa 49:1 - O isles Messiah is here regarded as having been rejected by the Jews (Isa 49:4-5), and as now turning to the Gentiles, to whom the Father hath given Him "for ...

Messiah is here regarded as having been rejected by the Jews (Isa 49:4-5), and as now turning to the Gentiles, to whom the Father hath given Him "for a light and salvation." "Isles" mean all regions beyond sea.

JFB: Isa 49:1 - from the womb (Isa 44:2; Luk 1:31; Joh 10:36).

JFB: Isa 49:1 - from . . . bowels . . . mention of my name His name "Jesus" (that is, God-Saviour) was designated by God before His birth (Mat 1:21).

His name "Jesus" (that is, God-Saviour) was designated by God before His birth (Mat 1:21).

JFB: Isa 49:2 - my mouth . . . sword (Isa 11:4; Rev 19:15). The double office of the Word of God, saving and damnatory, is implied (Isa 50:4; Joh 12:48; Heb 4:12).

(Isa 11:4; Rev 19:15). The double office of the Word of God, saving and damnatory, is implied (Isa 50:4; Joh 12:48; Heb 4:12).

JFB: Isa 49:2 - shaft (Psa 45:5). "Polished," that is, free from all rust, implies His unsullied purity.

(Psa 45:5). "Polished," that is, free from all rust, implies His unsullied purity.

JFB: Isa 49:2 - in . . . quiver . . . hid me Like a sword in its scabbard, or a shaft in the quiver, Messiah, before His appearing, was hid with God, ready to be drawn forth at the moment God saw...

Like a sword in its scabbard, or a shaft in the quiver, Messiah, before His appearing, was hid with God, ready to be drawn forth at the moment God saw fit [HENGSTENBERG]; also always protected by God, as the arrow by the quiver (Isa 51:16).

JFB: Isa 49:3 - Israel Applied to Messiah, according to the true import of the name, the Prince who had power with God in wrestling in behalf of man, and who prevails (Gen 3...

Applied to Messiah, according to the true import of the name, the Prince who had power with God in wrestling in behalf of man, and who prevails (Gen 32:28; Hos 12:3-4). He is also the ideal Israel, the representative man of the nation (compare Mat 2:15 with Hos 11:1).

JFB: Isa 49:3 - in whom . . . glorified (Joh 14:13; Joh 17:1-5).

JFB: Isa 49:4 - I Messiah.

Messiah.

JFB: Isa 49:4 - in vain Comparatively in the case of the greater number of His own countrymen. "He came unto His own, and His own received Him not" (Isa 53:1-3; Luk 19:14; Jo...

Comparatively in the case of the greater number of His own countrymen. "He came unto His own, and His own received Him not" (Isa 53:1-3; Luk 19:14; Joh 1:11; Joh 7:5). Only a hundred twenty disciples met after His personal ministry was ended (Act 1:15).

JFB: Isa 49:4 - yet . . . my judgment . . . with the Lord Ultimately, God will do justice to My cause, and reward (Margin for "work," compare Isa 40:10; Isa 62:11) My labors and sufferings. He was never "disc...

Ultimately, God will do justice to My cause, and reward (Margin for "work," compare Isa 40:10; Isa 62:11) My labors and sufferings. He was never "discouraged" (Isa 42:4; Isa 50:7, Isa 50:10). He calmly, in spite of seeming ill success for the time, left the result with God, confident of final triumph (Isa 53:10-12; 1Pe 2:23). So the ministers of Christ (1Co 4:1-5; 1Pe 4:19).

JFB: Isa 49:5 - -- The reason why He was confident that His work would be accepted and rewarded, namely, because He is "glorious in the eyes of Jehovah," &c.

The reason why He was confident that His work would be accepted and rewarded, namely, because He is "glorious in the eyes of Jehovah," &c.

JFB: Isa 49:5 - to bring Jacob again to him (Mat 15:24; Act 3:26).

JFB: Isa 49:5 - Though Israel be not gathered Metaphor from a scattered flock which the shepherd gathers together again; or a hen and her chickens (Mat 23:37). Instead of the text "not," the Keri ...

Metaphor from a scattered flock which the shepherd gathers together again; or a hen and her chickens (Mat 23:37). Instead of the text "not," the Keri has the similar Hebrew word, "to Him," which the parallelism favors: "And that Israel may be gathered to Him."

JFB: Isa 49:5 - yet Rather, parenthetically. "For I am glorious, &c., and My God is My strength." Then (Isa 49:6) resuming the words from the beginning of Isa 49:5, "He s...

Rather, parenthetically. "For I am glorious, &c., and My God is My strength." Then (Isa 49:6) resuming the words from the beginning of Isa 49:5, "He saith" (I repeat), &c. HORSLEY explains, "Notwithstanding the incredulity of the Jews, Messiah shall be glorified in the conversion of the Gentiles," reading as English Version: but if the Keri be read, "Israel shall at one time or other be gathered, notwithstanding their incredulity during Messiah's sojourn on earth."

JFB: Isa 49:6 - It is a light thing "It is too little that Thou shouldest," [HENGSTENBERG], that is, It is not enough honor to Thee to raise up Jacob and Israel, but I design for Thee mo...

"It is too little that Thou shouldest," [HENGSTENBERG], that is, It is not enough honor to Thee to raise up Jacob and Israel, but I design for Thee more, namely, that Thou shouldest be the means of enlightening the Gentiles (Isa 42:6-7; Isa 60:3).

JFB: Isa 49:6 - the preserved Namely, those remaining after the judgments of God on the nation--the elect remnant of Israel reserved for mercy. LOWTH, with a slight but needless ch...

Namely, those remaining after the judgments of God on the nation--the elect remnant of Israel reserved for mercy. LOWTH, with a slight but needless change of the Hebrew, translates for "tribes" and "preserved," the "scions"--the "branches."

JFB: Isa 49:7 - whom man despiseth Hebrew, "the despised of soul," that is, by every soul, by all men (Isa 52:14-15; Isa 53:3; Isa 50:6-9; Psa 22:6). LOWTH translates, "whose person is ...

Hebrew, "the despised of soul," that is, by every soul, by all men (Isa 52:14-15; Isa 53:3; Isa 50:6-9; Psa 22:6). LOWTH translates, "whose person is despised."

JFB: Isa 49:7 - abhorreth Literally, "who is an abomination to the nation" (Luk 23:18-23). The Jews contemptuously call Him always Tolvi, "the crucified." I prefer, on account ...

Literally, "who is an abomination to the nation" (Luk 23:18-23). The Jews contemptuously call Him always Tolvi, "the crucified." I prefer, on account of Goi, the Hebrew term for nation being usually applied to the Gentiles, and that for people to the Jews (Hos 1:9; so the Greek terms respectively also Laos and Ethne, Rom 9:25), to take "nation" here collectively for the Gentile world, which also spurned Him (Psa 2:1-3; Act 4:25-27).

JFB: Isa 49:7 - servant of rulers (Mat 17:27). He who would not exert His power against the rulers (Mat 26:52-53).

(Mat 17:27). He who would not exert His power against the rulers (Mat 26:52-53).

JFB: Isa 49:7 - shall see Namely the fulfilment of God's promises (Isa 49:3, Isa 49:6), "when He (shall be) a light to the Gentiles."

Namely the fulfilment of God's promises (Isa 49:3, Isa 49:6), "when He (shall be) a light to the Gentiles."

JFB: Isa 49:7 - arise To reverence Thee (Psa 72:10-11; Phi 2:10).

To reverence Thee (Psa 72:10-11; Phi 2:10).

JFB: Isa 49:7 - princes also Rather, for the parallelism, supply the ellipsis, thus, "Princes shall see and shall worship."

Rather, for the parallelism, supply the ellipsis, thus, "Princes shall see and shall worship."

JFB: Isa 49:7 - faithful Namely, to His promises.

Namely, to His promises.

JFB: Isa 49:7 - choose thee As God's elect (Isa 42:1).

As God's elect (Isa 42:1).

JFB: Isa 49:8 - -- Messiah is represented as having asked for the grace of God in behalf of sinners; this verse contains God the Father's favorable answer.

Messiah is represented as having asked for the grace of God in behalf of sinners; this verse contains God the Father's favorable answer.

JFB: Isa 49:8 - an acceptable time "In a time of grace" [HENGSTENBERG]. A limited time (Isa 61:2; 2Co 6:2). The time judged by God to be the best fitted for effecting the purposes of Hi...

"In a time of grace" [HENGSTENBERG]. A limited time (Isa 61:2; 2Co 6:2). The time judged by God to be the best fitted for effecting the purposes of His grace by Messiah.

JFB: Isa 49:8 - heard thee (Psa 2:8; Heb 5:7).

JFB: Isa 49:8 - day of salvation When "the fulness of time" (Gal 4:4) shall have come. The day of salvation is "to-day" (Heb 4:7).

When "the fulness of time" (Gal 4:4) shall have come. The day of salvation is "to-day" (Heb 4:7).

JFB: Isa 49:8 - helped Given Thee the help needed to enable Thee, as man, to accomplish man's salvation.

Given Thee the help needed to enable Thee, as man, to accomplish man's salvation.

JFB: Isa 49:8 - preserve From the assaults and efforts of Satan, to divert Thee from Thy voluntary death to save man.

From the assaults and efforts of Satan, to divert Thee from Thy voluntary death to save man.

JFB: Isa 49:8 - covenant of the people (See on Isa 42:6). "The people," in the singular, is always applied exclusively to Israel.

(See on Isa 42:6). "The people," in the singular, is always applied exclusively to Israel.

JFB: Isa 49:8 - establish the earth Rather, "to restore the land," namely, Canaan to Israel. Spiritually, the restoration of the Church (the spiritual Israel) to the heavenly land forfei...

Rather, "to restore the land," namely, Canaan to Israel. Spiritually, the restoration of the Church (the spiritual Israel) to the heavenly land forfeited by man's sin is also included.

JFB: Isa 49:8 - cause to inherit . . . desolate heritages Image from the desolate state of Judea during the Babylonish captivity. Spiritually, the Gentile world, a moral waste, shall become a garden of the Lo...

Image from the desolate state of Judea during the Babylonish captivity. Spiritually, the Gentile world, a moral waste, shall become a garden of the Lord. Literally, Judea lying desolate for ages shall be possessed again by Israel (compare Isa 61:7, "in their land"). Jesus, the antitype of, and bearing the same name as Joshua (Heb 4:8), shall, like him, divide the land among its true heirs (Isa 54:3; Isa 61:4).

JFB: Isa 49:9 - -- (Isa 42:7; Zec 9:12).

JFB: Isa 49:9 - prisoners The Jews bound in legal bondage.

The Jews bound in legal bondage.

JFB: Isa 49:9 - them . . . in darkness The Gentiles having no light as to the one true God [VITRINGA].

The Gentiles having no light as to the one true God [VITRINGA].

JFB: Isa 49:9 - Show yourselves Not only see but be seen (Mat 5:16; Mar 5:19). Come forth from the darkness of your prison into the light of the Sun of righteousness.

Not only see but be seen (Mat 5:16; Mar 5:19). Come forth from the darkness of your prison into the light of the Sun of righteousness.

JFB: Isa 49:9 - in the ways, &c. In a desert there are no "ways," nor "high places," with "pastures"; thus the sense is: "They shall have their pastures, not in deserts, but in cultiv...

In a desert there are no "ways," nor "high places," with "pastures"; thus the sense is: "They shall have their pastures, not in deserts, but in cultivated and inhabited places." Laying aside the figure, the churches of Christ at the first shall be gathered, not in obscure and unknown regions, but in the most populous parts of the Roman empire, Antioch, Alexandria, Rome, &c. [VITRINGA]. Another sense probably is the right one. Israel, on its way back to the Holy Land, shall not have to turn aside to devious paths in search of necessaries, but shall find them in all places wherever their route lies; so ROSENMULLER. God will supply them as if He should make the grass grow in the trodden ways and on the barren high places.

JFB: Isa 49:10 - -- Messiah will abundantly satisfy all the wants, both of literal Israel on their way to Palestine, and of the spiritual on their way to heaven, as their...

Messiah will abundantly satisfy all the wants, both of literal Israel on their way to Palestine, and of the spiritual on their way to heaven, as their Shepherd (Isa 65:13; Mat 5:6), also in heaven (Rev 7:16-17).

JFB: Isa 49:11 - my All things are God's.

All things are God's.

JFB: Isa 49:11 - mountains a way I will remove all obstructions out of the way (Isa 40:4).

I will remove all obstructions out of the way (Isa 40:4).

JFB: Isa 49:11 - exalted That is, cast up (Isa 57:14; Isa 62:10); for instance, over valleys. VITRINGA explains "mountains" as great kingdoms, Egypt, Syria, &c., subjected to ...

That is, cast up (Isa 57:14; Isa 62:10); for instance, over valleys. VITRINGA explains "mountains" as great kingdoms, Egypt, Syria, &c., subjected to Rome, to facilitate the spreading of the Gospel; "highways," the Christian doctrine wherein those who join the Church walk, and which, at the time of Constantine, was to be raised into prominence before all, and publicly protected (Isa 35:8-9).

JFB: Isa 49:12 - Sinim The Arabians and other Asiatics called China Sin, or Tchin; the Chinese had no special name for themselves, but either adopted that of the reigning dy...

The Arabians and other Asiatics called China Sin, or Tchin; the Chinese had no special name for themselves, but either adopted that of the reigning dynasty or some high-sounding titles. This view of "Sinim" suits the context which requires a people to be meant "from far," and distinct from those "from the north and from the west" [GESENIUS].

JFB: Isa 49:13 - -- So Rev 12:12. God will have mercy on the afflicted, because of His compassion; on His afflicted, because of His covenant.

So Rev 12:12. God will have mercy on the afflicted, because of His compassion; on His afflicted, because of His covenant.

JFB: Isa 49:14 - Zion The literal Israel's complaint, as if God had forsaken her in the Babylonian captivity; also in their dispersion previous to their future restoration;...

The literal Israel's complaint, as if God had forsaken her in the Babylonian captivity; also in their dispersion previous to their future restoration; thereby God's mercy shall be called forth (Isa 63:15-19; Psa 77:9-10; Psa 102:17).

JFB: Isa 49:15 - -- (Isa 44:21; Psa 103:13; Mat 7:11).

JFB: Isa 49:16 - -- Alluding to the Jews' custom (perhaps drawn from Exo 13:9) of puncturing on their hands a representation of their city and temple, in token of zeal fo...

Alluding to the Jews' custom (perhaps drawn from Exo 13:9) of puncturing on their hands a representation of their city and temple, in token of zeal for them [LOWTH], (Son 8:6).

JFB: Isa 49:17 - Thy children Israel (Isa 49:20-21; Isa 43:6). JEROME reads, for "Thy children," "Thy builders"; they that destroyed thee shall hasten to build thee.

Israel (Isa 49:20-21; Isa 43:6). JEROME reads, for "Thy children," "Thy builders"; they that destroyed thee shall hasten to build thee.

JFB: Isa 49:17 - haste To rebuild thy desolate capital.

To rebuild thy desolate capital.

JFB: Isa 49:17 - shall go forth Thy destroyers shall leave Judea to Israel in undisturbed possession.

Thy destroyers shall leave Judea to Israel in undisturbed possession.

JFB: Isa 49:18 - -- As Zion is often compared to a bride (Isa 54:5), so the accession of converts is like bridal ornaments ("jewels," Isa 62:3; Mal 3:17). Her literal chi...

As Zion is often compared to a bride (Isa 54:5), so the accession of converts is like bridal ornaments ("jewels," Isa 62:3; Mal 3:17). Her literal children are, however, more immediately meant, as the context refers to their restoration; and only secondarily to her spiritual children by conversion to Christ. Israel shall be the means of the final complete conversion of the nations (Mic 5:7; Rom 11:12, Rom 11:15).

JFB: Isa 49:18 - as a bride Namely, binds on her ornaments.

Namely, binds on her ornaments.

JFB: Isa 49:19 - land of thy destruction Thy land once the scene of destruction.

Thy land once the scene of destruction.

JFB: Isa 49:19 - too narrow (Isa 54:1-2; Zec 10:10).

JFB: Isa 49:20 - children . . . after . . . other Rather, "the children of thy widowhood," that is, the children of whom thou hast been bereft during their dispersion in other lands (see on Isa 47:8) ...

Rather, "the children of thy widowhood," that is, the children of whom thou hast been bereft during their dispersion in other lands (see on Isa 47:8) [MAURER].

JFB: Isa 49:20 - again Rather, "yet."

Rather, "yet."

JFB: Isa 49:20 - give place Rather, "stand close to me," namely, in order that we may be the more able to dwell in in the narrow place [HORSLEY]. Compare as to Israel's spiritual...

Rather, "stand close to me," namely, in order that we may be the more able to dwell in in the narrow place [HORSLEY]. Compare as to Israel's spiritual children, and the extension of the gospel sphere, Rom 15:19, Rom 15:24; 2Co 10:14-16. But Isa 49:22 (compare Isa 66:20) shows that her literal children are primarily meant. GESENIUS translates, "Make room."

JFB: Isa 49:21 - Who, &c. Zion's joyful wonder at the unexpected restoration of the ten tribes. Secondarily, the accession of spiritual Israelites to the mother church of Jerus...

Zion's joyful wonder at the unexpected restoration of the ten tribes. Secondarily, the accession of spiritual Israelites to the mother church of Jerusalem from the Gentiles is meant. This created surprise at first (Act 10:45; Act 14:27; Act 15:3-4).

JFB: Isa 49:21 - lost . . . am desolate, a captive, and removing to and fro Rather, "bereaved of . . . have been barren, an exile and outcast" [HORSLEY]. She had been "put away" by Jehovah, her husband (Isa 50:1); hence her wo...

Rather, "bereaved of . . . have been barren, an exile and outcast" [HORSLEY]. She had been "put away" by Jehovah, her husband (Isa 50:1); hence her wonder at the children begotten to her.

JFB: Isa 49:22 - lift . . . hand That is, beckon to (see on Isa 13:2).

That is, beckon to (see on Isa 13:2).

JFB: Isa 49:22 - standard (Isa 11:12).

JFB: Isa 49:22 - bring . . . sons in . . . arms The Gentiles shall aid in restoring Israel to its own land (Isa 60:4; Isa 66:20). Children able to support themselves are carried on the shoulders in ...

The Gentiles shall aid in restoring Israel to its own land (Isa 60:4; Isa 66:20). Children able to support themselves are carried on the shoulders in the East; but infants, in the arms, or astride on one haunch (Isa 60:12). "Thy sons" must be distinct from "the Gentiles," who carry them; and therefore cannot primarily refer to converts among the Gentiles.

JFB: Isa 49:23 - lick . . . dust That is, kiss thy feet in token of humble submission.

That is, kiss thy feet in token of humble submission.

JFB: Isa 49:23 - for they . . . not . . . ashamed . . . wait for me The restoration of Israel shall be in answer to their prayerful waiting on the Lord (Isa 30:18-19; Psa 102:16-17; Zec 12:10; Zec 14:3).

The restoration of Israel shall be in answer to their prayerful waiting on the Lord (Isa 30:18-19; Psa 102:16-17; Zec 12:10; Zec 14:3).

JFB: Isa 49:24 - the prey Israel, long a prey to mighty Gentile nations, whose oppression of her shall reach its highest point under Antichrist (Dan 11:36-37, Dan 11:41, Dan 11...

Israel, long a prey to mighty Gentile nations, whose oppression of her shall reach its highest point under Antichrist (Dan 11:36-37, Dan 11:41, Dan 11:45).

JFB: Isa 49:24 - lawful captive The Jews justly consigned for their sins (Isa 50:1) as captives to the foe. Secondarily, Satan and Death are "the mighty" conquerors of man, upon whom...

The Jews justly consigned for their sins (Isa 50:1) as captives to the foe. Secondarily, Satan and Death are "the mighty" conquerors of man, upon whom his sin give them their "lawful" claim. Christ answers that claim for the sinners, and so the captive is set free (Job 19:25; Job 14:14; Mat 12:29; Hos 6:2, where Isa 49:4 shows the primary reference is to Israel's restoration, to which the resurrection corresponds; Isa 26:19; Eph 4:8; Heb 2:14-15). Others not so well translate, "the captives taken from among the just Israelites."

JFB: Isa 49:25 - -- (Isa 53:12; Psa 68:18; Col 2:15).

JFB: Isa 49:25 - contend with him, &c. (Isa 54:17).

JFB: Isa 49:26 - feed . . . own flesh A phrase for internal strifes (Isa 9:20).

A phrase for internal strifes (Isa 9:20).

JFB: Isa 49:26 - own blood A just retribution for their having shed the blood of God's servants (Rev 16:6).

A just retribution for their having shed the blood of God's servants (Rev 16:6).

JFB: Isa 49:26 - sweet wine That is must, or new wine, the pure juice which flows from the heap of grapes before they are pressed; the ancients could preserve it for a long time,...

That is must, or new wine, the pure juice which flows from the heap of grapes before they are pressed; the ancients could preserve it for a long time, so as to retain its flavor. It was so mild that it required a large quantity to intoxicate; thus the idea here is that very much blood would be shed (Rev 14:10, Rev 14:20).

JFB: Isa 49:26 - all flesh shall, &c. The effect on the world of God's judgments (Isa 66:15-16, Isa 66:18-19; Rev 15:3-4).

The effect on the world of God's judgments (Isa 66:15-16, Isa 66:18-19; Rev 15:3-4).

Clarke: Isa 49:1 - -- Listen, O isles, unto me "Hearken unto me, O ye distant lands"- Hitherto the subject of the prophecy has been chiefly confined to the redemption fro...

Listen, O isles, unto me "Hearken unto me, O ye distant lands"- Hitherto the subject of the prophecy has been chiefly confined to the redemption from the captivity of Babylon; with strong intimations of a more important deliverance sometimes thrown in, to the refutation of idolatry, and the demonstration of the infinite power, wisdom, and foreknowledge of God. The character and office of the Messiah was exhibited in general terms at the beginning of chap. 42.; but here he is introduced in person, declaring the full extent of his commission, which is not only to restore the Israelites, and reconcile them to their Lord and Father, from whom they had so often revolted, but to be a light to lighten the Gentiles, to call them to the knowledge and obedience of the true God, and to bring them to be one Church together with the Israelites, and to partake with them of the same common salvation procured for all by the great Redeemer and Reconciler of man to God.

Clarke: Isa 49:2 - -- And he hath made my mouth like a sharp sword "And he hath made my mouth a sharp sword"- The servant of God, who speaks in the former part of this ch...

And he hath made my mouth like a sharp sword "And he hath made my mouth a sharp sword"- The servant of God, who speaks in the former part of this chapter, must be the Messiah. If any part of this character can in any sense belong to the prophet, yet in some parts it must belong exclusively to Christ; and in all parts to him in a much fuller and more proper sense. Isaiah’ s mission was to the Jews, not to the distant nations, to whom the speaker in this place addresses himself. "He hath made my mouth a sharp sword;""to reprove the wicked, and to denounce unto them punishment,"says Jarchi, understanding it of Isaiah. But how much better does it suit him who is represented as having "a sharp two-edged sword going out of his mouth,"Rev 1:16; who is himself the Word of God; which word is "quick and powerful, and sharper than any two-edged sword, piercing even to the dividing asunder of soul and spirit, and of the joints and marrow, and is a discerner of the thoughts and intents of the heart;"Heb 4:12. This mighty Agent and Instrument of God, "long laid up in store with him, and sealed up among his treasures,"is at last revealed and produced by his power, and under his protection, to execute his great and holy purposes. He is compared to a polished shaft stored in his quiver for use in his due time. The polished shaft denotes the same efficacious word which is before represented by the sharp sword. The doctrine of the Gospel pierced the hearts of its hearers, "bringing into captivity every thought to the obedience of Christ."The metaphor of the sword and the arrow, applied to powerful speech, is bold, yet just. It has been employed by the most ingenious heathen writers, if with equal elegance, not with equal force. It is said of Pericles by Aristophanes, (see Cicero, Epist. ad Atticum, 12:6): -

Οὑτως εκηλει, και μονος των ῥητορω

Το κεντρον εγκατελειπε τοις ακροωμενοις.

Apud. Diod. lib. xii

His powerful speec

Pierced the hearer’ s soul, and left behin

Deep in his bosom its keen point infixed

Pindar is particularly fond of this metaphor, and frequently applies it to his own poetry: -

Επεχε νυν σκοπῳ τοξον

Αγε, θυμε. τινα βαλλομε

Εκ μαλθακας αυτε φρε -

νος ευκλεας οΐστου

Ἱεντες -

Olymp. 2:160

"Come on! thy brightest shafts prepare

And bend, O Muse, thy sounding bow

Say, through what paths of liquid ai

Our arrows shall we throw?’

West

See also ver. 149 of the same ode, and Olymp. Heb 9:17, on the former of which places the Scholiast says, τροπικος ὁ λογος· βελη δε τους λογους εορηκε, δια το οξυ και καιριον των εγκωμιων . "He calls his verses shafts, by a metaphor, signifying the acuteness and the apposite application of his panegyric.

This person, who is (Isa 49:3) called Israel, cannot in any sense be Isaiah. That name, in its original design and full import, can only belong to him who contended powerfully with God in behalf of mankind, and prevailed, Gen 32:28. After all that Vitringa, Bp. Lowth, and others have said in proof of this chapter speaking of the Messiah, and of him alone, I have my doubts whether sometimes Isaiah, sometimes Cyrus, and sometimes the Messiah, be not intended; the former shadowing out the latter, of whom, in certain respects, they may be considered the types. The literal sense should be sought out first; this is of the utmost importance both in reading and interpreting the oracles of God.

Clarke: Isa 49:5 - -- And now, saith the Lord "And now, thus saith Jehovah"- The word כה coh , before אמר amar , is dropped out of the text: it is supplied by eigh...

And now, saith the Lord "And now, thus saith Jehovah"- The word כה coh , before אמר amar , is dropped out of the text: it is supplied by eight MSS. (two ancient) of Dr. Kennicott’ s, two of De Rossi’ s, and the Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulgate

Though Israel be not gathered "And that Israel unto him might be gathered"- Five MSS. (two ancient) confirm the Keri, or marginal correction of the Masoretes, לו lo , unto him, instead of לא lo , not, in the text; and so read Aquila; and the Chaldee, Septuagint, and Arabic omit the negative. But the Septuagint, MSS. Pachom, and 1. D. 2 express also the Keri לו lo by προς αυτον, to him.

Clarke: Isa 49:6 - -- And to restore the preserved of Irsrae "And to restore the branches of Israel"- נצירי netsirey , or נצורי netsurey , as the Masoretes co...

And to restore the preserved of Irsrae "And to restore the branches of Israel"- נצירי netsirey , or נצורי netsurey , as the Masoretes correct it in the marginal reading. This word has been matter of great doubt with interpreters: the Syriac renders it the branch, taking it for the same with נצר netser , Isa 11:1. See Michaelis Epim. in Praelect. xix.

Clarke: Isa 49:7 - The Redeemer of Israel, and his Holy One "The Redeemer of Israel, his Holy One" The Redeemer of Israel, and his Holy One "The Redeemer of Israel, his Holy One" - "Perhaps we should read לקדושו likdosho ,"Secker: that is,...

The Redeemer of Israel, and his Holy One "The Redeemer of Israel, his Holy One" - "Perhaps we should read לקדושו likdosho ,"Secker: that is, to his Holy One. The preceding word ends with a ל lamed , which might occasion that letter’ s being lost here. The Talmud of Babylon has וקדושו ukedosho , and his Holy One

Clarke: Isa 49:7 - To him whom man despiseth "To him whose person is despised" To him whom man despiseth "To him whose person is despised" - "Perhaps we should read נבזה nibzeh ,"Secker; or בזוי bazui , Le Clerc; tha...

To him whom man despiseth "To him whose person is despised" - "Perhaps we should read נבזה nibzeh ,"Secker; or בזוי bazui , Le Clerc; that is, instead of the active, the passive form, which seems here to be required.

Clarke: Isa 49:9 - -- To them that are in darkness "And to those that are in darkness"- Fifteen MSS. (five ancient) of Dr. Kennicott’ s, eleven of De Rossi’ s, ...

To them that are in darkness "And to those that are in darkness"- Fifteen MSS. (five ancient) of Dr. Kennicott’ s, eleven of De Rossi’ s, and one ancient of my own, and the two old editions of 1486 and 1488, and three others, add the conjunction ו vau at the beginning of this member. Another MS. had it so at first, and two others have a rasure at the place: and it is expressed by the Septuagint, Syriac, Chaldee, and Vulgate.

Clarke: Isa 49:12 - Behold, these shall come from far Behold, these shall come from far - "Babylon was far and east, ממזרח mimmizrach , (non sic Vett.), Sinim, Pelusians, to the south."- Secker

Behold, these shall come from far - "Babylon was far and east, ממזרח mimmizrach , (non sic Vett.), Sinim, Pelusians, to the south."- Secker

Clarke: Isa 49:12 - The land of Sinim The land of Sinim - Prof. Doederlein thought of Syene, the southern limit of Egypt, but does not abide by it. Michaelis thinks it is right, and prom...

The land of Sinim - Prof. Doederlein thought of Syene, the southern limit of Egypt, but does not abide by it. Michaelis thinks it is right, and promises to give his reasons for so thinking in the second part of his Spicilegium Geographiae Hebraeorum Exterae. See Biblioth. Oriental. Part 11 p. 176

סין sin signifies a bush, and סינים sinim , bushes, woods, etc. Probably this means that the land where several of the lost Jews dwell is a woodland. The ten tribes are gone, no one knows whither. On the slave coast in Africa, some Jewish rites appear among the people, and all the males are circumcised. The whole of this land, as it appears from the coast, may be emphatically called ארץ שינים erets sinim , the land of bushes, as it is all covered with woods as far as the eye can reach. Many of the Indians in North America, which is also a woodland, have a great profusion of rites, apparently in their basis Jewish. Is it not possible that the descendants of the ten lost tribes are among those in America, or among those in Africa, whom European nations think they have a right to enslave? It is of those lost tribes that the twenty-first verse speaks: "And these, where had they been?"

Clarke: Isa 49:13 - -- Break forth into singing, O mountains "Ye mountains, burst forth into song"- Three ancient MSS. are without the י yod or the conjunction ו vau...

Break forth into singing, O mountains "Ye mountains, burst forth into song"- Three ancient MSS. are without the י yod or the conjunction ו vau before the verb: and so the Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulgate.

Clarke: Isa 49:14 - The Lord ( יהוה Yehovah ) hath forsaken me, and my Lord ( אדני Adonai ) hath forgotten me The Lord ( יהוה Yehovah ) hath forsaken me, and my Lord ( אדני Adonai ) hath forgotten me - But a multitude of MSS. and several ancient ...

The Lord ( יהוה Yehovah ) hath forsaken me, and my Lord ( אדני Adonai ) hath forgotten me - But a multitude of MSS. and several ancient editions read יהוה Yehovah in both places.

Clarke: Isa 49:16 - -- Behold, I have graven thee upon the palms of my hands "Behold, on the palms of my hands have I delineated thee"- This is certainly an allusion to so...

Behold, I have graven thee upon the palms of my hands "Behold, on the palms of my hands have I delineated thee"- This is certainly an allusion to some practice, common among the Jews at that time, of making marks on their hands or arms by punctures on the skin, with some sort of sign or representation of the city or temple, to show their affection and zeal for it. They had a method of making such punctures indelible by fire, or by staining. See note on Isa 44:6 (note). It is well known, that the pilgrims at the holy sepulcher get themselves marked in this manner with what are called the ensigns of Jerusalem. See Maundrell, p. 75, where he tells us how it is performed: and this art is practiced by travelling Jews all over the world at this day.

Clarke: Isa 49:17 - -- Thy children shall make haste "They that destroyed thee shall soon become thy builders"- Auctor Vulgatae pro בניך banayich , videtur legisse ...

Thy children shall make haste "They that destroyed thee shall soon become thy builders"- Auctor Vulgatae pro בניך banayich , videtur legisse בוניך bonayich , unde vertit, structores tui; cui et Septuaginta fere consentiunt, qui verterunt < aedificata es, prout in Plantiniana editione habetur; in Vaticana sive Romana legitur, < aedificaberis. Hisce etiam Targum Jonathanis aliquatenus consentit, ubi, et aedificabunt. Confer infra Esai. Isa 54:13, ad quem locum rabbini quoque notarunt en tractatu Talmudico Berachot , c. ix., quod non legendum sit בניך banayich , id est. filii tui; sed בניך bonayich , aedificatores tui. Confer not. ad librum Prec. Jud. part ii., p. 226, ut et D Wagenseil Sot. p. 253, n. 9. "The author of the Vulgate appears to have read בוניך bonayich for בניך banayich , as he translates it by structures tui, ‘ thy builders.’ The Septuagint is almost the same with the Vulgate, having ῳκοδομηθης, art built, as in the Plantin edition: but the Vatican or Roman copy reads οικοδομηθησῃ, those shalt be built. To these readings the Targum of Jonathan has some sort of correspondence, translating et aedificabunt, ‘ and they shall build.’ See Isa 54:13; on which place the rabbins also remark, in the Talmudic tract Berachoth, c. 9, that we should not read בניך banayich , thy sons, but בניך bonayich , thy builders. See the note in Prae. Jud. part ii., p. 226, and also D. Wagenseil, Sot. p. 253, n. 9. "See also Breithaupt. not. ad Jarchi in loc.; and the note on this place in De Sac. Poes. Hebr. Praelect. 31. Instead of בוניך or בניך bonayich , thy builders, several MSS. read בניך baneycha , thy sons. So also the Syriac: see the above note

Shall go forth of thee "Shall become thine offspring"- ממך יצאו mimmech yetseu , shall proceed, spring, issue, from thee, as thy children. The phrase is frequently used in this sense: see Isa 11:1; Mic 5:2; Nah 1:11. The accession of the Gentiles to the Church of God is considered as an addition made to the number of the family and children of Sion: see Isa 49:21, Isa 49:22, and Isa 60:4. The common rendering, "shall go forth of thee, or depart from thee,"is very flat, after their zeal had been expressed by "shall become thy builders:"and as the opposition is kept up in one part of the sentence, one has reason to expect it in the other, which should be parallel to it.

Clarke: Isa 49:18 - -- Bind them on thee, as a bride doeth "Bind them about thee, as a bride her jewels"- The end of the sentence is manifestly imperfect. Does a bride bin...

Bind them on thee, as a bride doeth "Bind them about thee, as a bride her jewels"- The end of the sentence is manifestly imperfect. Does a bride bind her children, or her new subjects, about her? Sion clothes herself with her children, as a bride clothes herself, - with what? some other thing certainly. The Septuagint help us out in this difficulty, and supply the lost word: ὡς κοσμον νυμφ̀·· as a bride her ornaments. ככליה כלה kichleyha callah , or ככלה כליה kecallah keleyha . The great similitude of the two words has occasioned the omission of one of them. See Isa 61:10.

Clarke: Isa 49:21 - -- These, where had they been "These then, where were they?"- The conjunction is added before אלה elleh , that is, ואלה veelleh . in thirty-t...

These, where had they been "These then, where were they?"- The conjunction is added before אלה elleh , that is, ואלה veelleh . in thirty-two MSS. (nine ancient) of Kennicott’ s, and fifty-four of De Rossi’ s, and so the Septuagint, Chaldee, and Vulgate. See the note on Isa 49:12 (note).

Clarke: Isa 49:22 - Thus saith the Lord God Thus saith the Lord God - אדני יהוה Adonai Yehovah . Adonai is wanting in one MS., in the Alexandrine copy of the Septuagint, and in the A...

Thus saith the Lord God - אדני יהוה Adonai Yehovah . Adonai is wanting in one MS., in the Alexandrine copy of the Septuagint, and in the Arabic.

Clarke: Isa 49:23 - -- With their face toward the earth "With their faces to the earth"- It is well known that expressions of submission, homage, and reverence always have...

With their face toward the earth "With their faces to the earth"- It is well known that expressions of submission, homage, and reverence always have been and are still carried to a great degree of extravagance in the eastern countries. When Joseph’ s brethren were introduced to him, "they bowed down themselves before him with their faces to the earth,"Gen 42:6. The kings of Persia never admitted any one to their presence without exacting this act of adoration; for that was the proper term for it. Necesse est , says the Persian courtier to Conon, si in conspectum veneris, venerari te regem; quod < illi vocant . "It is necessary, if thou shouldest come in sight, to venerate thee as king; which they call worshipping."- Nepos in Conone. Alexander, intoxicated with success, affected this piece of oriental pride: Itaque more Persarum Macedonas venerabundos ipsum salutare, prosternentes humi corpora . "The Macedonians after the manner of the Persians, saluted their monarch with the ceremony of prostration."- Curtius, lib. 8. The insolence of eastern monarchs to conquered princes, and the submission of the latter, is astonishing. Mr. Warmer, Observ. 2:43, gives the following instance of it from D’ Herbelot: "This prince threw himself one day on the ground, and kissed the prints that his victorious enemy’ s horse had made there; reciting some verses in Persian, which he had composed, to this effect: -

"The mark that the foot of your horse has left upon the dust, serves me now for a crown.

"The ring which I wear as the badge of my slavery, is become my richest ornament.

"While I shall have the happiness to kiss the dust of your feet, I shall think that fortune favors me with its tenderest caresses, and its sweetest kisses.

These expressions therefore of the prophet are only general poetical images, taken from the manners of the country, to denote great respect and reverence: and such splendid poetical images, which frequently occur in the prophetical writings, were intended only as general amplifications of the subject, not as predictions to be understood and fulfilled precisely according to the letter. For the different kinds of adoration in the east, see the note on Isa 44:17.

Clarke: Isa 49:24 - -- Shall the prey be taken from the mighty "Shall the prey seized by the terrible be rescued"- For צדיק tsaddik , read עריץ arits . A palpab...

Shall the prey be taken from the mighty "Shall the prey seized by the terrible be rescued"- For צדיק tsaddik , read עריץ arits . A palpable mistake, like that in Isa 42:19. The correction is self-evident from the very terms of the sentence; from the necessity of the strict correspondence in the expressions between the question and the answer made to it, - and it is apparent to the blindest and most prejudiced eye. However, if authority is also necessary, there is that of the Syriac and Vulgate for it; who plainly read עריץ arits , in Isa 49:24 as well as in Isa 49:25, rendering it in the former place by the same word as in the latter. - L

These two last verses contain a glorious promise of deliverance to the persecuted Church of Christ from the terrible one - Satan, and all his representatives and vicegerents, persecuting antichristian rulers. They shall at last cease from destroying the Church of God, and destroy one another.

Calvin: Isa 49:1 - Hear me, O islands! // Jehovah hath called me from the womb // From my mother’s belly he hath had my name in remembrance 1.Hear me, O islands! After having treated of the future deliverance of the people, he comes down to Christ, under whose guidance the people were bro...

1.Hear me, O islands! After having treated of the future deliverance of the people, he comes down to Christ, under whose guidance the people were brought out of Babylon, as they had formerly been brought out of Egypt. The former prophecy must have been confirmed by this doctrine; because they would scarcely have hoped that the Lord would deliver them, if they had not placed Christ before their eyes, by whom alone desponding souls can be comforted and strengthened; for from him they ought not only to expect eternal salvation, but ought equally to expect temporal deliverance. Besides, it is customary with the prophets, when they discourse concerning the restoration of the Church, to bring Christ into view, not only because he would be the minister of the Church, but because on him was founded the adoption of the people. The Jews also, or, at least, such of them as have any soundness of understanding, admit that this passage cannot be understood as relating to any other person than Christ. But still the train of thought which we have pointed out has not been perceived by every interpreter; for the Prophet does not, by a sudden transition, mention Christ, but interweaves this with the former subject, because in no other manner could the people entertain the hope of deliverance, since on him depended their reconciliation with God. And in order that the style might be more energetic, he introduces Christ as speaking, and addresses not only the Jews but nations that were beyond the sea, and foreign nations who were at a great distance from Judea, to whom, as we have formerly remarked, 1 he gives the name of “Islands.”

Jehovah hath called me from the womb A question arises, What is the nature of this calling? For, seeing that we were

“chosen in Christ before the creation of the world,”
(Eph 1:4,)

it follows that election goes before this calling; for it is the commencement and foundation of our election. Accordingly, it might be thought that Isaiah says far less than the occasion demands, when he says that he was “called from the womb;” for he had been called long before. But the answer is easy; for the subject here treated of is not eternal election, by which we are adopted to be his sons, but only the appointment or consecration by which Christ is set apart to that office, that no man may think that he intruded into it without being duly authorized. “For no man,” as the Apostle says,

“taketh this honor upon himself, but he who is called by God, as Aaron was. So also Christ glorified not himself to be made a high priest, but he who spake to him, Thou art my Son; this day have I begotten thee.” (Heb 5:4.)

Moreover, the Prophet does not describe the commencement of the period, as if it were only from the womb that God began to call him; but it is as if he had said, “Before I came out of the womb, God had determined that I should hold this office.” In like manner Paul also says that he was “set apart from the womb,” (Gal 1:15,) though he had been “elected before the creation of the world.” (Eph 1:4.) To Jeremiah also it is said, “Before thou camest out of the womb, I knew thee.” (Jer 1:5.) In short, the meaning is, that Christ was clothed with our flesh by the appointment of the Father, in order that he might fulfill the office of Redeemer, to which he had been appointed.

From my mother’s belly he hath had my name in remembrance This has the same import as the former clause; for by “the remembrance of the name” is meant familiar acquaintance. He therefore distinguishes himself from the ordinary rank of men, because he was elected to an uncommon and remarkable office.

Calvin: Isa 49:2 - And he hath placed my mouth as a sharp sword, // And hath made me as a polished arrow // In his quiver hath he hid me 2.And he hath placed my mouth as a sharp sword, he employs a twofold comparison, that of “a sword” and of “a quiver,” in order to denote the ...

2.And he hath placed my mouth as a sharp sword, he employs a twofold comparison, that of “a sword” and of “a quiver,” in order to denote the power and energy of the doctrine; and he shews why he was called, and why he was honored by a name so excellent and illustrious, namely, that he may teach; for this is what he means by the word “mouth.” Christ hath therefore been appointed by the Father, not to rule, after the manner of princes, by the force of arms, and by surrounding himself with other external defences, to make himself an object of terror to his people; but his whole authority consists in doctrine, in the preaching of which he wishes to be sought and acknowledged; for nowhere else will he be found. He asserts the power of his “mouth,” that is, of the doctrine which proceeds from his mouth, by comparing it to “a sword;” for

“the word of God is quick and powerful, and sharper than any two-edged sword, and piercing even to the dividing of the soul and the spirit, and of the joints and marrow, and is a discerner of the thoughts and intentions of the heart.” (Heb 4:12.)

And hath made me as a polished arrow He now compares his mouth to “an arrow,” because it strikes not only close at hand, but likewise at a distance, and reaches even those who appear to be far off.

In his quiver hath he hid me After having spoken of the efficacy of doctrine, Isaiah adds, that God, by his power, protects Christ and his doctrine, so that nothing can stop his course. And this was very necessary to be added; for, as soon as the mouth of Christ is opened, that is, as soon as his Gospel is preached, adversaries rise up on all sides, and innumerable enemies league together in order to crush it; so that the efficacy which he ascribes to doctrine would not be sufficient, if there were not added his protection, in order to drive away adversaries.

Besides, the present question is not about the person of Christ, but about the whole body of the Church. We must indeed begin with the Head, but we must next come down to the members; and to all the ministers of the Word must be applied what is here affirmed concerning Christ; for to them is given such efficacy of the Word, that they may not idly beat the air with their voices, but may reach the hearts and touch them to the quick. The Lord also causes the voice of the Gospel to resound not; only in one place, but far and wide throughout the whole world. In short, because he faithfully keeps them under his protection, though they are exposed to many attacks, and are assaulted on every side by Satan and the world, yet they do not swerve from their course. We ought to have abundant knowledge of this from experience; for they would all to a man have been long ago ruined by the conspiracies and snares of adversaries, if the Lord had not defended them by his protection. And indeed, amidst so many dangers, it is almost miraculous that a single preacher of the Gospel is permitted to remain. The reason of this is, that the Lord guards them by his shadow, and “hides them as arrows in his quiver,” that they may not be laid open to the assaults of enemies and be destroyed.

Calvin: Isa 49:3 - Thou art my servant, O Israel // In thee I will be glorified 3.Thou art my servant, O Israel It is of great importance to connect this verse with the preceding, because this shews that the Prophet now speaks no...

3.Thou art my servant, O Israel It is of great importance to connect this verse with the preceding, because this shews that the Prophet now speaks not only of a single man, but of the whole nation; which has not been duly considered by commentators. This passage must not be limited to the person of Christ, and ought not to be referred to Israel alone; but on the present occasion we should attend to the customary language of Scripture. When the whole body of the Church is spoken of, Christ is brought forward conspicuously so as to include all the children of God. We hear what Paul says:

“The promises were given to Abraham and to his seed. He saith not, And to seeds, as of many, but as of one, And to thy seed, which is Christ.” (Gal 3:16.)

He does not include the whole multitude of children who were descended from Abraham himself according to the flesh, seeing that all were not partakers of the blessing. Ishmael was rejected, Esau was a reprobate, and many others were cut off. When the people were rescued from Babylon, but a small renmant came out; for the greater part rejected God’s astonishing kindness. Where then was “the seed?” In Christ, who is the Head, and contains in himself the rest of the members; for in him is joined and bound by an indisoluble bond all the seed.

In like manner, under the name Israel, by which he means Christ, Isaiah includes the whole body of the people, as members under the Head. Nor ought this to be thought strange; for Paul also, when he speaks of the union, employs the metaphor of the human body, and then adds: “So also is Christ.” (1Co 12:12.) In that passage the name of Christ is given to Israel, that is, to the whole body of believers, who are joined to Christ, as members to the Head. In a word, the Lord honors by this name the Church, which is the spouse of Christ, just as the wife is honored by bearing the name and title of her husband. He calls “Israel his servant,” that is, he calls the Church his handmaid, because she is “the pillar and foundation of truth,” (1Ti 3:15;) for he hath committed his word to the care of the Church, that by her ministrations it may be published throughout the whole world.

In thee I will be glorified At length, in the conclusion of the verse he shews what is the design of these ministrations, and for what purpose, they who preach the Gospel are called by God; namely, that they may zealously display his glory, and may likewise promote it among others, which Christ also teaches us in the Gospel,

“Father, glorify thy Son, that thy Son may glorify thee.” (Joh 17:1.)

This is a very high honor conferred on poor, feeble men, when the Lord appoints them, though corrupt and depraved, to promote his glory; and therefore we ought to be the more encouraged to render to him our service and obedience. Yet God intends to express something more, that, notwithstanding the efforts of Satan and all wicked men, the power of God will be victorious, so that Christ shall triumph gloriously, and the majesty of God shall shine forth in his Gospel.

Calvin: Isa 49:4 - And I said, In vain have I toiled // But my judgement is before Jehovah 4.And I said, In vain have I toiled The Prophet here brings forward a grievous complaint in the name of the Church, yet in such a manner that, as we ...

4.And I said, In vain have I toiled The Prophet here brings forward a grievous complaint in the name of the Church, yet in such a manner that, as we have formerly remarked, we must begin with the Head. Christ therefore complains along with his members, that it appears as if his labor were thrown away; for, having formerly pronounced a high and striking commendation on the power and efficacy of the word which proceedeth out of his mouth, while yet it scarcely does any good, and the glory which God demands from the ministration of it does not shine forth, he therefore introduces the Church as complaining that she spends her labor fruitlessly, because men do not repent at the preaching of heavenly doctrine.

It was highly necessary that the Prophet should add this; first, that we may know that the fruit which he mentioned is not always visible to the eyes of men; for otherwise we might call in question the truth of the word, and might entertain doubts if that which is so obstinately rejected by many was the word of God. Secondly, it was necessary, that we may advance with unshaken firmness, and may commit our labor to the Lord, who will not permit it to be ultimately unproductive. The Prophet therefore intended to guard against a dangerous temptation, that we may not, on account of the obstinacy of men, lose courage in the middle of our course. And indeed Christ begins with the complaint, for the purpose of affirming that nothing shall hinder him from executing his office. The meaning of the words might be more clearly brought out in the following manner: “Though my labor be unprofitable, and though I have almost exhausted my strength without doing any good, yet it is enough that God approves of my obedience.” Such is also the import of what he adds, —

But my judgement is before Jehovah Although we do not clearly see the fruit of our labors, yet we are enjoined to be content on this ground, that we serve God, to whom our obedience is acceptable. Christ exhorts and encourages godly teachers to strive earnestly till they rise victorious over this temptation, and, laying aside the malice of the world, to advance cheerfully in the discharge of duty, and not to allow their hearts to languish through weariness. If therefore the Lord be pleased to make trial of our faith and patience to such an extent that it shall seem as if we wearied ourselves to no purpose, yet we ought to rely on this testimony of our conscience And if we do not enjoy this consolation, at least we are not moved by pure affection, and do not serve God, but the world and our own ambition. In such temptations, therefore, we should have recourse to this sentiment.

Yet it ought to be observed, that here Christ and the Church accuse the whole world of ingratitude; for the Church complains to God in such a manner as to remonstrate with the world, because no good effect is produced on it by the doctrine of the Gospel, which in itself is efficacious and powerful. Yet the whole blame rests on the obstinacy and ingratitude of men, who reject the grace of God offered to them, and of their own accord choose to perish. Let those persons now go and accuse Christ, who say that the Gospel yields little fruit, and who defame the doctrine of the word by wicked slanders, and who throw ridicule on our labors as vain and unprofitable, and who allege that, on the contrary, they excite men to sedition, and lead them to sin with less control. Let them consider, I say, with whom they have to do, and what advantage they gain by their impudence, since men alone ought to bear the blame, who, as far as lies in their power, render the preaching of the Word unprofitable.

Godly ministers, who bitterly lament that men perish so miserably by their own fault, and who sometimes devour and waste themselves through grief, when they experience so great perversity, ought to encourage their hearts by this consolation, and not to be alarmed so as to throw away the shield and spear, though sometimes they imagine that it would be better for them to do so. Let them consider that they share with Christ in this cause; for Christ does not speak of himself alone, as we formerly mentioned, but undertakes the cause of all who faithfully serve him, and, as their advocate, brings forward an accusation in the name of all. Let them therefore rely on his protection, and allow him to defend their cause. Let them appeal, as Paul does, to the day of the Lord, (1Co 4:4,) and let them not heed the calumnies, reproaches, or slanders of their enemies; for their judgment is with the Lord, and although they be a hundred times slandered by the world, yet a faithful God will approve and vindicate the service which they render to him.

On the other hand, let wicked men, and despisers of the word, and hypocrites, tremble; for when Christ accuses, there will be no room for defense; and when he condenms, there will be none that can acquit. We must therefore beware lest the fruit which ought to proceed from the Gospel should be lost through our fault; for the Lord manifests his glory in order that we may become disciples of Christ, and may bring forth much fruit.

Calvin: Isa 49:5 - And now saith Jehovah // Who formed me from the womb to be his servant // And though Israel be not gathered // Yet I shall be glorious // And my God shall be my strength 5.And now saith Jehovah By this verse he confirms the former statement, and yields more abundant consolation, by repeating that calling; and the test...

5.And now saith Jehovah By this verse he confirms the former statement, and yields more abundant consolation, by repeating that calling; and the testimony of conscience, which ought to be regarded by us as a fortress; for there is nothing that gives us greater distress and anxiety, than to entertain doubts by whose authority, or by whose direction everything is undertaken by us. For this reason Isaiah reminds us of the certainty of our calling.

Who formed me from the womb to be his servant In the first place, godly teachers, along with Christ who is their Prince, say that they have been “formed” by a divine hand; because God always enriches and adorns with necessary gifts those whom he calls to the office of teaching, who derive from the one fountain of the Spirit all the gifts in which they excel. Thus “the Father hath sealed” (Joh 6:27) his Only-begotten Son, and next prepares others, according to their degree, to be fit for discharging their office. At the same time, he points out the end of the calling; for to this end have Apostles and teachers of the Church been appointed, to gather the Lord’s scattered flock, that under Christ we may all be united in the same body. (Eph 4:11.) In the world there is miserable dispersion, but in Christ there is ἀνακεφαλαίωσις “a gathering together” of all, (Eph 1:10,) as the Apostle speaks; for there can be no other bond of union. As to the word “create,” or “form,” it is to no purpose that some men speculate about it as relating to Christ’s human existence, which was created; for it is clearer than noon-day, that the “forming” must be viewed as relating to office.

And though Israel be not gathered The Jews read these words as a question: “Shall I not bring back Jacob? and shall Israel not be gathered?” and supply the particle ה ( ha). But that reading is excessively unnatural, and the Jews do not consider what was the Prophet’s meaning, but, so far as lies in their power, corrupt the text, in order to conceal the disgrace of their nation. Some explain it, “Shall not be lost,” or, “Shall not perish;” for the verb אספ (asaph) sometimes denotes what we commonly call ( trousser ) to truss. Those things which are intended to be preserved are “gathered,” and likewise those things which are intended to be consumed; and accordingly, when we mean that any person has been removed out of the world, we frequently use the vulgar phrase, “he is trussed,” 2 or, “he is despatched.”

Yet I shall be glorious To suppose the meaning to be, “I have been sent, that Israel may not perish,” would not be unsuitable; but I choose rather to follow a different interpretation, namely, “Though Israel be not gathered, yet I shall be glorious;” for it is probable that opposite things are contrasted with each other in this passage. If ministers have been set apart, for the salvation of men, it is glorious to them when many are brought to salvation; and when the contrary happens, it tends to their shame and disgrace. Paul calls those whom he had gained to Christ “his glory and crown.” (Phi 4:1; 1Th 2:19.) On the other hand, when men perish, we receive from it nothing but shame and disgrace; for God appears to curse our labors, and not to deign to bestow on us the high honor of advancing his kingdom by our agency. But the Prophet declares that those who have served Christ shall nevertheless be glorious; for he speaks both of the head and of the members, as we have formerly remarked. Although therefore Israel refuse to be “gathered,” yet the ministry of Christ shall retain its glory unimpaired; for it will be ascribed to the baseness and wickedness of men, that they have not been “gathered.”

In like manner, although the preachers of the Gospel be “the savor of death unto death” to the reprobate, yet Paul declares that they have a sweet and delightful odor before God, who determines that wicked men shall thus be rendered the more inexcusable. God is indeed doubly glorified if success corresponds to their wishes; but when the ministers of the word have left nothing undone, though they have good reason to lament that their labor is unprofitable, still they must not repent of having pleased God, whose approbation is here contrasted with the perverse judgments of the whole world. As if the Prophet had said, “Though men vehemently slander and load them with many reproaches, yet this ought to be calmly and patiently endured by them; because God judges differently, and bestows a crown of honor on their patience, which wicked men insolently slander.

And my God shall be my strength When he says that it is enough that “God is their strength,” the meaning corresponds to what goes before, that they ought not to be terrified by the multitude or power of their enemies, seeing that they are persuaded that their “strength” lies in God.

Calvin: Isa 49:6 - And he said, It is a small matter // Therefore I have appointed thee to be a light of the Gentiles // A light of the Gentiles 6.And he said, It is a small matter Isaiah proceeds still farther, and shews that the labor of Christ, and of the whole Church, will be glorious not ...

6.And he said, It is a small matter Isaiah proceeds still farther, and shews that the labor of Christ, and of the whole Church, will be glorious not only before God, but likewise before men. Although at first it appears to be vain and useless, yet the Lord will cause some fruit to spring from it contrary to the expectations of men. Already it was enough that our labor should be approved by God; but when he adds that it will not be unprofitable even in the eyes of men, this ought still more abundantly to comfort, and more vehemently to excite us. Hence it follows, that we ought to have good hopes of success, but that we ought to leave it to the disposal of God himself, that the blessing which he promises may be made manifest at the proper time, to whatever extent, and in whatever manner he shall think proper.

Therefore I have appointed thee to be a light of the Gentiles He now adds, that this labor will be efficacious, not only among the people of Israel, but likewise among the Gentiles; and so it actually happened. Moreover, when the preaching of the Gospel produced hardly any good effect on the Jews, and when Christ was obstinately rejected by them, the Gentiles were substituted in their room. And thus Christ was

“appointed to be a light of the Gentiles, and his salvation was manifested to the very ends of the earth.” (Act 13:47.)

Now this consolation was highly necessary, both for prophets and for apostles, who experienced more and more the obstinacy of the Jews. They might doubt the truth of these promises, since they did not perceive them to yield any fruit; but when they understood that Christ was sent to the Gentiles also, it was not so difficult to animate their hearts to persevere. This was incredible, and even monstrous; but this is the manner in which the Lord commonly works, contrary to the expectation of all. Paul says that this was “a mystery bidden from ages,” and that the angels themselves did not understand it until it was actually revealed in the Church of God. (Eph 3:5.) Although therefore the Jews alone appeared to have discernment, they are now placed on a level with the Gentiles, and with God “there is no distinction between the Jews and the Greeks.” (Rom 10:12.)

The Jews read this verse as a question, “Is it a small thing?” As if he had said, that it is enough, and that nothing more or greater ought to be desired. But they maliciously corrupt the natural meaning of the Prophet, and imagine that they will one day be lords of the Gentiles, and will have wide and extensive dominion. The true meaning of the Prophet is, “This work in itself indeed is magnificent and glorious, to raise up and restore the tribes of Israel, which had fallen very low; for he will add the Gentiles to the Jews, that they may be united as one people, and may be acknowledged to belong to Christ.” Nor does this passage relate to the rejection of the ancient people, but to the increase of the Church, that the Gentiles may be associated with the Jews. It is true, indeed, that when the Jews revolted from the covenant, the Gentiles entered, as it were, into that place which they had left vacant; and thus their revolt was the reason why those who had formerly been aliens were admitted to be sons. But in this, as well as in other passages, Isaiah foretells that the Church will be greatly extended, when the Gentiles shall be received and united to the Jews in the unity of faith.

A light of the Gentiles Although by the word “light” is meant happiness, or joy, yet the Prophet, I have no doubt, directly refers to the doctrine of the Gospel, which enlightens souls, and draws them out of darkness, He shews that this “light,” which Christ shall bring, will give salvation. In the same manner as Christ is called “the way, the truth, and the life,” (Joh 14:6) because through the knowledge of the truth we obtain life, so in this passage he is called the “light” and salvation of the Gentiles, because he enlightens our minds by the doctrine of the Gospel, in order that he may lead us to salvation. Two things, therefore, ought to be remarked; first, that our eyes are opened by the doctrine of Christ; and secondly, that we who had perished are restored to life, or rather life is restored to us.

Calvin: Isa 49:7 - Thus saith Jehovah // To the contemptible in the soul // To the abhorred nation // To the servant of rulers // For faithful is the Holy One of Israel // And who hath chosen thee 7.Thus saith Jehovah Isaiah pursues the same subject, that the people, when they were afflicted by that terrible calamity, might cherish the hope of ...

7.Thus saith Jehovah Isaiah pursues the same subject, that the people, when they were afflicted by that terrible calamity, might cherish the hope of a better condition; and, in order to confirm it the more, he calls God, who promised these things, the Redeemer and the Holy One of Israel It will be objected that these statements are contradictory, that is, that God is called the “redeemer” of that people which he permitted to be oppressed; for where is this redemption, and where is this sanctification, if the people could reply that they were miserable and ruined? I reply, the record of ancient history is here exhibited as the ground of confidence and hope; for when the Jews were on the point of despair, the Prophet comes forward and reminds them that God, who had formerly redeemed their fathers, is still as powerful as ever; and therefore, although for a time, in order to exercise the faith of the godly, he concealed their salvation, believers are commanded to stand firm, because in his hand their redemption is certain. Yet it was proper that they should form conceptions of that which lay far beyond human senses. This is a remarkable passage, from which we learn how firmly we ought to believe God when he speaks, though he does not immediately perform what he has promised, but permits us to languish, and to be afflicted for a long time.

To the contemptible in the soul בזה (bezo) is rendered by some commentators “contempt,” and by others “contemptible,” which I prefer. 3 It heightens the wretchedness of that nation, that “in the soul,” that is, in their own estimation, they are “contemptible.” Many are despised by others, though they either deserve honor on account of their good qualities, or do not cease to swell with pride, and to tread down the arrogance of others by still greater arrogance. But of this people the Prophet says, that they despise themselves as much as others despise them. He therefore describes deep disgrace and a very unhappy condition, and, at the same time, prostration of mind, that they may know that God’s time for rendering assistance will be fully come, when they shall be altogether humbled.

To the abhorred nation 4 I see no reason why the plural “Nations,” is here employed by some interpreters; seeing that the singular גוי , ( goi,) “nation,” is used by the Prophet, and it is certain that the discourse is specially directed to the posterity of Abraham.

To the servant of rulers This is added, as if he had said that they are oppressed by strong tyrants; for he gives the appellation משלים (moshelim) to those whose strength and power are so great that it is not easy to escape out of their hands.

When he says that kings shall see, he speaks in lofty terms of the deliverance of his nation; but yet he permits them to be put to the test in the fumace, that he may make trial of their faith and patience; for otherwise there would be no trial of their faith, if he immediately performed what he promised, as we have already said. The word princes contains a repetition which is customary among the Hebrews. We would express it thus: “Kings and princes shall see; they shall rise up: and adore.” By the word adore, he explains what he had said, “They shall rise up;“ for we “rise up” for the purpose of shewing respect. The general meaning is, that the most exalted princes of the world shall be aroused to perceive that the restoration of the nation is an illustrious work of God, and worthy of reverence.

For faithful is the Holy One of Israel This is the reason of the great admiration and honor which the princes shall render to God. It is because they shall perceive the “faithfulness” and constancy of the Lord in his promises. Now, the Lord wishes to be acknowledged to be true, not by a bare and naked imagination, but by actual experience, that is, by preserving the people whom he has adopted. Let us therefore learn from it, that we ougtlt not to judge of the promises of God from our condition, but from his truth; so that, when we shall see nothing before us but destruction and death, we may remember this sentiment, by which the Lord calls to himself the contemptible and abominable.

Hence also it ought to be observed, how splendid and astonishing a work of God is the deliverance of the Church, which compels kings, though proud, and deeming hardly anything so valuable as to be worthy of their notice, to behold, admire, and be amazed, and even in spite of themselves to reverence the Lord. This strange and extraordinary work, therefore, is highly commended to us. How great and how excellent it is, we may learn from ourselves; for to say nothing about ancient histories, in what manner have we been redeemed from the wretched tyranny of Antichrist? Truly we shall consider it to be “a dream,” as the Psalmist says, (Psa 126:1,) if we ponder it carefully for a short time; so strange and incredible is the work which God hath performed in us who have possessed the name of Christ.

And who hath chosen thee He now repeats what he had formerly glanced at, that this nation has been set apart to God. But in election we perceive the beginning of sanctification; for it was in consequence of God having deigned to elect them out of his mere good pleasure, that this nation became his peculiar inheritance. Isaiah therefore points out the secret will of God, from which sanctification proceeds; that Israel might not think that he had been selected on account of his own merits. As if he had said, “The Lord, who hath chosen thee, gives actual proof of his election, and shows it by the effect.” In the same manner, therefore, as the truth of God ought to be acknowledged in our salvation, so salvation ought to be ascribed exclusively to his election, which is of free grace. Yet they who wish to become partakers of so great a benefit, must be a part of Israel, that is, of the Church, out of which there can be neither salvation nor truth.

Calvin: Isa 49:8 - In a time of good pleasure // I have appointed thee to be a covenant // That thou mayest raise up the earth, 8.In a time of good pleasure From this verse we again learn more clearly what we explained at the beginning of this chapter, that the Prophet, while ...

8.In a time of good pleasure From this verse we again learn more clearly what we explained at the beginning of this chapter, that the Prophet, while he addresses the whole body of the Church, begins with Christ, who is the head. I have said that this ought to be carefully observed; for commentators have not attended to it, and yet there is no other way in which this chapter can be consistently expounded. This is clearly shewn by Paul, who applies this statement to the whole Church. (2Co 6:2.) And yet, what the Prophet adds, I will give thee to be a covenant, is applicable to no other than Christ.

How shall we reconcile these statements? By considering that Christ is not so much his own as ours; for he neither came, nor died, nor rose again for himself. He was sent for the salvation of the Church, and seeks nothing as his own; for he has no want of anything. Accordingly, God makes promises to the whole body of the Church. Christ, who occupies the place of Mediator, receives these promises, and does not plead on behalf of himself as an individual, but of the whole Church, for whose salvation he was sent. On this account he does not address Christ separately, but so far as he is joined and continually united to his body. It is an inconceivable honor which our heavenly Father bestows upon us, when he listens to his Son on our account, and when he even directs the discourse to the Son, while the matter relates to our salvation. Hence we see how close is the connection between us and Christ. He stands in our room, and has nothing separate from us; and the Father listens to our cause.

By the word “good pleasure,” the Prophet lays a bridle on believers, so to speak, that they may not be too eager in their desires, but may wait patiently till the time appointed by God has arrived; and in this sense Paul gives to the coming of Christ the appellation of “the time of fullness.” (Gal 4:4.) He means, therefore, that they depend on God’s disposal, and ought therefore to endure his wrath with meekness and composure. But although the intention of the Prophet is to exhort the godly to patience, that they may learn to place their feelings in subordination to God, yet at the same time he shows that our salvation proceeds from God’s undeserved kindness. רצון (ratzon) which the Greeks translate εὐδοκία , that is, the good-will of God is the foundation of our salvation; and salvation is the effect of that grace. We are saved, because we please God, not through our worthiness or merits, but by his free grace. Secondly, he shows, at the same time, that our salvation is certain, when we have a clear proof of the grace of the Lord. All doubt ought to be removed, when the Lord testified of his “good pleasure.” This passage tends to the commendation of the word, beyond which we ought not to inquire about salvation; as Paul declares that the good pleasure of God is clearly manifested in the preaching of the Gospel, and that thus is fulfilled what is contained in this passage about “the day of salvation.” (2Co 6:2.)

Thirdly, the Prophet intended to remind us, that God gives us an undoubted pledge of his favor when he sends the Gospel to us; because it is evident that he has compassion upon us, when he gently invites us to himself, that we may not look around in every direction to seek this light, which ought to be expected only from God’s gracious pleasure, or be tortured by doubt, from which God frees us. But let us remember that all this depends on God’s free purpose. When therefore the question is put, why the Lord enlightened us at this time rather than at an earlier period, the reason which ought to be assigned is this: because thus it pleased God, thus it seemed good in his sight. Such is the conclusion to which Paul comes in the passage which we quoted,

“Behold, now is the accepted time; behold, now is the day of salvation.” (2Co 6:2.)

This passage may greatly aid us in ascertaining Isaiah’s meaning, that we may learn to connect our salvation with God’s good pleasure; a proof of which is given to us in the preaching of the Gospel. It ought also to be observed, that these predictions should not be limited to a certain age, since they belong to the whole Church in all ages. For if we begin with the deliverance from Babylon, we must go on to the redemption of Christ, of which it might be regarded as the commencement and the forerunner; and since there are still found among us many remnants of slavery, we must proceed forward to the last day, when everything shall be restored.

I have appointed thee to be a covenant This makes it still more evident, that all that had formerly been said was promised to Christ, not for the sake of his personal advantage, but on our behalf; for he has been appointed to be the mediator of the covenant, because the Jews by their sins had revolted from God, who had made an everlasting covenant with them. The renewal of that covenant, therefore, which had been broken or dissolved, is ascribed to Christ. Yet we must likewise keep in view the saying of Paul, that

“Christ is our peace, to reconcile both them that are far off, and them that are near.” (Eph 2:14.)

But, Isaiah had directly in view that lamentable ruin, the remedy for which could be expected from Christ alone. Besides, it is proper to apply this grace to ourselves, because, as compared to the Jews, before the Gospel was preached, we were enemies and aliens from God, and could not in any other way be reconciled to him. Christ was therefore “given to be a covenant of the people,” because there was no other way to God but by him. At that time the Jews were a people; but in consequence of the partition-wall having been broken down, all of us, both Jews and Gentiles, have been united in one body.

That thou mayest raise up the earth, which at that time was waste and desolate; for the return of the people was, as we have elsewhere seen, a kind of new creation. Such is also the design of the words of the Prophet, that we may know that there is nothing in the world but ruin and desolation. Christ is sent in order to restore what was fallen down and decayed. If we had not been in a fallen condition, there would have been no reason why Christ should be sent to us. We ought therefore to weigh well our condition; for we are aliens from God, destitute of life, and shut out from all hope of salvation. But by Christ we are fully restored and reconciled to our Heavenly Father. Isaiah likewise adds the benefits which we obtain through Christ, after having been reconciled to God.

Calvin: Isa 49:9 - That thou mayest say to them that are bound // On the ways they shall feed 9.That thou mayest say to them that are bound These words describe the change which took place at the coming of Christ. And yet the Prophet unquestio...

9.That thou mayest say to them that are bound These words describe the change which took place at the coming of Christ. And yet the Prophet unquestionably intends to administer consolation to the Jews in their extremity, that they may not think it incredible that they shall be restored to a better condition, because they see that they are almost devoted to destruction. Still, he shows in general what is the nature of Christ’s office, and explains what is meant by restoring desolate heritages; for, before the coming of Christ, we are “bound” under a miserable yoke, and plunged in darkness. By these metaphors is meant, that so long as we are without Christ, we are overwhelmed by a load of all evils; for by darkness he excludes everything that relates to the kingdom of Christ, faith, righteousness, truth, innocence, and everything of that nature. We are therefore in “darkness,” till Christ say, Shew yourselves We are “bound,” till he say, Come forth.

The word לאמר , ( lemor,) “that thou mayest say,” is highly emphatic; for it shews that the preaching of the Gospel is the means by which we are delivered. If therefore we desire liberty, if we desire the light of the kingdom of God, let us listen to Christ when he speaks; otherwise we shall be oppressed by the unceasing tyranny of Satan. Where then is the liberty of our will? Whosoever claims for himself light, or reason, or understanding, can have no share in this deliverance of Christ; for liberty is not promised to any but those who acknowledge that they are captives, and light and salvation are not promised to any but those who acknowledge that they are plunged in darkness.

On the ways they shall feed When he promises that pastures shall be accessible to the children of God, and shall be on the tops of the mountains, by these metaphors he declares that all who shall be under the protection of Christ shall dwell safely; for he is a careful and attentive Shepherd, who supplies his flock with everything that is necessary, so that they are in want of nothing that is requisite for the highest happiness. (Joh 10:11.) This instruction was highly necessary at the time when the Jews were about to perform a joumey through dry and barren countries, in their return to a land which lay waste and desolate. The Prophet therefore says that God has abundant resources for supplying their wants, though earthly means should fail; and accordingly, in accordance with the ordinary custom of Scripture, he compares believers to sheep, in order that, being aware of their weakness, they may shrink themselves entirely to the care of the Shepherd.

Yet it is probable that indirectly he warns believers not to desire excessive luxury, because they will never have so great a superfluity as not to be attended by many difficulties; and likewise not to become effeminate, because they will be beset by dangers; for we know that “the ways” are exposed to the attacks of enemies and robbers, and that the tops of mountains are for the most part barren. The Church is governed by Christ in such a manner as not to be free from the attacks and insults of men, and is fed in such a manner as frequently to inhabit barren and frightful regions. But though enemies are at hand, God protects us from their violence and oppression. If we are thirsty or hungry, he is abundantly able to supply everything that is necessary for food and maintenance; and amidst perils and difficulties of this nature we perceive his care and anxiety more dearly than if we were placed beyond the reach of all danger.

Calvin: Isa 49:10 - They shall not hunger or thirst // By the fountains of waters 10.They shall not hunger or thirst He confirms what was said in the former verse, that there is food in the hand of God, so that the Jews shall not b...

10.They shall not hunger or thirst He confirms what was said in the former verse, that there is food in the hand of God, so that the Jews shall not be in want of provisions for their joumey. Nor can it be doubted that he calls to their remembrance, that when their fathers were threatened with death in the wilderness through a scarcity of bread and of every kind of food, God gave them daily, for forty years, manna from heaven. (Exo 16:35.) In like manner, when he immediately afterwards speaks of a shadow against the heat of the sun, he alludes to the history related by Moses about “the pillar of a cloud,” by which God protected his people from being scorched by the buming rays of the sun. (Exo 13:21.) We have said that it is customary with the prophets to mention the departure of the people out of Egypt, whenever they intend to demonstrate the kindness of God, either publicly towards all, or privately towards any individual.

By the fountains of waters He likewise alludes to those waters which flowed from the rock, (Exo 17:6,) when the people had well-nigh perished from thirst; for those occurrences did not take place at the deliverance from Babylon, but, by mentioning former benefits, the Prophet magnifies the power of God in securing the safety of the Church.

Calvin: Isa 49:11 - And I will place all my mountains 11.And I will place all my mountains Here he directly and expressly treats of the return of the people; for in vain would he have promised so great h...

11.And I will place all my mountains Here he directly and expressly treats of the return of the people; for in vain would he have promised so great happiness to the Church, if the people were not to be restored to their former liberty. The meaning is, that he will remove every obstacle and hinderance that might prevent the return of the people; and that he will render the “mountains” passable, which appeared to be impassable; and, in short, that he will level both the mountains and the valleys, that their return to Judea may be facilitated. Thus, when the Church is about to be completely restored, no obstructions, however great and formidable, can hinder God from being finally victorious. Besides, when he calls them “my mountains,” he not only means that he has an absolute right to command them to afford a passage to his people, but declares that he will be the leader of the expedition, as if he would march along with the Jews, and accompany them in the joumey. In like manner, it is said in another passage, that he passed through Egypt and “rode on the high places of it” at the departure of his people. (Deu 32:13.) But here he describes the extraordinary love of God towards the Church, when he says that he travels along with her, and undertakes to supply all her wants, as if he were consulting his own interests when he assisted his people.

Calvin: Isa 49:12 - Behold, those from afar shall come // And those from the land of Sinis 12.Behold, those from afar shall come The opinion entertained by some, that the four quarters of the earth are here denoted, does not rest on very so...

12.Behold, those from afar shall come The opinion entertained by some, that the four quarters of the earth are here denoted, does not rest on very solid grounds; yet I do not reject it, because it not only is probable, but agrees with many other passages. Undoubtedly, he first says that they shall come from distant parts of the world, and next adds certain subdivisions or parts in order to explain this general statement.

And those from the land of Sinis Instead of “Sinis,” some read “Sinis;” and indeed the Hebrew copies differ. 5 Jerome thinks (and this is the commonly received opinion) that a southern region is so denominated from Mount Sinai, which lay toward the south. Others think that “Syene” is meant, because it lies under the tropic of Cancer. 6 But this diversity has nothing to do with the meaning of the Prophet, which of itself is clear and easy to be understood; for the Prophet unquestionably means those who had been scattered and dispersed in various places, whether they are collected from the north or from the sea. While Isaiah promises a return from Babylon, he at the same time extends this prediction to the time of Christ, as may be easily learned from what goes before; for we must keep in remembrance what we formerly said, that the second birth of the Church is here described. Not only does he promise that the Jews shall return to Jerusalem to build the temple, but likewise that they who had formerly been aliens from the Church, shall be collected from every corner of the world.

Calvin: Isa 49:13 - Praise, O heavens; and rejoice, O earth // And he wilt have compassion on his poor 13.Praise, O heavens; and rejoice, O earth Though he exhorts and encourages all the godly to thanksgiving, yet he likewise aims at confirming the pro...

13.Praise, O heavens; and rejoice, O earth Though he exhorts and encourages all the godly to thanksgiving, yet he likewise aims at confirming the promise which might have been regarded as doubtful; for afflictions trouble our consciences, and cause them to waver in such a manner that it is not so easy to rest firmly on the promises of God. In short, men either remain in suspense, or tremble, or utterly fall and even faint. So long as they are oppressed by fear or anxiety, or grief, they scarcely accept of any consolation; and therefore they need to be confirmed in various ways. This is the reason why Isaiah describes the advantages of this deliverance in such lofty terms, in order that believers, though they beheld nothing around them but death and ruin, might sustain their heart by the hope of a better condition. Accordingly, he places the subject almost before their eye, that they may be fully convinced that they shall have the most abundant cause of rejoicing; though at that time they saw nothing but grief and sorrow.

Let us therefore remember, that whenever the Lord promises anything, we ought to add thanksgiving, that we may more powerfully affect our hearts; and next, that we ought to raise our minds to the power of God, who exercises a wide and extensive dominion over all the creatures; for as soon as he lifts his hand, “heaven and earth” are moved. If the tokens of his wonderful power are to be seen everywhere, he intends that there shall be an eminent and remarkable example of it in the salvation of the Church.

And he wilt have compassion on his poor By this metaphor the Prophet shews that no obedience which is rendered to God by heaven and earth is more acceptable to him than to join together and lend their mutual aid to his Church. Moreover, that believers may not faint under the weight of distresses, before promising to them consolation from God, he exhorts them calmly to bear distresses; for by the word poor he means that the Church, in this world, is liable to many calamities. In order, therefore, that we may partake of the compassion of God, let us learn, under the cross and amidst many annoyances, to strive after it with sighs and tears.

Calvin: Isa 49:14 - But Zion said, Jehovah hath forsaken me 14.But Zion said, Jehovah hath forsaken me In order to magnify his grace the more, God complains that the hearts of the Jews were so narrow and close...

14.But Zion said, Jehovah hath forsaken me In order to magnify his grace the more, God complains that the hearts of the Jews were so narrow and close, that the road was almost shut against him, if he had not overcome their wicked thoughts by his great goodness. Yet at the same time he endeavors to correct this fault, that the deliverance which is offered, and, as it were, set before them, may be received by them with open hearts, and that, as he is willing to assist them, so they, on the other hand, may be prepared to cherish favorable hopes. Now, to us also this doctrine belongs; because almost all of us, when God delays his assistance, are fearfully distressed and tormented; for we think that he has forsaken and rejected us. Thus despair quickly creeps in, which must be opposed, that we may not be deprived of the grace of God. And indeed amidst these doubts our unbelief is manifested and exposed, by our not relying on the promises of God, so as to bear patiently either the chastisements by which God urges us to repentance, or the trials of faith by which he trains us to patience, or any afflictions by which he humbles us. Justly therefore does God remonstrate with the Jews for rejecting by wicked distrust the salvation offered to them, and not permitting themselves to receive assistance. Nor does he limit this accusation to a small number, but includes nearly the whole Church, in order to shew that he will be kind and bountiful toward the Jews beyond the measure of their faith, and that he even strives with them, that by his salvation he may break through all the hinderances by which they opposed him. Let each of us therefore beware of indulging or flattering ourselves in this matter; for the Lord contends with the whole Church, for uttering speeches of this kind, which proceed from the fountain of distrust.

Calvin: Isa 49:15 - Shall a woman forget her child! // Even if they shall forget 15.Shall a woman forget her child! In order to correct that distrust, he adds to the remonstrance an exhortation full of the sweetest consolation. By...

15.Shall a woman forget her child! In order to correct that distrust, he adds to the remonstrance an exhortation full of the sweetest consolation. By an appropriate comparison, he shews how strong is his anxiety about his people, comparing himself to a mother, whose love toward her offspring is so strong and ardent, as to leave far behind it a father’s love. Thus he did not satisfy himself with proposing the example of a father, (which on other occasions he very frequently employs,) but in order to express his very strong affection, he chose to liken himself to a mother, and calls them not merely “children,” but the fruit of the womb, towards which there is usually a warmer affection. What amazing affection does a mother feel toward her offspring, which she cherishes in her bosom, suckles on her breast, and watches over with tender care, so that she passes sleepless nights, wears herself out by continued anxiety, and forgets herself! And this carefulness is manifested, not only among men, but even among savage beasts, which, though they are by nature cruel, yet in this respect are gentle.

Even if they shall forget Since it does sometimes happen that mothers degenerate into such monsters as to exceed in cruelty the wild beasts and forget “the fruit of their womb,” the Lord next declares that, even though this should happen, still he will never forget his people. The affection which he bears toward us is far stronger and warmer than the love of all mothers. We ought also to bear in mind the saying of Christ,

“If ye, being evil, know how to give good things to your children, how much more your heavenly Father?” (Mat 7:11.)

Men, though by nature depraved and addicted to self-love, are anxious about their children. What shall God do, who is goodness itself? Will it be possible for him to lay aside a father’s love? Certainly not. Although therefore it should happen that mothers (which is a monstrous thing) should forsake their own offspring, yet God, whose love toward his people is constant and unremitting, will never forsake them. In a word, the Prophet here describes to us the inconceivable carefulness with which God unceasingly watches over our salvation, that we may be fully convinced that he will never forsake us, though we may be afflicted with great and numerous calamities.

Calvin: Isa 49:16 - Behold, on the palms of my hands // Thy walls are continually before me 16.Behold, on the palms of my hands By another cormparison he describes that inconceivable carefulness which the Lord exercises toward us. It is a co...

16.Behold, on the palms of my hands By another cormparison he describes that inconceivable carefulness which the Lord exercises toward us. It is a common proverb, that “we have it on our fingers’ ends,” when we have anything fully and deeply fixed on our memory. And Moses when he recommends constant meditation on the Law, says, “Thou shalt bind them for a sign on thy hand;” that is, that they should always have the commandments of God placed before their eyes. (Deu 6:8.) He now makes use of the same comparison; as if he had said, “I cannot look at my hands without beholding thee in them; I carry thee engraved on my heart, so that no forgetfulness can efface thee; in a word, I cannot forget thee without forgetting myself.” True, indeed, God has neither hands nor bodily shape; but Scripture accommodates itself to our weak capacity so as to express the strength of God’s love toward us.

Thy walls are continually before me As the Church is frequently called the “habitation” or “city of God,” (and hence also the metaphor of “building” (Psa 102:16; Jer 24:6; Mat 16:18) is frequently employed in Scripture,) so he makes use of the figurative term “walls,” by which he denotes the peace and prosperity of the Church; as if he had said that he would take care that Jerusalem should thrive and flourish. Yet it ought to be observed that the term “walls” denotes proper order of policy and discipline, of which God declares that he will be the ceaseless and unwearied guardian. Let us remember that this prophecy was accomplished during that frightful desolation, when the “walls” of Jerusalem, which were a lively image of the Church, had been cast down, the temple overthrown, and government overtumed, and, in a word, when everything had been destroyed and nearly razed to the foundation; for immediately afterwards he promises that they shall all be restored.

Calvin: Isa 49:17 - Thy builders hasten 17.Thy builders hasten He affirms what had been briefly stated in the former verse; for it might have been thought that there was no ground for what ...

17.Thy builders hasten He affirms what had been briefly stated in the former verse; for it might have been thought that there was no ground for what he had now asserted about the unceasing care which God takes of his Church and of her walls, which he permits to be razed to their foundations, and therefore he adds the explanation, that it will indeed be thrown down, but will afterwards be built anew. Builders. From this word we may learn what is the true method of restoring the Church, namely, if the Lord send “builders, 7 to rear it, and next if he drive far away the destroyers who demolish it. Though God could, by himself, and without the aid of men, rebuild the Church, yet he deigns to employ their hands; and although he alone, by the secret influence of his Spirit, completes this whole building, yet he blesses their labor, that it may not be useless. From him, therefore, we ought to ask and look for builders; for it belongs to him to render them “sufficient,” as Paul also informs us, (2Co 3:5,) and to assign to each his department.

We ought also to pray not only that he may “send forth laborers into his harvest,” (Mat 9:38,) but that he may recruit their strength and efficaciously direct them, so that they may not labor in vain; for, when the doctrine of the Gospel is preached with any advantage, it arises from his extraordinary goodness. But even this would not be enough, if he did not “drive destroyers far away;” for Satan, by innumerable arts, invades and assails the Church, and is in no want of servants and attendants, who direct their whole energy to destroy, or spoil, or hinder the Lord’s building. We ought, therefore, constantly to entreat that he would ward off their attacks; and if the result be not entirely according to our expectations, let us blame our own sins and ingratitude; for the Lord was ready to bestow those blessings abundantly upon us.

Calvin: Isa 49:18 - Lift up thine eyes round about // All are gathered together // Thou shalt be clothed as with an ornament // I live, saith Jehovah 18.Lift up thine eyes round about He arouses the Church to survey this magnificent work, as if it were actually before her eyes, and to behold the mu...

18.Lift up thine eyes round about He arouses the Church to survey this magnificent work, as if it were actually before her eyes, and to behold the multitudes of men who shall flock into it from every quarter. Now, as this assemblage must have encouraged godly hearts during the dispersion, so they who were eye-witnesses must have been excited to gratitude. This shews clearly that this prediction was useful at both periods, not only while the event was still concealed by hope, but when it had been actually accomplished. Though he speaks to the whole Church at large, yet this discourse relates also to individuals, that all with one accord, and each person separately, may embrace these promises.

When he bids them “lift up their eyes,” he means that the reason why we are so much cast down is, that we do not examine the Lord’s work with due attention, but have a vail placed, as it were, before our eyes, to hinder us from seeing what lies at our feet. In consequence of this, we do not cherish any confidence, but in adversity are almost overwhelmed by despair. And if these things are said to the whole Church, let every man consider in his own heart how far he is chargeable with this vice, and let him forthwith arouse and awaken himself to behold the works of the Lord, that he may rely with all his heart on his promises.

All are gathered together When he says that the elect of the Church are “gathered together,” he means that, in order to their becoming one body under Christ, and, as it were, “one fold under one shepherd,” (Joh 10:16,) they must be, if we may so express it, “gathered” into one bosom. Christ reckons and treats as his followers none but those who are joined in one body by unity of faith. Whoever then shall choose to be regarded as belonging to the number of the children of God, let him be a son of the Church; for all who are separated from it will be aliens from God.

Thou shalt be clothed as with an ornament The Prophet shews what is the true ornament of the Church, namely, to have a great number of children, who are brought to her by faith and guided by the Spirit of God. This is true splendor; this is the glory of the Church, which must be filthy and ugly, ragged and dishevelled, if she have not these ornaments. Hence we see how well the Papists understand what is the true manner in which the Church ought to be adorned; for their whole attention is given to painted tables, to statues, to fine buildings, to gold, precious stones, and costly garments; that is, they give their whole attention to puppets, like children. But the true dignity of the Church is internal, so far as it consists of the gifts of the Holy Spirit, and of progressive faith and piety. Hence it follows, that she is richly provided with her ornaments, when the people, joined together by faith, are gathered into her bosom, to worship God in a proper manner.

I live, saith Jehovah 8 In order that this promise may be more certain, the Lord employs an oath, which is intended to warn us against distrust, and that, when we shall consider that her end is near, we may be certain that she shall be fully restored. And if this doctrine was ever necessary, it is especially necessary at the present time; for, wherever we tum our eyes, we meet with nothing but frightful desolation.

What then must we do, but, relying on this oath of God, struggle against despair, and not be terrified by our being inconsiderable in number, which makes us despised by the world, and not doubt that there are many of the elect, now wandering and scattered, whom God will at length assemble into his Church? And therefore we ought to encourage our hearts, and to lift up our eyes by faith, that we may extend our hope not only to a single age, but to the most distant period.

Calvin: Isa 49:19 - For thy desolate places, // And thy destroyers shall remove far away 19.For thy desolate places, he confirms by other words what we have already seen, that the change which he promised is in the hand of God, that the C...

19.For thy desolate places, he confirms by other words what we have already seen, that the change which he promised is in the hand of God, that the Church, which was for a long time waste and desolate, may speedily have many inhabitants; so that the place may be too narrow to contain them all. He employs the metaphor of a ruinous city, whose walls and houses are rebuilt, to which the citizens return in such vast numbers that its circumference must be enlarged, because its former extent cannot contain them all. Thus he means not only the return of the people from Babylon, but the restoration which was effected through Christ; that is, when the Church was spread far and wide, not only throughout Judea, but throughout the whole world.

And thy destroyers shall remove far away He adds that a garrison will be provided, if any enemies shall molest her; yea, that she shall be secure against their attacks and molestation, because God will “drive them far away.” Not that the Church shall ever enjoy perfect peace, and be secured against all the attacks of enemies; but yet God, bearing with the weakness of his people, defended them from wicked men, and restrained or warded off their attacks, so that at least the kingdom of Satan might not grow out of the ruins of the Church.

Calvin: Isa 49:20 - Shall again say in thine ears // The children of thy bereavement // Make room for me; 20.Shall again say in thine ears Isaiah continues the same subject, and, under a different metaphor, promises the restoration of the Church. He compa...

20.Shall again say in thine ears Isaiah continues the same subject, and, under a different metaphor, promises the restoration of the Church. He compares her to a widowed or rather a barren mother, in order to describe her wretched and distressful condition; for she was overwhelmed by so many distresses, that the remembrance of the nation appeared to have wholly perished. Mingled with the Babylonians,who held her captive, she had almost passed into another body. We need not wonder, therefore, if he compares her to a barren mother; for she brought forth no more children. Formerly the Jews had enjoyed high prosperity; but the kingdom was ruined, and all their strength was decayed, and, in short, their name was almost extinguished, when they were led into captivity. He therefore promises that the Church shall be purified from her filthiness, and that she who is now solitary shall regain that condition which she formerly held. And this is included in the word Again, that they may not doubt that it is in the power of God to restore what he formerly gave, though it was withdrawn for a time.

The children of thy bereavement 9 By “the children of bereavement” some suppose that orphan children are meant; but I cannot agree with this, for “bereavement” and “barrenness” refer rather to the person of the Church, and accordingly it is for the sake of amplification that he describes them to be those who, contrary to expectation, had been given to her who was bereaved and barren.

Make room for me; that is, “withdraw for my benefit.” Not that it is proper for the godly to shut out their brethren or drive them from their place; but the Prophet has borrowed from familiar language a mode of expression fitted to declare that no inconvenience shall hinder many from desiring to be admitted and to have room made for them. Now, this happened, when the Lord collected innumerable persons out of the whole world; for suddenly, and contrary to the expectation of men, the Church, which had formerly been empty, was filled; its boundaries were enlarged and extended far and wide.

Calvin: Isa 49:21 - And thou shalt say in thy heart // Who hath begotten me these? // For I was bereaved // Who then hath brought up those? 21.And thou shalt say in thy heart By these words he declares that the restoration of the Church, of which he now speaks, will be wonderful; and ther...

21.And thou shalt say in thy heart By these words he declares that the restoration of the Church, of which he now speaks, will be wonderful; and therefore he represents her as wondering and amazed on account of having been restored in a strange and unexpected manner. And truly a description of this sort is not superfluous; for, as a new offspring grows up among men every day, by which the human race is propagated, so the children of God and of the Church are born, who, “not from flesh and blood,” (Joh 1:13,) but by the secret power of God, are formed again to be new creatures. By nature we have no share in the kingdom of God; 10 and therefore, if any man contemplate this new and uncommon work, and in what manner the Church is increased and maintained, he will be constrained to wonder.

Who hath begotten me these? He shews that this astonishment will not be pretended, like expressions of this kind which frequently proceed from flatterers, but that it will come from “the heart;” for there will be good ground for wondering, that the Lord has preserved the Church amidst so great dangers, and has multiplied it by a new and unexpected offspring. Who would have thought that, at the time when the Jews were held in the greatest contempt, and were overwhelmed by every kind of reproaches and distresses, there would be any of the Gentiles who of their own accord desired to be associated with them? It was also in the highest degree improbable that the dispositions of men should be so suddenly changed as to adopt a religion which they had detested. Besides, the partition-wall which had been erected between them hindered all foreigners and uncircumcised persons from entering.

For I was bereaved (or barren) and solitary. She now explains what was the chief ground of that astonishment; namely, that formerly she brought forth no children, and was altogether destitute. Doctrine, which is the seed of spiritual life, by which the children of the Church are begotten, (1Pe 1:23,) had ceased; even the worship enjoined by the Law had been broken off; and, in short, everything that usually contributes to upholding the order of government had been taken away. Now, the Church is called bereaved or barren, not because God hath forsaken her, but because his presence is not always visible. We ourselves saw an image of that barrenness, when the Lord, in order to punish the ingratitude of men, took away his doctrine, and allowed them to wander in darkness. The Church might truly be said to be “bereaved” and “barren,” when none of her children were seen. Hence we ought to conclude how foolish the Papists are, who wish that Christ would always govern his Church so that it may never be “bereaved” or “barren;” seeing that the Lord, thougit he does not forsake the Church, yet very frequently, on account of the ingratitude of men, withdraws the tokens of his presence.

Who then hath brought up those? It is no easy matter for those who are led into captivity, and who often change their place and habitation, to “bring up” children; and when the law and the doctrine of piety no longer resounded in the temple, spiritual nourishment had almost entirely failed. But the Lord, who has no need of human aid, begets his children in an extraordinary manner, and by the astonishing power of his Spirit, and “brings them up” wherever he thinks proper; and in the fulfillment of this prediction, the Lord supplied them with nurses contrary to the expectation of all, so that it is not without reason that the Church wonders how they were reared. When we read this prophecy we are reminded that we ought not to be distressed beyond measure, if at any time we see the Church resemble a “bereaved” woman, and that we ought not to doubt that he can suddenly, or in a moment, raise up and restore her, though we perceive no means by which she can be restored.

Calvin: Isa 49:22 - Thus saith the Lord Jehovah // I will lift up my hand to the Gentiles 22.Thus saith the Lord Jehovah Isaiah confirms what he had said a little before, that the Lord would cause his Church, though for a very long time sh...

22.Thus saith the Lord Jehovah Isaiah confirms what he had said a little before, that the Lord would cause his Church, though for a very long time she had been “barren” and “bereaved,” to have an exceedingly numerous offspring, and to be constrained to wonder at her own fruitfulness; and he does so, in order to remove all doubt which might have found its way into their hearts.

I will lift up my hand to the Gentiles He declares that he will give children to the Church, not only from among the Jews, as formerly, but likewise from among “the Gentiles.” And yet he indirectly asserts that this generation shall be spiritual through the grace of adoption; for the metaphor of a banner was intended to lead believers to expect a new kind of generation, and different from that which is seen in the ordinary course of nature. The Lord must therefore set up a sign, and display his secret power through the Gospel, 11 that, out of nations who differed so widely from each other both in customs and in language, he might bring children to the Church, who should be united in the same faith, as brethren meet in their mother’s bosom.

Those who think that, by the figurative terms Hand and Banner, nothing more than the preaching of the Gospel is meant, and who set aside the power of the Spirit, are mistaken; for both ought to be united, and the efficacy of the Spirit ought not to be separated from the preaching of the Gospel, as Paul clearly shews. (2Co 3:6.) To this “hand” of God, therefore, to this “banner” we must betake ourselves, when we see that the Church is oppressed by the tyranny of wicked men. Though every effort be made to overthrow and destroy it, the “hand” of God is higher, and in vain do men oppose him. He will at length subdue and crush their obstinacy, that the Church may obtain some repose in spite of all their exertions.

When he promises that the sons of the Church shall be brought in her arms and on her shoulders, the language is metaphorical, and means that God will find no difficulty, when he shall wish to gather the Church out of her dispersion; for all the Gentiles will assist him. Although this refers, in the first instance, to the Jews who had been banished and scattered, yet it undoubtedly ought to be extended to all the elect of God, who have become partakers of the same grace.

Calvin: Isa 49:23 - And kings shall be thy nursing fathers // And shall lick the dust of thy feet // For they shall not be ashamed // I am Jehovah 23.And kings shall be thy nursing fathers After having spoken of the obedience of the Gentiles, he shews that this relates not to the common people o...

23.And kings shall be thy nursing fathers After having spoken of the obedience of the Gentiles, he shews that this relates not to the common people only, but to “kings” also. He compares “kings” to hired men who bring up the children of others, and “queens” to “nurses,” who give out their labor for hire. Why so? Because “kings” and “queens” shall supply everything that is necessary for nourishing the offspring of the Church. Having formerly driven out Christ from their dominions, they shall henceforth acknowledge him to be the supreme King: and shall render to him all honor, obedience, and worship. This took place when the Lord revealed himself to the whole world by the Gospel; for mighty kings and princes not only submitted to the yoke of Christ, but likewise contributed their riches to raise up and maintain the Church of Christ, so as to be her guardians and defenders.

Hence it ought to be observed that something remarkable is here demanded from princes, besides an ordinary profession of faith; for the Lord has bestowed on them authority and power to defend the Church and to promote the glory of God. This is indeed the duty of all; but kings, in proportion as their power is greater, ought to devote themselves to it more earnestly, and to labor in it more diligently. And this is the reason why David expressly addresses and exhorts them to “be wise, and serve the Lord, and kiss his Son.” (Psa 2:10.)

This shews how mad are the dreams of those who assert that kings cannot be Christians without laying aside that office; for those things were accomplished under Christ, when kings, who had been converted to God by the preaching of the Gospel, obtained this highest pinnacle of rank, which surpasses dominion and principality of every sort, to be “nursing-fathers” and guardians of the Church. The Papists have no other idea of kings being “nursing-fathers” of the Church than that they have left to their priests and monks very large revenues, rich possessions and prebends, on which they might fatten, like hogs in a sty. But that “nursing” aims at an object quite different from filling up those insatiable gulls. Nothing is said here about enriching the houses of those who, under false pretences, hold themselves out to be ministers of the Church, (which was nothing else than to corrupt the Church of God and to destroy it by deadly poison,) but about removing superstitions and putting an end to all wicked idolatry, about advancing the kingdom of Christ and maintaining purity of doctrine, about purging scandals and cleansing from the filth that corrupts piety and impairs the lustre of the Divine majesty.

Undoubtedly, while kings bestow careful attention on these things, they at the same time supply the pastors and ministers of the Word with all that is necessary for food and maintenance, provide for the poor and guard the Church against the disgrace of pauperism; erect schools, and appoint salaries for the teachers and board for the students; build poor-houses and hospitals, and make every other arrangement that belongs to the protection and defense of the Church. But those unnecessary and extravagant expenses for Anniversaries and Masses, for golden vessels and costly robes, which swell the pride and insolence of papists, serve only to uphold pomp and ambition, and corrupt the pure and simple “nursing” of the Church, and even choke and extinguish the seed of God, by which alone the Church lives. When we see that matters are now very different, and that “kings” are not the “nursing-fathers,” but the executioners of the Church; when, in consequence of taking away the doctrine of piety and banishing its true ministers, idle bellies, insatiable whirlpools, and messengers of Satan, are fattened, (for such are the persons to whom the princes cheerfully distribute their wealth, that is, the moisture and blood which they have sucked out of the people;) when even princes otherwise godly have less strength and firmness for defending the Word and upholding the Church; let us acknowledge that this is the reward due to our sins, and let us confess that we do not deserve to have good “nursing-fathers.” But yet, after this frightfully ruinous condition, we ought to hope for a restoration of the Church, and such a conversion of kings that they shall shew themselves to be “nursing-fathers” and protectors of believers, and shall bravely defend the doctrine of the Word.

And shall lick the dust of thy feet This passage is also tortured by the Papists in order to uphold the tyranny of their idol, as if kings and princes had no other way of proving themselves to be sincere and lawful worshippers of God than by adoring that masked prince of the Church instead of God. Thus they consider the obedience of piety to consist in kissing the Pope’s feet with deep reverence. What they ought to think of such barbarous and idolatrous worship, let them learn, first, from Peter, whose seat they boast of occupying, who would not permit such honor to be rendered to him by the centurion. (Act 10:6.) Let them, next, learn from Paul, who tore his garments, and rejected such worship with the utmost abhorrence. (Act 14:14.) What could be more absurd than to imagine that the Son of God appointed, instead of a minister of the Gospel, an object of abhorrence, some king dazzling in Persian luxury and splendor? But let us remember that the Church, so long as she is a pilgrim in this world, is subjected to the cross, that she may be humble and may be conformed to her Head; that if her foes make any cessation of their hostility, still her highest ornament and lustre is modesty. Hence it follows, that she has laid aside her own attire, when she is clothed with irreligious pride.

Here the Prophet means nothing else than the adoration by which princes bow down before God, and the obedience which they render to his Word in the Church. What we have already said must be carefully observed, that, when we speak of rendering honor to the Church, she must never be separated from the Head; for this honor and worship belongs to Christ, and, when it is bestowed on the Church, it still continues to belong undivided to him alone. By the obedience of piety kings do not profess submission, so as to bear the yoke of men, but to yield to the doctrine of Christ. Whosoever therefore rejects the ministry of the Church, and refuses to bear the yoke which God wishes to lay with his own hand on all his people, can neither have any fellowship with Christ nor be a child of God.

For they shall not be ashamed I consider אשר (asher) to be a conjunction signifying For; 12 and the clause to which it belongs is closely connected with what goes before, and has been improperly disjoined from it by some commentators. By this argument he proves that it is highly proper for princes to submit cheerfully to the government of God, and not hesitate to humble themselves before the Church; because God will not suffer those who hope in him to “be ashamed.” As if he had said, “This is a pleasant and delightful submission.”

I am Jehovah He connects his own truth with our salvation; as if he had said, that he does not wish men to acknowledge him to be true or to be God, unless he actually fulfill what he has promised. And hence we obtain inestimable advantage; for, as it is impossible that God should not continue to be the same, so the stability of our salvation, which the Prophet infers from God’s own stability, must remain unshaken.

Calvin: Isa 49:24 - Shall the prey be taken from the mighty? // Shall the captivity of the righteous 24.Shall the prey be taken from the mighty? Having solved, in the former verse, an objection which might occur to the mind of believers, he now confi...

24.Shall the prey be taken from the mighty? Having solved, in the former verse, an objection which might occur to the mind of believers, he now confirms that solution still more; for it might have been thought incredible that the Jews should be rescued out of the hands of so powerful an enemy, by whom they had been taken in fair battle and reduced to slavery, He therefore adds this question as uttered by the whole of the common people, among whom it probably flew universally from mouth to mouth; and he immediately replies, as we shall sec.

Shall the captivity of the righteous (or, the righteous captivity) be delivered? And we ought, first, to observe this metaphor, that the Church is called “the prey of the mighty” and “the captivity of the righteous,” that is, lawful captivity. He is said to be the “righteous” possessor who is the lawful possessor; just as the prey, when the war has been righteous, passes into the hands of a righteous possessor. 13 Such was the condition of the ancient people, after having been driven into captivity; for, along with their native country, they had lost their liberty, and were entirely in the power, and at the disposal, of the conqueror. And yet we ought carefully to observe this metaphor, that the Church is oppressed by the tyranny of princes, and exposed to the jaws of wolves, and nevertheless is supposed to be their “just” prey. This is, indeed, shamefully wicked; but thus were our fathers treated, and we are not more virtuous or more excellent than our fathers.

Calvin: Isa 49:25 - The prey of the tyrant shall be delivered // I will contend with him that contendeth with thee // I will save thy children 25.The prey of the tyrant shall be delivered However they may boast of having a right to govern, and glory in an empty title, the Lord declares that ...

25.The prey of the tyrant shall be delivered However they may boast of having a right to govern, and glory in an empty title, the Lord declares that they are most wicked robbers, when he threatens that he will be an avenger and will snatch their prey from them. God does not overturn just dominion; and hence it follows that the dominion which they usurped over the people of God is mere robbery and wicked tyranny. Neither their arms, nor their forces, nor their warlike preparations, shall hinder the Lord from taking out of their hands an unjust possession.

Nor does this promise relate only to outward enemies and tyrants, but also to the tyranny of Satan, from which we are rescued by the wonderful power of God. True indeed, he possesses vast power, but God is far more powerful, takes away his arms and demolishes his fortresses, that he may set us at liberty. (Mat 12:29; Luk 11:22.) If therefore we have had experience of the power of God in this respect, so much the stronger reason have we for trusting that he will undoubtedly be our deliverer, whenever our enemies shall lay us under their feet and oppress us with cruel bondage.

I will contend with him that contendeth with thee When he threatens that He will “contend” on our account, first, he reminds us to consider his power, that we may not regard the matter by human reason or by the power of men. We ought not therefore to look at what we can do or what resources we possess, but it is our duty to commit the whole matter to the disposal of God alone, who is graciously pleased to protect and defend us. Secondly, he affirms that he will be a powerful advocate, to reply to the slanders of enemies. We said, a little before, that wicked men not only are hurried along by violence and cruelty against the Church, but load her with false and calumnious charges, as if they had a right to treat her with cruelty; and therefore this consolation is highly necessary, that God will be the defender of our innocence, to scatter by his defense all the idle pretences which strengthen the audacity and fierceness of wicked men. Accordingly he again repeats, —

I will save thy children We derive great consolation from knowing that we are united with him by so close a bond that he sets himself in opposition to all who contend with us, “blesses those who bless us, and, on the other hand, curses those who curse us,” and, in short, declares that he is the enemy of our enemies. (Gen 12:3.) Hence also it ought to be observed, that, when we are restored to liberty and life, when we are not oppressed by enemies, and, in short, when we are saved, it is not a work of man; that no one may ascribe to his own industry what God commands us to expect as an extraordinary blessing from himself alone.

Calvin: Isa 49:26 - And I will feed thy oppressors with their own flesh // And all flesh shall know // The Mighty One of Jacob 26.And I will feed thy oppressors with their own flesh First, he declares what is the nature of that end which awaits the enemies of the Church, and ...

26.And I will feed thy oppressors with their own flesh First, he declares what is the nature of that end which awaits the enemies of the Church, and threatens that they shall not only be inflamed with mutual hatred, but shall likewise slay each other by mutual slaughter. And indeed it is God who drives them headlong, and rouses them to rage, so that they tum against themselves that strength which they formerly exerted against the Church, fight with each other, as the Midianites did, and bring destruction on themselves. (Jud 7:22.) The meaning amounts to this, that there will be no need of outward aid or of any preparations, when God shall determine to overtum and destroy the reprobate; because, having been struck by him with giddiness, they shall wear themselves out in mutual conflict by the insatiable rage with which they shall attack each other.

And all flesh shall know He repeats that statement which we have formerly seen, namely, that he will be acknowledged by all to be the God of Israel and the true and only God, when he shall have delivered his people from destruction; for he intended it to be a demonstration of his Divinity, that he openly manifested himself to be the Redeemer and Savior of his people.

The Mighty One of Jacob Some read the word Jacob in the vocative case: “O mighty Jacob;” but I read it in the genitive case, “of Jacob.” The Lord testifies that he is the Savior, Redeemer, and Mighty One of Israel, that they may rely with their whole heart on his defense and protection.

Defender: Isa 49:6 - for a light to the Gentiles The Father is here speaking to the Messiah, His Son. He is to be "the light of the world" (Joh 8:12), not only to Israel."

The Father is here speaking to the Messiah, His Son. He is to be "the light of the world" (Joh 8:12), not only to Israel."

Defender: Isa 49:8 - Thus saith the Lord Paul quotes and applies this passage in 2Co 6:2, stressing the urgency of belief and obedience without delay."

Paul quotes and applies this passage in 2Co 6:2, stressing the urgency of belief and obedience without delay."

Defender: Isa 49:12 - come from afar The scattered people of Israel shall be gathered back to the land in the last days (Mat 24:31).

The scattered people of Israel shall be gathered back to the land in the last days (Mat 24:31).

Defender: Isa 49:12 - land of Sinim This is possibly a reference to the Chinese in the Far East; the Chinese are a very ancient nation, settled soon after the Babel scattering."

This is possibly a reference to the Chinese in the Far East; the Chinese are a very ancient nation, settled soon after the Babel scattering."

TSK: Isa 49:1 - Listen // and hearken // The Lord Listen : Isa 41:1, Isa 42:1-4, Isa 42:12, Isa 45:22, Isa 51:5, Isa 60:9, Isa 66:19; Zep 2:11 and hearken : Isa 55:3, Isa 57:19; Eph 2:17; Heb 12:25 Th...

TSK: Isa 49:2 - he hath made // in the // made me he hath made : Isa 11:4; Psa 45:2-5; Hos 6:5; Heb 4:12; Rev 1:16, Rev 2:12, Rev 19:15 in the : Isa 42:1, Isa 51:16; Psa 91:1; Luk 23:46 made me : The ...

he hath made : Isa 11:4; Psa 45:2-5; Hos 6:5; Heb 4:12; Rev 1:16, Rev 2:12, Rev 19:15

in the : Isa 42:1, Isa 51:16; Psa 91:1; Luk 23:46

made me : The polished shaft, says Bp. Lowth, denotes the same efficacious word which is before represented by the sharp sword. The doctrine of the gospel pierced the hearts of its hearers, ""bringing into captivity every thought to the obedience of Christ.""Isa 50:4, Isa 61:1-3; Psa 45:5; Jer 1:18, Jer 15:19, Jer 15:20

TSK: Isa 49:3 - -- Isa 42:1, Isa 43:21, Isa 44:23, Isa 52:13, Isa 53:10; Zec 3:8; Mat 17:5; Luk 2:10-14; Joh 12:28, Joh 13:31, Joh 13:32, Joh 15:8, Joh 17:1, Joh 17:4; E...

TSK: Isa 49:4 - I have laboured // spent // yet // work I have laboured : Isa 65:2; Eze 3:19; Mat 17:17, Mat 23:37; Joh 1:11; Rom 10:21; Gal 4:11 spent : Lev 26:20; 2Co 12:15 yet : Isa 53:10-12; Psa 22:22-3...

TSK: Isa 49:5 - that formed // to bring // Though // Israel // yet that formed : Isa 49:1 to bring : Isa 56:8; Mat 15:24; Act 10:36; Rom 15:8 Though : etc. or, That Israel may be gathered to him, and I may, etc Israel...

that formed : Isa 49:1

to bring : Isa 56:8; Mat 15:24; Act 10:36; Rom 15:8

Though : etc. or, That Israel may be gathered to him, and I may, etc

Israel : Mat 21:37-41, Mat 23:37; Luk 19:42; 1Th 2:15, 1Th 2:16

yet : Psa 110:1-3; Mat 3:17, Mat 11:27, Mat 17:5, Mat 28:18; Joh 3:35, Joh 5:20-27; Eph 1:20-22; 1Pe 3:22

TSK: Isa 49:6 - It is a light thing that // preserved // I will also // that thou mayest It is a light thing that : or, Art thou lighter, than that, etc. 2Ki 3:18, 2Ki 20:10 preserved : or, desolations I will also : Isa 42:6, Isa 60:3; Luk...

It is a light thing that : or, Art thou lighter, than that, etc. 2Ki 3:18, 2Ki 20:10

preserved : or, desolations

I will also : Isa 42:6, Isa 60:3; Luk 2:32; Joh 1:4-9; Act 13:47, Act 26:18

that thou mayest : Isa 11:10, Isa 24:14-16, Isa 46:13, Isa 52:10; Psa 98:2, Psa 98:3; Luk 24:46, Luk 24:47

TSK: Isa 49:7 - the Redeemer // to him whom man despiseth // to a // Kings // and he the Redeemer : Isa 48:7; Rev 3:7 to him whom man despiseth : or, to him that is despised in soul, Isa 53:3; Psa 22:6-8, Psa 69:7-9, Psa 69:19; Zec 11:...

TSK: Isa 49:8 - In an // have I helped // give thee // establish // to cause In an : Psa 69:13; Joh 11:41, Joh 11:42; 2Co 6:2; Eph 1:6; Heb 5:7 have I helped : Isa 42:1, Isa 50:7-9; Act 2:24-32 give thee : Isa 42:6; Mat 26:28; ...

TSK: Isa 49:9 - to the // to them // They shall feed // high to the : Isa 42:7, Isa 61:1; Psa 69:33, Psa 102:20, Psa 107:10-16, Psa 146:7; Zec 9:11, Zec 9:12; Luk 4:18; Col 1:13; 1Pe 2:9 to them : Isa 9:2, Isa 4...

TSK: Isa 49:10 - shall not // neither // he that shall not : Mat 5:6; Joh 6:35; Rev 7:16, Rev 7:17 neither : Isa 4:6, Isa 25:4, Isa 32:2; Psa 121:5, Psa 121:6 he that : Isa 54:10; Psa 23:2-4; Jer 31:...

TSK: Isa 49:11 - -- Isa 11:16, Isa 35:8-10, Isa 40:3, Isa 40:4, Isa 43:19, Isa 57:14, Isa 62:10; Psa 107:4, Psa 107:7; Luk 3:4, Luk 3:5; Joh 14:6

TSK: Isa 49:12 - these shall these shall : Isa 2:2, Isa 2:3, Isa 11:10,Isa 11:11, Isa 43:5, Isa 43:6, Isa 60:9-14, Isa 66:19, Isa 66:20; Psa 22:27, Psa 72:10,Psa 72:11, Psa 72:17;...

TSK: Isa 49:13 - O heavens // the Lord O heavens : Isa 42:10,Isa 42:11, Isa 44:23, Isa 52:9, Isa 55:12; Psa 96:11-13, Psa 98:4-9; Luk 2:13, Luk 2:14, Luk 15:10; Rev 5:8-13, Rev 7:9-12 the L...

TSK: Isa 49:14 - The Lord // my Lord The Lord : Isa 40:27; Psa 22:1, Psa 31:22, Psa 77:6-9, Psa 89:38-46; Rom 11:1-5 my Lord : Psa 13:1; Jer 23:39; Lam 5:20

TSK: Isa 49:15 - a woman // that she should not have compassion // they may // yet a woman : 1Ki 3:26, 1Ki 3:27; Psa 103:13; Mal 3:17; Mat 7:11 that she should not have compassion : Heb. from having compassion they may : Lev 26:29; D...

a woman : 1Ki 3:26, 1Ki 3:27; Psa 103:13; Mal 3:17; Mat 7:11

that she should not have compassion : Heb. from having compassion

they may : Lev 26:29; Deu 28:56, Deu 28:57; 2Ki 6:28, 2Ki 6:29, 2Ki 11:1, 2Ki 11:2; Lam 4:3, Lam 4:10; Rom 1:31

yet : Isa 44:21; Jer 31:20; Hos 11:1; Rom 11:28, Rom 11:29

TSK: Isa 49:16 - I have // thy walls I have : Exo 13:9; Son 8:6; Jer 22:24; Hag 2:23 thy walls : Isa 26:1, Isa 54:12, Isa 60:18; Rev 21:10-21

TSK: Isa 49:17 - children // haste // thy destroyers children : Isa 51:18-20, Isa 62:5; Ezr 1:5; Neh 2:4-9, Neh 2:17; Eze 28:24 haste : Or, by a slight change of the points, ""Thy builders shall make has...

children : Isa 51:18-20, Isa 62:5; Ezr 1:5; Neh 2:4-9, Neh 2:17; Eze 28:24

haste : Or, by a slight change of the points, ""Thy builders shall make haste:""those appointed to build the city and walls of Zion, shall speedily begin and accomplish the work.

thy destroyers : Isa 49:19, Isa 51:13, Isa 51:22, Isa 51:23

TSK: Isa 49:18 - Lift up // all these // As I live // thou shalt // as a bride // doeth Lift up : Isa 60:4; Gen 13:14; Mat 13:41, Mat 13:42; Rev 22:15 all these : Isa 49:12, Isa 49:22, Isa 43:5, Isa 43:6, Isa 54:1-3, Isa 60:5-11, Isa 66:1...

Lift up : Isa 60:4; Gen 13:14; Mat 13:41, Mat 13:42; Rev 22:15

all these : Isa 49:12, Isa 49:22, Isa 43:5, Isa 43:6, Isa 54:1-3, Isa 60:5-11, Isa 66:12, Isa 66:13, Isa 66:20; Jer 31:8; Gal 3:28, Gal 3:29

As I live : Isa 54:9; Gen 22:16; Heb 6:13-18

thou shalt : Isa 61:10; Pro 17:6

as a bride : Jer 2:32; Rev 21:2

doeth : Bp. Lowth adds from the LXX, ""her jewels.""

TSK: Isa 49:19 - thy waste // they that thy waste : Isa 49:8, Isa 51:3, Isa 54:1, Isa 54:2; Jer 30:18, Jer 30:19, Jer 33:10,Jer 33:11; Eze 36:9-15; Hos 1:10,Hos 1:11; Zec 2:4, Zec 2:11, Zec ...

TSK: Isa 49:20 - children // The place children : Isa 60:4; Hos 1:10; Mat 3:9; Gal 4:26-28 The place : Isa 51:3, Isa 54:1, Isa 54:2; Jos 17:14-16; 2Ki 6:1

TSK: Isa 49:21 - seeing // am desolate seeing : Jer 31:15-17; Rom 11:11-17, Rom 11:24; Gal 3:29, Gal 4:26-29 am desolate : Isa 3:26, Isa 51:17-20, Isa 52:2, Isa 54:3-8, Isa 60:15, Isa 62:4,...

TSK: Isa 49:22 - Behold // arms Behold : Isa 49:12, Isa 2:2, Isa 2:3, Isa 11:10,Isa 11:11, Isa 42:1-4, Isa 60:3-11, Isa 66:20; Psa 22:27, Psa 67:4-7; Psa 72:8, Psa 72:17, Psa 86:9; M...

TSK: Isa 49:23 - kings // nursing fathers // queens // bow // lick up // for they kings : Cyrus, Darius, Artaxerxes, and other Persian monarchs, as well as Alexander the Great, and his successors, particularly Demetrius, conferred m...

kings : Cyrus, Darius, Artaxerxes, and other Persian monarchs, as well as Alexander the Great, and his successors, particularly Demetrius, conferred many privileges and immunities on the Jewish people, and were munificent benefactors to their temple. But the prophecy was more remarkably and fully fulfilled in the favour which Constantine the Great, and other Christian princes and princesses from his time to the present day, have shewn to the church of Christ; though it cannot be disputed, that the grand and signal accomplishment of these predictions is yet future. Isa 49:7, Isa 52:15, Isa 60:3, Isa 60:10,Isa 60:11, Isa 60:16, Isa 62:2; Ezr 1:2-4, Ezr 6:7-12, 7:11-28; Neh 2:6-10; Esth. 8:1-10:3; Psa 2:10-12, Psa 68:31, Psa 72:10,Psa 72:11, Psa 138:4; Rev 21:24-26

nursing fathers : Heb. nourishers, Num 11:12

queens : Heb. princesses

bow : Isa 45:14, Isa 60:14; Gen 43:26; Psa 72:9; Rev 3:9

lick up : Mic 7:17

for they : Isa 25:9, Isa 64:4; Psa 25:3, Psa 34:22, Psa 69:6; Rom 5:5, Rom 9:33, Rom 10:11; 1Pe 2:6

TSK: Isa 49:24 - Shall // prey // lawful captive Shall : Eze 37:3, Eze 37:11 prey : Isa 42:22, Isa 53:12; Psa 124:6, Psa 124:7, Psa 126:1-3; Mat 12:29; Luk 11:21, Luk 11:22 lawful captive : Heb. capt...

TSK: Isa 49:25 - Even // captives // I will contend // I will save Even : Isa 10:27, Isa 52:2-5; Jer 29:10, Jer 50:17-19, Jer 50:33, Jer 50:34; Zec 9:11; Heb 2:14, Heb 2:15; 1Jo 3:8 captives : Heb. captivity I will co...

TSK: Isa 49:26 - I will feed // drunken // sweet wine // and all I will feed : Isa 9:20; Jdg 7:22 drunken : Rev 14:20, Rev 16:6, Rev 17:6 sweet wine : or, new wine and all : Isa 41:14-20, Isa 45:6, Isa 60:16; Psa 9:...

I will feed : Isa 9:20; Jdg 7:22

drunken : Rev 14:20, Rev 16:6, Rev 17:6

sweet wine : or, new wine

and all : Isa 41:14-20, Isa 45:6, Isa 60:16; Psa 9:16, Psa 58:10,Psa 58:11, Psa 83:18; Eze 39:7; Rev 15:3, Rev 15:4

kecilkan semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per Ayat)

Poole: Isa 49:1 - Listen, O isles // Unto me // Hearken, ye people, from far // The Lord hath called me from the womb // Made mention of my name Listen, O isles God having in the last words secretly signified the wickedness of the Jewish nation, after so glorious a deliverance, and foreseeing...

Listen, O isles God having in the last words secretly signified the wickedness of the Jewish nation, after so glorious a deliverance, and foreseeing that, for their wickedness, he should cast them off, he here turneth his speech to the nations of the Gentiles, who are frequently described in this prophecy and elsewhere under the title of isles , as hath been formerly noted, and inviteth them to hearken to those counsels and doctrines which the Jews would reject.

Unto me unto Christ; for it is apparent from Isa 49:6 , and other passages of this chapter, that Isaiah speaks these words ill the name of Christ, by whose Spirit they were dictated to him, 1Pe 1:11 , and unto whom alone they belong, as we shall see. So this chapter is a prophecy of Christ, which also is very proper and seasonable in this place. The prophet having at large prophesied of the deliverance of the Jews out of Babylon, he now proceeds further, and prophesieth of the redemption of the world by Christ, of which that deliverance out of Babylon was a type and forerunner.

Hearken, ye people, from far which live in countries far from Judea, now the only place of God’ s special presence and worship. It is evident from the foregoing clause, and many other passages following, that he speaks of distance of place, not of time.

The Lord hath called me from the womb: this or the like expression is used of Jeremiah, Isa 1:5 , and of Paul, Gal 1:15 ; but it was far more eminently true of Christ, who, as he was chosen to this great office of redemption from eternity, so he was separated and called to it before he was born, being both conceived and sanctified by the Holy Ghost in his mother’ s womb, and sent into the world upon this errand; of which see Mat 1:21 Luk 1:31 , &c.; it. 11, &c.

Made mention of my name called by my name, and by such a name as signified my office and work, in the places now mentioned.

Poole: Isa 49:2 - He hath made my mouth like a sharp sword // In the shadow of his hand hath he hid me // Made me a polished shaft // Quiver He hath made my mouth like a sharp sword as he made me the great Teacher of his church and of the world, so he assisted me by his Spirit, and made my...

He hath made my mouth like a sharp sword as he made me the great Teacher of his church and of the world, so he assisted me by his Spirit, and made my word or doctrine quick and powerful, and sharper than any two-edged sword , &c., as it is said to be, Heb 4:12 , killing men’ s lusts, convincing, humbling, and converting their souls; and mighty to the pulling down of strong holds, and every high thing that exalteth itself against the knowledge of God, and bringing into captivity every thought to the obedience of Christ , as we read, 2Co 10:4,5 .

In the shadow of his hand hath he hid me he will protect me by his power from all mine enemies, until I have finished the work for which he sent me.

Made me a polished shaft like an arrow, whose point is bright and polished; which therefore pierceth deeper. This metaphor signifies the same thing with the former, Christ’ s piercing of men’ s hearts by his word and Spirit.

Quiver where arrows are hid and kept. The quiver signifies the same thing with the shadow in the foregoing clause, even God’ s powerful and gracious protection of him from dangers and mischiefs.

Poole: Isa 49:3 - Thou art my servant unto // in whom I will glorify myself by thee As the name of David is sometimes given to his successors, 1Ki 12:16 , and particularly to Christ, Jer 30:9 Eze 34:23 Hos 3:5 , and Jacob is called,...

As the name of David is sometimes given to his successors, 1Ki 12:16 , and particularly to Christ, Jer 30:9 Eze 34:23 Hos 3:5 , and Jacob is called, as many think, by the name of his grandfather, Abraham, Act 7:16 , and the name of Isaac is given to his posterity, Amo 7:9 ; so here the name of Israel may not unfitly be given to Christ, not only because he descended from his loins, but also because he was the true and the great Israel, who, in a more eminent manner, prevailed with God, that name signifies, of whom Jacob, who was first called Israel, was but a type. And as the name of Christ, the Head, is sometimes given to the body, the church, as 1Co 12:12 ; so it is not strange if, on the contrary, the name of Israel, which properly belongs to the church, be given to Christ the Head of it. But this word may be otherwise rendered, being joined either,

1. With the foregoing words,

Thou art my servant unto or in , or

for Israel i.e. to bring them back unto me, from whom they have revolted; or,

2. With the following words; it is Israel,

in whom I will glorify myself by thee

Poole: Isa 49:4 - Then I said // My judgment Then I said by way of objection. Lord, thou sayest thou wilt be glorified by my ministry; but I find it otherwise. I have laboured in vain, I have s...

Then I said by way of objection. Lord, thou sayest thou wilt be glorified by my ministry; but I find it otherwise. I have laboured in vain, I have spent my strength for nought , without any considerable fruit of my word and works among the Israelites.

My judgment my right, the reward which by his promise and my purchase is my right. Judgment is oft put for that which is just or right , as Exo 23:6 Job 8:3 , and in many other places. And so this clause agrees with the next; and the sense of both is this; Though I see no fruit of my labour among the Jews, and meet with nothing but contempt, and reproach, and ill usage from them; yet God sees my fidelity and diligence in my work, and he will give judgment for me, and my reward is laid up with and by him, which he will give me in due time.

Poole: Isa 49:5 - To bring Jacob again to him // Though Israel be not gathered // Yet shall I be glorious in the eyes of the Lord // My God shall be my strength To bring Jacob again to him to convert the wicked and apostate Israelites unto God. Though Israel be not gathered not brought home to God by my min...

To bring Jacob again to him to convert the wicked and apostate Israelites unto God.

Though Israel be not gathered not brought home to God by my ministry. This word implies that the Israelites were divided and scattered from God, and divided among themselves, as they were in a high degree when Christ came into the world, and turned every one to his own way, as is said, Isa 53:6 , and therefore needed to be gathered. Either it is a metaphor from wandering sheep, Which the good shepherd diligently seeketh, and bringeth home to the fold; or it is an allusion to the state of the Israelites, who either now were, or shortly were to be, dispersed into several parts of the world, from whence God had promised to gather them, and bring them into their own land, and unto his temple, Isa 43:5,6 , and elsewhere. The sense is, Though Israel, God’ s own and only people, reject me, which will be an occasion of great wonder and scandal.

Yet shall I be glorious in the eyes of the Lord God will not despise me for the unsuccessfulness of my labours, but will honour and glorify me, both with himself and in the face of the world, in crowning my endeavours with glorious success among other people.

My God shall be my strength to support and strengthen me under this and all other discouragements and difficulties in the discharge of mine office.

Poole: Isa 49:6 - He // It is a light thing // To raise up the tribes of Jacob // I will also give thee for a light to the Gentiles, that thou mayest be my salvation He the Lord, expressed both in the foregoing and following verses. It is a light thing this is but a small favour in comparison of what follows. T...

He the Lord, expressed both in the foregoing and following verses.

It is a light thing this is but a small favour in comparison of what follows.

To raise up the tribes of Jacob that remnant of them which shall survive all their calamities and desolations.

I will also give thee for a light to the Gentiles, that thou mayest be my salvation I will make thy labour effectual for the illumination, and conversion, and salvation of the Gentiles in all the parts of the world; which cannot be said of Isaiah with any truth or colour, and therefore must be understood of Christ, by whom this was literally and fully accomplished. By my salvation he means the great instrument and author of that eternal salvation which I will give to the Gentiles.

Poole: Isa 49:7 - His Holy One // To him whom man despiseth // a servant of rulers // Kings shall see // and arise // Because of the Lord that is faithful // giving unto thee the heathen for thine inheritance, and the uttermost parts of the earth for thy possession // He shall choose thee His Holy One the Holy One of Israel, as he is frequently called. To him whom man despiseth to Christ, to whom, as he was in the days of his flesh, ...

His Holy One the Holy One of Israel, as he is frequently called.

To him whom man despiseth to Christ, to whom, as he was in the days of his flesh, this description doth most truly and fully agree, being the same in effect with that, Isa 53:3 ; for men, both Jews and Gentiles among whom he lived, did despise him from their very hearts and souls, as is here implied; and the whole nation of which he was a member, and among whom he conversed and preached, abhorred both his person and his doctrine; and he was so far from being a great temporal monarch, as the Jews vainly imagined, that he came in the form of a servant, and was

a servant of rulers professing subjection and laying tribute unto Caesar, Mat 17:24,25 22:21 , and being treated by the rulers, both of the Jews and the Romans, like a servant, being despitefully used and crucified, which was the proper punishment of servants.

Kings shall see: though for a time thou shalt be despised, yet after a while thou shalt be advanced to such royal majesty and glory, that kings shall look upon thee with admiration and reverence,

and arise from their seats in token of reverence, as was usual, Lev 19:32 Jud 3:20 Job 29:8 , or to worship thee, as the next clause explains it:

shall see and arise may be put for when they see thee they shall arise to thee; which is a common Hebraism.

Because of the Lord that is faithful because God shall make good his promises to thee concerning the raising thee from the dead, and concerning the effusion of his Spirit upon thy disciples, by whose assistance they shall preach most powerfully, and confirm their doctrine by evident and glorious miracles, and concerning the

giving unto thee the heathen for thine inheritance, and the uttermost parts of the earth for thy possession as he promised, Psa 2:8 . These and such-like considerations were the great motives which prevailed with the princes and people of the Gentiles to receive thee as the true Messiah and Saviour of the world.

He shall choose thee: and although thou shalt be rejected by thine own people, and refused by their builders or rulers, as was prophesied, Psa 118:22 , and for a time and in some respects forsaken by God himself, Mat 27:46 ; yet God will return to thee and choose thee again, and manifest unto the world, that thou, and thou only, art the person whom God hath chosen to be the Redeemer of mankind, and whom, in spite of all opposition, he will make the Head-stone of the corner . For the phrase, See Poole "Isa 48:10" . But these words are well rendered by others, who will choose or hath chosen thee , the conjunction and being put for the pronoun relative, as Isa 44:14 , and in many other places, as hath been observed before.

Poole: Isa 49:8 - Thus saith the Lord // In a day of salvation // I will preserve thee // Give thee for a covenant // To establish the earth // To cause to inherit the desolate heritages Thus saith the Lord God the Father, unto Christ, In an acceptable time , Heb. In a time of good-will ; in that time when I shall have, and in a spe...

Thus saith the Lord God the Father, unto Christ, In an acceptable time , Heb. In a time of good-will ; in that time when I shall have, and in a special manner manifest, my good-will unto the sons of men; in the day of my grace, and of man s salvation, as this phrase is explained in the next clause; in the time of the gospel, which is the time of God’ s good-will towards men , as the host of heaven declared at the birth of Christ, Luk 2:14 ; In the days of thy flesh, when thou didst offer up prayers and supplications with strong crying and tears unto him that was able to save thee from death , as we read, Heb 5:7 , which text is a good comment upon this place. Heard thee ; though not so as to deliver thee from death and from the sense of my wrath, yet so as to keep thee from sinking under these burdens, and so as thou shouldst not be holden under the pains or power of death , Act 2:24 , and so as to crown thee with glory and honour, and a blessed success of all thy labours and sufferings.

In a day of salvation in the time of grace and of the gospel, which I have appointed for the working out of man’ s salvation by thee.

I will preserve thee upon earth till thy work be finished, and unto that eternal kingdom and glory which is prepared for thee.

Give thee for a covenant to be the Mediator and Surety of that covenant , which is made between me and them; as Christ is called, Heb 7:22 8:6 ; to renew and confirm the covenant , which the Messiah is said to do, Dan 9:27 , by his own blood, by which God and men are reconciled and united one to the other. And therefore he may well be called the covenant by a known metonymy, which is very usual in such eases, as upon the same account circumcision, the sign of the covenant, is called God’ s covenant , Gen 17:10 , and the paschal lamb is called the passover , Exo 12:11 , and the sacramental cup is called the new testament, Luk 22:20 , and the communion of the blood of Christ , 1Co 10:16 . Of the people ; indefinitely of all my people, not only Jews, but also the Gentiles, as may be gathered from the context, and by comparing this place with Isa 42:6 , where the same phrase is used; from both which places it is most manifest that the Messiah is designed, and not Isaiah, to whom this and divers other phrases here used cannot be ascribed without great force.

To establish the earth to compose and settle the earth, and the inhabitants thereof, by making peace between God and men, and between Jews and Gentiles, and by establishing truth, and righteousness, and holiness upon earth, and by subduing those lusts and passions which are the great disturbers of human society; which was the design of God in sending, and of Christ in coming into the world.

To cause to inherit the desolate heritages that desolate places may be repaired and repossessed. That Christ may possess the heathen, according to Psa 2:8 , who were in a spiritual sense in a most desolate and forlorn condition.

Poole: Isa 49:9 - That thou mayest say // Go forth // They shall feed in the ways, and their pastures shall be in all high places That thou mayest say to wit, with power and effect, as when God said, Let there be light , &c. To the prisoners ; to the Gentiles, who are fast bou...

That thou mayest say to wit, with power and effect, as when God said, Let there be light , &c. To the prisoners ; to the Gentiles, who are fast bound by the cords of their sins, and taken captive by the devil at his will, as this same phrase is understood, Isa 42:7 .

Go forth come forth to the light, receive Divine illumination and consolation.

They shall feed in the ways, and their pastures shall be in all high places they shall have abundant provision in all places, yea, even in those which commonly are barren and unfruitful, and such are both common roads and high grounds.

Poole: Isa 49:10 - They shall not hunger nor thirst, neither shall the heat nor sun smite them // He that hath mercy on them shall lead them They shall not hunger nor thirst, neither shall the heat nor sun smite them they shall be supplied with all good and necessary things, and kept from ...

They shall not hunger nor thirst, neither shall the heat nor sun smite them they shall be supplied with all good and necessary things, and kept from all evil occurrents.

He that hath mercy on them shall lead them God who hath magnified his mercy to them will conduct them with safety and comfort.

Poole: Isa 49:11 - -- I will remove all hinderances, and prepare the way for them, by levelling high grounds, and raising low grounds; of which see on Isa 40:3,4 .

I will remove all hinderances, and prepare the way for them, by levelling high grounds, and raising low grounds; of which see on Isa 40:3,4 .

Poole: Isa 49:12 - These shall come from far // From the north and from the west // From the land of Sinim These shall come from far my people shall be called and gathered even from the most remote parts of the earth. He speaks here, and in many other plac...

These shall come from far my people shall be called and gathered even from the most remote parts of the earth. He speaks here, and in many other places, of the conversion of the Gentiles, with allusion to that work of gathering and bringing back the Jews from all parts where they were dispersed into their own land.

From the north and from the west from the several parts of the world; which are here synecdochically expressed, as they are in many other places.

From the land of Sinim either of the Sinites, as they are called, Gen 10:17 , who dwelt about the wilderness of Sin, which was southward from Judea; or of Sin, a famous city of Egypt, called the strength of Egypt , which may be synecdochically put for all Egypt, and that for all southern parts. And so he here mentions the several quarters of the world, where the generality of the Jews were dispersed; the north , which is every where named as the chief place of their banishment and dispersion, as Jer 16:15 31:8 , and elsewhere; the west , the western countries and islands; and the south.

Poole: Isa 49:13 - The Lord hath comforted his people The Lord hath comforted his people God hath now sent that long-desired consolation of Israel.

The Lord hath comforted his people God hath now sent that long-desired consolation of Israel.

Poole: Isa 49:14 - -- This is an objection against all these glorious predictions and promises hitherto mentioned. How can these things be true, when the condition of God...

This is an objection against all these glorious predictions and promises hitherto mentioned. How can these things be true, when the condition of God’ s church is now so sad and desperate? as it was when the Jews were captives in Babylon, in which the prophet here supposeth them to be.

Poole: Isa 49:15 - -- Earthly parents sometimes are so unnatural and monstrous; but do not entertain such unworthy thoughts of me. I will remember thee effectually, to br...

Earthly parents sometimes are so unnatural and monstrous; but do not entertain such unworthy thoughts of me. I will remember thee effectually, to bring thee out of Babylon, and, which is infinitely greater, to send my Son into the world to work out eternal redemption for thee.

Poole: Isa 49:16 - I have graven thee upon the palms of my hands // Thy walls are continually before me I have graven thee upon the palms of my hands mine eye and heart is constantly upon thee. He alludes to the common practice of men, who use to put si...

I have graven thee upon the palms of my hands mine eye and heart is constantly upon thee. He alludes to the common practice of men, who use to put signs and memorials upon their hands or fingers of such things as they dearly affect, and would remember. See Exo 13:9 Deu 6:8 Pro 6:21 Son 8:6 Jer 22:24 .

Thy walls are continually before me my thoughts run continually upon the walls of Jerusalem, which are now broken down, that I may repair them as soon as ever the set time cometh, and then proceed to do far greater things for thee.

Poole: Isa 49:17 - Thy children // Shall go forth of thee Thy children or, as others render it, thy builders ; which is favoured by the next clause, where the destroyers are opposed to them. Howsoever, the ...

Thy children or, as others render it, thy builders ; which is favoured by the next clause, where the destroyers are opposed to them. Howsoever, the sense is the same; for her children were her builders, as we read in Ezra and Nehemiah.

Shall go forth of thee shall be separated and driven from among thee, and so shall neither hinder nor annoy thee.

Poole: Isa 49:18 - All these // Come to thee // As with an ornament All these to wit, the Gentiles, as sufficiently appeareth from what hath been already said, and from that which followeth. The sense is, Thy church s...

All these to wit, the Gentiles, as sufficiently appeareth from what hath been already said, and from that which followeth. The sense is, Thy church shall not only be restored and established in Jerusalem, but it shall be vastly enlarged and adorned by the accession of the Gentiles to it.

Come to thee to receive instruction from thee, and to be incorporated with thee into one and the same church.

As with an ornament they shall not be a burden, as the Gentiles formerly were when they mixed themselves with the Jews; but an ornament, in respect of those excellent gifts and graces wherewith they shall enrich and honour thy church.

Poole: Isa 49:19 - Thy waste and thy desolate places // The land of thy destruction Thy waste and thy desolate places thy own land, which is now waste and desolate, and whereof divers parts lay formerly waste and desolate for want of...

Thy waste and thy desolate places thy own land, which is now waste and desolate, and whereof divers parts lay formerly waste and desolate for want of people to possess and manage them.

The land of thy destruction or rather, thy land of destruction ; so called because it is devoted and shall be exposed to destruction. Shall be far away, to wit, from thee.

Poole: Isa 49:20 - The children which thou shalt have, after thou hast lost the other // Shall say again The children which thou shalt have, after thou hast lost the other Heb. The children of thine orbity or barren and childless state . Those children ...

The children which thou shalt have, after thou hast lost the other Heb. The children of thine orbity or barren and childless state . Those children which thou shalt have when thou art grown past the ordinary age and state of childbearing, as Sarah was made the mother of a most numerous posterity; . to which he seems here to allude. Those Gentiles which shall be begotten by thee, to wit, by the ministry of thy children, Christ and his apostles, when thou shalt be deprived of thine own natural children, when thou shalt become barren and unfruitful as to conversion of natural Jews, when the generality of the Jews shall cut themselves off from God, and from his true church, by their apostacy from God, and by their unbelief and obstinate refusal of their Messiah.

Shall say again or rather,

shall yet say though for the present it be otherwise.

Poole: Isa 49:21 - Then shalt thou say // Who hath begotten me these? // Seeing I have lost my children // A captive, and removing to and fro Then shalt thou say not without admiration, Who hath begotten me these? whence or by whom have I this numberless issue? Seeing I have lost my chil...

Then shalt thou say not without admiration,

Who hath begotten me these? whence or by whom have I this numberless issue?

Seeing I have lost my children seeing it is not long since that I was in a manner left childless. Am desolate ; without a husband, being forsaken by God, who formerly owned himself for my Husband , Isa 54:5 Jer 31:32 , and elsewhere.

A captive, and removing to and fro which condition is in many respects a great impediment to the procreation of children. Who hath brought up these? the same thing repeated again to express the miraculousness of this work, and the great surprisal of the Jews at it; which showeth that he speaks of the conversion of the Gentiles.

Poole: Isa 49:22 - I will lift up mine hand // Set up my standard // In their arms // Thy daughters shall be carried upon their shoulders I will lift up mine hand I will call them to me, and command them to do this work, as men commonly signify their calls and commands by this gesture. ...

I will lift up mine hand I will call them to me, and command them to do this work, as men commonly signify their calls and commands by this gesture.

Set up my standard as generals do to gather their forces together. See Poole "Isa 11:12" . To the people ; unto thee, or to thy church and people. Shall bring thy sons ; those which shall be thine, if not by natural generation, yet by adoption, that shall own God for their Father, and Jerusalem for their mother.

In their arms with great care and tenderness, as nurses carry young infants. The sense is, Even the heathen shall contribute to the increase and preservation of those children which shall be begotten to thee.

Thy daughters shall be carried upon their shoulders as sick or infirm persons used to be carried.. See Mar 2:3 Luk 15:5 .

Poole: Isa 49:23 - Kings shall be thy nursing fathers, and their queens thy nursing mothers // They shall bow down to thee with their face toward the earth, and lick up the dust of thy feet // They shall not be ashamed that wait for me Kings shall be thy nursing fathers, and their queens thy nursing mothers kings and queens shall have a sincere affection and tender regard unto thee ...

Kings shall be thy nursing fathers, and their queens thy nursing mothers kings and queens shall have a sincere affection and tender regard unto thee and thy children, which was in some sort fulfilled by Cyrus, Ahasuerus, and some few others of the Persian kings or queens, but much more truly and fully by those many kings and emperors of the Gentile world, which after Christ’ s time did both themselves embrace the true religion, and also set it up in their several dominions.

They shall bow down to thee with their face toward the earth, and lick up the dust of thy feet they shall highly reverence and honour thee, and shall most humbly and readily submit themselves unto thee, which was not verified in any of the Persian kings, but only in these kings who were converted to the Christian faith and church. The expressions are borrowed from the practice of the Eastern people in their prostrations and adorations, when they bowed so low as to touch and kiss the ground, whereby they did or might seem to lick up the very dust of the ground which was about or under the feet of those whom they adored.

They shall not be ashamed that wait for me their hopes and expectations shall not be disappointed, but abundantly satisfied.

Poole: Isa 49:24 - Shall the prey be taken from the mighty? // Or the lawful captive delivered? Shall the prey be taken from the mighty? here he starteth an objection against the forementioned promises: How can God’ s church be delivered, w...

Shall the prey be taken from the mighty? here he starteth an objection against the forementioned promises: How can God’ s church be delivered, when she is become a prey to, and is in the hands of, her most potent enemies?

Or the lawful captive delivered? he who was taken captive in a just war, as God’ s people might in some sort be said to be, because God himself had delivered them into their enemy’ s hands, and that justly for their sins. So here is a double impediment to their deliverance out of their corporal and spiritual bondage; the great power of the enemy which kept them in bondage, and the justice of God, which pleads against them and against their deliverance.

Poole: Isa 49:25 - The prey of the terrible // I will contend The prey of the terrible or, of the violent ; which is opposed to the lawful captive in the foregoing verse; and it is hereby intimated, that alth...

The prey of the terrible or, of the violent ; which is opposed to the lawful captive in the foregoing verse; and it is hereby intimated, that although God was just in delivering them into captivity, yet their oppressors were guilty of injustice and violence, both in desiring and endeavouring to keep them in perpetual bondage beyond the seventy years which God had fixed, and in their cruel usage of them.

I will contend I the Almighty God will undertake thy quarrel and this work, and therefore it must necessarily be accomplished.

Poole: Isa 49:26 - I will feed them that oppress thee with their own flesh // own flesh I will feed them that oppress thee with their own flesh I will make them eat their own flesh, either through hunger, as Lev 26:29 Isa 9:20 , or throu...

I will feed them that oppress thee with their own flesh I will make them eat their own flesh, either through hunger, as Lev 26:29 Isa 9:20 , or through rage and madness. Or, I will make thine enemies to destroy one another, and that greedily and with delight, as the next clause implies. All their enemies are here represented as one body; and so when one part of them devoured another, it was their

own flesh that was destroyed.

Haydock: Isa 49:1 - Shoulders Shoulders. Thus the Syrians commonly carried children astride. (Cotovic. xiv.)

Shoulders. Thus the Syrians commonly carried children astride. (Cotovic. xiv.)

Haydock: Isa 49:1 - Give Give. This fresh discourse continues to chap. lvi. 9., relating to the Messias, who is introduced speaking to all the world, Acts xiii. 47., and 2 C...

Give. This fresh discourse continues to chap. lvi. 9., relating to the Messias, who is introduced speaking to all the world, Acts xiii. 47., and 2 Corinthians vi. 2. Some apply a part to Cyrus, Isaias, or John the Baptist, as to his figures. (Calmet) ---

The prophet has foretold the conversion of the Gentiles, as he now does, like an evangelist. (St. Jerome) ---

Many Jews will embrace the gospel at the end of time. (Worthington)

Haydock: Isa 49:2 - Sword Sword, penetrating the very soul, (Hebrews iv. 12.) and slaying the wicked, Apocalypse i. 16., and 2 Thessalonians ii. 8. Without Christ, his minist...

Sword, penetrating the very soul, (Hebrews iv. 12.) and slaying the wicked, Apocalypse i. 16., and 2 Thessalonians ii. 8. Without Christ, his ministers can apply this sword to little purpose. Cyrus cut asunder the bonds of the captives by his decree. (Calmet) ---

Grotius improperly explains all of Isaias. (Houbigant)

Haydock: Isa 49:3 - Glory Glory. In the Church, God is adored in spirit and truth. Isaias is ordered thus to address the Israelites.

Glory. In the Church, God is adored in spirit and truth. Isaias is ordered thus to address the Israelites.

Haydock: Isa 49:4 - God God. He will reward the labours of his ministers, though the people be obstinate. The prophets and our Saviour frequently complain, chap. lxv. 2., ...

God. He will reward the labours of his ministers, though the people be obstinate. The prophets and our Saviour frequently complain, chap. lxv. 2., and Mark ix. 18.

Haydock: Isa 49:5 - Will not Will not. Hebrew, Septuagint, &c., "to be gathered." (Haydock) --- The original text, independent of the Masorets, may have the sense of the Vulga...

Will not. Hebrew, Septuagint, &c., "to be gathered." (Haydock) ---

The original text, independent of the Masorets, may have the sense of the Vulgate. Yet there are other proofs of the synagogue's rejection. (Calmet) ---

Protestants, "though Israel be not gathered, yet," &c. Marginal note, or "that Israel may be gathered, and I may," &c. (Haydock)

Haydock: Isa 49:6 - Earth Earth. St. Paul, explains this of Christ, (Acts xiii.) who said, Go teach all nations, Matthew xxviii. Isaias was one of his first preachers.

Earth. St. Paul, explains this of Christ, (Acts xiii.) who said, Go teach all nations, Matthew xxviii. Isaias was one of his first preachers.

Haydock: Isa 49:7 - Despised Despised, Christ, Cyrus, or Isaias; though it refer chiefly to our Saviour.

Despised, Christ, Cyrus, or Isaias; though it refer chiefly to our Saviour.

Haydock: Isa 49:9 - Ways Ways. The captives shall find every convenience. (Calmet)

Ways. The captives shall find every convenience. (Calmet)

Haydock: Isa 49:12 - South South. Hebrew Sinim; (Haydock) China, (St. Jerome) or rather Sin, or Pelusium, and Sinai, in Egypt and Arabia. Septuagint, "Persians." (Calm...

South. Hebrew Sinim; (Haydock) China, (St. Jerome) or rather Sin, or Pelusium, and Sinai, in Egypt and Arabia. Septuagint, "Persians." (Calmet)

Haydock: Isa 49:14 - Sion Sion, the Jews, who will at last be converted in great numbers. (Houbigant)

Sion, the Jews, who will at last be converted in great numbers. (Houbigant)

Haydock: Isa 49:16 - Hands Hands, which were nailed to the cross. Septuagint, "I have delineated thy walls on my hands, and thou art before me always." (Haydock) --- The Ass...

Hands, which were nailed to the cross. Septuagint, "I have delineated thy walls on my hands, and thou art before me always." (Haydock) ---

The Assyrians wore such characters on their hands or necks. (Lucian) (Leviticus xix. 28.) (Calmet) ---

Christ will always love his Church, which is of all times and nations. (Worthington)

Haydock: Isa 49:17 - Of thee Of thee. Sanballat, &c., shall yield to Zorobabel, Nehemias, &c.

Of thee. Sanballat, &c., shall yield to Zorobabel, Nehemias, &c.

Haydock: Isa 49:19 - Inhabitants Inhabitants. The country was better peopled, (Calmet) and Jerusalem enlarged under the Machabees. (Josephus, Jewish Wars v. 6.)

Inhabitants. The country was better peopled, (Calmet) and Jerusalem enlarged under the Machabees. (Josephus, Jewish Wars v. 6.)

Haydock: Isa 49:20 - Barrenness Barrenness, of which thou complainest. He alludes to the captives who returned, and to Christian converts. (Menochius)

Barrenness, of which thou complainest. He alludes to the captives who returned, and to Christian converts. (Menochius)

Haydock: Isa 49:23 - Nurses Nurses. The Persian kings favoured the captives. The greatest monarchs bow before the prelates of the Church, (Menochius) and kiss the Pope's toe. ...

Nurses. The Persian kings favoured the captives. The greatest monarchs bow before the prelates of the Church, (Menochius) and kiss the Pope's toe. They venerate relics, (Haydock) and greatly enrich the Church. (Calmet)

Haydock: Isa 49:24 - Strong // Mighty Strong. Can I force the Babylonians to yield? Surely, and the devil also, Luke xi. 21. --- Mighty. Hebrew, "just," in lawful war. Septuagint, "...

Strong. Can I force the Babylonians to yield? Surely, and the devil also, Luke xi. 21. ---

Mighty. Hebrew, "just," in lawful war. Septuagint, "unjustly."

Haydock: Isa 49:26 - Flesh Flesh. They shall attack one another. (Calmet) --- Neriglissor slew Evil-merodac. (Berosus, apud Josephus, contra Apion i.) --- Gobrias and Gada...

Flesh. They shall attack one another. (Calmet) ---

Neriglissor slew Evil-merodac. (Berosus, apud Josephus, contra Apion i.) ---

Gobrias and Gadatas betrayed and killed Baltassar. (Xenophon iv. 5, 7.) (Calmet) ---

In their fury they shall tear their own flesh. (Menochius)

Gill: Isa 49:1 - Listen, O isles, unto me // and hearken, ye people, from far // the Lord hath called me from the womb // from the bowels of my mother hath he made mention of my name Listen, O isles, unto me,.... These are not the words of Cyrus, as Lyra mentions; nor of the Prophet Isaiah, as Aben Ezra, Kimchi, and other Jewish wr...

Listen, O isles, unto me,.... These are not the words of Cyrus, as Lyra mentions; nor of the Prophet Isaiah, as Aben Ezra, Kimchi, and other Jewish writers think; but of Christ, calling upon the inhabitants of the isles to hearken to him; by whom are meant the inhabitants of islands properly so called, as ours of Great Britain, and may be chiefly designed, being a place where the Gospel of Christ came early, and has been long; or all such that dwell in countries beyond the sea, it being usual with the Jews to call all such countries isles that were beyond sea to them; Christ is the great Prophet of his church, and is alone to be hearkened unto, and in all things, Mat 17:5,

and hearken, ye people, from far; that were afar off from the land of Judea, as well as afar off from God and Christ, and the knowledge of him, and of righteousness and salvation by him; the Gentile nations are meant; see Eph 2:12, for this is to be understood of kingdoms afar off, as the Targum paraphrases it; and not of distant and future things, to be accomplished hereafter, as Aben Ezra; taking this to be the subject they are required to hearken to, and not as descriptive of persons that are to hearken:

the Lord hath called me from the womb; to the office of a Mediator; to be Prophet, Priest, and King; to be the Saviour and Redeemer of men; he did not assume this to himself, but was called of God his Father, Heb 5:4, and that not only from the womb of his mother Mary, or as soon as he was conceived and born of her; but from the womb of eternity, from the womb of eternal purposes and decrees; for he was set forth, or foreordained in the purposes of God, to be the propitiation for sin; and was predestinated to be the Redeemer before the foundation of the world, even before he had a being in this world as man. So the Targum,

"the Lord, before I was, appointed me;''

he prepared a body for him, and appointed him to be his salvation. The Syriac version join, the words "from far" to this clause, as do the Septuagint and Arabic versions, contrary to the accents, and renders them, "of a long time the Lord hath called me, from the womb"; even from eternity:

from the bowels of my mother hath he made mention of my name; Jarchi interprets this of Isaiah, whose name was fixed and given him by the Lord, while he was in his mother's bowels, signifying that he should prophesy of salvation and comfort; but it is much better to understand it of Christ, whose name Jesus, a Saviour, was made mention of by the Lord, while he was in his mother's womb, and before he was born, Mat 1:20, for the words may be rendered, "before the womb, and before the bowels of my mother" r; that is, before he was in them.

Gill: Isa 49:2 - And he hath made my mouth like a sharp sword // and made me a polished shaft // in his quiver hath he hid me And he hath made my mouth like a sharp sword,.... Or, "he hath put his words in my mouth as a sharp sword,'' as the Targum; namely, the sword of...

And he hath made my mouth like a sharp sword,.... Or,

"he hath put his words in my mouth as a sharp sword,''

as the Targum; namely, the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God, and is sharper than a twoedged sword, and is said to come out of the mouth of Christ, Eph 6:17, with which he pierces into and cuts the hearts of men, and lays open all their sin and unrighteousness, and cuts down the worst and best in men, and slays all his enemies; so his mouth was as a sharp sword in the days of his flesh, to inveigh against the sins and to refute the errors of the Scribes and Pharisees; as it will be, in the latter day, to smite the nations of the earth, Rev 19:15, "in the shadow of his hand hath he hid me"; in his counsels and purposes of old, and in his providence;

"in the shadow of his power hath he protected me,''

as the Targum; thus he hid, and protected him from Herod's cruelty in his infancy; and from the rage and malice of the Scribes and Pharisees, who sought often to lay hands on him, and take away his life before his time. The Jews talk very much of the Messiah's being hid under the throne of glory. Aben Ezra's remark, that the phrase, "he hath hid me", answers to the scabbard of a sword, before mentioned, is not amiss:

and made me a polished shaft; or, "choice arrow" s; which being polished at the point, or well oiled, and shining, pierces the deeper, So the doctrines of Christ, the words of his mouth, are compared to bright and sharp arrows, which make cutting work, and give great pain where they come; as they sometimes do like arrows, swiftly, suddenly, and with great force and power, Psa 45:5. Kimchi observes, that he speaks of a sharp sword with respect to the Jews that were near, where a sword could reach them; and of a polished shaft or arrow with respect to the Gentiles afar off, which must be cast after them:

in his quiver hath he hid me, meaning his secret purposes, and his powerful protection, as before; which he compares to a quiver, a case in which arrows are put, because mention had been made of a polished shaft or arrow before.

Gill: Isa 49:3 - And said unto me // thou art my servant // O Israel // in whom I will be glorified And said unto me,.... Both in the everlasting council, and when he made a covenant with him in eternity; when he found him and anointed him, and laid ...

And said unto me,.... Both in the everlasting council, and when he made a covenant with him in eternity; when he found him and anointed him, and laid help on him; and also when he brought him, his first begotten, into the world, at his incarnation:

thou art my servant; of his choosing, appointing, calling, sending, bringing forth, and supporting; so he was as Mediator, especially in his estate of humiliation, when he appeared in the form of a servant, and came not to be ministered unto, but to minister, and give his life a ransom for many; thereby to obtain redemption, which was the great work and service he was appointed to; which he readily undertook, and willingly and cheerfully engaged in, and diligently and faithfully performed; to whom justly belong the characters of an obedient, diligent, prudent, and faithful servant; in answering which he showed his regard to his Father's will, his love to his people, and his great humility and condescension:

O Israel; a name of Christ, and which properly belongs to him, being the antitype of Jacob or Israel; the Head and representative of the whole Israel of God; who was of Israel according to the flesh, and an Israelite indeed in a spiritual sense, and was only sent to the lost sheep of the house of Israel. Israel is a name of the church, often given to it in this prophecy; Christ and his church, by virtue of the union between them, have the same names; as she is sometimes called by his names, Christ, and the Lord our righteousness, so he is here called by her name Israel, 1Co 12:12,

in whom I will be glorified; this is Jehovah's end in all he does in nature or grace; and is what Christ had in view in working out our salvation; and all the divine perfections are glorified in it by him, the wisdom, power, faithfulness, holiness, justice, love, grace, and mercy of God. Some render the words actively, "in thee" or "in whom I will glory" t; as his own Son, in whom he is well pleased, being the brightness of his glory, and the express image of his person; and in whom also all the seed of Israel glory, as well as are justified. Or, as others, Israel is he, of "whom by thee I will glory", or "glorify" u; meaning, that it was the spiritual and mystical Israel, the church, whom he would save by his Son and servant, the Messiah, and bring to glory.

Gill: Isa 49:4 - Then I said // I have laboured in vain // I have spent my strength for naught, and in vain // yet surely my judgment is with the Lord // and my work with my God Then I said,.... The Messiah said, by way of objection, in a view of what treatment he should meet with, or when entered on his work, and which he fou...

Then I said,.... The Messiah said, by way of objection, in a view of what treatment he should meet with, or when entered on his work, and which he found by experience, what follows:

I have laboured in vain; this is not to be understood of the travail of his soul, or of his sufferings and death, which were not in vain, but issued in the redemption and salvation of his people; but of his ministry and miracles, and fatiguing journeys among the Jews; which, with respect to them, were in vain, as to their conversion and reformation; they rejecting the Messiah, slighting his doctrines and miracles, refusing to be gathered by him, being a faithless and perverse generation:

I have spent my strength for naught, and in vain; by frequent preaching and working of miracles, and travelling from place to place: the same thing is designed as before, repeated in other words, to express the certainty of it, to chew the ingratitude and wickedness of the people, and to utter the complaints of his mind:

yet surely my judgment is with the Lord; or is manifest before the Lord, as the Targum; the Lord knew that he had called him to his office; how prudently, diligently, and faithfully he had executed it; and what was his right and due, and which would be given him; and with this he corrects his former complaint, and makes himself easy, and quiets and satisfies his mind:

and my work with my God; or the reward of my works is before my God, as the Targum; and before himself also, Isa 40:10 as his work was assigned him by the Lord, so his reward was promised him, and which he knew he should have; and having done his work, be asked for his reward, and had it, Joh 17:4.

Gill: Isa 49:5 - And now, saith the Lord // that formed me from the womb to be his servant // to bring Jacob again, to him // though Israel be not gathered // and my God shall be my strength And now, saith the Lord,.... Jehovah the Father, in confirmation of the call, office, and work of Christ, which he hath declared, Isa 49:1, that fo...

And now, saith the Lord,.... Jehovah the Father, in confirmation of the call, office, and work of Christ, which he hath declared, Isa 49:1,

that formed me from the womb to be his servant; who preordained him to this service before the world began, and prepared him for it from the womb of his mother Mary, by filling him with grace and wisdom and with the Spirit without measure; anointing him with the oil of gladness above his fellows, and so fitting him as man and Mediator for the preaching of the Gospel, and every other service he called him:

to bring Jacob again, to him; the lost sheep of the house of Israel, God's elect among the Jews, which were as straying sheep; or all his chosen people, whether Jews or Gentiles, which were scattered abroad, and were afar off from God, whom Christ was to bring back again, and bring nigh unto God, and did:

though Israel be not gathered: in general, only a remnant, according to the election of grace, the greater part refusing to be gathered ministerially by him; and the rulers not suffering the common people to attend on his ministry. Mat 23:37. It may be observed that there is a marginal reading of the Hebrew, different from the written text; instead of לא, "not" it is לו, "to him"; and may be rendered thus, "and Israel shall be gathered unto him"; and then the sense entirely agrees with the preceding clause, with which the words are connected, and not with the following, as the accent "athnach" shows, thus; the Lord appointed and formed me to be his servant to bring back Jacob, and that Israel might be gathered to him; as all the Israel of God, all the elect of God were by the sufferings and death of Christ; see Eph 1:10. The marginal reading, and the writing, may be both retained, as in some other places, thus, "and shall not Israel be gathered to him?" since he has formed me to bring back Jacob to him? verily he shall. The marginal reading is followed by the Targum, and the passage paraphrased thus,

"to return the house of Jacob to his service, and Israel shall be brought nigh, to his fear.''

And so it is by Jarchi, Aben Ezra, and Kimchi, and by the Septuagint, Syriac, and Arabic versions, and by Aquila: "yet shall I be glorious" in the eyes of the Lord; or "I shall be glorious", &c.; as he was at his baptism and transfiguration on the mount; by the wonderful things done in heaven and on earth at the time of his death, at his resurrection from the dead, his ascension to heaven, and exaltation at the right hand of God, far above all principalities and powers, angels, authorities, and powers, being subject to him; and by the ministration of the Gospel in the Gentile world, and particularly when he shall reign gloriously in the latter day, and in the New Jerusalem church state:

and my God shall be my strength; to keep up his spirits under all discouragements; to protect him from his enemies; to support him in his work as man; to carry him through it, and enable him completely to perform it, as he promised he would, and as he did, Isa 49:8.

Gill: Isa 49:6 - And he said // it is a light thing that thou shouldest be my servant to raise up the tribes of Jacob, and to restore the preserved of Israel; the tribes of Jacob and the preserved of Israel // I will also give thee for a light to the Gentiles // that thou mayest be my salvation unto the end of the earth And he said,.... Or "even he said"; namely, the Lord his God, that called, appointed, and strengthened him for his service: it is a light thing tha...

And he said,.... Or "even he said"; namely, the Lord his God, that called, appointed, and strengthened him for his service:

it is a light thing that thou shouldest be my servant to raise up the tribes of Jacob, and to restore the preserved of Israel; the tribes of Jacob and the preserved of Israel are the elect of God among the Jews; though the characters agree with all the chosen of God of other nations, who, are distinguished from the rest of the world, and are "preserved in Christ", Jud 1:1, where they are preserved before they are redeemed and called; not from falling in Adam with the rest of mankind, nor from the general corruption of nature, nor from actual sins and transgressions; yet from the condemnation of the law, the damning power of sin, and the second death; the ground of which is, their being in the love of God, in the covenant of grace, and in the hands of Christ: and yet, notwithstanding this, they are in a most miserable condition as the descendants of Adam, and, in a state of nature; they are "fallen" creatures, which is supposed by the "raising them up" by Christ, whose work it is; they fell in Adam, and are fallen from a state of honour, friendship, and communion with God; from the glorious image stamped on man in his creation; from righteousness and holiness into sin and misery, poverty and beggary; into a very low estate indeed, and are not able to raise up themselves, being feeble and without strength, yea, dead in trespasses and sins; they are gone back from God, and out of the good way, and are gone astray like lost sheep, which is supposed by the "restoring" of them: now it is Christ's work to "raise up", "restore", or "return" these; he raises them to a state of justification and acceptance with God, to a better righteousness than they fell from, and to greater riches, honour, and glory; in consequence of redemption by Christ they are raised to a state of grace here, and to glory hereafter; they are brought nigh to God, from whom they were departed, sons to have access unto him and fellowship with him now, and to be with him for evermore. Now to do all this is said to be a "light thing"; it was not so in itself, it was a "great thing", famous and excellent, to be a servant of the Lord, and to be employed in such work as this; and so the Septuagint and Arabic versions render it; but this is to be understood either by way of interrogation, as by the Targum, Kimchi, Ben Melech, and so the Syriac version, "is it a matter of small moment that thou shouldest be my servant?" &c.; surely it is not; or, if it is, I will find thee other work to do: or else it is to be understood comparatively, the elect of God among the Jews being few, in comparison of those among the Gentiles; wherefore it was not work enough, nor honour enough, only to be employed in the redemption of them: and therefore it follows,

I will also give thee for a light to the Gentiles; which supposes the Gentiles to be in a state of darkness, as they were before the coming of Christ, and the ministration of the Gospel to them; they were in the dark about the divine Being, the unity of God, and the persons in the Godhead; about the worship of God; about a future state, and about their own state and condition; and about revelation, the truths, doctrines, and ordinances of it: and this expresses, that Christ should be a "light" to them, as he has been, not only in a way of nature, as he is to every man, but in a way of special grace through the ministry of the word; not in his own person, for he only preached in Judea, but by his apostles, by whom he went and preached peace to them afar off; and particularly he was so to them by his Spirit, as a spirit of illumination; and so they came to have light in divine things, and which is a "gift" of the free grace of God. Simeon has respect to this passage, Luk 2:32 and the Apostle Paul cites it, and applies it to Gospel times, Act 13:47, it follows,

that thou mayest be my salvation unto the end of the earth; Christ was given, that he might be the author of that salvation, which God had chosen and appointed his people to, and provided for them in covenant; and that being the salvation of his own people, he calls it his own salvation; and which should reach to them all everywhere, in the several parts of the world, and the corners and ends of it, east, west, north, and south, wherever they were. Kimchi refers this to the saving of the Gentiles, after the war of Gog and Magog, yet to come; and with it compares Isa 60:3.

Gill: Isa 49:7 - Thus saith the Lord, the Redeemer of Israel, and his Holy One // to him whom man despiseth // to him whom the nation abhorreth // to a servant of rulers // kings shall see and arise, princes also shall worship // because of the Lord that is faithful // and the Holy One of Israel, and he shall choose thee Thus saith the Lord, the Redeemer of Israel, and his Holy One,.... These are all the titles of the Father of Christ, who is the Jehovah, the self-exis...

Thus saith the Lord, the Redeemer of Israel, and his Holy One,.... These are all the titles of the Father of Christ, who is the Jehovah, the self-existent Being, and from whom all have their Being; "the redeemer of Israel", being concerned with his Son in the redemption, of his people, in the contriving and settling the method of it, and bringing it about; "and his Holy One", or the Holy One of Israel, the sanctifier of them, together with the blessed Spirit; who speaks the following words, not to the Prophet Isaiah, as Aben Ezra, nor to the people of the Jews, as the Targum, Jarchi, and Kimchi, but to Christ:

to him whom man despiseth; whom the Jews despised, because of the meanness of his descent, parentage, and education; because of his doctrines, disciples, and followers; and because his kingdom was not of this world, and came not with observation: or "whom a soul despiseth", or "despised in soul" w; heartily despised, as Christ was; or "who despiseth his soul" x, or life, as Christ did his, for the sake of his people, for whom he freely laid his life down, and made his soul an offering for sin:

to him whom the nation abhorreth; the nation of the Jews abhorred Christ, his person, doctrine, and miracles; they hated him, and would not have him to rule over them: they persecuted him, and sought to slay him, and at last delivered him up to the Romans to be crucified:

to a servant of rulers; of Jewish rulers in subjection to them, being made under the law; and of Gentile rulers, paying tribute to Caesar, and when scourged by Pilate, and crucified by his order, which was the usual death of servants or slaves. But though he was so ill used, despised, and abhorred, he is encouraged by his divine Father, and great glory and honour are promised him:

kings shall see and arise, princes also shall worship; they shall see the glory and majesty of Christ, and rise up in reverence of him, and fall down before him and worship him; which has had its accomplishment in part in Constantine, Theodosius, Valentinian, and other Christian princes, and will have a further fulfilment in the latter day; see Isa 49:23. This passage is interpreted by the Jews of the Messiah y:

because of the Lord that is faithful; to his promises to him in raising him from the dead, and giving him glory; in exalting him at his own right hand; in giving him gifts for men, which he bestowed on them; in spreading and succeeding his Gospel in the Gentile world; and in the enlargement of his kingdom and interest in it; all which obliged, and will oblige, the kings and princes of the earth to own him, and pay homage to him:

and the Holy One of Israel, and he shall choose thee; or make it appear that he has chosen thee to be the Saviour and Redeemer of his people, the Head of the church, and the Judge of the whole world.

Gill: Isa 49:8 - Thus saith the Lord // in an acceptable time have I heard thee // and in a day of salvation have I helped thee // and I will preserve thee // and give thee for a covenant of the people // to establish the earth // to cause to inherit the desolate heritages Thus saith the Lord,.... These are the words of God the Father to his Son continued; the Jews themselves interpret them of the Messiah z: in an acc...

Thus saith the Lord,.... These are the words of God the Father to his Son continued; the Jews themselves interpret them of the Messiah z:

in an acceptable time have I heard thee: this was the time when Christ was here on earth, when he became incarnate, and suffered and died for his people: this was an acceptable time to God the Father; his very sufferings were acceptable; his sacrifice was of a sweet smelling savour; his righteousness was well pleasing to him; for by all this his perfections were glorified, his purposes were answered, his covenant and promises fulfilled, and his people saved: it was acceptable to men, the things that were now done and procured; as pardon of sin, peace and reconciliation, a justifying righteousness, and complete salvation; which is worthy the acceptation of all that are lost and undone, and see themselves so, and that nothing they can do will save them: or "in a time of good will" a; such was the time of Christ's first coming; it was good will to men, Luk 2:14. God showed his good will to men by the Person whom he sent to save them, his own, only, and beloved Son; and by sending him to save sinners, the chief of sinners, even enemies; and this time was fixed and settled by the good will and pleasure of God; and during this time the Lord heard Christ; he always heard him interceding for himself, and for his people; he heard him in the garden, and on the cross, and at all other times; see Heb 5:7.

and in a day of salvation have I helped thee; at the time when he wrought out the salvation of his people, then he helped him in it, and through it, as he promised him, and as Christ believed he would, Isa 42:1. This is to be understood of him as man and Mediator, and to show the greatness of the work of salvation, and the concern of God in it; otherwise, as Christ is the mighty God, he needed no help, and his own arm brought salvation to him:

and I will preserve thee; as he did from his enemies in life, in his infancy, and when grown up, that his life might not be taken away before his time; from being overcome by his enemies in the garden, and on the cross; from the power of death and the grave, by raising him up from thence; he preserved him to his kingdom and glory, and now retains him in heaven until the time of the restitution of all things; and will preserve his seed, and his throne, his cause, and interest, to the end of time:

and give thee for a covenant of the people; Jews and Gentiles, all that are given to him, and whom he redeems by his blood, whom the Spirit sanctifies, and applies the blessings and promises of the covenant to; which is to be understood of the covenant of grace: Christ is said to be given for it unto them, he being a covenantee in it; the representative of these people in it; the surety of it for them; the Mediator and messenger of it to them; and the ratifier and confirmer of it; and as he is the great blessing of it, the sum and substance of it; and as all the blessings and promises of it are in him; and this may respect the constitution of the covenant from everlasting, and the manifestation of it in time; and this is a gift of God honourable to Christ, of free grace to his people, very comprehensive and unspeakable. Kimchi says this refers to the times of the Messiah: and the end of all this is

to establish the earth; not the land of Judea, but the whole earth; which, were it not for Christ, and his covenant and suretyship engagements for his people, and for the sake of them, and their salvation, would long ago have been dissolved and broke to pieces; but he bears up the pillars of it; and, when he has gathered in all his people, will destroy it: or the end in his being given for a covenant was to "raise up" the fallen inhabitants of the earth, for so the word b may be rendered; or to raise up the elect of God unto life, who were obnoxious to death; or to establish, settle, and confirm the church of God on earth; see Psa 89:36. The Targum is, "to raise up the righteous that lie in the dust", referring it to the resurrection of the dead:

to cause to inherit the desolate heritages; the desolate cities of Judah, or the Gentile world, which was like a desolate wilderness: it seems to denote the desolate condition of the church, which should become comfortable and flourishing through the numerous conversions of Jews and Gentiles, as the fruit and effect of the covenant of grace made with Christ; in which the Heathen were given for his inheritance, and the uttermost parts of the earth for his possession, Psa 2:8.

Gill: Isa 49:9 - That thou mayest say to the prisoners, go forth // to them that are in darkness // show yourselves // they shall feed in the ways // and their pastures shall be in all high places That thou mayest say to the prisoners, go forth,.... God's covenant people, while unconverted, are prisoners; they are in the prison of sin, under the...

That thou mayest say to the prisoners, go forth,.... God's covenant people, while unconverted, are prisoners; they are in the prison of sin, under the power and dominion of it, and under the guilt of it, and obligation to punishment for it; and they are in the prison of the law, they are transgressors of it, and are accused and convicted by it, and are condemned, and put in prison, and held there; and they are also Satan's prisoners, and are held and led captive by him at his will; and by virtue of the covenant, and the blood of it, these prisoners are set free; and Christ in the. Gospel speaks unto them, and proclaims liberty to them; and by the knowledge of the truth they are made free, and are brought into the liberty of the children of God; and are bid to go forth, and they are brought forth from their prison houses; and bid to go to the house of God, and walk at liberty, enjoying all the privileges and ordinances of the Gospel:

to them that are in darkness; in a state of nature and unregeneracy, which is a state of infidelity and ignorance; when men are in the dark, and know not themselves, nor their lost state and condition; nor the exceeding sinfulness of sin; nor Christ, and the way of salvation by him; nor the Spirit, and the operations of his grace; nor the Scriptures, and the doctrines of them:

show yourselves; among the people of God, in his house and ordinances, when called, converted, and enlightened by Christ; or "be revealed" c or manifested, when they are known to be, what they were not knows before, the people and children of God. The Targum is,

"be revealed to the light;''

such are called to partake of the light of grace, and to enjoy the light of comfort and communion:

they shall feed in the ways; not in the broad road and highways of sin, but in the ways of God, in the word and ordinances: this denotes the publicness and pleasantness of them, and the plenty of provisions in them; and yet where it might not be expected, and where exposed to enemies: the allusion is to cattle, that are drove from place to place, and as they pass along feed in the ways upon such pasture as they there find; and suggests, that the saints are travellers, and as such have food provided them by the way:

and their pastures shall be in all high places; on hills and mountains, which are often barren and unfruitful. The Targum is,

"in or by rivers of water shall be the place of their habitation.''

Gill: Isa 49:10 - They shall not hunger nor thirst // neither shall the heat nor sun smite them // for he that hath mercy on them shall lead them // even by the springs of water shall he guide them They shall not hunger nor thirst,.... Being fed in the ways and high places of Gospel ordinances with the love of God, with covenant mercies and preci...

They shall not hunger nor thirst,.... Being fed in the ways and high places of Gospel ordinances with the love of God, with covenant mercies and precious promises, with Christ, the bread of life, and his grace the water of life, and with the doctrines of the Gospel; they do not desire carnal things, as formerly, but spiritual ones, which they have and are satisfied with, and desire no other food: it signifies that there shall be no famine of the word, nor want of spiritual provisions; it is applied to the New Jerusalem state, Rev 7:16 and so the following clause,

neither shall the heat nor sun smite them; not the sun of persecution, nor the heat of fiery trials and afflictions, particularly in the latter day; nor the heat of a fiery law and divine wrath, or of Satan's fiery darts; not however in the above mentioned state, or in the ultimate glory:

for he that hath mercy on them shall lead them; Christ, the great and good Shepherd of the sheep, who had mercy on them in eternity, and therefore undertook to feed them; and in time, and therefore laid down his life for them; and now in heaven, and sympathizes with him; and at the last day they shall find mercy with him: these he leads out of a state of nature, from the wilderness, where he finds them; out of their sinful ways, and from the pastures of their own righteousness; and he leads them in paths they had not known, in which they should go, in the way of truth, faith, and holiness; in right, though sometimes rough ways; he leads them to himself, his blood, righteousness, and fulness; into his Father's presence, and to his house and ordinances; into Gospel truths, and from one degree of grace to another, and at last to eternal glory; all which he does gradually, softly, gently, in proportion to their strength, and as they are able to bear:

even by the springs of water shall he guide them; or "fountains of water" d; even of living water; which are no other than God himself, and the plenty of his grace and mercy; Christ, and the fulness of grace that is in him; the covenant of grace, and the blessings of it; the Gospel, and its ordinances; see Rev 7:17.

Gill: Isa 49:11 - And I will make all my mountains a way // and my highways shall be exalted And I will make all my mountains a way,.... Or "for", or "into a way" e; signifying that they should be dug through or levelled, and a way made throug...

And I will make all my mountains a way,.... Or "for", or "into a way" e; signifying that they should be dug through or levelled, and a way made through them, over them, or upon them, for his people to pass: very probably the allusion is to the mountains that lay between Babylon and Judea; and which the Lord calls his, because of his making and settling, and was therefore able to make them a way, or passable: though the words are not to be literally understood, but denote the removing of all impediments, obstructions, and difficulties, in the people's return from captivity; which was typical of redemption by Christ, which had its difficulties, which he only could get over; he came leaping over these hills and mountains, and they became a plain before him, the great Zerubbabel; such as the assumption of a sinless nature, to make atonement in for sin, which only could be produced in an uncommon and extraordinary way; the fulfilling of a broken law, satisfying divine justice, engaging with many enemies who were to be conquered, sin, Satan, the world, and death; bearing the wrath of God, and submitting to an accursed death: and so in the conversion of the Gentiles, which may here be referred to, and of any sinner, there are many mountains of difficulties in the way of it, which the Lord only can remove; great opposition is made by the men of the world to the preaching of the Gospel, the means of it to the work itself, by Satan, who is loathe to lose a subject of his kingdom; and by men themselves, whose carnal minds are enmity to God, and all that is good difficulties arise from the state of deadness, darkness, and hardness of heart men are in before conversion from the corruptions of their nature, and strong habits of sin; from the general depravity of all the powers and faculties of the soul; from the bad company they have got into; or from their own self-righteousness, they are loathe to part with: and when men are called, and a work of God is begun, there are many mountains appear in their way of coming to Christ; as their numerous and aggravated sins, and doubts about the willingness Christ to receive such sinners; but, when God works, nothing can let. Many are the obstructions the saints meet with in their passage, through this world, by reason of a body of sin, Satan's temptations, the world's persecutions, afflictions of various kinds, strait circumstances of life, losses, crosses, and disappointments; unbelief of itself is a mountain, and raises many others; but the Lord makes a way for his people through all; it may be some respect may be had to the spread of the Gospel in the world, and the introduction of latter day glory, and the difficulties in the way thereof, which the Lord has been removing, and will remove. Rome Pagan is one mountain which God has removed; and Rome Papal is another he will, move, with all the antichristian powers; and the Turkish empire is another:

and my highways shall be exalted; Christ is the great highway of all, and next his word and ordinances, which are ways of holiness and righteousness; these may be said to be "exalted", being conspicuous and visible; and, like causeways, or, highways cast up, that are above, and carry over the mire and dirt; so these carry over the mire and dirt of sin and corruption; and may be said to be so when made use of, approved, and valued: or the words may be rendered, "they shall be", or "let them be exalted on my highways" f; that is, his people, being in the exercise of faith, and in the discharge of their duty; see Psa 18:33 with these words compare Isa 40:3 perhaps this passage may be best explained by Rev 16:12, where mention is made of the drying up of the river Euphrates, or of the destruction of the Ottoman empire, to make way for the conversion of the eastern nations, prophesied of, among others, in the following verse.

Gill: Isa 49:12 - Behold, these shall come from far // and, lo, these from the north // and from the west // and these from the land of Sinim Behold, these shall come from far,.... This is a prophecy of the conversion of the Jews, or of the Gentiles, or of both, in the latter day, in the sev...

Behold, these shall come from far,.... This is a prophecy of the conversion of the Jews, or of the Gentiles, or of both, in the latter day, in the several parts of the world; who shall come to Christ, and to his churches, and join in fellowship with them: the allusion is to the return of the Jews from their captivity in Babylon, and from all other parts at that time; some are said to come "from far", from the east, as it is generally interpreted, from the several eastern nations, as Persia, Judea lying west from them, on the western or Mediterranean sea:

and, lo, these from the north; from Media, as some; or rather from Babylon, which lay north of Judea:

and from the west; or "from the sea"; the Mediterranean sea, and the countries beyond it, which lie west of Judea:

and these from the land of Sinim. The Targum and Vulgate Latin version render it, from the land of the south, with which Jarchi and Kimchi agree, where dwelt the Sinites, which were of the children of Canaan, Gen 10:17, as the latter observes; and where were the wilderness of Sin, and mountain of Sinai, according to the observation of Jerom. Aben Ezra thinks Egypt is meant, which lay south of Judea, and conjectures that Sinai, a place in it, is designed; perhaps Sin, as others are of opinion, called "the strength of Egypt", Eze 30:15, the same city the Greeks called Pelusium; and R. Saadiah, in Kimchi, supposes it is here intended, which is most likely; the Pelusiotae are meant. Manasseh ben Israel g will have it that the Chinese are intended: China is indeed called, by Ptolemy h, the country of the Sinites; and if this is designed, which is not probable, it cannot be so called from the family of Cina, as Martinius i thinks, since that family was not in being till two or three hundred years after this prophecy; and, if it concerns them, it will have its accomplishment, when the kingdoms of this world shall become Christ's, Rev 11:15 compare with this Mat 8:12 yea, they are said to have received the Gospel, in the first times of it, by the means of the apostles, Thomas, or Bartholomew k. The Septuagint version renders it, "from the land of the Persians"; and the Arabic version, "from the land of Persia"; and the Syriac version, "from the sea of Senjam".

Gill: Isa 49:13 - Sing, O heavens, and be joyful, O earth // and break forth into singing, O mountains // for the Lord hath comforted his people // and will have mercy upon his afflicted Sing, O heavens, and be joyful, O earth,.... Which may be understood of the heavens, and the earth by a personification, a figure usual in Scripture, ...

Sing, O heavens, and be joyful, O earth,.... Which may be understood of the heavens, and the earth by a personification, a figure usual in Scripture, to express the greatness of the benefit received, and to raise thankfulness and admiration in the hearts of God's people; see Psa 90:11 or by the heavens may be meant the angels in heaven, who, as they rejoice at the conversion of a single sinner, will much more rejoice at such numerous conversions among Jews and Gentiles, here prophesied of, Luk 15:10 and, by the "earth", the saints on earth, the excellent in it, who have a more immediate concern in, and must be affected with, the case here represented:

and break forth into singing, O mountains; such as are in high office either in the state, as Christian kings and princes, Isa 49:23 or in the church, as prophets and apostles, Rev 18:20. The reason of all this is,

for the Lord hath comforted his people; with the discoveries of his love and grace; by his gracious presence among them; by the coming of Christ unto them in a spiritual way; by sending his Spirit, and renewing the face of things, and reviving his work in the midst of them; by the pure and powerful preaching of the Gospel, and comfortable administration of Gospel ordinances; and by large additions of converts made unto them:

and will have mercy upon his afflicted, or "poor", or "meek" and "humble" ones, as the words l may be rendered: the Lord's people is a poor and afflicted people, poor in a temporal and spiritual sense; the church and interest of Christ is in a poor and low condition: the Lord's people are afflicted outwardly and inwardly, and so become meek, and are kept humble; these the Lord, in the latter day, will raise from a low and distressed condition to a more exalted and comfortable one; which will be an instance of his mercy and compassion, and be matter of joy unto them.

Gill: Isa 49:14 - But Zion said // the Lord hath forsaken me, and my Lord hath forgotten me But Zion said,.... By way of objection, as some think, to the above prophecies of glorious and comfortable times; she being now in a very disconsolate...

But Zion said,.... By way of objection, as some think, to the above prophecies of glorious and comfortable times; she being now in a very disconsolate condition, and could not tell how to take it in, how it should thus be, when the case was with her as it was; though I rather think the words should be rendered, "for Zion had said"; and which is mentioned to show the uncomfortable condition she had been in, and to observe the method the Lord took to comfort her, as he before promises. Reference may be had to the Jews in the times of the Babylonish captivity, mentioned under the name of Zion; because, as Kimchi says, that was the chief city of the kingdom of Israel; who, because of the length of their captivity, might think themselves forsaken and forgotten by the Lord: yet, by Zion is meant the church under the Gospel dispensation, the saints that meet at Mount Zion, the hundred and forty and four thousand, with the Lamb there, Heb 12:22,

the Lord hath forsaken me, and my Lord hath forgotten me: so the church might be tempted to conclude, during the persecutions under Rome Pagan, and the long reign of antichrist not yet at an end, and because of his oppressions and cruelties; and because of the low and declining state of the interest of Christ, as it now is; few being converted by the ministry of the word; great opposition made to the truths of the Gospel with success; the ordinances of it perverted or neglected; the presence of God in them very little enjoyed; great indifference and lukewarmness among professors of religion, and discord and dissensions in churches. And so it is with particular believers, when they do not enjoy the presence of God as formerly, either in private or in public ordinances; have not had a promise for a long time; nor are favoured with the discoveries of the love of God, or with any visit from him; then they are apt to say they are forsaken by the Lord, though they cannot give up their interest in him, and therefore call him "my Lord".

Gill: Isa 49:15 - Can a woman forget her sucking child, that she should not have compassion on the son of her womb // yea, they may forget // yet will I not forget thee Can a woman forget her sucking child, that she should not have compassion on the son of her womb?.... This is the Lord's answer to the church's compla...

Can a woman forget her sucking child, that she should not have compassion on the son of her womb?.... This is the Lord's answer to the church's complaint, instancing in the care and affection of a mother to her child, thereby illustrating his love to his people; he instances in a "woman", the tender sex; in a "child" of her's, an infant, not one grown up, from which her affections might be alienated by disobedience; her suckling child, she had in her arms, and on her knees, and whom her breasts would put her in mind of; and since one that is not an own child may be suckled, it is called "the son of her womb"; and is it possible for such an one to be forgotten?

yea, they may forget; through inadvertency, want of affection, a cruel disposition, hurry of business, sickness, public calamities, &c. Lam 4:3, such monsters in nature there may be, though rare:

yet will I not forget thee; he cannot forget, because of is nature, on which forgetfulness cannot properly fall; he will not, because of his promise, which never fails; he may seem to his people to have forgotten them, and he may be thought to have done so by others; he forgets their sins, but not their persons; he cannot forget his love, nor his covenant with them, nor his promises made to them; nor does he forget their love to him, nor their works, words, and thoughts; the righteous are had by him in everlasting remembrance. All this suggests that the Lord stands in the relation of a parent to his people, and they stand in the relation of children to him; they are born of him, and are as it were pieces of himself, and little images of him, and dear to him as the apple of his eye; they are like sucking children, that suck in the milk of his word, and suck at the breasts of his ordinances; and they are used by him in the most tender manner, as infants are; they are kissed by him, and dandled on the knee; they are led by him, and taught to go; he delights in them when they begin to speak in prayer or praise, though in a lisping and stammering manner; all their little actions are engaging, their works done by them, though imperfect, and a great deal of childishness in them; when anything ails them, he sympathizes with them, he takes care of them, and provides for them; and it is a concern to him whenever he is obliged to chastise them, and can he therefore forget them?

Gill: Isa 49:16 - Behold, I have graven thee upon the palms of my hands // thy walls are continually before me Behold, I have graven thee upon the palms of my hands,.... Not upon his thick clouds, the clouds of heaven under him, always in view, as R. Saadiah Ga...

Behold, I have graven thee upon the palms of my hands,.... Not upon his thick clouds, the clouds of heaven under him, always in view, as R. Saadiah Gaon, mentioned by Jarchi, Aben Ezra, and Kimchi: much better the Targum,

"lo, as upon the hands thou art engraven before me;''

signifying that his people were always in his sight, his eyes were ever upon them, and never withdrawn from them; as anything held in the hand, or tied to or wore upon it, as a signet or ring that has the name of a person on it, to which the allusion may be; which shows how near and dear they are to him, what affection he has for them, and care of them; see Son 8:6. Some think respect is had to the wounds in the hands of Christ, which, being on their account, are looked upon and remembered by him; or, however, to their being in his hands, out of which none can pluck them, Joh 10:28,

thy walls are continually before me; not the walls of Jerusalem to rebuild, though there may be an allusion to them; but either the walls of their houses where they dwell; his delights being in the habitable parts of his earth, where his saints are; or rather the walls of the church of God, for the erecting and establishing of which he is concerned. The metaphor seems to be taken from an architect that has the plan of a building, a house, or a city and its walls, in his hand, or lying before him. The phrase denotes the constant care and concern of Jehovah for the protection and safety of his church and people; who places angels about them, salvation for walls and bulwarks to them, yea, he himself is a wall of fire about them, Isa 26:1.

Gill: Isa 49:17 - Thy children shall make haste // as doves to the windows // make haste, and delay not, to keep the Lord's commandments // thy destroyers and they that made thee waste, shall go forth of thee Thy children shall make haste,.... Regenerate persons, young converts, such as are born again of incorruptible seed by the word; these shall flock to ...

Thy children shall make haste,.... Regenerate persons, young converts, such as are born again of incorruptible seed by the word; these shall flock to the church,

as doves to the windows; join themselves to her, and submit to Gospel ordinances, and

make haste, and delay not, to keep the Lord's commandments; which is no small pleasure, joy, and comfort to the church of God. Some render it, "thy builders" m "shall make haste"; Gospel ministers, who are wise masterbuilders under Christ; these shall come with all readiness and cheerfulness, and build in the temple, the church of God, and rebuild her walls, and repair her breaches:

thy destroyers and they that made thee waste, shall go forth of thee; tyrants and persecutors of the church shall cease, and be no more; and false teachers, that corrupt the minds of men, subvert their faith, and destroy their souls, as antichrist and his ministers, shall be drove out of the church, and destroyed by Christ, the Head of it; see Rev 11:18.

Gill: Isa 49:18 - Lift up thine eyes round about, and behold // all these gather themselves together, and come to thee // as I live, saith the Lord // thou shalt surely clothe thee with them all as with an ornament; as children's children are the crown of old men // and bind them on thee as a bride doeth Lift up thine eyes round about, and behold,.... Look east, west, north, and south, and behold the flocking converts from all parts; see on Isa 49:12. ...

Lift up thine eyes round about, and behold,.... Look east, west, north, and south, and behold the flocking converts from all parts; see on Isa 49:12. The words are spoken to the church, and for her comfort; and so the Targum,

"lift up thine eyes round about, O Jerusalem, and see all the children of the people of thy captivity:''

all these gather themselves together, and come to thee; though of different nations, and come from different quarters, yet coalesce together, make one body, and join themselves with the church, in which they centre, and are incorporated:

as I live, saith the Lord; this is the form of an oath, sometimes used by the Lord, to denote the importance and certainty of a thing, and to assure his people of it:

thou shalt surely clothe thee with them all as with an ornament; as children's children are the crown of old men, Pro 17:6, so young converts are the crown, glory, and ornament of the church; even such who are beautified with the graces of the Spirit, and whose conversations are as become the Gospel of Christ:

and bind them on thee as a bride doeth; her clothes, the attire of her head, and her jewels. So in the latter day, when the Jews are converted, and the fulness of the Gentiles brought in, the marriage of the Lamb will be come, and the church made ready, as a bride, for her husband, and be very beautiful and comely in his sight, as well as very comfortable and glorious in herself; and which will be matter of joy to all the saints, Rev 19:7. The Targum is,

"all these shall be unto thee as a garment of glory, and their works in the midst of thee as the ornament of a bride.''

Gill: Isa 49:19 - For thy waste and thy desolate places, and the land of thy destruction // shall even now be too narrow, by reason of the inhabitants // and they that swallowed thee up shall be far away // shall now perish out of his For thy waste and thy desolate places, and the land of thy destruction,.... Or "thy land of destruction, or thy destroyed land" n; laid waste and deso...

For thy waste and thy desolate places, and the land of thy destruction,.... Or "thy land of destruction, or thy destroyed land" n; laid waste and desolate by the enemy, without inhabitants; such countries in which there were few professors of the true religion:

shall even now be too narrow, by reason of the inhabitants; because of the multitude of them; a hyperbolical expression, setting forth the great numbers of Christian converts everywhere: this straitness will not be on account of strangers or enemies having taken possession; but on account of those who are true and proper possessors: for it follows,

and they that swallowed thee up shall be far away; from the church; the Heathen, the Gentiles, or Papists,

shall now perish out of his, Jehovah's, "land"; "sinners shall be consumed out of the earth, and the wicked be no more", Psa 10:16. Antichrist and his abettors, which "swallowed" up the people, their riches, and substance, like beasts of prey, to which he is compared, shall go into perdition, and never disturb the church any more, Rev 13:1.

Gill: Isa 49:20 - The children which thou shalt have, after thou hast lost the other // shall say again in thine ears // the place is too strait for me to dwell in // give place to me that I may dwell The children which thou shalt have, after thou hast lost the other,.... Which "other lost" are not the Jews, the broken branches, rejected and cut off...

The children which thou shalt have, after thou hast lost the other,.... Which "other lost" are not the Jews, the broken branches, rejected and cut off for unbelief; and the "children after" them not the Gentiles converted, which took their place; but "the other" are such who have been destroyed by the Heathen persecutions, and especially by the antichristian cruelties; and the "children after", the great numbers of converts upon the fall of antichrist. The words may be rendered, "the children of thine orbity" o, or "childless state"; such as were born unto her in an uncommon, extraordinary, and unexpected way, when the church seemed to be in a widowhood estate, or like a woman that is past bearing children:

shall say again in thine ears; or, "shall yet say" p; that is, hereafter, in time to come: for this is a prophecy of what should be said in the church's hearing, and such as had never been said before; and therefore improperly rendered "again"; for there never has been as yet such a time as this, or such a large number of converts, as to say,

the place is too strait for me to dwell in; there is not room enough for us, as in 2Ki 6:1,

give place to me that I may dwell; one and another of the children or converts should say, make room for me, that I may have a name and a place among you, and dwell with you, and abide in the house of the Lord, and partake of the privileges and ordinances of it: but the word used signifies drawing nigh, and not giving way or removing; and should rather be rendered, "draw nigh to me that I may dwell"; or "and I shall dwell" q, or "sit"; come close to one another, and we shall all sit and dwell comfortably together; just as when a house is well filled with agreeable company, and there is an unwillingness to part with or lose any, they are desired to sit close together, that there may be room for all: and this is, and will be, the case with the church and her members; they will be desirous to sit regularly, and close together, in Gospel order, that everyone may be comfortable, and partake of the benefit of communion, and none be obliged to depart: and to this sense Gussetius r interprets the phrase.

Gill: Isa 49:21 - Then shalt thou say in thine heart // who hath begotten me these // for they are not born of blood, nor of the will of man, nor of the will of the flesh // seeing I have lost my children // and am desolate // and a captive // and removing to and fro // and who hath brought up these // behold, I was left alone // these, where had they been Then shalt thou say in thine heart,.... In, a way of admiration, secretly within herself, astonished at the numerous crowds flocking in; who hath b...

Then shalt thou say in thine heart,.... In, a way of admiration, secretly within herself, astonished at the numerous crowds flocking in;

who hath begotten me these? not their natural parents, nor they themselves;

for they are not born of blood, nor of the will of man, nor of the will of the flesh; nor ministers of the Gospel, though they are instruments, yet not the cause; but God only, Father, Son, and Spirit, to whom regeneration is only ascribed: regeneration is a wonderful work of God; it is unaccountable to the natural man; it is amazing to the saints themselves; and it is matter of astonishment to the church of God; especially when on a sudden, and without means, and in great numbers, men are born again; and particularly when these come from among the Gentiles, which seems to be the case here:

seeing I have lost my children; by captivity and the sword, by the tyranny and cruelty of the man of sin:

and am desolate; or alone, as if without a husband, or any to take care of her: this represents the church in the wilderness, during the reign of antichrist, Rev 12:14, while she seems to be forsaken of the Lord her husband, though she is not:

and a captive; to the Romish antichrist; see Rev 13:10,

and removing to and fro; being forced to flee from place to place, by reason of persecution: there is, no doubt, an allusion in all this to the case of the Jews in the Babylonish captivity:

and who hath brought up these? the same that begot them, even the Lord himself; who nourishes and brings up his children with the milk of the Gospel, and the breasts of Gospel ordinances; so that they are brought up from children to young men, from young men to fathers, till they become perfect men; even the church in the wilderness, with her children, are nourished by him, for a time, and times, and half a time, Rev 12:14 which is wonderful:

behold, I was left alone; seemingly without husband or children, in a desolate and wilderness state:

these, where had they been? in the ruins of Adam's fall; in a state of darkness; in the graves of sin; in a pit wherein is no water; in the hands of Satan, and among wicked men; even in Babylon itself, but now called out; see Rev 18:4.

Gill: Isa 49:22 - Thus saith the Lord God // I will lift up mine hand to the Gentiles // and set up my standard to the people // and they shall bring thy sons in their arms // and thy daughters shall be carried on their shoulders Thus saith the Lord God,.... In answer to the questions, where had these children been? and from whence did they come? who begot them, and brought the...

Thus saith the Lord God,.... In answer to the questions, where had these children been? and from whence did they come? who begot them, and brought them up? and by what means was all this done, or would be done?

I will lift up mine hand to the Gentiles; beckoning them to come unto him, directing and ordering them what to do; or rather exerting the power of his grace in the conversion of them. The Targum is,

"I will reveal my power among the Gentiles;''

his efficacious grace attending the ministry of the word, whereby it becomes "the power of God unto salvation"; for when that hand is lifted up or exerted, the "word" comes "not in word only", "but in power, and in the Holy Ghost", and is effectual to saving purposes:

and set up my standard to the people; meaning Christ, "the ensign of the people"; who, in the ministration of the Gospel, is set up as a standard, to gather persons to him, as an ensign or standard is set up by a general of an army to collect soldiers to him, to come and enlist, and fight under his banners; see Isa 11:10,

and they shall bring thy sons in their arms; or, "bosom" s; such as are regenerated by the Spirit and grace of God, under the word, are to be tenderly dealt with by the ministers of the Gospel, as they are by Christ, Isa 40:11 and to be encouraged to come and join themselves to the church, and be directed and assisted by them in that service:

and thy daughters shall be carried on their shoulders; meaning the same as before, only perhaps weaker converts, dealing with them according to their infirmities; carrying them with as much ease, care, and tenderness, as young children are carried on the shoulders of their parents or others. It may be these expressions are designed to show how assisting and encouraging the Christian Gentiles will be to the Jews, when converted in their several countries, both to admit them into Gospel churches, and bring them into their own land; see Isa 66:19.

Gill: Isa 49:23 - And kings shall be thy nursing fathers, and their queens thy nursing mothers // they shall bow down toward thee with their faces toward the earth // and lick up the dust of thy feet // and thou shalt know that I am the Lord // for they shall not be ashamed that wait for me And kings shall be thy nursing fathers, and their queens thy nursing mothers,.... Who shall show favour and respect to the church and people of God, g...

And kings shall be thy nursing fathers, and their queens thy nursing mothers,.... Who shall show favour and respect to the church and people of God, grant them liberty, and protect and defend them in their religious privileges: for this is to be understood not figuratively of apostles and apostolical men, as Jerom, who are kings and priests unto God, and who feed the church with the milk of the word, and the breasts of ordinances; but literally of the kings and queens of the earth; and is thought to have had its fulfilment, at least in part, in Cyrus, Ahasuerus, Esther, and others; but more so in Christian kings and queens, as Constantine and Helena, Theodosius and Placilla, and others; and will have a far greater accomplishment in the latter day glory; see Isa 60:3,

they shall bow down toward thee with their faces toward the earth; which expresses the great veneration and respect these great personages shall have for the church of God, and their entire submission and subjection to the Gospel of Christ, and the ordinances of it, and to the laws and discipline of his house; for they shall now become members of the Christian church, and be entirely under the government of it, as to religious things; see Rev 3:9.

and lick up the dust of thy feet; the allusion is to the eastern nations, especially the Persians, who, in the adoration of their kings, used to kiss the ground they stood on, and seemed to lick, if they did not, the dust that was about them; and it expresses the very low submission of kings and princes to the church, and their high veneration of it; their willingness to do the meanest office for the good of it, and their great regard and affection for the meanest of its members, the dust of Zion; see Psa 72:9,

and thou shalt know that I am the Lord; the King of kings, and Lord of lords, who has the hearts of all men, even of kings, in his hands, and can turn them, and bring them to a thorough submission to his will; and who is able to accomplish all his promises, and is true and faithful to them; this will be known and owned by the church, when the above things have their accomplishment:

for they shall not be ashamed that wait for me; or for my salvation, as the Targum; for favours from him; for the light of his countenance; for the discoveries and application of pardoning grace; for the performance of promises; for answers of prayer; for his spiritual coming, and for eternal glory and happiness; these shall not be ashamed of him for whom they wait, nor of their hope and expectation of him, nor at his coming.

Gill: Isa 49:24 - Shall the prey be taken from the mighty // or the lawful captive delivered Shall the prey be taken from the mighty,.... This is an objection to the accomplishment of what is predicted and promised above, taken from the power ...

Shall the prey be taken from the mighty,.... This is an objection to the accomplishment of what is predicted and promised above, taken from the power of the enemy, and his right to detain the people; and are either the words of the nations among whom the Jews were, according to Kimchi, boasting of, and presuming upon, and opposing to what is said, both their might and right, to keep the people in their own hands, bidding as it were defiance to any to attempt to take them from them; or the words of the prophet, in the name of the people, as Aben Ezra, objecting to their deliverance, doubting the effecting of it, or admiring at it: it may be applied to the taking of the Lord's people out of the hands of Satan, who may be said to be "mighty" or "strong", as he appears to be from his nature, a spirit; from his names, the strong man armed, a roaring lion, the great red dragon, leviathan, the piercing serpent, &c.; and from his power and dominion over the evil angels, and over men, both their bodies and souls; and to whom the Lord's own people are a "prey", while they are in a state of nature, as all mankind, and every unconverted man, be; a difficult thing it is to take any out of his hands, and a wonder of grace it is when it is done:

or the lawful captive delivered? justly and lawfully taken captive in war, as the Jews were by the Babylonians: or, "the captivity of the righteous be delivered" t; that is, either the righteous who were taken captives; or those that took them, who were so in their opinion, at least with respect to the taking of them, doing, as they judged, what was lawful and just. The people of God are in their state of nature led by Satan at his will, and are lawful captives in the judgment of him, and his principalities; and are in reality taken in war by him, and not only led captive by him at his will, but with their own will, and are justly given up unto him. Perhaps all this may be better referred to the people of God being a prey to the Romish antichrist, and detained as a lawful captive by him, and to the difficult and wonderful deliverance of them from him in the latter day; see Rev 13:4. The Targum interprets this and the following verse of the captives of Esau and Ishmael, by whom seem to be meant the Pope and Turk.

Gill: Isa 49:25 - But thus saith the Lord // even the captives of the mighty shall be taken away, and the prey of the terrible shall be delivered // for I will contend with them that contend with thee // and I will save thy children But thus saith the Lord,.... In answer to the above objection, being mightier than the mighty, and stronger than he by whom his people are detained, b...

But thus saith the Lord,.... In answer to the above objection, being mightier than the mighty, and stronger than he by whom his people are detained, being the Almighty:

even the captives of the mighty shall be taken away, and the prey of the terrible shall be delivered; or, "the prey of the violent ones" u; which is an answer both as to might and right; as to might, though they are the captives of the mighty, yet they shall be taken away from them by him that is mightier than they, even the mighty God; and as to right, they are the prey of persons that have by force and violence usurped a power over them, and therefore shall be delivered; as the Lord's people are out of the hands of Satan; both in redemption by Christ out of the hands of him that is stronger than they; and in conversion by him who is stronger than the strong man armed; and enters into their hearts, the palace of the devil, spoils his goods, takes his armour from him, overcomes and binds him, and delivers them from his power; so that he shall not have dominion over them, and much less destroy them, though he may sometimes be terrible to them by his temptations, Jer 31:11. This will have a further accomplishment, in the deliverance of the Lord's people from the mighty and terrible beast of Rome:

for I will contend with them that contend with thee; the Babylonians literally; Satan and his principalities figuratively; and also antichrist, and the antichristian kings and states, that quarrel with, fight against, and oppress the Lord's people:

and I will save thy children; regenerate persons, the members of the church, be they where they will; these the Lord will save with a temporal, spiritual, and eternal salvation, Deliverance from the Romish yoke and oppression seems to be here chiefly designed, when Jezebel's children will be killed with death, as follows; see Rev 2:23.

Gill: Isa 49:26 - And I will feed them that oppress thee with their own flesh // and they shall be drunken with their own blood as with sweet wine // and all flesh shall know that I the Lord am thy Saviour and thy Redeemer, the mighty One of Jacob And I will feed them that oppress thee with their own flesh,.... Not that they should feed upon their own flesh, because of famine, for this was not t...

And I will feed them that oppress thee with their own flesh,.... Not that they should feed upon their own flesh, because of famine, for this was not the case of Babylon when taken; but that they should destroy one another, as the Midianites did; and which was true of some of the Babylonians, who assisted Cyrus in taking the city, and destroying the inhabitants of it; and will be verified in the Popish party killing one another:

and they shall be drunken with their own blood as with sweet wine; which denotes the abundance of blood that shall be shed, and the pleasure in shedding of it. It will be a righteous thing with God to give the whore of Rome her own blood to drink, even so as to be made drunk with it as with wine, who has been drunk already with the blood of the saints, Rev 16:6. The Targum is,

"I will give the flesh of them that oppress thee for food to every fowl of the heavens; and as they are drunken with wine, so the beasts of the field shall be drunken with their blood;''

see Rev 19:17,

and all flesh shall know that I the Lord am thy Saviour and thy Redeemer, the mighty One of Jacob; it shall be notorious to all the world, that Jehovah, the "Lord" of lords, the Lord of the whole earth, is the "Saviour and Redeemer" of his church and people out of all their afflictions, oppressions, and persecutions, by the Romish antichrist; this will be apparently seen, and publicly owned and acknowledged, when antichrist shall be destroyed, and the church saved; by which it will be manifest, it being the Lord's work, and wondrous in the eyes of men, that he is "the mighty One of Jacob", able to help and save them.

buka semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki

NET Notes: Isa 49:1 Heb “from the inner parts of my mother he mentioned my name.”

NET Notes: Isa 49:2 The figurative language emphasizes the servant’s importance as the Lord’s effective instrument. The servant’s mouth, which stands me...

NET Notes: Isa 49:3 This verse identifies the servant as Israel. This seems to refer to the exiled nation (cf. 41:8-9; 44:1-2, 21; 45:4; 48:20), but in vv. 5-6 this serva...

NET Notes: Isa 49:4 Heb “But my justice is with the Lord, and my reward [or “wage”] with my God.”

NET Notes: Isa 49:5 Heb “and my God is [perhaps, “having been”] my strength.” The disjunctive structure (vav [ו] + subject + verb) is interp...

NET Notes: Isa 49:6 Heb “be” (so KJV, ASV); CEV “you must take.”

NET Notes: Isa 49:7 For this sense of קוּם (qum), see Gen 19:1; 23:7; 33:10; Lev 19:32; 1 Sam 20:41; 25:41; 1 Kgs 2:19; Job 29:8.

NET Notes: Isa 49:8 The “land” probably stands by metonymy for the ruins within it.

NET Notes: Isa 49:9 Heb “show yourselves” (so ASV, NAB, NASB).

NET Notes: Isa 49:10 Heb “and the heat and the sun will not strike them.” In Isa 35:7, its only other occurrence in the OT, שָׁרָ...

NET Notes: Isa 49:12 The precise location of the land of Sinim is uncertain, but since the north and west are mentioned in the previous line, it was a probably located in ...

NET Notes: Isa 49:13 Heb “his” (so KJV, NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV).

NET Notes: Isa 49:14 The Hebrew term translated “sovereign master” here is אֲדֹנָי (’adonay).

NET Notes: Isa 49:15 The argument of v. 15 seems to develop as follows: The Lord has an innate attachment to Zion, just like a mother does for her infant child. But even i...

NET Notes: Isa 49:16 Heb “you.” Here the pronoun is put by metonymy for the person’s name.

NET Notes: Isa 49:18 Heb “Lift up around your eyes and see.”

NET Notes: Isa 49:19 Heb “Indeed your ruins and your desolate places, and the land of your destruction.” This statement is abruptly terminated in the Hebrew te...

NET Notes: Isa 49:20 Heb “draw near to me so I can dwell.”

NET Notes: Isa 49:21 Or “exiled and thrust away”; NIV “exiled and rejected.”

NET Notes: Isa 49:23 Or “at your feet” (NAB, NIV); NLT “from your feet.”

NET Notes: Isa 49:24 The Hebrew text has צָדִיק (tsadiq, “a righteous [one]”), but this makes no sense in the parallelism. ...

NET Notes: Isa 49:26 Heb “the powerful [one] of Jacob.” See 1:24.

Geneva Bible: Isa 49:1 Listen, to me O isles; and hearken, ye people, from far; The LORD hath called ( a ) me from ( b ) the womb; from the body of my mother hath he made me...

Geneva Bible: Isa 49:2 And he hath made my mouth like a sharp ( c ) sword; in the shadow of his hand hath he ( d ) hid me, and made me a polished shaft; in his quiver hath h...

Geneva Bible: Isa 49:3 And said to me, Thou [art] my servant, O ( e ) Israel, in whom I will be glorified. ( e ) By Israel is meant Christ, and all the body of the faithful...

Geneva Bible: Isa 49:4 Then I said, I have ( f ) laboured in vain, I have spent my strength for nothing, and in vain: [yet] surely my judgment [is] with the LORD, and my wor...

Geneva Bible: Isa 49:5 And now, saith the LORD that formed me from the womb [to be] his servant, to bring Jacob again to him, Though Israel be not gathered, ( g ) yet shall ...

Geneva Bible: Isa 49:6 And he said, It is a light thing that thou shouldest be my servant to raise up the tribes of Jacob, and to restore the preserved of Israel: I will als...

Geneva Bible: Isa 49:7 Thus saith the LORD, the Redeemer of Israel, [and] his Holy One, to him whom man despiseth, to him whom the nation abhorreth, to a ( i ) servant of ru...

Geneva Bible: Isa 49:8 Thus saith the LORD, ( l ) In an acceptable time have I heard thee, and in a day of salvation have I helped thee: and I will preserve thee, and give (...

Geneva Bible: Isa 49:9 That thou mayest say to the ( o ) prisoners, Go forth; to them that [are] in darkness, Show yourselves. They shall feed in the ways, and their ( p ) p...

Geneva Bible: Isa 49:10 They shall not hunger nor thirst; neither shall the heat nor sun smite them: for he that hath mercy ( q ) on them shall lead them, even by the springs...

Geneva Bible: Isa 49:12 Behold, these shall come from far: and, lo, these from the north and from the west; and these from the land of ( r ) Sinim. ( r ) Meaning, the south ...

Geneva Bible: Isa 49:13 Sing, O ( s ) heavens; and be joyful, O earth; and break forth into singing, O mountains: for the LORD hath comforted his people, and will have mercy ...

Geneva Bible: Isa 49:14 But Zion said, The LORD hath ( t ) forsaken me, and my Lord hath forgotten me. ( t ) He objects what the faithful might say in their long affliction ...

Geneva Bible: Isa 49:16 Behold, I have graven thee upon the palms of [my] ( u ) hands; thy ( x ) walls [are] continually before me. ( u ) Because I would not forget you. ( ...

Geneva Bible: Isa 49:17 Thy children shall make ( y ) haste; thy destroyers and they that made thee waste shall go forth from thee. ( y ) I have continual care to build you ...

Geneva Bible: Isa 49:18 Lift up thy eyes around, and behold: all these gather themselves together, [and] come to thee. [As] I live, saith the LORD, thou shalt surely ( z ) cl...

Geneva Bible: Isa 49:22 Thus saith the Lord GOD, Behold, I will lift up my hand to the ( a ) Gentiles, and set up my standard to the people: and they shall bring thy sons in ...

Geneva Bible: Isa 49:23 And kings ( b ) shall be thy nursing fathers, and their queens thy nursing mothers: they shall bow to thee with [their] face toward the earth, and lic...

Geneva Bible: Isa 49:24 Shall the prey be ( d ) taken from the mighty, or the lawful captive delivered? ( d ) He makes this as an objection as though the Chaldeans were stro...

Geneva Bible: Isa 49:25 But thus saith the LORD, ( e ) Even the captives of the mighty shall be taken away, and the prey of the terrible shall be delivered: for I will conten...

Geneva Bible: Isa 49:26 And I will feed them that oppress thee with ( f ) their own flesh; and they shall be drunk with their own blood, as with sweet wine: and all flesh sha...

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Rentang Ayat

Maclaren: Isa 49:9 - A Libation To Jehovah Feeding In The Ways They shall feed in the ways, and their pastures shall be in all high places.' Isaiah 49:9. THIS is part of the prophet's glowing ...

Maclaren: Isa 49:11 - A Libation To Jehovah The Mountain Road And I will make all My mountains a way, and My highways shall be exalted.'--Isaiah 49:11. This grand prophecy is far too wide to be...

MHCC: Isa 49:1-6 - --The great Author of redemption shows the authority for his work. The sword of his word slays the lusts of his people, and all at enmity with them. His...

MHCC: Isa 49:7-12 - --The Father is the Lord, the Redeemer, and Holy One of Israel, as sending the Son to be the Redeemer. Man, whom he came to save, put contempt upon him....

MHCC: Isa 49:13-17 - --Let there be universal joy, for God will have mercy upon the afflicted, because of his compassion; upon his afflicted, because of his covenant. We hav...

MHCC: Isa 49:18-23 - --Zion is addressed as an afflicted widow, bereaved of her children. Numbers flock to her, and she is assured that they come to be a comfort to her. The...

MHCC: Isa 49:24-26 - --We were lawful captives to the justice of God, yet delivered by a price of unspeakable value. Here is an express promise: Even the prey of the terribl...

Matthew Henry: Isa 49:1-6 - -- Here, I. An auditory is summoned together and attention demanded. The sermon in the foregoing chapter was directed to the house of Jacob and the peo...

Matthew Henry: Isa 49:7-12 - -- In these verses we have, I. The humiliation and exaltation of the Messiah (Isa 49:7): The Lord, the Redeemer of Israel, and Israel's Holy One, who...

Matthew Henry: Isa 49:13-17 - -- The scope of these verses is to show that the return of the people of God out of their captivity, and the eternal redemption to be wrought out by Ch...

Matthew Henry: Isa 49:18-23 - -- Two things are here promised, which were to be in part accomplished in the reviving of the Jewish church after its return out of captivity, but more...

Matthew Henry: Isa 49:24-26 - -- Here is, I. An objection started against the promise of the Jews' release out of their captivity in Babylon, suggesting that it was a thing not to b...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 49:1-3 - -- The very same person who was introduced by Jehovah in Isa 42:1. here speaks for himself, commencing thus in Isa 49:1-3 : "Listen, O isles, unto me;...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 49:4 - -- In the next v. the speaker meets the words of divine calling and promise with a complaint, which immediately silences itself, however. "And I, I sa...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 49:5-6 - -- The expression "and now"( ועתּה ), which follows, evidently indicates a fresh turn in the official life of the person speaking here. At the same...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 49:7 - -- The words of the servant of God, in which he enforces his claim upon the nations, are now lost in words of Jehovah to him, which are no longer repor...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 49:8-12 - -- The next two vv. describe (though only with reference to Israel, the immediate circle) what is the glory of the vocation to which Jehovah, in accord...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 49:13 - -- In this return of the exiles from every quarter of the globe to their fatherland, and for this mighty work of God on behalf of His church, which has...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 49:14-16 - -- The prophet, looking back at the period of suffering from the standpoint of the deliverance, exclaims from the midst of this train of thought: Isa 4...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 49:17-18 - -- It is this fact of a renewed glorification which presents itself afresh to the prophet's mind. "Thy children make haste, thy destroyers and masters...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 49:19-20 - -- Thus will Zion shine forth once more with the multitude of her children as with a festal adorning. "For thy ruins and thy waste places and thy land...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 49:21 - -- The words that sound in the ears of Zion are now followed by the thought of astonishment and surprise, that rises up in her heart. "And thou wilt s...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 49:22 - -- The prophecy now takes a step backward in the domain of the future, and describes the manner in which the children of Zion get back to their home. ...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 49:23 - -- Such affectionate treatment does the church receive, which is assembling once more upon its native soil, whilst kings and their consorts hasten to s...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 49:24-26 - -- There follows now a sceptical question prompted by weakness of faith; and the divine reply. The question, Isa 49:24 : "Can the booty indeed be wres...

Constable: Isa 40:1--55:13 - --IV. Israel's calling in the world chs. 40--55 This part of Isaiah picks up a theme from chapters 1-39 and develo...