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Teks -- Isaiah 20:1-6 (NET)

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Konteks
20:1 The Lord revealed the following message during the year in which King Sargon of Assyria sent his commanding general to Ashdod, and he fought against it and captured it. 20:2 At that time the Lord announced through Isaiah son of Amoz: “Go, remove the sackcloth from your waist and take your sandals off your feet.” He did as instructed and walked around in undergarments and barefoot. 20:3 Later the Lord explained, “In the same way that my servant Isaiah has walked around in undergarments and barefoot for the past three years, as an object lesson and omen pertaining to Egypt and Cush, 20:4 so the king of Assyria will lead away the captives of Egypt and the exiles of Cush, both young and old. They will be in undergarments and barefoot, with the buttocks exposed; the Egyptians will be publicly humiliated. 20:5 Those who put their hope in Cush and took pride in Egypt will be afraid and embarrassed. 20:6 At that time those who live on this coast will say, ‘Look what has happened to our source of hope to whom we fled for help, expecting to be rescued from the king of Assyria! How can we escape now?’”
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Amoz father of the prophet Isaiah
 · Ashdod a town on the western coast of the territory of Judah
 · Assyria a member of the nation of Assyria
 · Egypt descendants of Mizraim
 · Ethiopia a country south of Egypt
 · Ethiopian a man of Ethiopia,a member of the nation of Ethiopia
 · Isaiah a son of Amoz; a prophet active in Judah from about 740 to 701 B.C.,son of Amoz; a major prophet in the time of Hezekiah
 · Sargon the king of Assyria in the time of Isaiah the prophet


Topik/Tema Kamus: Ethiopia | Captive | ISAIAH, 8-9 | No | Giants | Isaiah | Assyria | BAREFOOT | Egypt | Sargon | Ashdod | PHILISTINES | Symbols and Similitudes | FOOT | NAKED; NAKEDNESS | Tartan | Mourning | Minister | Pantomime | LACHISH | selebihnya
Daftar Isi

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Wesley , JFB , Clarke , Calvin , Defender , TSK

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Poole , Haydock , Gill

Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki
NET Notes , Geneva Bible

Catatan Rentang Ayat
MHCC , Matthew Henry , Keil-Delitzsch , Constable , Guzik

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Wesley: Isa 20:1 - Sargon Sennacherib, who, before he came to Jerusalem, came up against and took all the walled cities of Judah, of which Ashdod might be reckoned one, as bein...

Sennacherib, who, before he came to Jerusalem, came up against and took all the walled cities of Judah, of which Ashdod might be reckoned one, as being in the tribe of Judah.

Wesley: Isa 20:2 - Sackcloth Which he wore in token of his grief for the calamities that were already come upon Israel, and were coming upon Judah.

Which he wore in token of his grief for the calamities that were already come upon Israel, and were coming upon Judah.

Wesley: Isa 20:2 - Naked Not wholly naked, but without his upper garment, as slaves and prisoners used to do, whose posture he was to represent.

Not wholly naked, but without his upper garment, as slaves and prisoners used to do, whose posture he was to represent.

Wesley: Isa 20:2 - Bare foot - After the manner of mourners and captives.

foot - After the manner of mourners and captives.

Wesley: Isa 20:3 - Three years Not constantly, but when he went abroad among the people, to whom this was appointed for a sign.

Not constantly, but when he went abroad among the people, to whom this was appointed for a sign.

Wesley: Isa 20:3 - A sign When this judgment should come, namely, three years after this prophecy.

When this judgment should come, namely, three years after this prophecy.

Wesley: Isa 20:4 - Uncovered Having their garments cut off by the middle.

Having their garments cut off by the middle.

Wesley: Isa 20:5 - They All that shall trust to them. But under this general expression the Israelites, seem to be principally intended.

All that shall trust to them. But under this general expression the Israelites, seem to be principally intended.

Wesley: Isa 20:6 - Of the country Of this land, in which the prophet was, and to whose inhabitants, these words were uttered.

Of this land, in which the prophet was, and to whose inhabitants, these words were uttered.

Wesley: Isa 20:6 - Such So vain is our hope placed upon such a people as are unable to deliver themselves.

So vain is our hope placed upon such a people as are unable to deliver themselves.

JFB: Isa 20:1 - Tartan Probably the same general as was sent by Sennacherib against Hezekiah (2Ki 18:17). GESENIUS takes "Tartan" as a title.

Probably the same general as was sent by Sennacherib against Hezekiah (2Ki 18:17). GESENIUS takes "Tartan" as a title.

JFB: Isa 20:1 - Ashdod Called by the Greeks Azotus (Act 8:40); on the Mediterranean, one of the "five" cities of the Philistines. The taking of it was a necessary preliminar...

Called by the Greeks Azotus (Act 8:40); on the Mediterranean, one of the "five" cities of the Philistines. The taking of it was a necessary preliminary to the invasion of Egypt, to which it was the key in that quarter, the Philistines being allies of Egypt. So strongly did the Assyrians fortify it that it stood a twenty-nine years' siege, when it was retaken by the Egyptian Psammetichus.

JFB: Isa 20:1 - sent Sargon himself remained behind engaged with the Phœnician cities, or else led the main force more directly into Egypt out of Judah [G. V. SMITH].

Sargon himself remained behind engaged with the Phœnician cities, or else led the main force more directly into Egypt out of Judah [G. V. SMITH].

JFB: Isa 20:2 - by Literally, "by the hand of" (compare Eze 3:14).

Literally, "by the hand of" (compare Eze 3:14).

JFB: Isa 20:2 - sackcloth The loose outer garment of coarse dark hair-cloth worn by mourners (2Sa 3:31) and by prophets, fastened at the waist by a girdle (Mat 3:4; 2Ki 1:8; Ze...

The loose outer garment of coarse dark hair-cloth worn by mourners (2Sa 3:31) and by prophets, fastened at the waist by a girdle (Mat 3:4; 2Ki 1:8; Zec 13:4).

JFB: Isa 20:2 - naked Rather, "uncovered"; he merely put off the outer sackcloth, retaining still the tunic or inner vest (1Sa 19:24; Amo 2:16; Joh 21:7); an emblem to show...

Rather, "uncovered"; he merely put off the outer sackcloth, retaining still the tunic or inner vest (1Sa 19:24; Amo 2:16; Joh 21:7); an emblem to show that Egypt should be stripped of its possessions; the very dress of Isaiah was a silent exhortation to repentance.

JFB: Isa 20:3 - three years Isaiah's symbolical action did not continue all this time, but at intervals, to keep it before the people's mind during that period [ROSENMULLER]. Rat...

Isaiah's symbolical action did not continue all this time, but at intervals, to keep it before the people's mind during that period [ROSENMULLER]. Rather, join "three years" with "sign," a three years' sign, that is, a sign that a three years' calamity would come on Egypt and Ethiopia [BARNES], (Isa 8:18). This is the only instance of a strictly symbolical act performed by Isaiah. With later prophets, as Jeremiah and Ezekiel, such acts were common. In some cases they were performed, not literally, but only in prophetic vision.

JFB: Isa 20:3 - wonder Rather, "omen"; conveying a threat as to the future [G. V. SMITH].

Rather, "omen"; conveying a threat as to the future [G. V. SMITH].

JFB: Isa 20:3 - upon In reference to, against.

In reference to, against.

JFB: Isa 20:4 - buttocks uncovered BELZONI says that captives are found represented thus on Egyptian monuments (Isa 47:2-3; Nah 3:5, Nah 3:8-9), where as here, Egypt and Ethiopia are me...

BELZONI says that captives are found represented thus on Egyptian monuments (Isa 47:2-3; Nah 3:5, Nah 3:8-9), where as here, Egypt and Ethiopia are mentioned as in alliance.

JFB: Isa 20:5 - they The Philistine allies of Egypt who trusted in it for help against Assyria. A warning to the party among the Jews, who, though Judah was then the subor...

The Philistine allies of Egypt who trusted in it for help against Assyria. A warning to the party among the Jews, who, though Judah was then the subordinate ally of Assyria, were looking to Egypt as a preferable ally (Isa 30:7). Ethiopia was their "expectation"; for Palestine had not yet obtained, but hoped for alliance with it. Egypt was their "glory," that is, boast (Isa 13:19); for the alliance with it was completed.

JFB: Isa 20:6 - isle That is, coast on the Mediterranean--Philistia, perhaps Phœnicia (compare Isa 23:2; Isa 11:11; Isa 13:22; Psa 72:10).

That is, coast on the Mediterranean--Philistia, perhaps Phœnicia (compare Isa 23:2; Isa 11:11; Isa 13:22; Psa 72:10).

JFB: Isa 20:6 - we Emphatical; if Egypt, in which we trusted, was overcome, how shall we, a small weak state, escape? He does not narrate the event, but graphically sup...

Emphatical; if Egypt, in which we trusted, was overcome, how shall we, a small weak state, escape?

He does not narrate the event, but graphically supposes himself a watchman in Babylon, beholding the events as they pass.

Clarke: Isa 20:2 - Walking naked and barefoot Walking naked and barefoot - It is not probable that the prophet walked uncovered and barefoot for three years; his appearing in that manner was a s...

Walking naked and barefoot - It is not probable that the prophet walked uncovered and barefoot for three years; his appearing in that manner was a sign that within three years the Egyptians and Cushites should be in the same condition, being conquered and made captives by the king of Assyria. The time was denoted as well as the event; but his appearing in that manner for three whole years could give no premonition of the time at all. It is probable, therefore, that the prophet was ordered to walk so for three days to denote the accomplishment of the event in three years; a day for a year, according to the prophetical rule, Num 14:34; Eze 4:6. The words שלש ימים shalosh yamim , three days, may possibly have been lost out of the text, at the end of the second verse, after יחף yacheph , barefoot; or after the same word in the third verse, where, in the Alexandrine and Vatican copies of the Septuagint, and in MSS. Pachom. and 1. D. 2 the words τρια ετη, three years, are twice expressed. Perhaps, instead of שלש ימים shalosh yamim , three days, the Greek translator might read שלש שנים shalosh shanim , three years, by his own mistake, or by that of his copy, after יחף yacheph in the third verse, for which stands the first τρια ετη, three years, in the Alexandrine and Vatican Septuagint, and in the two MSS. above mentioned. It is most likely that Isaiah’ s walking naked and barefoot was done in a vision; as was probably that of the Prophet Hosea taking a wife of whoredoms. None of these things can well be taken literally

Clarke: Isa 20:2 - From thy foot From thy foot - רגליך ragleycha , thy feet, is the reading of thirty-four of Kennicott’ s and De Rossi’ s MSS., four ancient edition...

From thy foot - רגליך ragleycha , thy feet, is the reading of thirty-four of Kennicott’ s and De Rossi’ s MSS., four ancient editions, with the Septuagint, Syriac, Vulgate, and Arabic.

Calvin: Isa 20:1 - In the year that Tartan came to Ashdod 1.In the year that Tartan came to Ashdod In the preceding chapter Isaiah prophesied about the calamity which threatened Egypt, and at the same time p...

1.In the year that Tartan came to Ashdod In the preceding chapter Isaiah prophesied about the calamity which threatened Egypt, and at the same time promised to it the mercy of God. He now introduces the same subject, and shews that Israel will be put to shame by this chastisement of the Egyptians, because they placed their confidence in Egypt. He now joins Ethiopia, which makes it probable that the Ethiopians were leagued with the Egyptians, as I have formerly remarked, and as we shall see again at the thirty-seventh chapter.

First, we must observe the time of this prediction. It was when the Jews were pressed hard by necessity to resort, even against their will, to foreign nations for assistance. Sacred history informs us (2Kg 18:17) that Tartan was one of Sennacherib’s captains, which constrains us to acknowledge that this Sargon was Sennacherib, who had two names, as may be easily learned from this passage. We must also consider what was the condition of Israel, for the ten tribes had been led into captivity. Judea appeared almost to be utterly ruined, for nearly the whole country was conquered, except Jerusalem, which was besieged by Rabshakeh. (2Kg 18:13.) Tartan, on the other hand, was besieging Ashdod. Sacred history (2Kg 18:17) mentions three captains; 60 and this makes it probable that Sennacherib’s forces were at that time divided into three parts, that at the same instant he might strike terror on all, and might throw them into such perplexity and confusion that they could not render assistance to each other. Nothing was now left for the Jews but to call foreign nations to their aid. In the mean time, Isaiah is sent by God to declare that their expectation is vain in relying on the Egyptians, against whom the arm of the Lord was now lifted up, and who were so far from assisting them, that they were unable to defend themselves against their enemies. Hence the Jews ought to acknowledge that they are justly punished for their unbelief, because they had forsaken God and fled to the Egyptians.

We must consider the end which is here proposed, for the design of God was not to forewarn the Egyptians, but to correct the unbelief of the people, which incessantly carried them away to false and wicked hopes. In order therefore to teach them that they ought to rely on God alone, the Prophet here foretells what awaits their useless helpers. The warning was highly seasonable, for the Ethiopians had begun to repel the Assyrians, and had forced them to retire, and no event could have occurred which would have been more gladly hailed by the Jews. Lest those successful beginnings should make them wanton, he foretells that this aid will be of short duration, because both the Ethiopians and the Egyptians will soon be most disgracefully vanquished.

Calvin: Isa 20:2 - Go and loose the sackcloth from thy loins 2.Go and loose the sackcloth from thy loins In order to confirm this prophecy by the use of a symbol, the Lord commanded Isaiah to walk naked. If Isa...

2.Go and loose the sackcloth from thy loins In order to confirm this prophecy by the use of a symbol, the Lord commanded Isaiah to walk naked. If Isaiah had done this of his own accord, he would have been justly ridiculed; but when he does it by the command of the Lord, we perceive nothing but what is fitted to excite admiration and to strike awe. In this nakedness, and in the signs of a similar kind, something weighty is implied. Besides, the Lord does nothing either by himself or by his servants without likewise explaining the reason; and therefore the Prophet does not merely walk naked, but points out the design which the Lord had in view in ordering him to do so. In other respects false prophets imitate the true servants of God, and put on varied and imposing shapes, to dazzle the eyes of the multitude, and gain credit to themselves; but those symbols are worthless, because God is not the author of them.

This ought to be carefully observed in opposition to the Papists, who bring forward empty ceremonies instead of true sacraments. This is the rule with which we ought to meet them. If they proceed from God, we ought to embrace them, but if not, we may boldly reject them; and, indeed, they cannot be adopted without offering an insult to God, because in such cases men usurp his authority. Besides, God does not bring forward signs without the word, for what would a sacrament be if we beheld nothing but the sign? It is the doctrine alone that makes the sacrament, and therefore let us know that it is mere hypocrisy where no doctrine is taught, and that Papists act wickedly when they lay aside doctrine, and give the name of sacrament to empty ceremonies; for the Lord has connected them in such a manner that no man can separate them without infringing that order which he has enjoined.

When the Lord commands him to loose the sackcloth; almost all the commentators infer from it that Isaiah at that time wore a garment of mourning, because he bewailed the distressed condition of Israel; for sackcloth was a mourning dress, as is evident from Joel (Joe 1:13.) Their interpretation is, that this was done in order that, in the dress of culprits, he might supplicate pardon from God, or that it was impossible for his countenance or his dress to be cheerful when his heart was sad, and he could not but be affected with the deepest grief when he beheld so great a calamity. Some think that it was his ordinary dress, because the Prophets, as Zechariah informs us, commonly wore a mantle. (Zec 13:4.) But that conjecture rests on exceedingly slight grounds, and has no great probability. It is more probable that he wore sackcloth as expressive of mourning. Judea was at that time sunk into such a state of indifference, that when men saw their brethren wretchedly distressed and wasted, still they were not affected by it, and did not think that the affliction of their brethren was a matter which at all concerned them. They still thought that they were beyond the reach of danger, and mocked at the Prophets when they threatened and foretold destruction. Hence Micah also complains that no man bewails the distresses of Israel. (Mic 1:11.)

A question arises, Was this actually done, or was it merely and simply a vision which he told to the people? The general opinion is, that the Prophet never went naked, but that this was exhibited to him in a vision, and only once. They allege as a reason, that on account of heat and cold, and other inconveniences of the weather, he could not have walked naked during the whole period of three years. What if we should say that the Prophet wore clothes at home, and also in public, unless when he wished to come forth to teach, and that on such occasions he was accustomed to present to the people a spectacle of nakedness? I pay little attention to the argument, that he was unable to endure heat and cold; for God, who commanded him to do this, could easily strengthen and protect him. But they assign another reason, that nakedness would have been unbecoming in a Prophet. I answer, this nakedness was not more unbecoming than circumcision, which irreligious men might consider to be the most absurd of all sights, because it made an exposure of the uncomely parts. Yet it must not be thought that the Prophet went entirely naked, or without covering those parts which would present a revolting aspect. It was enough that the people understood what the Lord was doing, and were affected by it as something extraordinary.

I am led to form this opinion by what is here said, “ By the hand of Isaiah;” for although this mode of expression frequently occurs elsewhere, still we never find it where it does not imply something emphatic, to describe the effect produced. He places himself in the midst between God and his countrymen, so as to be the herald of a future calamity, not only in words, but likewise by a visible symbol. Nor is it superfluous that it is immediately added, He did so. I am therefore of opinion that Isaiah walked naked whenever he discharged the office of a prophet, and that he uncovered those parts which could be beheld without shame.

So far as relates to sackcloth, although it was customary for men in private stations of life to express their guilt in this manner in adversity, yet it is probable that it was with a view to his office that Isaiah made use of this symbol to confirm his doctrine, that he might the better arouse the people from their sluggishness. If at any time the Lord chastise ourselves or our brethren, he does not enjoin us to change our raiment, but we are cruel and (ἄστοργοι) without natural affection, if we are not moved by the afflictions of brethren and the ruin of the Church. If we have any feeling towards God, we ought to be in sadness and tears; and if it be our duty to mourn, we ought also to exhort others and stimulate them by our example to feel the calamities of the Church, and to be touched with some (συμπαθείᾳ) compassion.

Calvin: Isa 20:3 - Three years 3.Three years Why for such a period? Because that was the time granted to the Egyptians and Ethiopians, during which the Lord gave them a truce for r...

3.Three years Why for such a period? Because that was the time granted to the Egyptians and Ethiopians, during which the Lord gave them a truce for repentance, and at the same time wished to make trial of the obedience of his people, that without delay they might relinquish unlawful aid, and that, though the Egyptians and Ethiopians appeared to be secure, they might know that they were not far from ruin. The Lord intended also to expose the rebellion of wicked men; for undoubtedly many persons made an open display of their impiety when they despised the nakedness of the prophet, and the godly, on the other hand, moved by the sight of his nakedness, though the prosperity of the Ethiopians was delightfully attractive, still did not hesitate to fix their attention on the word. What they were bound to consider was not the nakedness itself, but the mark which the Lord had put upon it; in the same manner as, in the visible sacraments, we ought to behold those things which are invisible.

Calvin: Isa 20:4 - The captivity of Egypt and the removal of Ethiopia 4.The captivity of Egypt and the removal of Ethiopia 61 The words “captivity” and “removal” are taken collectively, to denote the multitude o...

4.The captivity of Egypt and the removal of Ethiopia 61 The words “captivity” and “removal” are taken collectively, to denote the multitude of captives and emigrants. Next, he shews that there will be no distinction of age, declaring that the old, as well as the young, shall be led into captivity.

Calvin: Isa 20:5 - And they shall be afraid 5.And they shall be afraid He now shews for whose benefit he had foretold these things about the Egyptians and Ethiopians. It was in order that the J...

5.And they shall be afraid He now shews for whose benefit he had foretold these things about the Egyptians and Ethiopians. It was in order that the Jews might learn amidst their afflictions to hope in God, and might not have recourse to foreign aid, which the Lord had forbidden.

Calvin: Isa 20:6 - Lo, what is become of our expectation? // And the inhabitants of the island shall say 6.Lo, what is become of our expectation? He calls them expectation, or lurking, because the Jews turned towards them, whenever they were oppressed ...

6.Lo, what is become of our expectation? He calls them expectation, or lurking, because the Jews turned towards them, whenever they were oppressed by any calamity, and placed their hope in them. We are accustomed to turn our eyes to that quarter from which we expect any assistance. Hence also, to “look” often signifies, in the Hebrew language, to “hope.” (Psa 34:5.) Now, they ought to have looked to God alone. Their wandering levity is therefore censured. And the same thing must happen to us, and deservedly, that when we have been invited by God, and refuse the sure refuge which he offers to us, and allow ourselves to be captivated by the delusions of Satan, we may lie down naked and destitute with shame and disgrace.

And the inhabitants of the island shall say He gives the name island not only to Jerusalem, but to the whole of Judea; and it is generally thought that the name is given because its shores are washed by the Mediterranean sea. But I think that there is a different reason for this metaphor, for it is but a small portion of the sea that washes it; but as an island is separated from other lands, so the Lord separated Judea from other countries. It was kept apart from all the nations, which cherished a mortal hatred towards the Jews; for there was a “wall” between them, as Paul says, (Eph 2:14,) which Christ at length threw down. Here again Isaiah confirms his prophecy. If you are not now moved by my nakedness, you shall one day be taught by the event, that these words were not spoken to you in vain. Thus, at a late hour, obstinate and rebellious men are constrained by God to confess their guilt, so that they are struck with amazement, and argue within themselves how they could be so greatly blinded by their own stubbornness.

Defender: Isa 20:5 - Egypt their glory The Assyrians at this time had already taken the northern kingdom of Israel into captivity and were threatening Judah and Jerusalem. The kings of Juda...

The Assyrians at this time had already taken the northern kingdom of Israel into captivity and were threatening Judah and Jerusalem. The kings of Judah, therefore, would be tempted to look to Egypt and Ethiopia for help. But these countries were already tributary to Assyria and were soon destined to be devastated themselves by the Babylonians (Isa 19:4; Isa 20:4)."

TSK: Isa 20:1 - Tartan // Ashdod // and took Tartan : Tartan was one of the generals of Sennacherib, who, it is probable, is here called Sargon, and in the book of Tobit, Sacherdonus and Sacherda...

Tartan : Tartan was one of the generals of Sennacherib, who, it is probable, is here called Sargon, and in the book of Tobit, Sacherdonus and Sacherdan, against whom Tirhakah, king of Cush or Ethiopia, was in league with the king of Egypt. 2Ki 18:17

Ashdod : 1Sa 6:17; Jer 25:20; Amo 1:8

and took : Jer 25:29, Jer 25:30

TSK: Isa 20:2 - Isaiah // Go // the sackcloth // put // naked Isaiah : Heb. the hand of Isaiah Go : Jer 13:1-11, Jer 19:1-15; Eze 4:5; Mat 16:24 the sackcloth : 2Ki 1:8; Zec 13:4; Mat 3:4; Rev 11:3 put : Exo 3:5;...

TSK: Isa 20:3 - three // a sign // upon Egypt three : Num 14:34; Eze 4:5, Eze 4:6; Rev 11:2, Rev 11:3 a sign : Isa 8:18 upon Egypt : Isa 18:1-7

three : Num 14:34; Eze 4:5, Eze 4:6; Rev 11:2, Rev 11:3

a sign : Isa 8:18

upon Egypt : Isa 18:1-7

TSK: Isa 20:4 - shall // Egyptians // with their // shame shall : Isa 19:4; Jer 46:26; Eze 30:18 Egyptians : Heb. captivity of Egypt with their : Isa 3:17; 2Sa 10:4; Jer 13:22, Jer 13:26; Mic 1:11 shame : Heb...

shall : Isa 19:4; Jer 46:26; Eze 30:18

Egyptians : Heb. captivity of Egypt

with their : Isa 3:17; 2Sa 10:4; Jer 13:22, Jer 13:26; Mic 1:11

shame : Heb. nakedness, Rev 3:18

TSK: Isa 20:5 - afraid // their glory afraid : Isa 30:3, Isa 30:5, Isa 30:7, Isa 36:6; 2Ki 18:21; Eze 29:6, Eze 29:7 their glory : Isa 2:22; Jer 9:23, Jer 9:24, Jer 17:5; 1Co 3:21

TSK: Isa 20:6 - isle // whither // and how isle : or, country, Job 22:30; Jer 47:4 whither : Isa 28:17, Isa 30:1-7, Isa 30:15, Isa 30:16, Isa 31:1-3; Job 6:20 and how : Mat 23:33; 1Th 5:3; Heb ...

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Poole: Isa 20:1 - Tartan // Ashdod // Sargon Tartan a great commander in Sennacherib’ s army, 2Ki 18:17 . Ashdod an eminent and strong city of the Philistines, Jos 13:3 1Sa 5:1 , in the ...

Tartan a great commander in Sennacherib’ s army, 2Ki 18:17 .

Ashdod an eminent and strong city of the Philistines, Jos 13:3 1Sa 5:1 , in the utmost part of the land of Canaan, towards Egypt.

Sargon: what king of Assyria this was is much disputed. It is well known, and confessed, that one and the same person hath frequently several names, both in Scripture, as hath been observed again and again, and in other authors. And therefore this may be either,

1. Shalmaneser, who, when he took Samaria, might also by Tartan take this place. Or,

2. Sennacherib, who, before he came to Jerusalem, came up against and took all the fenced cities of Judah , 2Ki 18:13 , of which Ashdod might be reckoned one, as being in the tribe of Judah, Jos 13:3 15:47 , and taken by Hezekiah from the Philistines, as it seems very probable from that passage, 2Ki 18:8 , He smote the Philistines, even unto Gaza, and the borders thereof, from the tower of the watchmen to the fenced city . Or,

3. Esarhaddon, Sennacherib’ s son, who, by cutting off the first letter, is called Sarchedon , /APC Tob 1:21 , and thence possibly, by abbreviation, Sargon ; who might do this thing in Hezekiah’ s time, some years after his father’ s death, and his coming to the empire, although it be not recorded in Scripture; for no man doubts that there were many great actions in those times which are wholly omitted in the sacred writings.

Poole: Isa 20:2 - Loose the sackcloth // The sackcloth // From off thy loins // Walking naked // Barefoot Loose the sackcloth ungird it and put it off; the antecedent put for the consequent, which is very usual, as hath been often noted. God would sometim...

Loose the sackcloth ungird it and put it off; the antecedent put for the consequent, which is very usual, as hath been often noted. God would sometimes have his prophets to add to their word a visible sign, to awaken people’ s minds to a more serious consideration of the matters proposed to them.

The sackcloth either,

1. His coarse and hairy garment, which the prophets used to wear, 2Ki 1:8 Zec 13:4 , as many understand it. But that is expressed by another word in the places quoted, and never, to my knowledge, by this word. Or,

2. His mournful habit, which was commonly made of sackcloth, and which he wore in token of his hearty grief for the great calamities which were already come upon Israel, and were either come or coming upon Judah.

From off thy loins upon which the upper garments were commonly girt, 1Ki 20:32 2Ki 9 .

1.

Walking naked not wholly naked, which had been indecent and scandalous, and withal very dangerous, at least to do so for three years, as he did, Isa 20:3 ; but without his upper garment, as slaves and prisoners used to do, whose posture he was to represent, Isa 20:4 . And so the word naked is used 1Sa 19:24 2Sa 6:20 Joh 21:7 . Thus also men are said to be naked when they are ill clothed, as Job 22:6 Mat 25:36 1Co 4:11 Jam 2:15 .

Barefoot after the manner of mourners, 2Sa 15:30 , and captives, Jer 2:25 .

Poole: Isa 20:3 - Walked naked and barefoot three years // A sign Walked naked and barefoot three years not constantly, but when he went abroad among the people, to whom this was appointed for a sign. Some think it ...

Walked naked and barefoot three years not constantly, but when he went abroad among the people, to whom this was appointed for a sign. Some think it was only three days, a day being usually put for a year in prophetical scriptures, as Num 14:33,34 Eze 4:4-6 . But although a day be put for a year, yet a year is never put for a day.

A sign either,

1. When this judgment should come, to wit, three years after this prophecy. Or,

2. How long it should continue, for three years; for some have observed that the Chaldeans spent so much time in conquering Egypt and Ethiopia.

Poole: Isa 20:4 - Lead away // Their buttocks uncovered Lead away like beasts, of which this word is commonly used. Their buttocks uncovered having their garments cut off by the middle, to the discovery ...

Lead away like beasts, of which this word is commonly used.

Their buttocks uncovered having their garments cut off by the middle, to the discovery of their buttocks and their secret parts. Compare 2Sa 10:4 Isa 47:2 .

Poole: Isa 20:5 - They They all they that shall trust to them, and glory in them, as appears from the following words; the pronoun they being put indefinitely here, as it i...

They all they that shall trust to them, and glory in them, as appears from the following words; the pronoun they being put indefinitely here, as it is Isa 2:19 , and elsewhere. But under this general expression the Israelites not only are comprehended, but seem to be principally intended, because to them this prophecy was delivered, and they were eminently guilty of this sin; of which see Isa 30:2 31:1 .

Poole: Isa 20:6 - Of this isle // Such is our expectation // Whither we flee for help // How shall we escape? Of this isle of this land, in which the prophet was, and to whose inhabitants these words were uttered. For the title of isles or islands in Scri...

Of this isle of this land, in which the prophet was, and to whose inhabitants these words were uttered. For the title of isles or islands in Scripture is frequently given not only to lands encompassed with the sea, but also to such countries as lay upon the sea-coasts, as Psa 72:10 Eze 26:15,18 , as Palestine or Canaan did, yea, to such countries as are remote or separated from that place in or of which the words are spoken, as Est 10:1 Isa 24:15 42:4,10 , &c, as Canaan was from Egypt, or at least from Ethiopia. Add to this, that Canaan had some resemblance with an isle, either because it was almost encompassed with the Midland Sea on one side, and with the Dead Sea, and the Sea of Galilee or Tiberius and Jordan on the other side; or because, as isles are separated from other lands by the sea, so this land and people were seoarated from all the rest of the world by God’ s special providence, and presence, and worship.

Such is our expectation so vain is our hope placed upon such a people as are unable to deliver themselves, and much more to deliver us.

Whither we flee for help to whom we now and usually trust; for this was the common disease of the people of Israel, although Hezekiah was in a good measure free from it, as we read, 2Ki 18:5 .

How shall we escape? either by their help, who cannot defend themselves; or by our own strength, seeing they who were much more potent than we are could not escape.

Haydock: Isa 20:1 - Year // Sargon Year. Eighteen after the preceding predictions. (Calmet) --- Sargon. Sennacherib, (St. Jerome) Salmanasar, (Sanctius) or Assaradon, who intended...

Year. Eighteen after the preceding predictions. (Calmet) ---

Sargon. Sennacherib, (St. Jerome) Salmanasar, (Sanctius) or Assaradon, who intended to revenge Sennacherib, and sent his "collector of taxes" to take Azotus from Ezechias, and then to proceed farther. (Calmet) ---

Psammitichus having obtained the sole dominion of Egypt, besieged Azotus for 29 years. (Herodotus ii. 157.) (Amos i. 8.)

Haydock: Isa 20:2 - Sackcloth Sackcloth. The prophets lived in poverty, Zacharias xiii. 4. Their persons were prophetic. It is not agreed whether Isaias went quite naked, or on...

Sackcloth. The prophets lived in poverty, Zacharias xiii. 4. Their persons were prophetic. It is not agreed whether Isaias went quite naked, or only without his upper garment. The former supposition would represent better the condition of slaves, (ver. 4.) and is adopted by St. Jerome, &c. (Calmet) ---

People are said to be naked when they are almost so, 2 Kings vi., and John xxi. (Haydock) ---

Yet "nothing is more honest than to obey God." (St. Jerome) (Worthington)

Haydock: Isa 20:3 - Years Years. Isaias went so long, or perhaps only three days undressed, Numbers xiv. 34., and Ezechiel iv. 5. Egypt and the Arabian Ethiopia were to be a...

Years. Isaias went so long, or perhaps only three days undressed, Numbers xiv. 34., and Ezechiel iv. 5. Egypt and the Arabian Ethiopia were to be abandoned to the Assyrians, in or during three years.

Haydock: Isa 20:4 - Shame Shame. Thus captives were generally exposed to sale, chap. xlvii. 2., and Nahum iii. 5.

Shame. Thus captives were generally exposed to sale, chap. xlvii. 2., and Nahum iii. 5.

Haydock: Isa 20:5 - Glory Glory. The alliance of these nations shall not avail the Jews, who are said to inhabit an island, because they neglected God's service no less tha...

Glory. The alliance of these nations shall not avail the Jews, who are said to inhabit an island, because they neglected God's service no less than the most distant and abandoned nations. (Calmet) ---

The changes in empires must convince us to depend only on God, since Damascus and Egypt could not save the Hebrews, nor even themselves. (Worthington)

Gill: Isa 20:1 - In the year that Tartan came unto Ashdod // (when Sargon the king of Assyria sent him) // and fought against Ashdod, and took it In the year that Tartan came unto Ashdod,.... Or Azotus, as the Septuagint here call it; and which is its name in the New Testament; see Gill on Act 8...

In the year that Tartan came unto Ashdod,.... Or Azotus, as the Septuagint here call it; and which is its name in the New Testament; see Gill on Act 8:40. This Tartan, or whom the Septuagint names Tanathan, and the Arabic version Tathan, was one of Sennacherib's generals, 2Ki 18:17,

(when Sargon the king of Assyria sent him); to the above place to besiege it. This Sargon is generally thought to be the same with Sennacherib, since Tartan was one of his generals, who might have more names than one. Jerom says he had seven; the Jewish Rabbins h eight; though some think a predecessor of his is meant, Shalmaneser; and others his son Esarhaddon, who in the Apocrypha:

"And there passed not five and fifty days, before two of his sons killed him, and they fled into the mountains of Ararath; and Sarchedonus his son reigned in his stead; who appointed over his father's accounts, and over all his affairs, Achiacharus my brother Anael's son.'' (Tobit 1:21)

is called Sarchedon, which might easily pass by pronunciation into Sargon:

and fought against Ashdod, and took it; which was held by the Assyrians till the time of Psammiticus, and was so strong a city, and so well fortified, that it held out a siege of twenty nine years before he could be master of it i; how long Tartan lay against it, before he took it, is not said; nor is it certain what year he came against it; those who take Sargon to be Shalmaneser place it in the fourth year of Hezekiah's reign, who sent Tartan to Ashdod at the same time that he went against Samaria, 2Ki 18:9 but others, who think Sennacherib is Sargon, fix it to the fourteenth year of Hezekiah's reign, as Kimchi; who, hearing of Tirhakah king of Ethiopia and Egypt coming against him, went forth to meet him, and subdued him; and at the same time sent Tartan against Ashdod; or rather this was done when he took the fenced cities of Judah, of which this was one, having been taken a little before by Hezekiah from the Philistines; see 2Ki 18:8 though, if Esarhaddon is Sargon, this must be in the times of Manasseh, perhaps about the twenty second year of his reign, by whom he was taken, and carried captive; but it is most likely to have been in Hezekiah's time.

Gill: Isa 20:2 - At the same time spake the Lord by Isaiah the son of Amoz // saying // go, and loose the sackcloth from off thy loins // and put off thy shoe from thy foot // and he did so, walking naked and barefoot At the same time spake the Lord by Isaiah the son of Amoz,.... Or, "by the hand of Isaiah", by his means; and it was to him likewise, as the following...

At the same time spake the Lord by Isaiah the son of Amoz,.... Or, "by the hand of Isaiah", by his means; and it was to him likewise, as the following words show; and so the Septuagint version renders it; he spoke by him, by the sign he used, according to his order, and he spoke to him to use the sign:

saying; so the Arabic version, "with him"; and with these versions Noldius agrees:

go, and loose the sackcloth from off thy loins; a token of mourning, and which the prophet wore, as Kimchi thinks, because of the captivity of the ten tribes; and it may be also on account of the miseries that were coming upon the people of the Jews; though some think this was his common garb, and the same with the royal garment the prophets used to wear, Zec 13:4 but that he had put off, and had put on sackcloth in its room, which he is now bid to take off:

and put off thy shoe from thy foot; as a sign of distress and mourning also, 2Sa 15:30,

and he did so, walking naked and barefoot; Kimchi thinks this was only visionally, or in the vision of prophecy, as he calls it, and not in reality; but the latter seems most probable, and best to agree with what follows; for he was obedient to the divine command, not regarding the disgrace which might attend it, nor the danger of catching cold, to which he was exposed; and hence he has the character of a servant of the Lord, in the next words, and a faithful obedient one he was.

Gill: Isa 20:3 - And the Lord said // like as my servant Isaiah hath walked naked and barefoot // three years for a sign and wonder upon Egypt, and upon Ethiopia And the Lord said,.... Here follows the explanation of the sign, and the accommodation of it to the thing signified by it: like as my servant Isaia...

And the Lord said,.... Here follows the explanation of the sign, and the accommodation of it to the thing signified by it:

like as my servant Isaiah hath walked naked and barefoot; not wholly naked, for that would have been very indecent and dangerous indeed; but without his upper garment, as Saul, 1Sa 19:24 and David, 2Sa 6:14 or with rent and ragged clothes, and old shoes, as Jarchi k interprets it, and which might be only when he appeared abroad; and how long he thus walked is not certain, whether only one day, as some, or three days, as others, or three years, which is not said, though our version inclines to it; but the three years next mentioned are not to be joined to Isaiah's walking, but to the thing signified by it; for the accent "athnach" is at the word which is rendered "barefoot", and distinguishes this clause from the following. The Septuagint indeed puts the phrase "three years" into both clauses, but it only belongs to the latter:

three years for a sign and wonder upon Egypt, and upon Ethiopia; that is, the prophet's walking naked and barefoot was a sign that three years after this Egypt and Ethiopia should be subdued by the Assyrians; or, that so long he should be in subduing them, or their calamities should last such a term of time. This sign was only seen by the Jews, for whose sake chiefly this prophecy was, to take off their dependence on the above nations; though probably this might be made known to the Egyptians and Ethiopians.

Gill: Isa 20:4 - So shall the king of Assyria lead away the Egyptians prisoners, and the Ethiopians captives // young and old // naked and barefoot // even with their buttocks uncovered, to the shame of Egypt So shall the king of Assyria lead away the Egyptians prisoners, and the Ethiopians captives,.... As beasts are led or driven, being taken prisoners, a...

So shall the king of Assyria lead away the Egyptians prisoners, and the Ethiopians captives,.... As beasts are led or driven, being taken prisoners, and carried captive by the king of Assyria, namely Sargon, whoever is intended by him:

young and old; without any regard to age, sparing none for their tender years or gray hairs:

naked and barefoot; as prisoners of war commonly are, being stripped by their conquerors of their clothes, and having only a few rags given them to cover their nakedness with, and obliged to travel without shoes on their feet:

even with their buttocks uncovered, to the shame of Egypt; having no clothes on them to cover those parts; or the skirts of their garments cut off, as David's servants were by the Ammonites, 2Sa 10:4 and this to humble and mortify the pride of the Egyptians.

Gill: Isa 20:5 - And they shall be afraid and ashamed // of Ethiopia their expectation // and of Egypt their glory And they shall be afraid and ashamed,.... That is, those that trusted and depended upon the Egyptians and Ethiopians, particularly the Jews after ment...

And they shall be afraid and ashamed,.... That is, those that trusted and depended upon the Egyptians and Ethiopians, particularly the Jews after mentioned, shall be "afraid" that it will be their turn next, that they also shall be taken and carried captive; and they shall be "ashamed" that they have put their trust and confidence in those nations, and not in the Lord:

of Ethiopia their expectation; from whom they expected assistance and protection, particularly when Tirhakah king of Ethiopia went out against the king of Assyria, that he would have been a match for him, and have overcome him, and so have freed them from such a powerful enemy:

and of Egypt their glory; who was their ally, and a very potent one, and in whom they gloried; but now should be ashamed, when both those people on whom they relied were carried captive.

Gill: Isa 20:6 - And the inhabitants of this isle shall say, in that day // behold, such is our expectation, whither we flee for help, to be delivered from the king of Assyria // and how shall we escape And the inhabitants of this isle shall say, in that day,.... Not of Ashdod, Isa 20:1 or the isle of Caphtor, Jer 47:4 but the land of Israel, as both ...

And the inhabitants of this isle shall say, in that day,.... Not of Ashdod, Isa 20:1 or the isle of Caphtor, Jer 47:4 but the land of Israel, as both Jarchi and Kimchi interpret it; so called, because it bordered on the sea, as such countries are sometimes called isles; see Jer 25:22. Ben Melech interprets it of Jerusalem, and observes that the word signifies a place or country, whether it has a river or sea encompassing it, or not; besides, the land of Canaan had the Mediterranean sea on one side of it, and the sea of Galilee and Tiberias on the other, and was moreover separated from all other countries by the power, providence, and presence of God:

behold, such is our expectation, whither we flee for help, to be delivered from the king of Assyria; signifying that it was vain and foolish, and they had acted a very weak, as well as a wicked part, in having recourse to the Egyptians and Ethiopians to help them against the Assyrians, as it plainly appeared by both nations now being conquered by them:

and how shall we escape? seeing they had not, who were more powerful than they were; and how could they think that they could save them, who could not save themselves? and so the Targum,

"if they have not delivered their souls (themselves), how shall we be delivered?''

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NET Notes: Isa 20:1 This probably refers to the Assyrian campaign against Philistia in 712 or 711 b.c.

NET Notes: Isa 20:2 The word used here (עָרוֹם, ’arom) sometimes means “naked,” but here it appears to mean simply &...

NET Notes: Isa 20:4 Heb “lightly dressed and barefoot, and bare with respect to the buttocks, the nakedness of Egypt.”

NET Notes: Isa 20:5 Heb “and they will be afraid and embarrassed because of Cush their hope and Egypt their beauty.”

NET Notes: Isa 20:6 This probably refers to the coastal region of Philistia (cf. TEV).

Geneva Bible: Isa 20:1 In the year that ( a ) Tartan came to ( b ) Ashdod, (when ( c ) Sargon the king of Assyria sent him,) and fought against Ashdod, and took it; ( a ) W...

Geneva Bible: Isa 20:2 At the same time spoke the LORD by Isaiah the son of Amoz, saying, Go and loose the ( d ) sackcloth from off thy loins, and put off thy shoe from thy ...

Geneva Bible: Isa 20:5 And they shall be afraid and ashamed of ( e ) Cush their expectation, and of Egypt their ( f ) glory. ( e ) In whose aid they trusted. ( f ) Of whom...

Geneva Bible: Isa 20:6 And the inhabitant of this ( g ) isle shall say in that day, Behold, such [is] our expectation, where we fled for help to be delivered from the king o...

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MHCC: Isa 20:1-6 - --Isaiah was a sign to the people by his unusual dress, when he walked abroad. He commonly wore sackcloth as a prophet, to show himself mortified to the...

Matthew Henry: Isa 20:1-6 - -- God here, as King of nations, brings a sore calamity upon Egypt and Ethiopia, but, as King of saints, brings good to his people out of it. Observe, ...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 20:1-2 - -- This section, commencing in the form of historic prose, introduces itself thus: "In the year that Tartan came to Ashdod, Sargon the king of Asshur ...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 20:3-4 - -- It is not till Isaiah has carried out the divine instructions, that he learns the reason for this command to strip himself, and the length of time t...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 20:5-6 - -- But if Egypt and Ethiopia are thus shamefully humbled, what kind of impression will this make upon those who rely upon the great power that is suppo...

Constable: Isa 7:1--39:8 - --III. Israel's crisis of faith chs. 7--39 This long section of the book deals with Israel's major decision in Isa...

Constable: Isa 13:1--35:10 - --B. God's sovereignty over the nations chs. 13-35 This major section of the book emphasizes the folly of ...

Constable: Isa 13:1--23:18 - --1. Divine judgments on the nations chs. 13-23 The recurrence of the Hebrew word massa', translat...

Constable: Isa 13:1--20:6 - --The first series of five oracles chs. 13-20 The first series shows that God has placed I...

Constable: Isa 19:1--20:6 - --The oracle against Egypt chs. 19-20 This oracle clarifies that God's purposes for Egypt, another nation the Judeans wanted to trust for help during th...

Guzik: Isa 20:1-6 - Don't Trust In Egypt! Isaiah 20 - Don't Trust In Egypt! A. Isaiah acts out a sign. 1. (1) The political setting for the sign. In the year that Tartan came to Ashdod, wh...

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JFB: Isaiah (Pendahuluan Kitab) ISAIAH, son of Amoz (not Amos); contemporary of Jonah, Amos, Hosea, in Israel, but younger than they; and of Micah, in Judah. His call to a higher deg...

JFB: Isaiah (Garis Besar) PARABLE OF JEHOVAH'S VINEYARD. (Isa. 5:1-30) SIX DISTINCT WOES AGAINST CRIMES. (Isa. 5:8-23) (Lev 25:13; Mic 2:2). The jubilee restoration of posses...

TSK: Isaiah (Pendahuluan Kitab) Isaiah has, with singular propriety, been denominated the Evangelical Prophet, on account of the number and variety of his prophecies concerning the a...

TSK: Isaiah 20 (Pendahuluan Pasal) Overview Isa 20:1, A type prefiguring the shameful captivity of Egypt and Ethiopia.

Poole: Isaiah (Pendahuluan Kitab) THE ARGUMENT THE teachers of the ancient church were of two sorts: 1. Ordinary, the priests and Levites. 2. Extraordinary, the prophets. These we...

Poole: Isaiah 20 (Pendahuluan Pasal) CHAPTER 20 The captivity of Egypt and Ethiopia represented, to take off the Jews from seeking to them for help.

MHCC: Isaiah (Pendahuluan Kitab) Isaiah prophesied in the reigns of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah. He has been well called the evangelical prophet, on account of his numerous and...

MHCC: Isaiah 20 (Pendahuluan Pasal) The invasion and conquest of Egypt and Ethiopia.

Matthew Henry: Isaiah (Pendahuluan Kitab) An Exposition, With Practical Observations, of The Book of the Prophet Isaiah Prophet is a title that sounds very great to those that understand it, t...

Matthew Henry: Isaiah 20 (Pendahuluan Pasal) This chapter is a prediction of the carrying away of multitudes both of the Egyptians and the Ethiopians into captivity by the king of Assyria. Her...

Constable: Isaiah (Pendahuluan Kitab) Introduction Title and writer The title of this book of the Bible, as is true of the o...

Constable: Isaiah (Garis Besar) Outline I. Introduction chs. 1-5 A. Israel's condition and God's solution ch. 1 ...

Constable: Isaiah Isaiah Bibliography Alexander, Joseph Addison. Commentary on the Prophecies of Isaiah. 1846, 1847. Revised ed. ...

Haydock: Isaiah (Pendahuluan Kitab) THE PROPHECY OF ISAIAS. INTRODUCTION. This inspired writer is called by the Holy Ghost, (Ecclesiasticus xlviii. 25.) the great prophet; from t...

Gill: Isaiah (Pendahuluan Kitab) INTRODUCTION TO ISAIAH This book is called, in the New Testament, sometimes "the Book of the Words of the Prophet Esaias", Luk 3:4 sometimes only t...

Gill: Isaiah 20 (Pendahuluan Pasal) INTRODUCTION TO ISAIAH 20 This chapter contains a prophecy of the destruction of the Egyptians and Ethiopians by the Assyrians, which had been prop...

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