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Teks -- Genesis 9:1-29 (NET)

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Konteks
God’s Covenant with Humankind through Noah
9:1 Then God blessed Noah and his sons and said to them, “Be fruitful and multiply and fill the earth. 9:2 Every living creature of the earth and every bird of the sky will be terrified of you. Everything that creeps on the ground and all the fish of the sea are under your authority. 9:3 You may eat any moving thing that lives. As I gave you the green plants, I now give you everything. 9:4 But you must not eat meat with its life (that is, its blood) in it. 9:5 For your lifeblood I will surely exact punishment, from every living creature I will exact punishment. From each person I will exact punishment for the life of the individual since the man was his relative. 9:6 “Whoever sheds human blood, by other humans must his blood be shed; for in God’s image God has made humankind.” 9:7 But as for you, be fruitful and multiply; increase abundantly on the earth and multiply on it.” 9:8 God said to Noah and his sons, 9:9 “Look! I now confirm my covenant with you and your descendants after you 9:10 and with every living creature that is with you, including the birds, the domestic animals, and every living creature of the earth with you, all those that came out of the ark with you– every living creature of the earth. 9:11 I confirm my covenant with you: Never again will all living things be wiped out by the waters of a flood; never again will a flood destroy the earth.” 9:12 And God said, “This is the guarantee of the covenant I am making with you and every living creature with you, a covenant for all subsequent generations: 9:13 I will place my rainbow in the clouds, and it will become a guarantee of the covenant between me and the earth. 9:14 Whenever I bring clouds over the earth and the rainbow appears in the clouds, 9:15 then I will remember my covenant with you and with all living creatures of all kinds. Never again will the waters become a flood and destroy all living things. 9:16 When the rainbow is in the clouds, I will notice it and remember the perpetual covenant between God and all living creatures of all kinds that are on the earth.” 9:17 So God said to Noah, “This is the guarantee of the covenant that I am confirming between me and all living things that are on the earth.”
The Curse of Canaan
9:18 The sons of Noah who came out of the ark were Shem, Ham, and Japheth. (Now Ham was the father of Canaan.) 9:19 These were the sons of Noah, and from them the whole earth was populated. 9:20 Noah, a man of the soil, began to plant a vineyard. 9:21 When he drank some of the wine, he got drunk and uncovered himself inside his tent. 9:22 Ham, the father of Canaan, saw his father’s nakedness and told his two brothers who were outside. 9:23 Shem and Japheth took the garment and placed it on their shoulders. Then they walked in backwards and covered up their father’s nakedness. Their faces were turned the other way so they did not see their father’s nakedness. 9:24 When Noah awoke from his drunken stupor he learned what his youngest son had done to him. 9:25 So he said, “Cursed be Canaan! The lowest of slaves he will be to his brothers.” 9:26 He also said, “Worthy of praise is the Lord, the God of Shem! May Canaan be the slave of Shem! 9:27 May God enlarge Japheth’s territory and numbers! May he live in the tents of Shem and may Canaan be his slave!” 9:28 After the flood Noah lived 350 years. 9:29 The entire lifetime of Noah was 950 years, and then he died.
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Canaan the region ofeast Mediterranean coastal land from Arvad (modern Lebanon) south to Gaza,the coast land from Mt. Carmel north to the Orontes River
 · Ham a man and nation; son of Noah,a country occupied by the descendants of Ham
 · Japheth son of Noah
 · Noah a son of Lamech and the father of Shem, Ham, and Japheth,son of Lamech; builder of the ark,daughter of Zelophehad
 · Shem the father of Arphaxad; a son of Noah; an ancestor of Jesus,son of Noah


Topik/Tema Kamus: Noah | Covenant | Religion | Shem | Rainbow | REVELATION, 1-2 | PROMISE | Ham | Japheth | Canaan | Bow | Rain | Church | COVENANT, IN THE OLD TESTAMENT | HEREDITY | WRITING, 2 | God | Curse | Food | Token | selebihnya
Daftar Isi

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Wesley , JFB , Clarke , Calvin , Defender , TSK

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Poole , Haydock , Gill

Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki
NET Notes , Geneva Bible

Catatan Rentang Ayat
Maclaren , MHCC , Matthew Henry , Keil-Delitzsch , Constable , Guzik

Lainnya
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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per frasa)

Wesley: Gen 9:1 - And God blessed Noah and his sons He assured them of his good - will to them, and his gracious intentions concerning them. The first blessing is here renewed, Be fruitful, and multiply...

He assured them of his good - will to them, and his gracious intentions concerning them. The first blessing is here renewed, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and repeated, Gen 9:7; for the race of mankind was as it were to begin again. By virtue of this blessing mankind was to be both multiplied and perpetuated upon earth; so that in a little time all the habitable parts of the earth should be more or less inhabited; and tho' one generation should pass away, yet another generation should come, so that the stream of the human race should be supplied with a constant succession, and run parallel with the current of time, 'till both be swallowed up in the ocean of eternity.

Wesley: Gen 9:2 - -- He grants them power over the inferior creatures. He grants, 1.

He grants them power over the inferior creatures. He grants, 1.

Wesley: Gen 9:2 - A title to them; into your hands they are delivered For your use and benefit. 2. A dominion over them, without which the title would avail little; The fear of you and the dread of you shall be upon ever...

For your use and benefit. 2. A dominion over them, without which the title would avail little; The fear of you and the dread of you shall be upon every beast - This revives a former grant, Gen 1:28, only with this difference, that man in innocency ruled by love, fallen man rules by fear. And thus far we have still the benefit of it, 1. That those creatures which are any way useful to us are reclaimed, and we use them either for service or food, or both, as they are capable. 2. Those creatures that are any way hurtful to us are restrained; so that tho' now and then man may be hurt by some of them, yet they do not combine together to rise up in rebellion against man.

Wesley: Gen 9:3 - Every moving thing that liveth shall be meat for you Hitherto man had been confined to feed only upon the products of the earth, fruits, herbs and roots, and all sorts of corn and milk; so was the first ...

Hitherto man had been confined to feed only upon the products of the earth, fruits, herbs and roots, and all sorts of corn and milk; so was the first grant, Gen 1:29. But the flood having perhaps washed away much of the virtue of the earth, and so rendered its fruits less pleasing, and less nourishing, God now enlarged the grant, and allowed man to eat flesh, which perhaps man himself never thought of 'till now. The precepts and provisos of this charter are no less kind and gracious, and instances of God's good - will to man. The Jewish doctors speak so often of the seven precepts of Noah, or of the sons of Noah, which they say were to be observed by all nations, that it may not be amiss to set them down. The first against the worship of idols. The second against blasphemy, and requiring to bless the name of God. The third against murder. The fourth against incest and all uncleanness. The fifth against theft and rapine. The sixth requiring the administration of justice. The seventh against eating flesh with the life. These the Jews required the observation of, from the proselytes of the gate. But the precepts here given, all concern the life of man. Man must not prejudice his own life by eating that food which is unwholsome, and prejudicial to his health.

Wesley: Gen 9:4 - But flesh with the life thereof, which is the blood thereof, shall ye not eat Blood made atonement for the soul, Lev 17:11. The life of the sacrifice was accepted for the life of the sinner. Blood must not be looked upon as a co...

Blood made atonement for the soul, Lev 17:11. The life of the sacrifice was accepted for the life of the sinner. Blood must not be looked upon as a common thing, but must be poured out before the Lord, 2Sa 23:16. Mr. Henry indeed has a strange conceit, That this is only a prohibition to eat flesh. This does such apparent violence to the text, that to mention it, is sufficient.

Wesley: Gen 9:5 - And surely your blood of your lives will I require Our own lives are not so our own, that we may quit them at our own pleasure; but they are God's, and we must resign them at his pleasure. If we any wa...

Our own lives are not so our own, that we may quit them at our own pleasure; but they are God's, and we must resign them at his pleasure. If we any way hasten our own deaths, we are accountable to God for it. Yea, At the hand of every beast will I require it - To shew how tender God was of the life of man, he will have the beast put to death that kills a man. This was confirmed by the law of Moses, Exo 21:28, and it would not be unsafe to observe it still.

Wesley: Gen 9:5 - And at the hand of every man's brother will I require the life of a man I will avenge the blood of the murdered upon the murderer. When God requires the life of a man at the hand of him that took it away unjustly, he canno...

I will avenge the blood of the murdered upon the murderer. When God requires the life of a man at the hand of him that took it away unjustly, he cannot render that, and therefore must render his own in lieu of it, which is the only way left of making restitution.

Wesley: Gen 9:6 - Whoso sheddeth man's blood Whether upon a sudden provocation, or premeditated, (for rash anger is heart - murder as well as malice prepense, Mat 5:21-22), by man shall his blood...

Whether upon a sudden provocation, or premeditated, (for rash anger is heart - murder as well as malice prepense, Mat 5:21-22), by man shall his blood be shed - That is, by the magistrate, or whoever is appointed to be the avenger of blood. Before the flood, as it should seem by the story of Cain, God took the punishment of murder into his own hands; but now he committed this judgment to men, to masters of families at first, and afterwards to the heads of countries.

Wesley: Gen 9:6 - For in the image of God made he man Man is a creature dear to his Creator, and therefore ought to be so to us; God put honour upon him, let us not then put contempt upon him. Such remain...

Man is a creature dear to his Creator, and therefore ought to be so to us; God put honour upon him, let us not then put contempt upon him. Such remains of God's image are still even upon fallen man, that he who unjustly kills a man, defaceth the image of God, and doth dishonour to him.

Wesley: Gen 9:9 - -- We have here the general establishment of God's covenant with this new world, and the extent of that covenant.

We have here the general establishment of God's covenant with this new world, and the extent of that covenant.

Wesley: Gen 9:11 - There shall not any more be a flood God had drowned the world once, and still it is as provoking as ever; yet he will never drown it any more, for he deals not with us according to our s...

God had drowned the world once, and still it is as provoking as ever; yet he will never drown it any more, for he deals not with us according to our sins. This promise of God keeps the sea and clouds in their decreed place, and sets them gates and bars, Hitherto they shall come, Job 38:10-11. If the sea should flow but for a few days, as it doth twice every day for a few hours, what desolations would it make? So would the clouds, if such showers as we have sometimes seen, were continued long. But God by flowing seas, and sweeping rains, shews what he could do in wrath; and yet by preserving the earth from being deluged between both, shews what he can do in mercy, and will do in truth.

Wesley: Gen 9:13 - I set my bow in the clouds The rainbow, 'tis likely was seen in the clouds before, but was never a seal of the covenant 'till now. Now, concerning this seal of the covenant, obs...

The rainbow, 'tis likely was seen in the clouds before, but was never a seal of the covenant 'till now. Now, concerning this seal of the covenant, observe, This seal is affixed with repeated assurances of the truth of that promise, which it was designed to be the ratification of; I do set my bow in the cloud, Gen 9:13. It shall be seen in the cloud, Gen 9:14. and it shall be a token of the covenant, Gen 9:12-13. And I will remember my covenant, that the waters shall no more become a flood, Gen 9:15. Nay, as if the eternal Mind needed a memorandum, I will look upon it that I may remember the everlasting covenant, Gen 9:16. The rainbow appears when the clouds are most disposed to wet; when we have most reason to fear the rain prevailing, God shews this seal of the promise that it shall not prevail. The rainbow appears when one part of the sky is clear, which imitates mercy remembered in the midst of wrath, and the clouds are hemmed as it were with the rainbow, that it may not overspread the heavens, for the bow is coloured rain, or the edges of a cloud gilded. As God looks upon the bow that he may remember the covenant, so should we, that we also may be ever mindful of the covenant with faith and thankfulness.

Wesley: Gen 9:20 - And Noah began to be an husbandman Heb. a man of the earth, a man dealing in the earth, that kept ground in his hand and occupied it. Sometime after his departure out of the ark he retu...

Heb. a man of the earth, a man dealing in the earth, that kept ground in his hand and occupied it. Sometime after his departure out of the ark he returned to his old employment, from which he had been diverted by the building of the ark first, and probably after by the building an house for himself and family.

Wesley: Gen 9:20 - And he planted a vineyard And when he had gathered his vintage, probably he appointed a day of mirth and feasting in his family, and had his sons and their children with him, t...

And when he had gathered his vintage, probably he appointed a day of mirth and feasting in his family, and had his sons and their children with him, to rejoice with him in the increase of his house, as well as in the increase of his vineyard; and we may suppose he prefaced his feast with a sacrifice to the honour of God. If that was omitted, 'twas just with God to leave him to himself, to end with the beasts that did not begin with God: but we charitably hope he did. And perhaps he appointed this feast with design in the close of it to bless his sons, as Isaac, Gen 27:3-4. That I may eat, and that my soul may bless thee.

Wesley: Gen 9:21 - And he drank of the wine and was drunk 'Tis highly probable, he did not know the effect of it before.

'Tis highly probable, he did not know the effect of it before.

Wesley: Gen 9:21 - And he was uncovered in his tent Made naked to his shame.

Made naked to his shame.

Wesley: Gen 9:22 - And Ham saw the nakedness of his father, and told his two brethren To have seen it accidentally and involuntarily would not have been a crime. But he pleased himself with the sight.

To have seen it accidentally and involuntarily would not have been a crime. But he pleased himself with the sight.

Wesley: Gen 9:22 - And he told his two brethren without In the street, as the word is, in a scornful deriding manner.

In the street, as the word is, in a scornful deriding manner.

Wesley: Gen 9:23 - And Shem and Japheth took a garment, and went backward, and covered the nakedness of their father They not only would not see it themselves, but provided that no one else might see it; herein setting an example of charity, with reference to other m...

They not only would not see it themselves, but provided that no one else might see it; herein setting an example of charity, with reference to other men's sin and shame.

Wesley: Gen 9:25 - A servant of servants That is, the meanest and most despicable servant shall he be, even to his brethren. Those who by birth were his equals, should by conquest be his lord...

That is, the meanest and most despicable servant shall he be, even to his brethren. Those who by birth were his equals, should by conquest be his lords. This certainly points at the victories obtained by Israel over the Canaanites, by which they were all either put to the sword, or put under tribute. Jos 9:23; Jdg 1:28, Jdg 1:30, Jdg 1:33, Jdg 1:35, which happened not 'till about eight hundred years after this. God often visits the iniquity of the fathers upon the children, especially when the children inherit the fathers wicked dispositions, and imitate the father's wicked practices.

Wesley: Gen 9:26 - The God of Shem All blessings are included in this. This was the blessing conferred on Abraham and his seed, the God of heaven was not ashamed to be called their God,...

All blessings are included in this. This was the blessing conferred on Abraham and his seed, the God of heaven was not ashamed to be called their God, Heb 11:16. Shem is sufficiently recompensed for his respect to his father by this, that the Lord himself puts this honour upon him to be his God; which is a sufficient recompense for all our services and all our sufferings for his name.

Wesley: Gen 9:27 - God shall enlarge Japheth, and he shall dwell in the tents of Shem His seed shall be so numerous and so victorious, that they shall be masters of the tents of Shem, which was fulfilled when the people of the Jews, the...

His seed shall be so numerous and so victorious, that they shall be masters of the tents of Shem, which was fulfilled when the people of the Jews, the most eminent of Shem's race, were tributaries to the Grecians first, and after to the Romans, both of Japhet's seed. This also speaks the conversion of the Gentiles, and the bringing of them into the church; and then we should read it, God shall persuade Japheth; (for so the word signifies) and being so persuaded, he shall dwell in the tents of Shem - That is, Jews and Gentiles shall be united together in the gospel - fold: after many of the Gentiles shall have been proselyted to the Jewish religion, both shall be one in Christ, Eph 2:14-15. When Japheth joins with Shem, Canaan falls before them both: when strangers become friends, enemies become servants.

JFB: Gen 9:1 - And God blessed Noah Here is republished the law of nature that was announced to Adam, consisting as it originally did of several parts.

Here is republished the law of nature that was announced to Adam, consisting as it originally did of several parts.

JFB: Gen 9:1 - Be fruitful, &c. The first part relates to the transmission of life, the original blessing being reannounced in the very same words in which it had been promised at fi...

The first part relates to the transmission of life, the original blessing being reannounced in the very same words in which it had been promised at first [Gen 1:28].

JFB: Gen 9:2 - And the fear of you and the dread of you The second part re-establishes man's dominion over the inferior animals; it was now founded not as at first in love and kindness, but in terror; this ...

The second part re-establishes man's dominion over the inferior animals; it was now founded not as at first in love and kindness, but in terror; this dread of man prevails among all the stronger as well as the weaker members of the animal tribes and keeps away from his haunts all but those employed in his service.

JFB: Gen 9:3 - Every moving thing that liveth shall be meat for you The third part concerns the means of sustaining life; man was for the first time, it would seem, allowed the use of animal food, but the grant was acc...

The third part concerns the means of sustaining life; man was for the first time, it would seem, allowed the use of animal food, but the grant was accompanied with one restriction.

JFB: Gen 9:4 - But flesh . . . the blood . . . shall ye not eat The sole intention of this prohibition was to prevent these excesses of cannibal ferocity in eating flesh of living animals, to which men in the earli...

The sole intention of this prohibition was to prevent these excesses of cannibal ferocity in eating flesh of living animals, to which men in the earlier ages of the world were liable.

JFB: Gen 9:5 - surely your blood of your lives will I require The fourth part establishes a new power for protecting life--the institution of the civil magistrate (Rom 13:4), armed with public and official author...

The fourth part establishes a new power for protecting life--the institution of the civil magistrate (Rom 13:4), armed with public and official authority to repress the commission of violence and crime. Such a power had not previously existed in patriarchal society.

JFB: Gen 9:6 - Whoso sheddeth man's blood . . . for in the image of God made he man It is true that image has been injured by the fall, but it is not lost. In this view, a high value is attached to the life of every man, even the poor...

It is true that image has been injured by the fall, but it is not lost. In this view, a high value is attached to the life of every man, even the poorest and humblest, and an awful criminality is involved in the destruction of it.

JFB: Gen 9:13 - I do set my bow in the cloud Set, that is, constitute or appoint. This common and familiar phenomenon being made the pledge of peace, its appearance when showers began to fall wou...

Set, that is, constitute or appoint. This common and familiar phenomenon being made the pledge of peace, its appearance when showers began to fall would be welcomed with the liveliest feelings of joy.

JFB: Gen 9:20 - And Noah . . . planted a vineyard Noah had been probably bred to the culture of the soil, and resumed that employment on leaving the ark.

Noah had been probably bred to the culture of the soil, and resumed that employment on leaving the ark.

JFB: Gen 9:21 - And he drank of the wine, and was drunken Perhaps at the festivities of the vintage season. This solitary stain on the character of so eminently pious a man must, it is believed, have been the...

Perhaps at the festivities of the vintage season. This solitary stain on the character of so eminently pious a man must, it is believed, have been the result of age or inadvertency.

JFB: Gen 9:24 - -- This incident could scarcely have happened till twenty years after the flood; for Canaan, whose conduct was more offensive than that even of his fathe...

This incident could scarcely have happened till twenty years after the flood; for Canaan, whose conduct was more offensive than that even of his father, was not born till after that event. It is probable that there is a long interval included between these verses and that this prophecy, like that of Jacob on his sons, was not uttered till near the close of Noah's life when the prophetic spirit came upon him; this presumption is strengthened by the mention of his death immediately after.

JFB: Gen 9:25 - Cursed be Canaan This doom has been fulfilled in the destruction of the Canaanites--in the degradation of Egypt and the slavery of the Africans, the descendants of Ham...

This doom has been fulfilled in the destruction of the Canaanites--in the degradation of Egypt and the slavery of the Africans, the descendants of Ham.

JFB: Gen 9:26 - Blessed be the Lord God of Shem Rather, "Blessed of Jehovah, my God, be Shem,"--an intimation that the descendants of Shem should be peculiarly honored in the service of the true God...

Rather, "Blessed of Jehovah, my God, be Shem,"--an intimation that the descendants of Shem should be peculiarly honored in the service of the true God, His Church being for ages established among them (the Jews), and of them, concerning the flesh, Christ came. They got possession of Canaan, the people of that land being made their "servants" either by conquest, or, like the Gibeonites, by submission [Jos 9:25].

JFB: Gen 9:27 - God shall enlarge Japheth Pointing to a vast increase in posterity and possessions. Accordingly his descendants have been the most active and enterprising, spread over the best...

Pointing to a vast increase in posterity and possessions. Accordingly his descendants have been the most active and enterprising, spread over the best and largest portion of the world, all Europe and a considerable part of Asia.

JFB: Gen 9:27 - he shall dwell in the tents of Shem A prophecy being fulfilled at the present day, as in India British Government is established and the Anglo-Saxons being in the ascendancy from Europe ...

A prophecy being fulfilled at the present day, as in India British Government is established and the Anglo-Saxons being in the ascendancy from Europe to India, from India over the American continent. What a wonderful prophecy in a few verses (Isa 46:10; 1Pe 1:25)!

Clarke: Gen 9:1 - God blessed Noah God blessed Noah - Even the increase of families, which appears to depend on merely natural means, and sometimes fortuitous circumstances, is all of...

God blessed Noah - Even the increase of families, which appears to depend on merely natural means, and sometimes fortuitous circumstances, is all of God. It is by his power and wisdom that the human being is formed, and it is by his providence alone that man is supported and preserved.

Clarke: Gen 9:2 - The fear of you and the dread, etc. The fear of you and the dread, etc. - Prior to the fall, man ruled the inferior animals by love and kindness, for then gentleness and docility were ...

The fear of you and the dread, etc. - Prior to the fall, man ruled the inferior animals by love and kindness, for then gentleness and docility were their principal characteristics. After the fall, untractableness, with savage ferocity, prevailed among almost all orders of the brute creation; enmity to man seems particularly to prevail; and had not God in his mercy impressed their minds with the fear and terror of man, so that some submit to his will while others flee from his residence, the human race would long ere this have been totally destroyed by the beasts of the field. Did the horse know his own strength, and the weakness of the miserable wretch who unmercifully rides, drives, whips, goads, and oppresses him, would he not with one stroke of his hoof destroy his tyrant possessor? But while God hides these things from him he impresses his mind with the fear of his owner, so that either by cheerful or sullen submission he is trained up for, and employed in, the most useful and important purposes; and even willingly submits, when tortured for the sport and amusement of his more brutish oppressor. Tigers, wolves, lions, and hyenas, the determinate foes of man, incapable of being tamed or domesticated, flee, through the principle of terror, from the dwelling of man, and thus he is providentially safe. Hence, by fear and by dread man rules every beast of the earth, every fowl of the air, and every fish of the sea. How wise and gracious is this order of the Divine providence! and with what thankfulness should it be considered by every human being!

Clarke: Gen 9:3 - Every moving thing - shall be meat Every moving thing - shall be meat - There is no positive evidence that animal food was ever used before the flood. Noah had the first grant of this...

Every moving thing - shall be meat - There is no positive evidence that animal food was ever used before the flood. Noah had the first grant of this kind, and it has been continued to all his posterity ever since. It is not likely that this grant would have been now made if some extraordinary alteration had not taken place in the vegetable world, so as to render its productions less nutritive than they were before; and probably such a change in the constitution of man as to render a grosser and higher diet necessary. We may therefore safely infer that the earth was less productive after the flood than it was before, and that the human constitution was greatly impaired by the alterations which had taken place through the whole economy of nature. Morbid debility, induced by an often unfriendly state of the atmosphere, with sore and long-continued labor, would necessarily require a higher nutriment than vegetables could supply. That this was the case appears sufficiently clear from the grant of animal food, which, had it not been indispensably necessary, had not been made. That the constitution of man was then much altered appears in the greatly contracted lives of the postdiluvians; yet from the deluge to the day of Abraham the lives of several of the patriarchs amounted to some hundreds of years; but this was the effect of a peculiar providence, that the new world might be the more speedily repeopled.

Clarke: Gen 9:4 - But flesh with the life thereof, which is the blood But flesh with the life thereof, which is the blood - Though animal food was granted, yet the blood was most solemnly forbidden, because it was the ...

But flesh with the life thereof, which is the blood - Though animal food was granted, yet the blood was most solemnly forbidden, because it was the life of the beast, and this life was to be offered to God as an atonement for sin. Hence the blood was ever held sacred, because it was the grand instrument of expiation, and because it was typical of that blood by which we enter into the holiest. 1. Before the deluge it was not eaten, because animal food was not in use. 2. After the deluge it was prohibited, as we find above; and, being one of the seven Noahic precepts, it was not eaten previously to the publication of the Mosaic law. 3. At the giving of the law, and at several times during the ministry of Moses, the prohibition was most solemnly, and with awful penalties renewed. Hence we may rest assured that no blood was eaten previously to the Christian era, nor indeed ever since by the Jewish people. 4. That the prohibition has been renewed under the Christian dispensation, can admit of little doubt by any man who dispassionately reads Act 15:20, Act 15:29; Act 21:25, where even the Gentile converts are charged to abstain from it on the authority, not only of the apostles, but of the Holy Ghost, who gave them there and then especial direction concerning this point; see Act 15:28; not for fear of stumbling the converted Jews, the gloss of theologians, but because it was one των επαναγκες τουτων, of those necessary points, from the burden ( βαρος ) of obedience to which they could not be excused. 5. This command is still scrupulously obeyed by the oriental Christians, and by the whole Greek Church; and why? because the reasons still subsist. No blood was eaten under the law, because it pointed out the blood that was to be shed for the sin of the world; and under the Gospel it should not be eaten, because it should ever be considered as representing the blood which has been shed for the remission of sins. If the eaters of blood in general knew that it affords a very crude, almost indigestible, and unwholesome ailment, they certainly would not on these physical reasons, leaving moral considerations out of the question, be so much attached to the consumption of that from which they could expect no wholesome nutriment, and which, to render it even pleasing to the palate, requires all the skill of the cook. See Lev 17:10.

Clarke: Gen 9:5 - Surely your blood - will I require; at the hand of every beast Surely your blood - will I require; at the hand of every beast - This is very obscure, but if taken literally it seems to be an awful warning agains...

Surely your blood - will I require; at the hand of every beast - This is very obscure, but if taken literally it seems to be an awful warning against cruelty to the brute creation; and from it we may conclude that horse-racers, hare-hunters, bull-baiters, and cock-fighters shall be obliged to give an account to God for every creature they have wantonly destroyed. Instead of חיה chaiyah , "beast,"the Samaritan reads Yod Kaph chai , "living,"any "living creature or person;"this makes a very good sense, and equally forbids cruelty either to men or brutes.

Clarke: Gen 9:6 - Whoso sheddeth man’ s blood, by man shall his blood Whoso sheddeth man’ s blood, by man shall his blood - Hence it appears that whoever kills a man, unless unwittingly, as the Scripture expresses...

Whoso sheddeth man’ s blood, by man shall his blood - Hence it appears that whoever kills a man, unless unwittingly, as the Scripture expresses it, shall forfeit his own life

A man is accused of the crime of murder; of this crime he is guilty or he is not: if he be guilty of murder he should die; if not, let him be punished according to the demerit of his crime; but for no offense but murder should he lose his life. Taking away the life of another is the highest offense that can be committed against the individual, and against society; and the highest punishment that a man can suffer for such a crime is the loss of his own life. As punishment should be ever proportioned to crimes, so the highest punishment due to the highest crime should not be inflicted for a minor offense. The law of God and the eternal dictates of reason say, that if a man kill another, the loss of his own life is at once the highest penalty he can pay, and an equivalent for his offense as far as civil society is concerned. If the death of the murderer be the highest penalty he can pay for the murder he has committed, then the infliction of this punishment for any minor offense is injustice and cruelty; and serves only to confound the claims of justice, the different degrees of moral turpitude and vice, and to render the profligate desperate: hence the adage so frequent among almost every order of delinquents, "It is as good to be hanged for a sheep as a lamb;"which at once marks their desperation, and the injustice of those penal laws which inflict the highest punishment for almost every species of crime. When shall a wise and judicious legislature see the absurdity and injustice of inflicting the punishment of death for stealing a sheep or a horse, forging a twenty shillings’ note, and Murdering A Man; when the latter, in its moral turpitude and ruinous consequences, infinitely exceeds the others?* (* On this head the doctor’ s pious wish has been realized since this paragraph was written. - Publishers)

Clarke: Gen 9:13 - I do set my bow in the cloud I do set my bow in the cloud - On the origin and nature of the rainbow there had been a great variety of conjectures, till Anthony de Dominis, bisho...

I do set my bow in the cloud - On the origin and nature of the rainbow there had been a great variety of conjectures, till Anthony de Dominis, bishop of Spalatro, in a treatise of his published by Bartholus in 1611, partly suggested the true cause of this phenomenon, which was afterwards fully explained and demonstrated by Sir Isaac Newton. To enter into this subject here in detail would be improper; and therefore the less informed reader must have recourse to treatises on Optics for its full explanation. To readers in general it may be sufficient to say that the rainbow is a mere natural effect of a natural cause

1.    It is never seen but in showery weather

2.    Nor then unless the sun shines

3.    It never appears in any part of the heavens but in that opposite to the sun

4.    It never appears greater than a semicircle, but often much less

5.    It is always double, there being what is called the superior and inferior, or primary and secondary rainbow

6.    These bows exhibit the seven prismatic colors, red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet

7.    The whole of this phenomenon depends on the rays of the sun falling on spherical drops of water, and being in their passage through them, refracted and reflected

The formation of the primary and secondary rainbow depends on the two following propositions

1.    When the sun shines on the drops of rain as they are falling, the rays that come from those drops to the eye of the spectator, after One reflection and Two refractions, produce the primary rainbow

2.    When the sun shines on the drops of rain as they are falling, the rays that come from those drops to the eye of the spectator after Two reflections and Two refractions, produce the secondary rainbow

The illustration of these propositions must be sought in treatises on Optics, assisted by plates. From the well-known cause of this phenomenon It cannot be rationally supposed that there was no rainbow in the heavens before the time mentioned in the text, for as the rainbow is the natural effect of the sun’ s rays falling on drops of water, and of their being refracted and reflected by them, it must have appeared at different times from the creation of the sun and the atmosphere. Nor does the text intimate that the bow was now created for a sign to Noah and his posterity; but that what was formerly created, or rather that which was the necessary effect, in certain cases, of the creation of the sun and atmosphere, should now be considered by them as an unfailing token of their continual preservation from the waters of a deluge; therefore the text speaks of what had already been done, and not of what was now done, קשתי נתתי kashti nathatti , "My bow I have given, or put in the cloud;"as if he said: As surely as the rainbow is a necessary effect of sunshine in rain, and must continue such as long as the sun and atmosphere endure, so surely shall this earth be preserved from destruction by water; and its preservation shall be as necessary an effect of my promise as the rainbow is of the shining of the sun during a shower of rain.

Clarke: Gen 9:17 - This is the token This is the token - אות oth , The Divine sign or portent: The bow shall be in the cloud. For the reasons above specified it must be there, when ...

This is the token - אות oth , The Divine sign or portent: The bow shall be in the cloud. For the reasons above specified it must be there, when the circumstances already mentioned occur; if therefore it cannot fail because of the reasons before assigned, no more shall my promise; and the bow shall be the proof of its perpetuity

Both the Greeks and Latins, as well as the Hebrews, have ever considered the rainbow as a Divine token or portent; and both of these nations have even deified it, and made it a messenger of the gods

Homer, Il. xi., ver. 27, speaking of the figures on Agamemnon’ s breastplate, says there were three dragons, whose colors wer

- - ιρισσιν εοικοτες, ἁς τε Κρονων

Εν νεφεΐ στηριξε, τερας μεροπων ανθρωπων

"like to the rainbow which the son of Saturn has placed in the cloud as a Sign to mankind,"or to men of various languages, for so the μεροπων ανθρωπων of the poet has been understood. Some have thought that the ancient Greek writers give this epithet to man from some tradition of the confusion and multiplication of tongues at Babel; hence in this place the words may be understood as implying mankind at large, the whole human race; God having given the rainbow for a sign to all the descendants of Noah, by whom the whole earth was peopled after the flood. Thus the celestial bow speaks a universal language, understood by all the sons and daughters of Adam. Virgil, from some disguised traditionary figure of the truth, considers the rainbow as a messenger of the gods. Aen. v., ver. 606

Irim de caelo misit Saturnia Juno

"Juno, the daughter of Saturn, sent down the rainbow from heaven;"and again, Aen. ix., ver. 803: -

aeriam caelo nam Jupiter Irim Demisit

"For Jupiter sent down the ethereal rainbow from heaven.

It is worthy of remark that both these poets understood the rainbow to be a sign, warning, or portent from heaven.

As I believe the rainbow to have been intended solely for the purpose mentioned in the text, I forbear to make spiritual uses and illustrations of it. Many have done this, and their observations may be very edifying, but they certainly have no foundation in the text.

Clarke: Gen 9:20 - Noah began to be a husbandman Noah began to be a husbandman - איש האדמה ish haadamah , A man of the ground, a farmer; by his beginning to be a husbandman we are to under...

Noah began to be a husbandman - איש האדמה ish haadamah , A man of the ground, a farmer; by his beginning to be a husbandman we are to understand his recommencing his agricultural operations, which undoubtedly he had carried on for six hundred years before, but this had been interrupted by the flood. And the transaction here mentioned might have occurred many years posterior to the deluge, even after Canaan was born and grown up, for the date of it is not fixed in the text

The word husband first occurs here, and scarcely appears proper, because it is always applied to man in his married state, as wife is to the woman. The etymology of the term will at once show its propriety when applied to the head of a family. Husband, is Anglo-Saxon, and simply signifies the bond of the house or family; as by him the family is formed, united, and bound together, which, on his death, is disunited and scattered

It is on this etymology of the word that we can account for the farmers and petty landholders being called so early as the twelfth century, husbandi, as appears in a statute of David II., king of Scotland: we may therefore safely derive the word from hus , a house, and bond from binben , to bind or tie; and this etymology appears plainer in the orthography which prevailed in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, in which I have often found the word written house-bond; so it is in a MS. Bible before me, written in the fourteenth century. Junius disputes this etymology, but I think on no just ground.

Clarke: Gen 9:21 - He drank of the wine, etc. He drank of the wine, etc. - It is very probable that this was the first time the wine was cultivated; and it is as probable that the strength or in...

He drank of the wine, etc. - It is very probable that this was the first time the wine was cultivated; and it is as probable that the strength or intoxicating power of the expressed juice was never before known. Noah, therefore, might have drunk it at this time without the least blame, as he knew not till this trial the effects it would produce. I once knew a case which I believe to be perfectly parallel. A person who had scarcely ever heard of cider, and whose beverage through his whole life had been only milk or water, coming wet and very much fatigued to a farmer’ s house in Somersetshire, begged for a little water or milk. The good woman of the house, seeing him very much exhausted, kindly said, "I will give you a little cider, which will do you more good."The honest man, understanding no more of cider than merely that it was the simple juice of apples, after some hesitation drank about a half pint of it; the consequence was, that in less than half an hour he was perfectly intoxicated, and could neither speak plain nor walk! This case I myself witnessed. A stranger to the circumstances, seeing this person, would pronounce him drunk; and perhaps at a third hand he might be represented as a drunkard, and thus his character be blasted; while of the crime of drunkenness he was as innocent as an infant

This I presume to have been precisely the case with Noah; and no person without an absolute breach of every rule of charity and candour, can attach any blame to the character of Noah on this ground, unless from a subsequent account they were well assured that, knowing the power and effects of the liquor, he had repeated the act. Some expositors seem to be glad to fix on a fact like this, which by their distortion becomes a crime; and then, in a strain of sympathetic tenderness, affect to deplore "the failings and imperfections of the best of men;"when, from the interpretation that should be given of the place, neither failing nor imperfection can possibly appear.

Clarke: Gen 9:22-24 - And Ham, the father of Canaan, etc. And Ham, the father of Canaan, etc. - There is no occasion to enter into any detail here; the sacred text is circumstantial enough. Ham, and very pr...

And Ham, the father of Canaan, etc. - There is no occasion to enter into any detail here; the sacred text is circumstantial enough. Ham, and very probably his son Canaan, had treated their father on this occasion with contempt or reprehensible levity. Had Noah not been innocent, as my exposition supposes him, God would not have endued him with the spirit of prophecy on this occasion, and testified such marked disapprobation of their conduct. The conduct of Shem and Japheth was such as became pious and affectionate children, who appear to have been in the habit of treating their father with decency, reverence, and obedient respect. On the one the spirit of prophecy (not the incensed father) pronounces a curse: on the others the same spirit (not parental tenderness) pronounces a blessing. These things had been just as they afterwards occurred had Noah never spoken. God had wise and powerful reasons to induce him to sentence the one to perpetual servitude, and to allot to the others prosperity and dominion. Besides, the curse pronounced on Canaan neither fell immediately upon himself nor on his worthless father, but upon the Canaanites; and from the history we have of this people, in Lev 18:6, Lev 18:7, Lev 18:24, Lev 18:29, Lev 18:30, Lev 20:9, Lev 20:22-24, Lev 20:26; and Deu 9:4; Deu 12:31, we may ask, Could the curse of God fall more deservedly on any people than on these? Their profligacy was great, but it was not the effect of the curse; but, being foreseen by the Lord, the curse was the effect of their conduct. But even this curse does not exclude them from the possibility of obtaining salvation; it extends not to the soul and to eternity, but merely to their bodies and to time; though, if they continued to abuse their liberty, resist the Holy Ghost, and refuse to be saved on God’ s terms, then the wrath of Divine justice must come upon them to the uttermost. How many, even of these, repented, we cannot tell.

Clarke: Gen 9:25 - Cursed be Canaan Cursed be Canaan - See on the preceding verses. In the 25th, 26th, and 27th verses, instead of Canaan simply, the Arabic version has Ham the father ...

Cursed be Canaan - See on the preceding verses. In the 25th, 26th, and 27th verses, instead of Canaan simply, the Arabic version has Ham the father of Canaan; but this is acknowledged by none of the other versions, and seems to be merely a gloss.

Clarke: Gen 9:29 - The days of Noah were nine hundred and fifty years The days of Noah were nine hundred and fifty years - The oldest patriarch on record, except Methuselah and Jared. This, according to the common reck...

The days of Noah were nine hundred and fifty years - The oldest patriarch on record, except Methuselah and Jared. This, according to the common reckoning, was A. M. 2006, but according to Dr. Hales, 3505

"Ham,"says Dr. Hales, "signifies burnt or black, and this name was peculiarly significant of the regions allotted to his family. To the Cushites, or children of his eldest son Cush, were allotted the hot southern regions of Asia, along the coasts of the Persian Gulf, Susiana or Chusistan, Arabia, etc.; to the sons of Canaan, Palestine and Syria; to the sons of Misraim, Egypt and Libya, in Africa

The Hamites in general, like the Canaanites of old, were a seafaring race, and sooner arrived at civilization and the luxuries of life than their simpler pastoral and agricultural brethren of the other two families. The first great empires of Assyria and Egypt were founded by them, and the republics of Sidon, Tyre, and Carthage were early distinguished for their commerce but they sooner also fell to decay; and Egypt, which was one of the first, became the last and basest of the kingdoms, Eze 29:15, and has been successively in subjection to the Shemites and Japhethites, as have also the settlements of the other branches of the Hamites

"Shem signifies name or renown; and his indeed was great in a temporal and spiritual sense. The finest regions of Upper and Middle Asia allotted to his family, Armenia, Mesopotamia, Assyria, Media, Persia, etc., to the Indus and Ganges, and perhaps to China eastward. "The chief renown of Shem was of a spiritual nature: he was destined to be the lineal ancestor of the blessed seed of the woman; and to this glorious privilege Noah, to whom it was probably revealed, might have alluded in that devout ejaculation, Blessed be the Lord, the God of Shem! The pastoral life of the Shemites is strongly marked in the prophecy by the tents of Shem; and such it remains to the present day, throughout their midland settlements in Asia

"Japheth signifies enlargement; and how wonderfully did Providence enlarge the boundaries of Japheth! His posterity diverged eastward and westward throughout the whole extent of Asia, north of the great range of Taurus, as far as the Eastern Ocean, whence they probably crossed over to America by Behring’ s Straits from Kamtschatka, and in the opposite direction throughout Europe to the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean; from whence also they might have crossed over to America by Newfoundland, where traces of early settlements remain in parts now desert. Thus did they gradually enlarge themselves till they literally encompassed the earth, within the precincts of the northern temperate zone, to which their roving hunter’ s life contributed not a little. Their progress northwards was checked by the much greater extent of the Black Sea in ancient times, and the increasing rigour of the climates: but their hardy race, and enterprising, warlike genius, made them frequently encroach southwards on the settlements of Shem, whose pastoral and agricultural occupations rendered them more inactive, peaceable and unwarlike; and so they dwelt in the tents of Shem when the Scythians invaded Media, and subdued western Asia southwards as far as Egypt, in the days of Cyaxares; when the Greeks, and afterwards the Romans, overran and subdued the Assyrians, Medes, and Persians in the east, and the Syrians and Jews in the south; as foretold by the Syrian prophet Balaam, Num 24:24 : -

"Ships shall come from Chittim, And shall afflict the Assyrians, and afflict the Hebrews; But he (the invader) shall perish himself at last"

"And by Moses: And the Lord shall bring thee (the Jews) into Egypt (or bondage) again with ships, etc., Deu 28:68. And by Daniel: For the ships of Chittim shall come against him, viz., Antiochus, king of Syria, Dan 11:30. In these passages Chittim denotes the southern coasts of Europe, bounding the Mediterranean, called the isles of the Gentiles or Nations; see Gen 10:5. And the isles of Chittim are mentioned Jer 2:10. And in after times the Tartars in the east have repeatedly invaded and subdued the Hindoos and the Chinese; while the warlike and enterprising genius of the greatest of the isles of the Gentiles, Great Britain and Ireland, have spread their colonies, their arms, their language, their arts, and in some measure their religion, from the rising to the setting sun."See Dr. Hales’ s Analysis of Chronology, vol. 1., p. 352, etc

Though what is left undone should not cause us to lose sight of what is done, yet we have reason to lament that the inhabitants of the British isles, who of all nations under heaven have the purest light of Divine revelation, and the best means of diffusing it, have been much more intent on spreading their conquests and extending their commerce, than in propagating the Gospel of the Son of God. But the nation, by getting the Bible translated into every living language, and sending it to all parts of the habitable globe, and, by its various missionary societies, sending men of God to explain and enforce the doctrines and precepts of this sacred book, is rapidly redeeming its character, and becoming great in goodness and benevolence over the whole earth!

Calvin: Gen 9:1 - And God blessed Noah 1.And God blessed Noah. We hence infer with what great fear Noah had been dejected, because God, so often and at such length, proceeds to encourage h...

1.And God blessed Noah. We hence infer with what great fear Noah had been dejected, because God, so often and at such length, proceeds to encourage him. For when Moses here says, that God blessed Noah and his sons, he does not simply mean that the favor of fruitfulness was restored to them; but that, at the same time, the design of God concerning the new restitution of the world was revealed unto them. For to the blessing itself is added the voice of God by which he addresses them. We know that brute animals produce offspring in no other way than by the blessing of God; but Moses here commemorates a privilege which belongs only to men. Therefore, lest those four men and their wives, seized with trepidation, should doubt for what purpose they had been delivered, the Lord prescribes to them their future condition of life: namely, that they shall raise up mankind from death to life. Thus he not only renews the world by the same word by which he before created it; but he directs his word to men, in order that they may recover the lawful use of marriage, may know that the care of producing offspring is pleasing to Himself, and may have confidence that a progeny shall spring from them which shall diffuse itself through all regions of the earth, so as to render it again inhabited; although it had been laid waste and made a desert. Yet he did not permit promiscuous intercourse, but sanctioned anew that law of marriage which he had before ordained. And although the blessing of God is, in some way, extended to illicit connections, so that offspring is thence produced, yet this is an impure fruitfulness; that which is lawful flows only from the expressly declared benediction of God.

Calvin: Gen 9:2 - And the fear of you 2.And the fear of you. This also has chiefly respect to the restoration of the world, in order that the sovereignty over the rest of animals might re...

2.And the fear of you. This also has chiefly respect to the restoration of the world, in order that the sovereignty over the rest of animals might remain with men. And although after the fall of man, the beasts were endued with new ferocity, yet some remains of that dominion over them, which God had conferred on him in the beginning, were still left. He now also promises that the same dominion shall continue. We see indeed that wild beasts rush violently upon men, and rend and tear many of them in pieces; and if God did not wonderfully restrain their fierceness, the human race would be utterly destroyed. Therefore, what we have said respecting the inclemency of the air, and the irregularity of the seasons, is also here applicable. Savage beasts indeed prevail and rage against men in various ways, and no wonder; for since we perversely exalt ourselves against God, why should not the beasts rise up against us? Nevertheless, the providence of God is a secret bridle to restrain their violence. For, whence does it arise that serpents spare us, unless because he represses their virulence? Whence is it that tigers, elephants, lions, bears, wolves, and other wild beasts without number, do not rend, tear, and devour everything human, except that they are withheld by this subjection, as by a barrier? Therefore, it ought to be referred to the special protection and guardianship of God, that we remain in safety. For, were it otherwise, what could we expect; since they seem as if born for our destruction, and burn with the furious desire to injure us? Moreover, the bridle with which the Lord restrains the cruelty of wild beasts, to prevent them falling upon men, is a certain fear and dread which God has implanted in them, to the end that they might reverence the presence of men. Daniel especially declares this respecting kings; namely, that they are possessed of dominion, because the Lord has put the fear and the dread of them both on men and beasts. But as the first use of fear is to defend the society of mankind; so, according to the measure in which God has given to men a general authority over the beasts, there exists in the greatest and the least of men, I know not what hidden mark, which does not suffer the cruelty of wild beasts, by its violence to prevail. Another advantage, however and one more widely extended, is here noted; namely, that men may render animals subservient to their own convenience, and may apply them to various uses, according to their wishes and their necessities. Therefore, the fact that oxen become accustomed to bear the yoke; that the wildness of horses is so subdued as to cause them to carry a rider; that they receive the pack-saddle to bear burdens; that cows give milk, and suffer themselves to be milked; that sheep are mute under the hand of the shearer; all these facts are the result of this dominion, which, although greatly diminished, is nevertheless not entirely abolished.

Calvin: Gen 9:3 - Every moving thing that liveth shall be meat for you 3.Every moving thing that liveth shall be meat for you. The Lord proceeds further, and grants animals for food to men, that they may eat their flesh....

3.Every moving thing that liveth shall be meat for you. The Lord proceeds further, and grants animals for food to men, that they may eat their flesh. And because Moses now first relates that this right was given to men, nearly all commentators infer, that it was not lawful for man to eat flesh before the deluge, but that the natural fruits of the earth were his only food. But the argument is not sufficiently firm. For I hold to this principle; that God here does not bestow on men more than he had previously given, but only restores what had been taken away, that they might again enter on the possession of those good things from which they had been excluded. For since they had before offered sacrifices to God, and were also permitted to kill wild beasts, from the hides and skins of which, they might make for themselves garments and tents, I do not see what obligation should prevent them from the eating of flesh. But since it is of little consequence what opinion is held, I affirm nothing on the subject. 286 This ought justly to be deemed by us of greater importance, that to eat the flesh of animals is granted to us by the kindness of God; that we do not seize upon what our appetite desires, as robbers do, nor yet tyrannically shed the innocent blood of cattle; but that we only take what is offered to us by the hand of the Lord. We have heard what Paul says, that we are at liberty to eat what we please, only we do it with the assurance of conscience, but that he who imagines anything to be unclean, to him it is unclean, (Rom 14:14.) And whence has this happened to man, that he should eat whatever food he pleased before God, with a tranquil mind, and not with unbridled license, except from his knowing, that it has been divinely delivered into his hand by the right of donation? Wherefore, (the same Paul being witness,) the word of God sanctifies the creatures, that we may purely and lawfully feed on them, (1Ti 4:5.) Let the adage be utterly rejected which says, ‘that no one can feed and refresh his body with a morsel of bread, without, at the same time, defiling his soul.’ Therefore it is not to be doubted, that the Lord designed to confirm our faith, when he expressly declares by Moses, that he gave to man the free use of flesh, so that we might not eat it with a doubtful and trembling conscience. At the same time, however, he invites us to thanksgiving. On this account also, Paul adds “prayer” to the “word,” in defining the method of sanctification in the passage recently cited.

And now we must firmly retain the liberty given us by the Lord, which he designed to be recorded as on public tables. For, by this word, he addresses all the posterity of Noah, and renders this gift common to all ages. And why is this done, but that the faithful may boldly assert their right to that which, they know, has proceeded from God as its Author? For it is an insupportable tyranny, when God, the Creator of all things, has laid open to us the earth and the air, in order that we may thence take food as from his storehouse, for these to be shut up from us by mortal man, who is not able to create even a snail or a fly. I do not speak of external prohibition; 287 but I assert, that atrocious injury is done to God, when we give such license to men as to allow them to pronounce that unlawful which God designs to be lawful, and to bind consciences which the word of God sets free, with their fictitious laws. The fact that God prohibited his ancient people from the use of unclean animals, seeing that exception was but temporary, is here passed over by Moses.

Calvin: Gen 9:4 - But flesh with the life thereof, which is the blood thereof 4.But flesh with the life thereof, which is the blood thereof Some thus explain this passages ‘Ye may not eat a member cut off from a living animal...

4.But flesh with the life thereof, which is the blood thereof Some thus explain this passages ‘Ye may not eat a member cut off from a living animal,’ which is too trifling. However, since there is no copulative conjunction between the two words, blood and life, I do not doubt that Moses, speaking of the life, added the word blood exegetically, 288 as if he would say, that flesh is in some sense devoured with its life, when it is eaten imbued with its own blood. Wherefore, the life and the blood are not put for different things, but for the same; not because blood is in itself the life, but inasmuch as the vital spirits chiefly reside in the blood, it is, as far as our feeling is concerned, a token which represents life. And this is expressly declared, in order that men may have the greater horror of eating blood For if it be a savage and barbarous thing to devour lives, or to swallow down living flesh, men betray their brutality by eating blood. Moreover, the tendency of this prohibition is by no means obscure, namely, that God intends to accustom men to gentleness, by abstinence from the blood of animals; but, if they should become unrestrained, and daring in eating wild animals they would at length not be sparing of even human blood. Yet we must remember, that this restriction was part of the old law. 289 Wherefore, what Tertullian relates, that in his time it was unlawful among Christians to taste the blood of cattle, savours of superstition. For the apostles, in commanding the Gentiles to observe this rite, for a short time, did not intend to inject a scruple into their consciences, but only to prevent the liberty which was otherwise sacred, from proving an occasion of offense to the ignorant and the weak.

Calvin: Gen 9:5 - And surely your blood of your lives will I require 5.And surely your blood of your lives will I require. In these words the Lord more explicitly declares that he does not forbid the use of blood out o...

5.And surely your blood of your lives will I require. In these words the Lord more explicitly declares that he does not forbid the use of blood out of regard to animals themselves, but because he accounts the life of men precious: and because the sole end of his law is, to promote the exercise of common humanity between them. I therefore think that Jerome, in rendering the particle אך ( ach,) for, has done better than they who read it as an adversative disjunctive; ‘otherwise your blood will I require;’ yet literally it may best be thus translated, ‘And truly your blood.’ 290 The whole context is (in my opinion) to be thus read, ‘And truly your blood, which is in your lives, or which is as your lives, that is which vivifies and quickens you, as it respects your body, will I require: from the hand of all animals will require it; from the hand of man, from the hand, I say, of man, his brother, will I require the life of man.’ The distinction by which the Jews constitute four kinds of homicide is frivolous; for I have explained the simple and genuine sense, namely, that God so highly estimates our life, that he will not suffer murder to go unavenged. And he inculcates this in so many words, in order that he may render the cruelty of those the more detestable, who lay violent hands upon their neighbors. And it is no common proof of God’s love towards us, that he undertakes the defense of our lives, and declares that he will be the avenger of our death. In saying that he will exact punishment from animals for the violated life of men, he gives us this as an example. For if, on behalf of man, he is angry with brute creatures who are hurried by a blind impulse to feed upon him; what, do we suppose, will become of the man who, unjustly, cruelly, and contrary to the sense of nature, falls upon his brother?

Calvin: Gen 9:6 - Whoso sheddeth man’s blood // For in the image of God made he man 6.Whoso sheddeth man’s blood 291 The clause in man which is here added, has the force of amplification. Some expound it, ‘Before witnesses.’ Ot...

6.Whoso sheddeth man’s blood 291 The clause in man which is here added, has the force of amplification. Some expound it, ‘Before witnesses.’ Others refer it to what follows, namely, ‘that by man his blood should be shed.’ 292 But all these interpretations are forced. What I have said must be remembered, that this language rather expresses the atrociousness of the crime; because whosoever kills a man, draws down upon himself the blood and life of his brother. On the whole, they are deceived (in my judgment) who think that a political law, for the punishment of homicides, is here simply intended. Truly I do not deny that the punishment which the laws ordain, and which the judges execute, are founded on this divine sentence; but I say the words are more comprehensive. It is written,

‘Men of blood shall not live out half their days,’
(Psa 55:23.)

And we see some die in highways, some in stews, and many in wars. Therefore, however magistrates may connive at the crime, God sends executioners from other quarters, who shall render unto sanguinary men their reward. God so threatens and denounces vengeance against the murderer, that he even arms the magistrate with the sword for the avenging of slaughter, in order that the blood of men may not be shed with impunity.

For in the image of God made he man. For the greater confirmation of the above doctrines God declares, that he is not thus solicitous respecting human life rashly, and for no purpose. Men are indeed unworthy of God’s care, if respect be had only to themselves. but since they bear the image of God engraven on them, He deems himself violated in their person. Thus, although they have nothing of their own by which they obtain the favor of God, he looks upon his own gifts in them, and is thereby excited to love and to care for them. This doctrine, however is to be carefully observed that no one can be injurious to his brother without wounding God himself. Were this doctrine deeply fixed in our minds, we should be much more reluctant than we are to inflict injuries. Should any one object, that this divine image has been obliterated, the solution is easy; first, there yet exists some remnant of it, so that man is possessed of no small dignity; and, secondly, the Celestial Creator himself, however corrupted man may be, still keeps in view the end of his original creation; and according to his example, we ought to consider for what end he created men, and what excellence he has bestowed upon them above the rest of living beings.

Calvin: Gen 9:7 - And you, be ye fruitful and multiply 7.And you, be ye fruitful and multiply. He again turns his discourse to Noah and his sons, exhorting them to the propagation of offspring: as if he w...

7.And you, be ye fruitful and multiply. He again turns his discourse to Noah and his sons, exhorting them to the propagation of offspring: as if he would say, ‘You see that I am intent upon cherishing and preserving mankind, do you therefore also attend to it.’ At the same time, in commending to them the preservation of seed, he deters them from murder, and from unjust acts of violence. Yet his chief end was that to which I have before alluded, that he might encourage their dejected minds. For in these words is contained not a bare precept, but also a promise.

Calvin: Gen 9:8 - And God spake unto Noah 8.And God spake unto Noah. That the memory of the deluge might not inspire them with new terrors, as often as the sky were covered with clouds, lest ...

8.And God spake unto Noah. That the memory of the deluge might not inspire them with new terrors, as often as the sky were covered with clouds, lest the earth should again be drowned; this source of anxiety is taken away. And certainly, if we consider the great propensity of the human mind to distrust, we shall not deem this testimony to have been unnecessary even for Noah. He was indeed endued with a rare and incomparable faith, even to a miracle; but no strength of constancy could be so great, that this most sad and terrible vengeance of God should not shake it. Therefore, whenever any great and continued shower shall seem to threaten the earth with a deluge, this barrier, on which the holy man may rely, is interposed. Now although his sons would need this confirmation more than he, yet the Lord speaks especially on his account. And the clause which follows, ‘and to his sons who were with him,’ is to be referred to this point. For how is it, that God, making his covenant with the sons of Noah, commands them to hope for the best? Truly, because they are joined with their father, who is, as it were, the stipulator of the covenant, so as to be associated with him, in a subordinate place 293. Moreover, there is no doubt that it was the design of God to provide for all his posterity. It was not therefore a private covenant confirmed with one family only, but one which is common to all people, and which shall flourish in all ages to the end of the world. And truly, since at the present time, impiety overflows not less than in the age of Noah, it is especially necessary that the waters should be restrained by this word of God, as by a thousand bolts and bars lest they should break forth to destroy us. Wherefore, relying on this promise, let us look forward to the last day, in which the consuming fire shall purify heaven and earth.

Calvin: Gen 9:10 - And with every living creature 10.And with every living creature. Although the favor which the Lord promises extends also to animals, yet it is not in vain that he addresses himsel...

10.And with every living creature. Although the favor which the Lord promises extends also to animals, yet it is not in vain that he addresses himself only to men, who, by the sense of faith, are able to perceive this benefit. We enjoy the heaven and the air in common with the beasts, and draw the same vital breath; but it is no common privilege, that God directs his word to us; whence we may learn with what paternal love he pursues us. And here three distinct steps are to be traced. First, God, as in a matter of present concern, makes a covenant with Noah and his family, lest they should be afraid of a deluge for themselves. Secondly, he transmits his covenant to posterity, not only that, as by continual succession, the effect may reach to other ages; but that they who should afterwards be born might also apprehend this testimony by faith, and might conclude that the same thing which had been promised to the sons of Noah, was promised unto them. Thirdly, he declares that he will be propitious also to brute animals, so that the effect of the covenant towards them, might be the preservation of their lives only, without imparting to them sense and intelligence. Hence the ignorance of the Anabaptists may be refuted, who deny that the covenant of God is common to infants, because they are destitute of present faith. As if, truly, when God promises salvation to a thousand generations, the fathers were not intermediate parties between God and their children, whose office it is to deliver to their children (so to speak) from hand to hand the promise received from God. But as many as withdraw their life from this protection of God (since the greater part of men either despise or ridicule this divine covenant) deserve, by this single act of ingratitude, to be immersed in eternal fire. For although this be an earthly promise, yet God designs the faith of his people to be exercised, in order that they may be assured that a certain abode will, by his special goodness, be provided for them on earth, until they shall be gathered together in heaven.

Calvin: Gen 9:12 - This is the token of the covenant 12.This is the token of the covenant. A sign is added to the promise, in which is exhibited the wonderful kindness of God; who, for the purpose of co...

12.This is the token of the covenant. A sign is added to the promise, in which is exhibited the wonderful kindness of God; who, for the purpose of confirming our faith in his word, does not disdain to use such helps. And although we have more fully discussed the use of signs in Gen 2:1, yet we must briefly maintain, from these words of Moses, that it is wrong to sever signs from the word. By the word, I mean not that of which Papists boast; whereby they enchant bread, wine, water, and oil, with their magical whisperings; but that which may strengthen faith: according no the Lord here plainly addresses holy Noah and his sons; he then annexes a seal, for the sake of assurance. Wherefore, if the sacrament be wrested from the word, it ceases to be what it is called. It must, I say, be a vocal sign, in order that it may retain its force, and not degenerate from its nature. And not only is that administration of sacraments in which the word of God is silent, vain and ludicrous; but it draws with it pure satanic delusions. Hence we also infer, that from the beginning, it was the peculiar property of sacraments, to avail for the confirmation of faith. For certainly, in the covenant that promise is included to which faith ought to respond. It appears to some absurd, that faith should be sustained by such helps. But they who speak thus do not, in the first place, reflect on the great ignorance and imbecility of our minds; nor do they, secondly, ascribe to the working of the secret power of the Spirit that praise which is due. It is the work of God alone to begin and to perfect faith; but he does it by such instruments as he sees good; the free choice of which is in his own power.

Calvin: Gen 9:13 - I do set my bow in the cloud 13.I do set my bow in the cloud. From these words certain eminent theologians have been induced to deny, that there was any rainbow before the deluge...

13.I do set my bow in the cloud. From these words certain eminent theologians have been induced to deny, that there was any rainbow before the deluge: which is frivolous. For the words of Moses do not signify, that a bow was then formed which did not previously exist; but that a mark was engraven upon it, which should give a sign of the divine favor towards men. That this may the more evidently appear, it will be well to recall to memory what we have elsewhere said, that some signs are natural, and some preternatural. And although there are many examples of this second class of signs in the Scriptures; yet they are peculiar, and do not belong to the common and perpetual use of the Church. For, as it pleases the Lord to employ earthly elements, as vehicles for raising the minds of men on high, so I think the celestial arch which had before existed naturally, is here consecrated into a sign and pledge; and thus a new office is assigned to it; whereas, from the nature of the thing itself, it might rather be a sign of the contrary; for it threatens continued rain. Let this therefore he the meaning, of the words, ‘As often as the rain shall alarm you, look upon the bow. For although it may seem to cause the rain to overflow the earth, it shall nevertheless be to you a pledge of returning dryness, and thus it will then become you to stand with greater confidence, than under a clear and serene sky.’ Hence it is not for us to contend with philosophers respecting the rainbow; for although its colors are the effect of natural causes, yet they act profanely who attempt to deprive God of the right and authority which he has over his creatures.

Calvin: Gen 9:15 - And I will remember my covenant 15.And I will remember my covenant. Moses, by introducing God so often as the speaker, teaches us that the word holds the chief place, and that signs...

15.And I will remember my covenant. Moses, by introducing God so often as the speaker, teaches us that the word holds the chief place, and that signs are to be estimated by it. 294 God, however, speaks after the manner of men, when he says, that at the sight of the rainbow he will remember his covenant. But this mode of speaking has reference to the faith of men, in order that they may reflect, that God, whenever he stretches out his arch over the clouds, is not unmindful of his covenant.

Calvin: Gen 9:18 - The sons of Noah 18.The sons of Noah. Moss enumerates the sons of Noah, not only because he is about to pass on to the following history, but for the purpose of more ...

18.The sons of Noah. Moss enumerates the sons of Noah, not only because he is about to pass on to the following history, but for the purpose of more fully illustrating the force of the promise, “Replenish the earth.” For we may hence better conceive how efficacious the blessing of God has been, because an immense multitude of men proceeded in a short time from so small a number; and because one family, and that a little one, grew into so many, and such numerous nations.

Calvin: Gen 9:20 - And Noah began to be an husbandman 20.And Noah began to be an husbandman. I do not so explain. the words, as if he then, for the first time, began to give his attention to the cultivat...

20.And Noah began to be an husbandman. I do not so explain. the words, as if he then, for the first time, began to give his attention to the cultivation of the fields; but, (in my opinion,) Moses rather intimates, that Noah, with a collected mind, though now an old man, returned to the culture of the fields, and to his former labors. It is, however, uncertain whether he had been a vine-dresser or not. It is commonly believed that wine was not in use before that time. And this opinion has been the more willingly received, as affording an honorable pretext for the excuse of Noah’s sin. But it does not appear to me probable that the fruit of the vine, which excels all others, should have remained neglected and unprofitable. Also, Moses does not say that Noah was drunken on the first day on which he tasted it. Therefore, leaving this question undetermined, I rather suppose, that we are to learn from the drunkenness of Noah, what a filthy and detestable crime drunkenness is. The holy patriarch, though he had hitherto been a rare example of frugality and temperance, losing all self-possession, did, in a base and shameful manner, prostrate himself naked on the ground, so as to become a laughingstock to all. Therefore, with what care ought we to cultivate sobriety, lest anything like this, or even worse, should happen to us? Formerly, the heathen philosopher said, that ‘wine is the blood of the earth; and, therefore, when men intemperately pour it down their throats, they are justly punished by their mother. Let us, however, rather remember, that when men, by shameful abuse, profane this noble and most precious gift of God, He himself becomes the Avenger. And let us know, that Noah, by the judgement of Gods has been set forth as a spectacle to be a warning to others, that they should not become intoxicated by excessive drinking. Some excuse might certainly be made for the holy man; who, having completed his labor, and being exhilarated with wine, imagines that he is but taking his just reward. But God brands him with an eternal mark of disgrace. What then, do we suppose, will happen to those idle-bellies and insatiable gluttons whose sole object of contention is who shall consume the greatest quantity of wine? And although this kind of correction was severe, yet it was profitable to the servant of God; since he was recalled to sobriety, lest by proceeding in the indulgence of a vice to which he had once yielded, he should ruin himself; just as we see drunkards become at length brutalized by continued intemperance.

Calvin: Gen 9:22 - And Ham, the father of Canaan 22.And Ham, the father of Canaan. This circumstance is added to augment the sorrow of Noah, that he is mocked by his own son. For we must ever keep i...

22.And Ham, the father of Canaan. This circumstance is added to augment the sorrow of Noah, that he is mocked by his own son. For we must ever keep in memory, that this punishment was divinely inflicted upon him; partly, because his fault was not a light one; partly that God in his person might present a lesson of temperance to all ages. Drunkenness in itself deserves as its reward, that they who deface the image of their heavenly Father in themselves, should become a laughingstock to their own children. For certainly, as far as possible, drunkards subvert their own understanding, and so far deprive themselves of reason as to degenerate into beasts. And let us remember, that if the Lord so grievously avenged the single transgression of the holy man, he will prove an avenger no less severe against those who are daily intoxicated; and of this we have examples sufficiently numerous before our eyes. In the meanwhile, Ham, by reproachfully laughing at his feather, betrays his own depraved and malignant disposition. We know that parents, next to God, are most deeply to be reverenced; and if there were neither books nor sermons, nature itself constantly inculcates this lesson upon us. It is received by common consent, that piety towards parents is the mother of all virtues. This Ham, therefore, must have been of a wicked, perverse, and crooked disposition; since he not only took pleasure in his father’s shame, but wished to expose him to his brethren. And this is no slight occasion of offense; first, that Noah, the minister of salvation to men, and the chief restorer of the world, should in extreme old age, lie intoxicated in his house; and then, that the ungodly and wicked Ham should have proceeded from the sanctuary of God. 295 God had selected eight souls as a sacred seed, thoroughly purged from all corruption, for the renovation of the Church: but the son of Noah shows, how necessary it is for men to be held as with the bridle of God, however they may be exalted by privilege. The impiety of Ham proves to us how deep is the root of wickedness in men; and that it continually puts forth its shoots, except where the power of the Spirit prevails over it. But if, in the hallowed sanctuary of God, among so small a number, one fiend was preserved; let us not wonder if, at this day, in the Church, containing a much greater multitude of men, the wicked are mingled with the good. Nor is there any doubt that the minds of Shem and Japheth were grievously wounded, when they perceived in their own brother such a prodigy of scorn; and, on the other hand, their father shamefully lying prostrate on the ground. Such a debasing alienation of mind in the prince of the new world, and the holy patriarch of the Church, could not less astonish them, than if they had seen the ark itself broken, dashed in pieces, cleft asunder, and destroyed. Yet this cause of offense they alike overcome by their magnanimity, and conceal by their modesty. Ham alone eagerly seizes the occasion of ridiculing and inveighing against his father; just as perverse men are wont to catch at occasions of offense in others, which may serve as a pretext for indulgence in sin. And his age renders him the less excusable; for he was not a lascivious youth, who, by his thoughtless laughter, betrayed his own folly, seeing that he was already more than one hundred years old. Therefore, it is probable, that he thus perversely insulted his father, for the purpose of acquiring for himself the license of sinning with impunity. We see many such at this day, who most studiously pry into the faults of holy and pious men, in order that without shame they may precipitate themselves into all iniquity; they even make the faults of other men an occasion of hardening themselves into a contempt for God.

Calvin: Gen 9:23 - And Shem and Japheth took a garment 23.And Shem and Japheth took a garment. Here the piety, as well as the modesty, of the two brothers is commended; who, in order that the dignity of t...

23.And Shem and Japheth took a garment. Here the piety, as well as the modesty, of the two brothers is commended; who, in order that the dignity of their father might not be lowered in their esteem, but that they might always cherish and keep entire the reverence which they owed him, turned away their eyes from the sight of his disgrace. And thus they gave proof of the regard they paid to their father’s honor, in supposing that their own eyes would be polluted, if they voluntarily looked upon the nakedness by which he was disgraced. At the same time they also consulted their own modesty. For (as it was said in Gen 3:1) there is something so unaccountably shameful in the nakedness of man, that scarcely any one dares to look upon himself, even when no witness is present. They also censure the impious rashness of their brother, who had not spared his father. Hence, then, we may learn how acceptable to God is that piety, of which the example here recorded receives a signal encomium of the Spirit. But if piety towards an earthly father was a virtue so excellent, and so worthy of praise; with how much greater devotedness of piety ought the sacred majesty of God to be worshipped? The Papists make themselves ridiculous by desiring to cover the filthiness of their idol, yea, the abominations of their whole impure clergy, with the cloak of Shem and Japheth. I omit to state how great is the difference between the disgrace of Noah and the execrable vileness of so many crimes which contaminate heaven and earth. But it is necessary that Antichrist and his horned bishops, with all that rabble, should prove themselves to be fathers, 296 if they with that any honor should be paid them.

Calvin: Gen 9:24 - And Noah awoke 24.And Noah awoke. It might seem to some that Noah, although he had just cause of anger, still conducted himself with too little modesty and gravity;...

24.And Noah awoke. It might seem to some that Noah, although he had just cause of anger, still conducted himself with too little modesty and gravity; and that he ought, at least, silently to have mourned over his sin before God; and also, with shame, to have given proof of his repentance to men: but that now as if he had committed no offense, he fulminates with excessive severity against his son. 297 Moses, however, does not here relate reproaches uttered by Noah, under the excitement of rage and anger, but rather introduces him speaking in the spirit of prophecy. Wherefore we ought not to doubt, that the holy man was truly humbled (as he ought to be) under a sense of his fault, and honestly reflected on his own deserts; but now, having received the grant of pardon, and his condemnation being removed, he proceeds as the herald of Divine judgment. It is not indeed to be doubted that the holy man, endued with a disposition otherwise gentle, and being one of the best of parents, would pronounce this sentence upon his son with the most bitter grief of mind. For he saw him miraculously preserved amongst a few and having a place among the very flower of the human race. Now, therefore, when, with his own mouth, he is compelled to separate him from the Church of God, he doubtless would grievously bewail the malediction of his son. But by this example, God would admonish us that the constancy of our faith must be retained, if at any time we see those fail who are most closely united to us, and that our spirits ought not to be broken; nay, that we must so exercise the severity which God enjoins, as not to spare even our own bowels. And whereas, Noah does not pronounce a sentence so harsh, except by Divine inspiration, it behaves us to infer from the severity of the punishment how abominable in the sight of God is the impious contempt of parents, since it perverts the sacred order of nature, and violates the majesty and authority of God, in the person of those whom he has commanded to preside in his place.

Calvin: Gen 9:25 - Cursed be Canaan // A servant of servants shall he be 25.Cursed be Canaan 298 It is asked in the first place, why Noah instead of pronouncing the curse upon his son, inflicts the severity of punishment, ...

25.Cursed be Canaan 298 It is asked in the first place, why Noah instead of pronouncing the curse upon his son, inflicts the severity of punishment, which that son had deserved, upon his innocent grandson; since it seems not consistent with the justice of God, to visit the crimes of parents upon their children? But the answer is well known; namely that God, although he pursues his course of judgments upon the sons and the grandchildren of the ungodly, yet in being angry with them, is not angry with the innocent, because even they themselves are found in fault. Wherefore there is no absurdity in the act of avenging the sins of the fathers upon their reprobate children; since, of necessity, all those whom God has deprived of his Spirit are subject to his wrath. But it is surprising that Noah should curse his grandson; and should pass his son Ham, the author of the crime, over in silence. The Jews imagine that the reason of this was to be traced to the special favor of God; and that since the Lord had bestowed on Ham so great an honor, 299 the curse was transferred from him to his son. But the conjecture is futile. Certainly, to my mind, there is no doubt that the punishment was carried forward even to his posterity in order that the severity of it might be the more apparent; as if the Lord had openly proclaimed that the punishment of one man would not satisfy him but that he would attach the curse also to the posterity of the offender, so that it should extend through successive ages. In the meantime, Ham himself is so far from being exempt, that God, by involving his son with him, aggravates his own condemnation.

Another question is also proposed; namely, why among the many sons of Ham, God chooses one to be smitten? But let not our curiosity here indulge itself too freely; let us remember that the judgments of God are, not in vain, called “a great deep,” and that it would be a degrading thing for God, before whose tribunal we all must one day stand, to be subjected to our judgments, or rather to our foolish temerity. He chooses whom he sees good, that he may show forth in them an example of his grace and kindness; others he appoints to a different end, that they may be proofs of his anger and severity. Here, although the minds of men are blinded, let every one of us, conscious of his own infirmity, learn rather to ascribe praise to God’s justice, than plunge, with insane audacity, into the profound abyss. While God held the whole seed of Ham as obnoxious to the curse, he mentions the Canaanites by name, as those whom he would curse above all others. And hence we infer that this judgment proceeded from God, because it was proved by the event itself. What would certainly be the condition of the Canaanites, Noah could not know by human means. Wherefore in things obscure and hidden, the Spirit directed his tongue.

Another difficulty still remains: for since the Scripture teaches that God avenges the sins of men on the third and fourth generation, it seems to assign this limit to the wrath of God; but the vengeance of which mention is now made extends itself to the tenth generation. I answer, that these words of Scripture are not intended to prescribe a law to God, which he may not so far set aside, as to be at liberty to punish sins beyond four generations. The thing to be here observed is, the comparison instituted between punishment and grace; by which we are taught, that God, while he is a just avenger of crimes, is still more inclined to mercy. In the meantime, let his liberty remain unquestioned, to extend his vengeance as far as he pleases.

A servant of servants shall he be. This Hebraism signifies that Canaan shall be the last, even among servants: as if it had been said, ‘Not only shall his condition be servile, but worse than that of common servitude.’ 300 Yet the thunder of this severe and dreadful prophecy seems weak and illusory, since the Canaanites excelled in strength and in riches, and were possessed of extensive dominion. Where then is this servitude? In the first place, I answer, that though God, in threatening men, does not immediately execute what he denounces, yet his threats are never weak and ineffectual. Secondly, that the judgments of God are not always exhibited before our eyes, nor apprehended by our carnal reason. The Canaanites, having shaken off the yoke of servitude, which was divinely imposed upon them, even proceeded to grasp at empire for themselves. But although they triumph for a time, yet in the sight of God their condition is not deemed free. Just as when the faithful are iniquitously oppressed, and tyrannically harassed by the wicked, their spiritual liberty is still not extinct in the sight of God. It behaves us then to be content with this proof of the divine judgment, that God promised the dominion of the land of Canaan to his servant Abraham, and at length devoted the Canaanites to destruction. But because the Pope so earnestly maintains that he sometimes utters prophecies, — as did even Caiaphas, (Joh 11:51,) — lest we should seem to refuse him everything, I do not deny that the title with which he adorns himself was dictated by the Spirit of God, ‘Let him be a servant of servants,’ in the same sense that Canaan was.

Calvin: Gen 9:26 - Blessed be the Lord God of Shem 26.Blessed be the Lord God of Shem. Noah blesses his other children, but in a different manner. For he places Shem in the highest post of honor. And ...

26.Blessed be the Lord God of Shem. Noah blesses his other children, but in a different manner. For he places Shem in the highest post of honor. And this is the reason why Noah, in blessing him, breaks forth in the praise of God, without adhering to the person of man. For the Hebrews, when they are speaking of any rare and transcendent excellence, raise their thoughts to God. Therefore the holy man, when he perceived that the most abundant grace of God was destined for his son Shem, rises to thanksgiving. Whence we infer, that he spoke, not from carnal reason, but rather treated of the secret favors of God, the result of which was to be deferred to a remote period. Finally, by these words it is declared, that the benediction of Shem would be divine or heavenly.

Calvin: Gen 9:27 - God shall enlarge Japheth 27.God shall enlarge Japheth. In the Hebrew words יפת ( japhte) and יפת ( japheth,) there is an elegant allusion. For the root of the word ...

27.God shall enlarge Japheth. In the Hebrew words יפת ( japhte) and יפת ( japheth,) there is an elegant allusion. For the root of the word is פתה ( pathah,) which, among the Hebrews, signifies to entice with smooth words, or to allure in one direction or another. Here, however, nearly all commentators take it as signifying to enlarge. 301 If this exposition be received, the meaning will be, that the posterity of Japheth, which for a time would be scattered, and removed far from the tents of Shem, would at length be increased, so that it should more nearly approach them, and should dwell together with them, as in a common home. But I rather approve the other version, ‘God shall gently bring back, or incline Japheth.’ 302 Moreover, whichever interpretation we follow, Noah predicts that there will be a temporary dissension between Shem and Japheth, although he retains both in his family and calls both his lawful heirs; and that afterwards the time will come, in which they shall again coalesce in one body, and have a common home. It is, however, most absolutely certain, that a prophecy is here put forth concerning things unknown to man, of which, as the event, at length, shows God alone was the Author. Two thousand years and some centuries more, elapsed before the Gentiles and the Jews were gathered together in one faith. Then the sons of Shem, of whom the greater part had revolted and cut themselves off from the holy family of God, were collected together, and dwelt under one tabernacle. 303 Also the Gentiles, the progeny of Japheth, who had long been wanderers and fugitives were received into the same tabernacle. For God, by a new adoption, has formed a people out of those who were separated, and has confirmed a fraternal union between alienated parties. This is done by the sweet and gentle voice of God, which he has uttered in the gospel; and this prophecy is still daily receiving its fulfillment, since God invites the scattered sheep to join his flock, and collects, on every side, those who shall sit down with Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, in the kingdom of heaven. It is truly no common support of our faith, that the calling of the Gentiles is not only decreed in the eternal counsel of God, but is openly declared by the mouth of the Patriarch; lest we should think it to have happened suddenly or by chance, that the inheritance of eternal life was offered generally to all. But the form of the expression, ‘Japheth shall dwell in the tabernacles of Shem,’ 304 commends to us that mutual society which ought to exist, and to be cherished among the faithful. For whereas God had chosen to himself a Church from the progeny of Shem, he afterwards chose the Gentiles together with them, on this condition, that they should join themselves to that people, who were in possession of the covenant of life.

Calvin: Gen 9:28 - And Noah lived 28.And Noah lived. Although Moses briefly states the age of the holy man, and does not record his annals and the memorable events of his life, yet th...

28.And Noah lived. Although Moses briefly states the age of the holy man, and does not record his annals and the memorable events of his life, yet those things which are certain, and which Scripture elsewhere commemorates, ought to recur to our minds. Within one hundred and fifty years, the offspring of his three sons became so numerous, that he had sufficient and even abundant proof of the efficacy of the Divine benediction Increase and multiply. He sees, not one city only, filled with his grandchildren, nor his seed expanded barely to three hundred families; but many nations springing from one of his sons who should inhabit extensive regions. This astonishing increase, since it was a visible representation of the divine favor towards him, would doubtless fill him with unbounded joy. For Abraham was nearly fifty years old when his ancestor Noah died. 305 In the meantime, he was compelled to behold many things, which would afflict his holy breast with incredible grief. To omit other things; he saw in the family of Shem, the sanctuary of God, — into which the sons of Japheth were to be received, — destroyed, or, at least, dilapidated and rent. For whereas the father of Abraham himself, having deserted his proper station, had erected for himself a profane tabernacle; a very small portion indeed remained of those who worshipped God in the harmonious consent of a pure faith. With what tormenting pains this terrible confusion affected him cannot be sufficiently expressed in words. Hence we may know, that his eyes of faith must have been exceedingly penetrating, which did not fail to behold afar of, the grace of God, in preserving the Church, at that time overwhelmed by the wickedness of men.

Defender: Gen 9:1 - replenish the earth This is the same command given to Adam and Eve; the word "replenish," (Hebrew male), simply means "fill.""

This is the same command given to Adam and Eve; the word "replenish," (Hebrew male), simply means "fill.""

Defender: Gen 9:2 - they delivered In essence the primeval commission to mankind (the so-called "dominion mandate") is here reiterated to Noah and his descendants though with some emend...

In essence the primeval commission to mankind (the so-called "dominion mandate") is here reiterated to Noah and his descendants though with some emendations. Man is still to be in dominion over all other creatures and over the earth itself, even though Satan's usurpation of that dominion must continually be recognized and rectified with God's enablement. Man's relation to the animals (except perhaps for the domestic animals not mentioned here) has been changed by God's imposition on them of literally the "terror" of man. Their newly-developed carnivorous appetites and other abilities inimical to close contact with man, combined with their more rapid multiplication, might otherwise have resulted in man's extermination."

Defender: Gen 9:3 - meat for you For the first time, human beings are given divine permission to eat animal flesh. Initially, they were to have been vegetarians (Gen 1:29). The reason...

For the first time, human beings are given divine permission to eat animal flesh. Initially, they were to have been vegetarians (Gen 1:29). The reason for this change was due to the greater need for animal protein in man's diet in view of the nutrient-impoverished soils of the post-diluvian world and the much more rigorous climatic conditions. A second reason may have been to emphasize the great gulf between man and the animals. Evolutionary and polytheistic philosophies, then as now, had seriously blurred that distinction (Rom 1:21-25)."

Defender: Gen 9:4 - the blood thereof The profoundly scientific truth that "the life of the flesh is in the blood" (Lev 17:11) is here mentioned for the first time. This, as well as the ot...

The profoundly scientific truth that "the life of the flesh is in the blood" (Lev 17:11) is here mentioned for the first time. This, as well as the other principles of the Edenic mandate and the Noahic covenant, is still in effect and should be observed by Christians especially. The blood, both in symbol and in reality, is "the life of the flesh." Thus, it is appropriate to offer in sacrifice (until the offering of Christ) but never to consume, either as food or as a religious ritual."

Defender: Gen 9:5 - will I require If the blood of animals is to be regarded as too sacred to be eaten, since it represents the "life" (or "soul" - Hebrew nephesh) of the animal and is ...

If the blood of animals is to be regarded as too sacred to be eaten, since it represents the "life" (or "soul" - Hebrew nephesh) of the animal and is acceptable as a substitutionary sacrifice for man's sins, how much more sacred is the blood of man himself. His blood represents his life and, since he alone is "in the image of God," the Creator of life, man's blood is not even to be shed, let alone eaten. If either man or beast slays a man, that man or that animal is, judicially, to be slain himself, the reason being the divine sacredness of human life."

Defender: Gen 9:6 - blood be shed This establishment of capital punishment, administered judicially by man, has never been changed or withdrawn. It is still God's law today and forms t...

This establishment of capital punishment, administered judicially by man, has never been changed or withdrawn. It is still God's law today and forms the basic authorization of the institution of human government. It implies also the enactment and enforcement of regulations for those human activities (stealing, adultery) which if unrestrained, would lead to murder. It does not stipulate the form, but only the fact of government. It extends the primeval mandate by giving man the responsibility to control not only the animals but his own society also. The original commission had authorized the natural sciences and technologies; this new extension incorporated in God's covenant with Noah authorizes the social sciences and their technologies (psychology, law, sociology, anthropology, political science, government, police, criminology).

Although capital punishment is the proper prerogative of human society ("every man's brother") as far as strict justice is concerned, mitigating circumstances (especially sincere repentance and restitution) may warrant extension of mercy in individual cases. Nevertheless, the basic right of governments to exact capital punishment as penalty for murder cannot legitimately be abrogated as far as God is concerned. This is clear even in the Christian dispensation. The eating of meat (1Ti 4:3, 1Ti 4:4), the abstinence from blood (Act 15:19, Act 15:20) and the authority of the governmental sword (Rom 13:4; Act 25:11) were reaffirmed to the early church, making it clear that the Noahic mandate still applied."

Defender: Gen 9:9 - my covenant The Noahic covenant (Hebrew berith) is the first covenant mentioned in Scripture and is everlasting (Gen 9:16). It applied not only to Noah and his se...

The Noahic covenant (Hebrew berith) is the first covenant mentioned in Scripture and is everlasting (Gen 9:16). It applied not only to Noah and his seed (Gen 9:9), but also to the animal kingdom (Gen 9:10) and even to the earth itself (Gen 9:13). It was unconditional, promising the age-long endurance of the post-Flood cosmos, and also reconfirming and amplifying God's primeval commission to mankind, involving human stewardship over the earth and its inhabitants."

Defender: Gen 9:13 - my bow The rainbow, requiring small water droplets in the air, could not form in the prediluvian world where the high vapor canopy precluded rain (Gen 2:5). ...

The rainbow, requiring small water droplets in the air, could not form in the prediluvian world where the high vapor canopy precluded rain (Gen 2:5). After the Flood, the very fact that rainfall is now possible makes a worldwide rainstorm impossible, and the rainbow "in the cloud" thereby becomes a perpetual reminder of God's grace, even in judgment."

Defender: Gen 9:18 - Japheth The original meanings of these names are uncertain, but the most probable meanings are: "Shem" means "Name" or "Renown;" "Ham" means "Warm" or "Hot;" ...

The original meanings of these names are uncertain, but the most probable meanings are: "Shem" means "Name" or "Renown;" "Ham" means "Warm" or "Hot;" "Japheth" means "Enlarged" or "Beautiful.""

Defender: Gen 9:19 - whole earth overspread This plain declaration (Gen 10:32) leaves no possibility that any other people survived the worldwide Flood. All the world's present peoples are desce...

This plain declaration (Gen 10:32) leaves no possibility that any other people survived the worldwide Flood. All the world's present peoples are descendants of Noah's three sons and their wives. The gene pool from these six individuals (all originally from Adam and Eve) provided far more than enough genetic variational potential to account for the wide range in national and tribal characteristics which have surfaced since the Flood. The world's present population of approximately five billion people, likewise, could easily have been developed in approximately 4000 years. An average annual growth rate of 1/2% (only one-fourth the present rate), or an average family size of only 2.5 children per family, could easily accomplish this."

Defender: Gen 9:21 - wine This is the first mention of wine in Scripture, but there is no reason to doubt that the antediluvians used wine and intoxicating beverages. Christ sa...

This is the first mention of wine in Scripture, but there is no reason to doubt that the antediluvians used wine and intoxicating beverages. Christ said they were characterized by much "eating and drinking" (Mat 24:38). Although the vapor canopy filtered much of the harmful radiation from space, fermentation as a decay process had probably been controlled and utilized by man since soon after his Fall."

Defender: Gen 9:24 - done unto him Though Noah was guilty of the sin of carelessness and drunkenness, the sin of Ham was much more serious, revealing a hitherto suppressed carnal and re...

Though Noah was guilty of the sin of carelessness and drunkenness, the sin of Ham was much more serious, revealing a hitherto suppressed carnal and rebellious nature, a resentment against his father and probably against God. Shem and Japheth, on the other hand, sought to cover and restore their father."

Defender: Gen 9:25 - Cursed be Canaan Noah's curse was spoken concerning Canaan instead of Ham for possibly one or more of the following reasons: (1) As Ham was his youngest son, so Canaan...

Noah's curse was spoken concerning Canaan instead of Ham for possibly one or more of the following reasons: (1) As Ham was his youngest son, so Canaan was Ham's youngest son, and Noah wished to emphasize that the prophecy extended through Ham to all his seed, even his youngest; (2) Noah could gladly bless his two faithful sons, but could not bear to pronounce the prophetic curse directly on his other son, whom he also loved dearly; (3) He knew his grandsons well enough to recognize in the sons of Ham the same rebellious attitudes that were in Ham, and he knew that they would actually experience the resultant effects of his sin even more than would Ham himself.

Defender: Gen 9:25 - servant of servants The phrase "servant of servants" is never used elsewhere in Scripture. If it means "slave of slaves," then the prophecy has failed, for neither the Ha...

The phrase "servant of servants" is never used elsewhere in Scripture. If it means "slave of slaves," then the prophecy has failed, for neither the Hamitic nations in general nor the Canaanitic nations in particular have ever been such. The Hamites have included such great empires as Sumeria, Phoenicia, Egypt, Ethiopia, etc., and quite possibly the great Asian nations (China, Japan, etc.) as well. The word "servant," however, is more often used in the sense of "steward," so the prophecy more likely speaks of Ham's descendants as superlative stewards. That is, all men were stewards of God's created world in the sense of exercising dominion over its resources; and Ham, with his physical and materialistic bent, would be especially effective in subduing the world and developing its resources. Since the ground had been "cursed," however, this meant Ham's lot would be uniquely associated with the physical world, thus itself becoming a curse. Noah's statement, it should be remembered, was a prophecy and not an imprecation, given under divine inspiration and on the basis of Noah's own insight into the developing characters of his sons and grandsons and, therefore, of their descendants. As a prophecy, this interpretation is fitting, since the Hamitic nations have, indeed, been the great explorers, cultivators, builders, navigators, tradesmen, inventors and warriors of mankind.

Defender: Gen 9:25 - unto his brethren It is obvious that his prophecy applies not only to Canaan but also to all of Ham's descendants, for the following reasons: (1) its scope is obviously...

It is obvious that his prophecy applies not only to Canaan but also to all of Ham's descendants, for the following reasons: (1) its scope is obviously intended to be symmetrical, worldwide and age-long, with all the progeny of the three sons of Noah included; (2) if taken as applicable only to Canaan specifically, then it must also apply specifically only to Canaan's "brethren," who were Cush, Mizraim and Phut. Their descendants included the nations of Ethiopia, Egypt and Libya. Not only would such a judgment be unfair (it was Ham who sinned, not Canaan), but it was never fulfilled, since the Canaanites were never servants of the Libyans or Ethiopians, and only briefly of the Egyptians; (3) as a matter of fact, the descendants of Canaan, who included the Phoenicians and Hittites, were prominent nations through most of their history, not slave nations."

Defender: Gen 9:26 - Shem Noah associated Shem especially with the worship of Jehovah, recognizing the dominantly spiritual motivations of Shem and thus implying that God's pro...

Noah associated Shem especially with the worship of Jehovah, recognizing the dominantly spiritual motivations of Shem and thus implying that God's promised Deliverer would ultimately come from Shem. The Semitic nations have included the Hebrews, Arabs, Assyrians, Persians, Syrians and other strongly religious-minded peoples."

Defender: Gen 9:27 - enlarge Japheth The enlargement of Japheth was not to be primarily geophraphical (Hamitic and Semitic nations have been enlarged geographically as much as the Japheth...

The enlargement of Japheth was not to be primarily geophraphical (Hamitic and Semitic nations have been enlarged geographically as much as the Japhethites) but intellectual. The Japhetic peoples (Greeks, Romans, Aryans, Europeans) have largely supplied the philosophers and scientists of mankind. The tripartite nature of man (body, mind, spirit) is shared by every man and every nation. However, each man (and each nation) reflects one of these as a predominant characteristic. Noah recognized that Ham, Japheth and Shem were dominated, respectively, by physical, intellectual and spiritual considerations, and so could see prophetically that these attributes would likewise be emphasized in the nations descending from them. Thus, every nation would contribute its own part to the corporate life of mankind as a whole.

Defender: Gen 9:27 - tents of Shem Japheth was peculiarly God's steward in the intellectual analysis and utilization of the earth's resources, and Shem was peculiarly His steward with r...

Japheth was peculiarly God's steward in the intellectual analysis and utilization of the earth's resources, and Shem was peculiarly His steward with respect to the propagation of God's will and plan for mankind, especially the transmission of His saving Word. Both services would require an adequate physical base from which to operate, and thus would require the stewardship of Ham in the physical world. Thus, Ham was steward to Shem and Japheth in their stewardship - in this sense also, he would be a servant of servants."

TSK: Gen 9:1 - blessed // Be blessed : Gen 9:7, Gen 1:22, Gen 1:28, Gen 2:3, Gen 8:17, Gen 24:60; Psa 112:1, Psa 128:3, Psa 128:4; Isa 51:2 Be : Gen 9:7, Gen 9:19, Gen 1:28, Gen 8...

TSK: Gen 9:2 - -- Gen 1:28, Gen 2:19, Gen 35:5; Lev 26:6, Lev 26:22; Job 5:22, Job 5:23; Psa 8:4-8, Psa 104:20-23; Eze 34:25; Hos 2:18; Jam 3:7

TSK: Gen 9:3 - Every // even Every : Lev. 11:1-47, Lev 22:8; Deu 12:15, 14:3-21; Act 10:12-15; 1Ti 4:3-5 even : Gen 1:29, Gen 1:30; Psa 104:14, Psa 104:15; Rom 14:3, Rom 14:14, Ro...

TSK: Gen 9:4 - the life the life : Lev 3:17, Lev 7:26, Lev 17:10-14, Lev 19:26; Deu 12:16, Deu 12:23, Deu 14:21, Deu 15:23; 1Sa 14:34; Act 15:20, Act 15:25, Act 15:29; 1Ti 4:...

TSK: Gen 9:5 - every // and at // brother every : Exo 21:12, Exo 21:28, Exo 21:29 and at : Gen 4:9, Gen 4:10; Lev 19:16; Num 35:31-33; Deu 21:1-9; Psa 9:12; Mat 23:35 brother : Act 17:26

TSK: Gen 9:6 - by // in by : Exo 21:12-14, Exo 22:2, Exo 22:3; Lev 17:4, Lev 24:17; Num 35:25; 1Ki 2:5, 1Ki 2:6, 1Ki 2:28-34; Mat 26:52; Rom 13:4; Rev 13:10 in : Gen 1:26, Ge...

TSK: Gen 9:7 - -- Gen 9:1, Gen 9:19, Gen 1:28, Gen 8:17

TSK: Gen 9:9 - -- Gen 9:11, Gen 9:17, Gen 6:18, Gen 17:7, Gen 17:8, Gen 22:17; Isa 54:9, Isa 54:10; Jer 31:35, Jer 31:36, Jer 33:20; Rom 1:3

TSK: Gen 9:10 - -- Gen 9:15, Gen 9:16, Gen 8:1; Job 38:1-41, 41:1-34; Psa 36:5, Psa 36:6, Psa 145:9; Jon 4:11

TSK: Gen 9:11 - And I // neither shall all And I : Gen 8:21, Gen 8:22; Isa 54:9 neither shall all : Gen 7:21-23, Gen 8:21, Gen 8:22; 2Pe 3:7, 2Pe 3:11

TSK: Gen 9:12 - -- Gen 17:11; Exo 12:13, Exo 13:16; Jos 2:12; Mat 26:26-28; 1Co 11:23-25

TSK: Gen 9:13 - -- Eze 1:28; Rev 4:3, Rev 10:1

TSK: Gen 9:15 - remember // the waters remember : Exo 28:12; Lev 26:42-45; Deu 7:9; 1Ki 8:23; Neh 9:32; Psa 106:45; Jer 14:21; Eze 16:60; Luk 1:72 the waters : Isa 54:8-10

TSK: Gen 9:16 - everlasting everlasting : Gen 9:9-11, Gen 8:21, Gen 8:22, Gen 17:13, Gen 17:19; 2Sa 23:5; Psa 89:3, Psa 89:4; Isa 54:8-10, Isa 55:3; Jer 32:40; Heb 13:20

TSK: Gen 9:18 - Shem // Ham // Canaan Shem : Gen 9:23, Gen 10:1; 1Ch 1:4 Ham : Gen 10:1, Gen 10:6 Canaan : Heb. Chenaan

Shem : Gen 9:23, Gen 10:1; 1Ch 1:4

Ham : Gen 10:1, Gen 10:6

Canaan : Heb. Chenaan

TSK: Gen 9:19 - These // and of These : Gen 5:32 and of : Gen 8:17, 10:2-32; 1Chr. 1:4-28

These : Gen 5:32

and of : Gen 8:17, 10:2-32; 1Chr. 1:4-28

TSK: Gen 9:20 - an husbandman // planted an husbandman : Gen 3:18, Gen 3:19, Gen 3:23, Gen 4:2, Gen 5:29; Pro 10:11, Pro 12:11; Ecc 5:9; Isa 28:24-26 planted : Deu 20:6, Deu 28:30; Pro 24:30;...

TSK: Gen 9:21 - and was // and he and was : Gen 6:9, Gen 19:32-36; Pro 20:1, Pro 23:31, Pro 23:32; Ecc 7:20; Luk 22:3, Luk 22:4; Rom 13:13; 1Co 10:12; Gal 5:21; Tit 2:2 and he : Hab 2:...

TSK: Gen 9:22 - Ham // told Ham : Gen 9:25, Gen 10:6, Gen 10:15-19; 1Ch 1:8, 1Ch 1:13-16 told : 2Sa 1:19, 2Sa 1:20; Psa 35:20, Psa 35:21, Psa 40:15, Psa 70:3; Pro 25:9, Pro 30:17...

TSK: Gen 9:23 - -- Exo 20:12; Lev 19:32; Rom 13:7; Gal 6:1; 1Ti 5:1, 1Ti 5:17, 1Ti 5:19; 1Pe 2:17, 1Pe 4:8

TSK: Gen 9:25 - Cursed // a servant Cursed : Gen 9:22, Gen 3:14, Gen 4:11, Gen 49:7; Deu 27:16, Deu 28:18; Mat 25:41; Joh 8:34 a servant : The devoted nations, which God destroyed before...

Cursed : Gen 9:22, Gen 3:14, Gen 4:11, Gen 49:7; Deu 27:16, Deu 28:18; Mat 25:41; Joh 8:34

a servant : The devoted nations, which God destroyed before Israel, were descended from Canaan, and so were the Phoenicians and Carthaginians, who were at length subjugated with dreadful destruction by the Greeks and Romans. The Africans, who have been bought and sold like beasts, were also his posterity. Jos 9:23, Jos 9:27; Jdg 1:28-30; 1Ki 9:20, 1Ki 9:21; 2Ch 8:7, 2Ch 8:8; Joh 8:34

TSK: Gen 9:26 - Blessed // the Lord // Shem // his servant Blessed : Deu 33:26; Psa 144:15; Rom 9:5 the Lord : Gen. 10:10-26, Gen 12:1-3; Luk 3:23-36 Shem : Heb 11:16 his servant : or, servant to them, Gen 27:...

Blessed : Deu 33:26; Psa 144:15; Rom 9:5

the Lord : Gen. 10:10-26, Gen 12:1-3; Luk 3:23-36

Shem : Heb 11:16

his servant : or, servant to them, Gen 27:37, Gen 27:40

TSK: Gen 9:27 - enlarge // Japheth // he shall dwell // dwell enlarge : or, persuade Japheth : Japheth denotes enlargement, and how wonderfully have his boundaries been enlarged; for not only Europe, but Asia Min...

enlarge : or, persuade

Japheth : Japheth denotes enlargement, and how wonderfully have his boundaries been enlarged; for not only Europe, but Asia Minor, part of Armenia, Iberia, the whole of the vast regions of Asia north of Taurus, and probably America, fell to the share of his posterity.

he shall dwell : These words may mean either that God or that Japheth shall dwell in the tents of Shem. In either sense the prophecy has been literally fulfilled.

dwell : Isa 11:10; Hos 2:14; Mal 1:11; Act 17:14; Rom 11:12, Rom 15:12; Eph 2:13, Eph 2:14, Eph 2:19, Eph 3:6, Eph 3:13; Heb 11:9, Heb 11:10

TSK: Gen 9:29 - nine am 2006, bc 1998 nine : Gen 5:5, Gen 5:20, Gen 5:27, Gen 5:32, Gen 11:11-25; Psa 90:10

am 2006, bc 1998

nine : Gen 5:5, Gen 5:20, Gen 5:27, Gen 5:32, Gen 11:11-25; Psa 90:10

kecilkan semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per Ayat)

Poole: Gen 9:2 - Into your hand are they delivered Before they loved and reverenced you as lords and friends, now they shall dread you as enemies and tyrants. Into your hand are they delivered for ...

Before they loved and reverenced you as lords and friends, now they shall dread you as enemies and tyrants.

Into your hand are they delivered for your use and service. I restore you in part to that dominion over them which you for your sins have forfeited.

Poole: Gen 9:3 - Every moving thing // That liveth // Shall be meat for you // I have given you all things Every moving thing which is wholesome and fit for food, and clean; an exception to be gathered both from the nature of the thing, and from the distin...

Every moving thing which is wholesome and fit for food, and clean; an exception to be gathered both from the nature of the thing, and from the distinction of clean and unclean beasts, mentioned before and afterwards.

That liveth This is added to exclude the use of those creatures which either died of themselves, or were killed by wild beasts, which is here forbidden implicitly, and afterwards expressly. See Exo 22:31 Lev 22:8 .

Shall be meat for you: it is not a command that we must, but a permission that we may eat of them. A grant possibly given before the flood, but now expressed, either because the former allowance might seem to be forfeited, or because as men now grew more infirm and needed better nourishment, so the earth was grown more feeble by the flood, and its fruits yielded less and worse nourishment.

I have given you all things: understand this with the limitation above-mentioned. The green herbs were given before, Gen 1:29 .

Poole: Gen 9:4 - With the life thereof // Which is the blood thereof // But flesh // with the life thereof With the life thereof i.e. whilst it lives, or taken from the creature before it be quite dead; which was an ancient practice, and an effect either o...

With the life thereof i.e. whilst it lives, or taken from the creature before it be quite dead; which was an ancient practice, and an effect either of luxury or cruelty.

Which is the blood thereof i.e. which life or soul hath its seat in and its support from the blood, and the spirits contained in it. It is certain blood is the thing which is here principally minded and forbidden, and so the words may be thus translated and understood:

But flesh i.e. the flesh of living creatures hereby allowed you,

with the life thereof that is to say, with the blood thereof, wherein its life consists; or, flesh whilst it hath in it its life or soul, or, which is all one, its blood, shall you not eat. God thought fit to forbid this, partly that by this respect shown to the blood of beasts it might appear how sacred a thing the blood of man was, and how much God abhorred the sin of murder; and principally because the blood was reserved and consecrated to God, and was the means of atonement for man, (which reason God himself gives, Lev 17:11,12 ), and did in a special manner represent the blood of Christ, which was to be shed for the redemption of mankind.

Poole: Gen 9:5 - And // Of your lives // At the hand of every beast will I require it // At the hand of every man’ s brother And or, for, as the particle is oft taken; this being the reason of the foregoing prohibition. Of your lives or, of your souls, i.e. of your ...

And or, for, as the particle is oft taken; this being the reason of the foregoing prohibition.

Of your lives or, of your souls, i.e. of your persons; the word soul being oft put for person. Or, your blood, which is for your lives, i.e. which by the spirits it generates is the great preserver and instrument of your lives, and of all your vital actions, and the great bond which ties your souls and bodies together. The sense of the place is: If I am thus careful for the blood of beasts, be assured I will be much more solicitous for the blood of men, when it shall be shed by unjust and violent hands. I will make inquisition for the author of such bloodshed, as I did after Cain, and consequently punish him; for this phrase of requiring implies punishment. See Gen 42:22 Deu 18:19 , compared with Act 3:23 Psa 9:13 . If magistrates neglect this duty, I myself will avenge it by my own hand.

At the hand of every beast will I require it not for the punishment of the beast, which being under no law is not capable of sin nor punishment; but for caution to men, for whose use seeing they were made, it is no abuse of them if they be destroyed for man’ s benefit. Compare Exo 21:28 Lev 20:15 .

At the hand of every man’ s brother This is added, either,

1. As an aggravation of the crime, because the man slain was the brother of the murderer; all men being made of one blood, Act 17:26 . And having one Father, even God, Mal 2:10 , and Adam too. Upon which account all men are frequently called one another’ s brethren, as is manifest from Gen 26:31 29:4 Lev 19:17 25:14 26:37 , and from many other places of Scripture. Or.

2. As an assurance of the punishment of the murderer, without any exception of the nearest relation; which, though it makes the sin greater, yet many times is a security against punishment, the murderer easily finding favour and pardon from his parents and dear friends. But the former sense seems the better.

Poole: Gen 9:6 - Whoso sheddeth man’ s blood // By man // In the image of God made he man Whoso sheddeth man’ s blood wilfully and unwarrantably. For there is a double exception to this law: 1. Of casual murder, expressed Num 35:31 D...

Whoso sheddeth man’ s blood wilfully and unwarrantably. For there is a double exception to this law:

1. Of casual murder, expressed Num 35:31 Deu 19:4 .

2. Of death inflicted by the hand of the magistrate for crimes deserving it, mentioned in the following words, and elsewhere.

By man i.e. by the hand of man, namely, the magistrate, Rom 13:4 ; who is hereby empowered and required, upon pain of my highest displeasure, to inflict this punishment. See Exo 21:12 Lev 24:17 Mat 26:57 . Or, for that man, i.e. for that man’ s sake, whose blood he hath shed, which cries for vengeance.

In the image of God made he man so that murder is not only an offence against man, but also an injury to God, and a contempt of that image of God which all men are obliged to reverence and maintain, and especially magistrates, who being my vicegerents and servants, are therefore under a particular obligation to punish those who deface and destroy it.

Poole: Gen 9:7 - -- i.e. As for you, I do not repent of that former blessing I gave to your parents, Gen 1:28 , but do hereby renew it to you, and your seed after you.

i.e. As for you, I do not repent of that former blessing I gave to your parents, Gen 1:28 , but do hereby renew it to you, and your seed after you.

Poole: Gen 9:9 - covenant // With your seed i.e. My promise, for the beasts included in this covenant, Gen 9:10 , are not capable of a covenant properly so called. And the word covenant is o...

i.e. My promise, for the beasts included in this covenant, Gen 9:10 , are not capable of a covenant properly so called. And the word

covenant is oft used for a simple promise, as we shall see hereafter.

With your seed i.e. your posterity, as that word is frequently taken, as Gen 12:7 Exo 28:43 , &c.

Poole: Gen 9:10 - -- To wit, which shall hereafter be in the earth. So they are distinguished from those which were now with them.

To wit, which shall hereafter be in the earth. So they are distinguished from those which were now with them.

Poole: Gen 9:11 - -- i.e. A universal deluge; for particular inundations there have been, whereby towns and countries have been overwhelmed with all their inhabitants.

i.e. A universal deluge; for particular inundations there have been, whereby towns and countries have been overwhelmed with all their inhabitants.

Poole: Gen 9:12 - This is the token This is the token i.e. the bow mentioned in Gen 9:13 , I appoint to you for a sensible sign and evidence, to assure you that I shall perform this cov...

This is the token i.e. the bow mentioned in Gen 9:13 , I appoint to you for a sensible sign and evidence, to assure you that I shall perform this covenant or promise.

Poole: Gen 9:13 - I do set my bow // In the cloud I do set my bow Heb. I have given, i.e. I will from time to time give and place. God calleth it his bow, partly because it was his workmanship,...

I do set my bow Heb. I have given, i.e. I will from time to time give and place. God calleth it his bow, partly because it was his workmanship, and chiefly because it was his pledge, and the seal of his promise.

In the cloud a proper seat for it; that they might now fetch an argument of faith from thence, whence before they had matter of just fear; and that which naturally was and is a sign of rain, might by this new appointment of God be turned into an assurance that there should be no such overflowing rain as now had been.

Poole: Gen 9:14 - -- Not always, but very frequently, which is sufficient for this purpose.

Not always, but very frequently, which is sufficient for this purpose.

Poole: Gen 9:16 - -- i.e. This covenant made with all succeeding generations of men and beasts. This and the like speeches are oft ascribed to God after the manner of me...

i.e. This covenant made with all succeeding generations of men and beasts. This and the like speeches are oft ascribed to God after the manner of men, who being forgetful, need helps for their memory.

Poole: Gen 9:17 - -- The same thing is so oft repeated for the strengthening of the faith of all men, and especially of Noah and his sons, whom the remembrance of that d...

The same thing is so oft repeated for the strengthening of the faith of all men, and especially of Noah and his sons, whom the remembrance of that dreadful deluge, which they had experience of, had made exceeding prone to fears of the like for time to come.

Poole: Gen 9:18 - -- 2347 Which is here mentioned to make way for the following relation.

2347

Which is here mentioned to make way for the following relation.

Poole: Gen 9:19 - -- A truth which the old heathens were not ignorant of, though they changed the names, and mixed their fables with it; for they tell us that Saturn and...

A truth which the old heathens were not ignorant of, though they changed the names, and mixed their fables with it; for they tell us that Saturn and his three sons divided the world among themselves. And it is apparent that their Saturn was no other than our Noah, because they tell us he was the common parent and prince of all mankind, also a husbandman and vinedresser, all which Noah was. They say he was born of the sea, because Noah came out of the waters; that he devoured all his children except three, because Noah condemned and foretold the destruction of all the rest of the world.

Poole: Gen 9:20 - -- i.e. Was a husbandman, as he had been before. The verb to begin doth oft abound, and is applied to him that continueth or repeateth an action begu...

i.e. Was a husbandman, as he had been before. The verb to begin doth oft abound, and is applied to him that continueth or repeateth an action begun before. Thus Christ is said to begin to cast out, Mar 11:15 , and to begin to speak, Luk 12:1 ; for which in the parallel places he is said only to cast out, Mat 21:12 , and to speak, Mat 16:6 .

Poole: Gen 9:21 - He was uncovered Either through ignorance and inexperience of the nature and strength of that liquor, or through the infirmity of the flesh, which was tempted by its...

Either through ignorance and inexperience of the nature and strength of that liquor, or through the infirmity of the flesh, which was tempted by its great and, to him, new pleasantness, and by the refreshment he found in it under the weary labours of his body, and the sad thoughts of his mind, for the desolate condition of the world.

He was uncovered either to relieve himself against the heat of the climate and season, or from his negligence and carelessness; which might easily happen, because men’ s garments at that time were loose, as they were in the following ages, when breeches were not in common use, and therefore were peculiarly prescribed to the priests, Exo 28:42 Eze 44:18,19 .

Poole: Gen 9:22 - The father of Canaan // The nakedness // and told his two brethren without The grown age of Ham was a great aggravation of this sin. The father of Canaan: this is here added as a reason of Canaan’ s curse, Gen 9:25 ....

The grown age of Ham was a great aggravation of this sin.

The father of Canaan: this is here added as a reason of Canaan’ s curse, Gen 9:25 .

The nakedness i.e. the secret parts, oft so called, as Lev 18:1-30 , and elsewhere,

and told his two brethren without who were then without the house or room where their father lay in that posture, whom he invited to that prospect.

Poole: Gen 9:24 - Noah awoke from his wine // and knew // what his younger son had done unto him // Object // Answ Noah awoke from his wine from his drunkenness, or from his sleep, the effect of it, and knew either by the information of his sons, or by Divine in...

Noah awoke from his wine from his drunkenness, or from his sleep, the effect of it,

and knew either by the information of his sons, or by Divine inspiration,

what his younger son had done unto him or, his little son, either Ham, mentioned Gen 9:22 , or Canaan, mentioned in Gen 9:25 ; by comparing of which places it may be gathered that Canaan first saw it, and told his father Ham of it, and he told it to his brethren. The latter seems here principally intended,

1. Because the curse following is appropriated to him.

2. Because of the title of younger or little son, which seems not to be so properly added if Ham was meant; both because it doth not appear that he was the youngest, for wheresoever these three brethren are mentioned he is always put in the middle place, and because that addition seems to be unnecessary and impertinent to the present business, which if Canaan be intended, is proper and pertinent, by way of distinction, to show that he spake of his grandson, or his son’ s son.

Object. He calleth him his son.

Answ Grandchildren are frequently called their grandfather’ s sons in Scripture, as Gen 29:5 2Sa 19:24 1Ch 1:17 .

Poole: Gen 9:25 - And he said // Cursed be Canaan // Quest // Answ // A servant of servants And he said not from the passion of revenge, but by Divine inspiration, and the Spirit of prophecy, Cursed be Canaan hateful to God, abhorred by me...

And he said not from the passion of revenge, but by Divine inspiration, and the Spirit of prophecy,

Cursed be Canaan hateful to God, abhorred by men, miserable in his person and posterity.

Quest. Seeing Ham committed the crime, why is the curse inflicted upon his son Canaan?

Answ

1. When Canaan is mentioned, Ham is not exempted from the curse, but rather more deeply plunged into it, whilst he is pronounced accursed, not only in his person, (which is manifestly supposed by his commission of that sin for which the curse was inflicted), but also in his posterity, which doubtless was a great aggravation of his grief; as on the contrary Joseph is said to be blessed when his children are blessed, Gen 48:15,16 .

2. It seems therefore very probable from these words, and the Hebrew doctors and others affirm it, that Canaan did partake with his father in the sin, yea, that he was the first discoverer of his father’ s shame.

3. Canaan is particularly mentioned by the Spirit of prophecy, in regard of the future extirpation of that people; and this is here remembered for the encouragement of the Israelites, who were now in their expedition against them.

4. This may be an ellipsis, or defect of the word father; for such relative words are ofttimes omitted and understood in Scripture, as Mat 4:21 , James of Zebedee, for the son of Zebedee; Joh 19:25 , Mary of Cleopas, for the wife of Cleopas; Act 7:16 , Emmor of Sychem, for the father of Sychem, as our English translation rightly supplies it from Gen 33:19 . Thus Goliath is put for Goliath’ s brother, as is evident by comparing 2Sa 21:19 , with 1Ch 20:5 . So here Canaan may be put for the father of Canaan, as the Arabic translation hath it, that is, Ham, as the Seventy here render it. And though Ham had more sons, yet he may be here described by his relation to Canaan, because in him the curse was more fixed and dreadful, reaching to his utter extirpation, whilst the rest of Ham’ s posterity in after-ages were blessed with the saving knowledge of the gospel.

A servant of servants i.e. the vilest and worst of servants; as vanity of vanities is the greatest vanity, Ecc 1:2 ; and great wickedness, Hos 10:15 , is in the Hebrew wickedness of wickedness; and King of kings is put for the chief of kings.

Poole: Gen 9:26 - Blessed be the Lord God of Shem // Quest // Answ Blessed be the Lord God of Shem Quest. What is this to Shem? For it is not Shem, but God who is here blessed. Answ 1. Shem also is here blessed...

Blessed be the Lord God of Shem

Quest. What is this to Shem? For it is not Shem, but God who is here blessed.

Answ

1. Shem also is here blessed, and that in the highest degree, because the Lord hath here declared himself to be Shem’ s God. Now for God to be said to be any man’ s God, is every where mentioned as the height of blessedness: see Gen 17:7 Psa 144:15 Jer 31:33 Mat 22:32 . But the phrase is here justly varied. The curse is fixed upon Ham, because man alone is the author of his own sin, and the cause of his ruin; but because God is the author and fountain of all the good that man either doth or receiveth, therefore the blessing is emphatically given to God, who only doth the work, and of right is to receive all the glory, yet so as it redounds to Shem also. And Shem is here peculiarly mentioned, not Japheth, both for the comfort of the Israelites, whose progenitor he was, and because this blessing was first seated and long continued in Shem’ s posterity alone, Japheth’ s posterity being for a long time excluded from it; and because the Lord Christ, who is often called the Lord and God in Scripture, did take flesh from Shem; and so the incarnation of Christ may be here foretold, and Shem highly honoured and blessed in this, that he should be the father of Christ according to the flesh, Rom 9:5 .

Answ 2. This may be a short and abrupt manner of speech, which is frequent in the Hebrew tongue; and it may signify that Shem should be so eminently blessed, that men beholding it should be rapt up into admiration, and break forth into the praises of that God who gave such gifts unto men, and did so great things for Shem.

Answ 3. The words may be otherwise rendered, either thus, Blessed , O Lord God, let Shem be, i.e. Do thou bless him. So it is only the construct from Elohe, for the absolute Elohim, which is not unusual in Scripture. Or thus, Blessed of the Lord God be Shem, or shall Shem be. So here is only a defect of the Hebrew particle min, which is oft wanting.

Poole: Gen 9:27 - God shall enlarge Japheth // He shall dwell in the tents of Shem // Canaan shall be his servant God shall enlarge Japheth or, enlarge to Japheth. Understand here his place, as Gen 26:22 Psa 4:1 , or his border; which was very literally m...

God shall enlarge Japheth or, enlarge to Japheth. Understand here his place, as Gen 26:22 Psa 4:1 , or his border; which was very literally made good to him, because he had a very numerous posterity; and by them he possessed the largest part of the world, even all Europe, a great part of Asia, and it is probable America also. Or, God shall persuade Japheth to do what follows, to dwell in Shem’ s tents, where God dwelleth; and so to be reunited to his brother Shem both in affection and in religion, in both which the Gentiles, the greatest part of whom were Japheth’ s posterity, were for a long time at an irreconcilable distance from the Jews.

He shall dwell in the tents of Shem i.e. shall be of the same church with Shem, i.e. of the church, which is called in Scripture the tents or tabernacles of Judah, or of Jacob, or in general of the saints, Zec 12:7 Mal 2:12 Rev 20:9 , and here of Shem, in whose posterity the church was first and longest settled. And to dwell with another notes friendly association and communion with him, as when God is said to dwell with men; and when the wolf is said to dwell with the lamb, Isa 11:6 . Possibly this may note Japheth’ s succession into Shem’ s tents, or coming into their place and stead, or the calling of the Gentiles, together with the rejection of the Jews; as the Reubenites are said to dwell in the tabernacles of the Hagarite, whom they subdued and expelled, 1Ch 5:10 .

Canaan shall be his servant This was eminently accomplished; for though Shem and Japheth, in their posterity, did successively conquer and rule one over the other, yet none of Ham’ s posterity did ever bear rule over Japheth; but Ham, though for a time he bore sway in his son Nimrod, yet that dominion soon expired, and the Assyrians, Chaldeans, Grecians, and Romans ruled the world for a succession of many ages, and Ham’ s people were constantly their servants and subjects.

Poole: Gen 9:28 - -- Which reacheth to the fifty-eighth year of Abraham’ s age, as the Jews note. And so we have a manifest account of the propagation of religion, ...

Which reacheth to the fifty-eighth year of Abraham’ s age, as the Jews note. And so we have a manifest account of the propagation of religion, from the beginning of the world to this day. Noah received it from his parents, who had the account of it from their first father Adam’ s own mouth, and transmitted it to Abraham; and its descent from him to the Jews, and by the Jews to others, is sufficiently known. Within this time also Noah saw the building of Babel’ s tower, the horrid wickedness and idolatry of his children, and the bloody wars which even then arose between some of them.

Poole: Gen 9:29 - -- 1998 Here is an omission of that solemn clause used in all the preceding generations, and he begat sons and daughters; which implies that Noah...

1998

Here is an omission of that solemn clause used in all the preceding generations, and he begat sons and daughters; which implies that Noah had no more than these three sons, which also appears from Gen 9:19 .

Haydock: Gen 9:1 - Blessed Blessed, with fecundity. Barrenness was deemed a curse. (Calmet)

Blessed, with fecundity. Barrenness was deemed a curse. (Calmet)

Haydock: Gen 9:2 - Fear Fear, &c. God confirms the dominion of man over all the animals, though he must exercise it now by compulsion; they will not obey always without rel...

Fear, &c. God confirms the dominion of man over all the animals, though he must exercise it now by compulsion; they will not obey always without reluctance, as they would have done in the state of innocence. (Haydock)

Haydock: Gen 9:3 - Meat Meat. The more religious, at least, had hitherto abstained from flesh, being content with herbs, &c.: which had been expressly granted. Now, the sal...

Meat. The more religious, at least, had hitherto abstained from flesh, being content with herbs, &c.: which had been expressly granted. Now, the salt waters of the deluge had vitiated the earth, its plants were no longer so nutritive. (Menochius) ---

God gives leave to eat flesh meat, but with some restriction, that we may still learn to obey. (Worthington)

Haydock: Gen 9:4 - With blood With blood. This was a matter of indifference in itself, like the forbidden fruit. But God gave the prohibition, to keep people at a greater distan...

With blood. This was a matter of indifference in itself, like the forbidden fruit. But God gave the prohibition, to keep people at a greater distance from imbruing their hands in the blood of others, which nevertheless we know some have drunk! He would also assert his dominion over all things; the blood or life of animals being reserved to be offered in sacrifice to him, instead of the life of man, Leviticus xvii. 11. Blood of brutes is gross and unwholesome. (Menochius) ---

The apostles required this law to be observed by the first Christians, that the Jews might not be disgusted: but, after a competent time had been allowed them, the Church thought proper to alter this discipline. (St. Augustine, contra Faust. xxxii. 13.)

Haydock: Gen 9:5 - At the hand // Man At the hand; a Hebrew idiom. God orders an ox to be stoned, which had slain a man, Exodus xxi. 28. --- Man, (hominis) every man, (viri) brother...

At the hand; a Hebrew idiom. God orders an ox to be stoned, which had slain a man, Exodus xxi. 28. ---

Man, (hominis) every man, (viri) brother. By these three terms, God inculcates a horror of bloodshed; because we are all of the same nature, ought to act like generous men, and to consider every individual as a brother, since we spring from the same stock. (Menochius)

Haydock: Gen 9:6 - Shed // The blood of your lives Shed. God had not subjected Cain to this law of retaliation, as he was the first murderer, and the earth was unpeopled. (Haydock) --- Here he decl...

Shed. God had not subjected Cain to this law of retaliation, as he was the first murderer, and the earth was unpeopled. (Haydock) ---

Here he declares, that it is just to inflict such a punishment on the offender. (Menochius) ---

Judges are hence authorized to punish murderers with death. (Calmet) ---

The general law, thou shalt not kill, admits of exceptions, and forbids killing by private authority, or out of revenge. (Haydock) ---

The blood of your lives, may signify the blood on which your life depends; or, according to the Rabbin, it is a prohibition of suicide, which one would think is so contrary to the first law of nature, self-preservation, as to require no prohibition; and yet, to the scandal of philosophers, some have written in its defence! (Haydock)

Haydock: Gen 9:10 - Soul...in birds Soul...in birds, &c. The covenant of God is made with animals, only in as much as they are subservient to man. (Du Hamel) --- The Egyptians adored ...

Soul...in birds, &c. The covenant of God is made with animals, only in as much as they are subservient to man. (Du Hamel) ---

The Egyptians adored most of them; and many oriental nations, and even philosophers, pretended they had intelligent souls, and could speak a rational language, which some of them would have the people believe they could understand. (Calmet) ---

This was the case of those great impostors Apollonius of Tyena, Mahomet, &c. (Haydock) ---

Moses shews sufficiently that beasts were neither divinities nor rational. (Calmet)

Haydock: Gen 9:13 - My My rain bow. This had been from the beginning; but it was not before appointed for a sign that the earth should no more be destroyed by water. It...

My rain bow. This had been from the beginning; but it was not before appointed for a sign that the earth should no more be destroyed by water. It is styled God's bow, on account of its beauty and grandeur. (Menochius) (Ecclesiasticus xliii. 12.) ---

"As the rain-bow, which makes its appearance in the clouds, borrows all its effulgence from the sun, so those only who acknowledge the glory of Christ in God's clouds, and do not seek their own glory, will escape destruction in the deluge," St. Augustine, contra Faust. ii. 21.

Haydock: Gen 9:16 - Remember Remember; or I shall cause men to reflect, when they see the rain-bow, of the horrors of the deluge, and of my gracious promises and covenant.

Remember; or I shall cause men to reflect, when they see the rain-bow, of the horrors of the deluge, and of my gracious promises and covenant.

Haydock: Gen 9:18 - Chanaan Chanaan, who, it seems, is here mentioned to his shame, having first discovered and told his father that Noe was drunk. He was probably but young at...

Chanaan, who, it seems, is here mentioned to his shame, having first discovered and told his father that Noe was drunk. He was probably but young at the time, being born after the deluge.

Haydock: Gen 9:20 - A husbandman // To till A husbandman. Hebrew, literally "a man of the earth." (Haydock) --- To till, perhaps with a plough, which he is said to have invented. (Menochiu...

A husbandman. Hebrew, literally "a man of the earth." (Haydock) ---

To till, perhaps with a plough, which he is said to have invented. (Menochius)

Haydock: Gen 9:21 - Drunk // Wine Drunk. Noe by the judgment of the fathers was not guilty of sin, in being overcome by wine; because he knew not the strength of it. (Challoner) ---...

Drunk. Noe by the judgment of the fathers was not guilty of sin, in being overcome by wine; because he knew not the strength of it. (Challoner) ---

Wine, Though vines had grown from the beginning, the art of making wine seems not to have been discovered; and hence Noe's fault is much extenuated, and was at most only a venial sin. (Menochius) ---

His nakedness prefigured the desolate condition of Christ upon the cross, which was a scandal to the Jews, and foolishness to the Gentiles. But by this folly we are made wise; we are redeemed, and enjoy the name of Christians. Sem and Japheth represent the multitude of believers, Cham and Chanaan the audacity and impudence of all unbelievers. (St. Augustine, contra Faust. xii. 24; City of God xvi. 2; St. Cyprian, ep. 63. ad Cæcil.) (Worthington) ---

Like the Manichees, modern heretics are very free in condemning many innocent actions of the Patriarchs. (Haydock)

Haydock: Gen 9:23 - -- Neither ought we to be so quick-sighted in discovering the faults of any: which we often represent as real, when they are only apparent. (Haydock)

Neither ought we to be so quick-sighted in discovering the faults of any: which we often represent as real, when they are only apparent. (Haydock)

Haydock: Gen 9:25 - Cursed be Chanaan Cursed be Chanaan. The curses, as well as the blessings, of the patriarchs were prophetical: and this in particular is here recorded by Moses,...

Cursed be Chanaan. The curses, as well as the blessings, of the patriarchs were prophetical: and this in particular is here recorded by Moses, for the children of Israel, who were to possess the land of Chanaan. But why should Chanaan be cursed for his father's fault? The Hebrews answer, that he, being then a boy, was the first that saw his grandfather's nakedness, and told his father Cham of it; and joined with him in laughing at it: which drew upon him, rather than the rest of the children of Cham, this prophetical curse. (Challoner) ---

Theodoret, q. 57. The children of Sem executed this sentence, in exterminating many of the Chanaanites under Josue. (Worthington) ---

They perished for their own wickedness, which God foresaw, and revealed to Noe. Cham was severely punished by this denunciation of his children's misery. See Milton, xi. 754. xii. 27; Deuteronomy ix. 4. (Haydock)

Haydock: Gen 9:27 - Enlarge Japheth Enlarge Japheth. His name signifies latitude or enlargement. (Worthington) --- May he, God, according to some; but more probably Japheth, of who...

Enlarge Japheth. His name signifies latitude or enlargement. (Worthington) ---

May he, God, according to some; but more probably Japheth, of whom the rest of the sentence speaks. (Haydock) ---

This was verified by the extensive dominion of the children of Japheth, both in the islands and on the continent; more particularly, when the Romans subdued the Jews, and posterity of Sem. (Menochius) ---

Referring all this to the Church, the Gentiles entered in, upon the refusal of the Jews, though preachers of that nation were the instruments of their conversion. Chanaan, in the mean time, cherished his slavery, and seeks not to obtain the liberty and glory of the sons of God, in which he is a figure of heretics, (Haydock) who serve to make Christians more upon their guard, and by persecuting them, exercise their patience and increase their crown. (Worthington)

Haydock: Gen 9:29 - He died He died, having witnessed the attempt of his children to build the tower of Babel, (we may suppose with disapprobation) and having been concerned in ...

He died, having witnessed the attempt of his children to build the tower of Babel, (we may suppose with disapprobation) and having been concerned in the dispersing of nations. Some imagine he travelled eastward, and founded the empire of China, which is denied by others. (Haydock) ---

The fathers conclude that he had no children after the deluge, as the Scripture mentions the world was divided among his three sons and their offspring. Perhaps the fabulous account of Saturn is a perversion of Noe's history, as the three great pagan deities, Jupiter, Neptune, and Pluto, to whom Saturn gave the empire of heaven, seas and hell, may have been intended for the three sons of Noe. The Egyptians have attributed to their Osiris the erecting of altars, cultivating vines, teaching agriculture, &c. for which we have seen Noe was so famous. (Calmet) ---

This great and virtuous patriarch had only been dead two years, when the faithful Abraham was born, as it were to succeed him in maintaining the cause of God. (Haydock) ---

The Rabbins assert, that God gave some general laws to Noe, which were necessarily to be observed by all who would obtain salvation: 1. To obey the laws. 2. Not to curse God. 3. Nor admit of any false god, nor of any superstition. 4. Not to marry one's mother, mother-in-law, sister by the same mother, or another person's wife, nor to commit sins against nature. 5. Not to shed blood, that of beasts must be buried. 6. Not to steal, or break one's word. 7. Not to eat the limb of a living creature. Maimonides thinks this last was given to Noe, the rest to Adam. (Calmet)

Gill: Gen 9:1 - And God blessed Noah and his sons // and said unto them, be fruitful and multiply, and replenish the earth And God blessed Noah and his sons,.... With temporal blessings, not spiritual ones; for though some of them were blessed with such, yet not all, parti...

And God blessed Noah and his sons,.... With temporal blessings, not spiritual ones; for though some of them were blessed with such, yet not all, particularly Ham:

and said unto them, be fruitful and multiply, and replenish the earth; depopulated by the flood: this is a renewal of the blessing on Adam, a power and faculty of propagating his species, which was as necessary now as then, since there were so few of the human race left in the world; and the renewal of this grant was the rather necessary, if, as has been observed, Noah and his sons were restrained from cohabiting with their wives while in the ark: but though these words are not an express command for the propagation of their species, yet more than a bare permission, at least they are a direction and instruction to it, and even carry in them a promise of fruitfulness, that they should multiply and increase, which was very needful at this time.

Gill: Gen 9:2 - And the fear or you, and the dread of you, shall be upon every beast of the earth // and upon every fowl of the air, and upon all that moveth upon the earth, and upon all the fishes of the sea // into your hand are they delivered And the fear or you, and the dread of you, shall be upon every beast of the earth,.... This is a renewal, at least in part, of the grant of dominion t...

And the fear or you, and the dread of you, shall be upon every beast of the earth,.... This is a renewal, at least in part, of the grant of dominion to Adam over all the creatures; these obeyed him cheerfully, and from love, but sinning, he in a good measure lost his power over them, they rebelled against him; but now though the charter of power over them is renewed, they do not serve man freely, but are in dread of him, and flee from him; some are more easily brought into subjection to him, and even the fiercest and wildest of them may be tamed by him; and this power over them was the more easily retrieved in all probability by Noah and his sons, from the inhabitation of the creatures with them for so long a time in the ark:

and upon every fowl of the air, and upon all that moveth upon the earth, and upon all the fishes of the sea; as appears by fowls flying away, by beasts and creeping things getting off as fast as they can, and by fishes swimming away at the sight of men:

into your hand are they delivered; as the lords and proprietors of them, for their use and service, and particularly for what follows, see Psa 8:6 where there is an enumeration of the creatures subject to men.

Gill: Gen 9:3 - Every moving thing that liveth shall be meat for you // even as the green herb have I given you all things Every moving thing that liveth shall be meat for you,.... That is, every beast, fowl, and fish, without exception; for though there was a difference a...

Every moving thing that liveth shall be meat for you,.... That is, every beast, fowl, and fish, without exception; for though there was a difference at this time of clean and unclean creatures with respect to sacrifice, yet not with respect to food; every creature of God was good then, as it is now, and it was left to man's reason and judgment what to make use of, as would be most conducive to his health, and agreeable to his taste: and though there was a distinction afterwards made under the Levitical dispensation among the Jews, who were forbid the use of some creatures; yet they themselves say k, that all unclean beasts will be clean in the world to come, in the times of the Messiah, as they were to the sons of Noah, and refer to this text in proof of it; the only exception in the text is, that they must be living creatures which are taken, and used for food; not such as die of themselves, or are torn to pieces by wild beasts, but such as are taken alive, and killed in a proper manner:

even as the green herb have I given you all things; as every green herb was given for meat to Adam originally, without any exception, Gen 1:29 so every living creature, without exception, was given to Noah and his sons for food. Some think, and it is a general opinion, that this was a new grant, that man had no right before to eat flesh, nor did he; and it is certain it is not before expressed, but it may be included in the general grant of power and dominion over the creatures made to Adam; and since what is before observed is only a renewal of former grants, this may be considered in the same light; or otherwise the dominion over the creatures first granted to Adam will be reduced to a small matter, if he had no right nor power to kill and eat them; besides, in so large a space of time as 1600 years and upwards, the world must have been overstocked with creatures, if they were not used for such a purpose; nor will Abel's offering the firstling and fattest of his flock appear so praiseworthy, when it made no difference with him, if he ate not of them, whether they were fat or lean; and who will deny that there were peace offerings before the flood, which the offerer always ate of? to which may be added the luxury of men before the flood, who thereby were given to impure and carnal lusts; and our Lord expressly says of the men of that age, that they were "eating and drinking", living in a voluptuous manner, which can hardly be accounted for, if they lived only on herbs, see Luk 17:22 though it must be owned, that it was a common notion of poets and philosophers l, that men in the golden age, as they call it, did not eat flesh, but lived on herbs and fruit.

Gill: Gen 9:4 - But flesh with the life thereof, which is the blood thereof, shall you not eat. But flesh with the life thereof, which is the blood thereof, shall you not eat. This is the only exception to the eating of flesh; it was not to be e...

But flesh with the life thereof, which is the blood thereof, shall you not eat. This is the only exception to the eating of flesh; it was not to be eaten with the blood in it, which is said to be its life; not that the blood is of itself the life, but because it is a means of life, and that being exhausted, the creature must die, and because the animal and vital spirits appear to us most vigorous in it; yea, it is the ailment and support of them, and which furnishes out the greatest quantity of them: or rather it may be rendered, "the flesh with its life in its blood" m; while there is life in the blood, or while the creature is living; the meaning is, that a creature designed for food should be properly killed, and its blood let out; that it should not be devoured alive, as by a beast of prey; that raw flesh should not be eaten, as since by cannibals, and might be by riotous flesh eaters, before the flood; for notwithstanding this law, as flesh without the blood might be eaten, so blood properly let out, and dressed, or mixed with other things, might be eaten, for aught this says to the contrary; but was not to be eaten with the flesh, though it might separately, which was afterwards forbid by another law. The design of this was to restrain cruelty in men, and particularly to prevent the shedding of human blood, which men might be led into, were they suffered to tear living creatures in pieces, and feed upon their raw flesh, and the blood in it. The Targum of Jonathan is,"but the flesh which is torn from a living beast at the time that its life is in it, or which is torn from a beast while it is slain, before all its breath is gone out, ye shall not eat.''And the Jewish writers generally interpret this of the flesh of a creature taken from it alive, which, they say, is the seventh precept given to the sons of Noah, over and above the six which the sons of Adam were bound to observe, and they are these;1. Idolatry is forbidden. 2. Blasphemy is forbidden. 3. The shedding of blood, or murder is forbidden. 4. Uncleanness, or unjust carnal copulations is forbidden. 5. Rapine or robbery is forbidden. 6. The administration of justice to malefactors is required. 7. The eating of any member or flesh of a creature while alive n is forbidden.Such of the Heathens who conformed to those precepts were admitted to dwell among the Israelites, and were called proselytes of the gate.

Gill: Gen 9:5 - And surely your blood of your lives will I require // at the hand of every beast will I require it // and at the hand of man, at the hand of every man's brother will I require the life of man And surely your blood of your lives will I require,.... Or "for surely your blood", &c. o; and so is a reason of the preceding law, to teach men not t...

And surely your blood of your lives will I require,.... Or "for surely your blood", &c. o; and so is a reason of the preceding law, to teach men not to shed human blood; or though, "surely your blood", as Jarchi and Aben Ezra; though God had given them liberty to slay the creatures, and shed their blood, and eat them, yet he did not allow them to shed their own blood, or the blood of their fellow creatures; should they do this, he would surely make inquisition, and punish them for it:

at the hand of every beast will I require it; should a beast kill a man, or be the instrument of shedding his blood, it should be slain for it; not by means of another beast, God so ordering it, as Aben Ezra suggests, but by the hands or order of the civil magistrate; which was to be done partly to show the great regard God has to the life of man, and partly to punish men for not taking more care of their beasts, as well as to be an example to others to be more careful, and to lessen, the number of mischievous creatures:

and at the hand of man, at the hand of every man's brother will I require the life of man; which may be reasonably supposed; for if it is required of a beast, and that is punished for the slaughter of a man, then much more a man himself, that is wilfully guilty of murder; and the rather, since he is by general relation a brother to the person he has murdered, which is an aggravation of his crime: or it may signify, that though he is a brother in the nearest relation, as his crime is the greater, he shall not go unpunished.

Gill: Gen 9:6 - Whoso sheddeth man's blood, by man shall his blood be shed // for in the image of God made he man Whoso sheddeth man's blood, by man shall his blood be shed,.... That is, he that is guilty of wilful murder shall surely be put to death by the order ...

Whoso sheddeth man's blood, by man shall his blood be shed,.... That is, he that is guilty of wilful murder shall surely be put to death by the order of the civil magistrate; so the Targum of Jonathan,"by witnesses the judges shall condemn him to death,''that is, the fact being clearly proved by witnesses, the judges shall condemn"him to death,''that is, the fact being clearly proved by witnesses, the judges shall pass the sentence of death upon him, and execute it; for this is but the law of retaliation, a just and equitable one, blood for blood, or life for life; though it seems to be the first law of this kind that empowered the civil magistrate to take away life; God, as it is thought, reserving the right and power to himself before, and which, for some reasons, he thought fit not to make use of in the case of Cain, whom he only banished, and suffered not others to take away his life, but now enacts a law, requiring judges to punish murder with death: and which, according to this law, ought never to go unpunished, or have a lesser punishment inflicted for it: the reason follows:

for in the image of God made he man; which, though sadly defaced and obliterated by sin, yet there are such remains of it, as render him more especially the object of the care and providence of God, and give him a superiority to other creatures; and particularly this image, among others, consists in immortality, which the taking away of his life may seem to contradict; however, it is what no man has a right to do.

Gill: Gen 9:7 - And you, be ye fruitful and multiply // bring forth abundantly in the earth, and multiply therein And you, be ye fruitful and multiply,.... Instead of taking away the lives of men, the great concern should be to multiply them; and this indeed is on...

And you, be ye fruitful and multiply,.... Instead of taking away the lives of men, the great concern should be to multiply them; and this indeed is one reason of the above law, to prevent the decrease and ruin of mankind; and which was peculiarly needful, when there were so few men in the world as only four, and therefore it is repeated in stronger terms:

bring forth abundantly in the earth, and multiply therein; that the whole earth might be overspread with men, and repeopled sufficiently, as it was by the sons of Noah, see Gen 9:19.

Gill: Gen 9:8 - And God spake unto Noah, and to his sons with him // saying And God spake unto Noah, and to his sons with him,.... Not only what is contained in the preceding verses, but in the subsequent ones: saying; as f...

And God spake unto Noah, and to his sons with him,.... Not only what is contained in the preceding verses, but in the subsequent ones:

saying; as follows.

Gill: Gen 9:9 - And I, behold, I establish my covenant with you // and with your seed after you And I, behold, I establish my covenant with you,.... Not the covenant of grace in Christ, but of the preservation of the creatures in common, a prom...

And I, behold, I establish my covenant with you,.... Not the covenant of grace in Christ, but of the preservation of the creatures in common, a promise that they should not be destroyed any more by a flood; to which promise it seems an oath was annexed, as appears from Isa 54:9 which passage refers to this covenant, as Aben Ezra on the place observes; and both to raise attention to what is here affirmed, and to show the certainty of it, the word "behold" is prefixed to it; nor is it amiss what Jarchi observes, that this follows upon the direction and exhortation to procreation of children, and is an encouragement to it; since it is assured that posterity should be no more cut off in the manner it had been; for this covenant was made and established not only with Noah, and his sons, but with all their succeeding offspring, as follows:

and with your seed after you; with all their posterity to the end of the world; so that this covenant was made with all the world, and all the individuals in it, from Noah's time to the end of it; for from him and his sons sprung the whole race of men that peopled the world, and still continue to inhabit it; hence here is nothing in it peculiar to the seed of believers.

Gill: Gen 9:10 - And with every living creature that is with you // of the fowl, of the cattle, and of every beast of the earth with you // from all that go out of the ark, to every beast of the earth And with every living creature that is with you,.... This is a further proof that this was not the covenant of grace, but of conservation, since it is...

And with every living creature that is with you,.... This is a further proof that this was not the covenant of grace, but of conservation, since it is made with irrational as well as rational creatures:

of the fowl, of the cattle, and of every beast of the earth with you; the birds of the air, the tame cattle, and the wild beasts:

from all that go out of the ark, to every beast of the earth; which take in the creeping things not mentioned, for these were in the ark, and came out of the ark with Noah; and this covenant not only included all the several kinds of creatures that came out of the ark with Noah, but it reached to all that should spring from them in future ages, to the end of the world.

Gill: Gen 9:11 - And I will establish my covenant with you // neither shall all flesh be cut off any more by the waters of a flood // neither shall there be any more a flood to destroy the earth And I will establish my covenant with you,.... This is repeated to denote the certainty of it, as well as to lead on to the particulars of it: neit...

And I will establish my covenant with you,.... This is repeated to denote the certainty of it, as well as to lead on to the particulars of it:

neither shall all flesh be cut off any more by the waters of a flood; neither man nor beast, at least not all of them, and especially by water:

neither shall there be any more a flood to destroy the earth; not a general deluge, otherwise notwithstanding this promise there might be, as there have been, particular inundations, which have overflowed particular countries and places, but not the whole earth; and this hinders not but that the whole earth may be destroyed by fire, as it will be at the last day, only not by water any more; and this is the sum and substance of the covenant with Noah, his sons, and all the creatures that have been, or shall be.

Gill: Gen 9:12 - And God said, this is the token of the covenant which I make between me and you // and every living creature that is with you, for perpetual generations And God said, this is the token of the covenant which I make between me and you,.... Meaning the bow in the cloud, and which might be formed in the cl...

And God said, this is the token of the covenant which I make between me and you,.... Meaning the bow in the cloud, and which might be formed in the cloud at this time, that Noah might see it, and know it when he saw it again, and seems to be pointed unto: "this is the token"; or sign of the covenant made between God and Noah, and his sons:

and every living creature that is with you, for perpetual generations; which more clearly shows and proves, that this covenant reaches to all creatures that then were, or should be in all ages, to the end of the world.

Gill: Gen 9:13 - I do set my bow in the cloud // it shall be for a token of a covenant between me and the earth I do set my bow in the cloud,.... Or "I have given", or "have set it" p; which seems as if it was at that instant set; this is the same we call the "r...

I do set my bow in the cloud,.... Or "I have given", or "have set it" p; which seems as if it was at that instant set; this is the same we call the "rainbow": and so Horace q calls it "arcus pluvius": it is called a "bow", because of its form, being a semicircle, and a "rainbow", because it is seen in a day of rain, and is a sign of it, or of its being quickly over, Eze 1:28 and this appears in a moist dewy cloud, neither very thick nor very thin, and is occasioned by the rays of the sun opposite to it, refracted on it: and this God calls "his bow", not only because made by him, for, notwithstanding the natural causes of it, the cloud and sun, the disposition of these to produce it, such a phenomenon is of God; but also because he appointed it to be a sign and token of his covenant with his creatures; so the Heathen poets r call the rainbow the messenger of Juno. It is a question whether there was a rainbow before the flood, and it is not easily answered; both Jews and Christians are divided about it; Saadiah thought there was one; but Aben Ezra disapproves of his opinion, and thinks it was first now made. The greater part of Christian interpreters are of the mind of Saadiah, that it was from the beginning, the natural causes of it, the sun and cloud, being before the flood; and that it was now after it only appointed to be a sign and token of the covenant; but though the natural causes of it did exist before, it does not follow, nor is it to be proved, that there was such a disposition of them to produce such an effect; and it might be so ordered in Providence, that there should not be any, that this might be entirely a new thing, and so a wonderful one, as the word for "token" s signifies; and the Greeks calls the rainbow the "daughter of Thaumas" or "Wonder" t; and be the more fit to be a sign and token of the covenant, that God would no more destroy the earth with water; for otherwise, if this had been what Noah and his sons had been used to see, it can hardly be thought sufficient to take off their fears of a future inundation, which was the end and use it was to serve, as follows:

it shall be for a token of a covenant between me and the earth; that is, between God and the creatures of the earth; or of a promise that God would no more destroy the earth, and cut off the creatures in it by a flood; for though it is a bow, yet without arrows, and is not turned downwards towards the earth, but upwards towards heaven, and so is a token of mercy and kindness, and not of wrath and anger.

Gill: Gen 9:14 - And it shall come to pass, when I bring a cloud over the earth // that the bow shall be seen in the cloud And it shall come to pass, when I bring a cloud over the earth,.... Or "cloud a cloud" u, cause the clouds to gather thick in the heavens, and to hang...

And it shall come to pass, when I bring a cloud over the earth,.... Or "cloud a cloud" u, cause the clouds to gather thick in the heavens, and to hang over the earth ready to pour down great quantities of water; by reason of which the inhabitants might dread another flood coming upon them: wherefore, in order to dissipate such fears, it shall be so ordered:

that the bow shall be seen in the cloud; after it has pretty much discharged itself; for the rainbow is always in a thin, not a thick cloud; after the heavy showers are fallen from the thick clouds, and a small thin one remains, then the rainbow is seen in it; not always, but very frequently, and when the sun and clouds are in a proper position: and this is often so ordered, to put men in mind of this covenant, and to divest them of, or prevent their fears of the world being drowned by a flood; for when they see this, it is a sure sign the rain is going off, since the cloud is thinned, or otherwise the rainbow could not appear: and a most glorious and beautiful sight it is, having such a variety of colours in it, and in such a position and form. Some think that it serves both to put in mind of the destruction of the old world by water, through its watery colours, and of the present world by fire, through its fiery ones. Others make the three predominant colours to denote the three dispensations before the law, under the law, and under the Gospel: rather they may signify the various providences of God, which all work together for the good of his people; however, whenever this bow is seen, it puts in mind of the covenant of preservation made with all the creatures, and the firmness, stability, and duration of it; and is by some considered as an emblem of the covenant of grace, from Isa 54:9 which is of God's making, as this bow is; is a reverberation of Christ the sun of righteousness, the sum and substance of the covenant; consists of various blessings and promises of grace; is expressive of mercy and peace, and is a security from everlasting destruction: or rather it may be thought to be an emblem of Christ himself, who was seen by John clothed with a cloud, and a rainbow on his head, Rev 10:1 this being a wonderful thing, as Christ is wonderful in his person, office, and grace; and as it has in it a variety of beautiful colours, it may represent Christ, who is full of grace and truth, and fairer than the children of men; and may be considered as a symbol of peace and reconciliation by him, whom God looks unto, and remembers the covenant of his grace he has made with him and his chosen ones in him; and who is the rainbow round about the throne of God, and the way of access unto it; Rev 4:3 the Jews have a saying,"till ye see the bow in its luminous colours, do not look for the feet of the Messiah, or his coming w.''

Gill: Gen 9:15 - And I will remember my covenant which is between me and you, and every living creature of all flesh // and the waters shall no more become a flood to destroy all flesh And I will remember my covenant which is between me and you, and every living creature of all flesh,.... See Gen 9:11. and the waters shall no more...

And I will remember my covenant which is between me and you, and every living creature of all flesh,.... See Gen 9:11.

and the waters shall no more become a flood to destroy all flesh; this is repeated to remove those fears which would naturally arise, upon the gathering of the clouds in the heavens; but as God would remember his covenant, which he can never forget; and is always mindful of, so men, when they see the bow in the cloud, may be assured, that whatever waters are in the heavens, they shall never be suffered to fall in such quantity as to destroy all creatures as they have done.

Gill: Gen 9:16 - And the bow shall be in the cloud // and I will look upon it, that I may remember the everlasting covenant between God and every living creature of all flesh that is upon the earth And the bow shall be in the cloud,.... Not whenever there is a cloud, but at some certain times, when that and the sun are in a proper position to for...

And the bow shall be in the cloud,.... Not whenever there is a cloud, but at some certain times, when that and the sun are in a proper position to form one, and when divine wisdom sees right there should be one; then it appears and continues for a time, and as the cloud becomes thinner and thinner, it disappears:

and I will look upon it, that I may remember the everlasting covenant between God and every living creature of all flesh that is upon the earth; not that forgetfulness, or remembrance, properly speaking, belong to God, but this is said after the manner of men; who by this token may be assured, whenever they see the bow in the cloud, that God is not unmindful of the covenant he has made with all creatures, and which is to continue to the end of the world.

Gill: Gen 9:17 - And God said to Noah, this is the token of the covenant // which I have established between me and all flesh that is upon the earth And God said to Noah, this is the token of the covenant,.... Which is repeated for the greater confirmation and certainty of it, since the fears of me...

And God said to Noah, this is the token of the covenant,.... Which is repeated for the greater confirmation and certainty of it, since the fears of men would be apt to run very high, especially while the flood was fresh in memory:

which I have established between me and all flesh that is upon the earth: see Gen 9:9, it is highly probable, that from the rainbow being the token of the covenant between God and Noah, and the creatures, sprung the fable of the Chinese concerning their first emperor, Fohi, who seems to be the same with Noah, and whom they call the son of heaven, and say he had no father; which is this, that his mother, walking on the bank of a lake near Lanthien, in the province of Xensi, trod upon a large footstep of a man impressed upon the sand, and from thence, being surrounded with the rainbow, conceived and brought forth Fohi x.

Gill: Gen 9:18 - And the sons of Noah, that went forth of the ark, were Shem, and Ham, and Japheth // and Ham is the father of Canaan And the sons of Noah, that went forth of the ark, were Shem, and Ham, and Japheth,.... These were born before the flood, and went into the ark with No...

And the sons of Noah, that went forth of the ark, were Shem, and Ham, and Japheth,.... These were born before the flood, and went into the ark with Noah, and came out with him; see Gen 5:32.

and Ham is the father of Canaan; this is observed for the sake of the following history, concerning the behaviour of the one to Noah, and of the curse of the other by him, which would not have been so well understood if this remark had not been made: the father and the son, as they were, related in nature, they were much alike in manners and behaviour. Cush, the firstborn of Ham, is not mentioned, but Canaan, his youngest son, because he was cursed, as Aben Ezra observes; and who remarks that the paragraph is written to show that the Canaanites were accursed, the father of whom this Canaan was; and who is the same Sanchoniatho y calls Cna, and says he was the first that was called a Phoenician.

Gill: Gen 9:19 - These are the three sons of Noah // and of them was the whole earth overspread These are the three sons of Noah,.... And his only ones; and if he had any more, they left no posterity behind them, since it follows: and of them ...

These are the three sons of Noah,.... And his only ones; and if he had any more, they left no posterity behind them, since it follows:

and of them was the whole earth overspread, with inhabitants, by them and their posterity only: Berozus z indeed says, that Noah, after the flood, begat more sons, and giants; and his commentator, Annius, talks of seventeen of them, among whom was Tuiscon, the father of the Germans; and the author of Juchasin a ascribes a fourth son to Noah, whose name he calls Joniko, who taught astronomy in the world, and taught Nimrod the art of war; but these are fabulous stories, and contrary to the sacred Scriptures, which speak of three sons of Noah, and no more, and say that by these the earth was replenished after the flood: hence, among the Heathen writers, we read of Saturn and his three children, who by many circumstances appears to be the same with Noah, as Bochart b hath proved at large.

Gill: Gen 9:20 - And Noah began to be an husbandman // and he planted a vineyard And Noah began to be an husbandman,.... Or "a man of the earth" c, not lord of it, as Jarchi, though he was, but a tiller of the earth, as he had been...

And Noah began to be an husbandman,.... Or "a man of the earth" c, not lord of it, as Jarchi, though he was, but a tiller of the earth, as he had been before the flood, and now began to be again; he returned to his old employment, and which perhaps he improved, having invented, as the Jews d say, instruments of husbandry; it may be, the use of the plough, which made the tillage of the ground more easy; he was expert in husbandry, as Aben Ezra observes, and which, as he remarks, is great wisdom; and though he was so great a man, yet he employed himself in this way:

and he planted a vineyard; not vines, but a vineyard; there were vines before scattered up and down, here one and there another, but he planted a number of them together, and set them in order, as the Jewish writers say e; and some of them f will have it that he found a vine which the flood brought out of the garden of Eden, and planted it; but this is mere fable: where this plantation was cannot be said with certainty; the Armenians have a tradition that Noah, after quitting the ark, went and settled at Erivan, about twelve leagues from Ararat, a city full of vineyards; and that it was there he planted the vineyard, in a place where they still make excellent wine, and that their vines are of the same sort he planted there g; which contradicts what Strabo h says of the country of Armenia, its hills and plains, that a vine will not easily grow there.

Gill: Gen 9:21 - And he drank of the wine, and was drunken // and he was uncovered within his tent And he drank of the wine, and was drunken,.... Either not being acquainted with the strength of it, as is thought by many; or having been used to weak...

And he drank of the wine, and was drunken,.... Either not being acquainted with the strength of it, as is thought by many; or having been used to weaker liquor, as water; or through the infirmity of his age; however, he was overtaken with it, and which is recorded, not to disgrace him, but to caution men against the evil of intemperance, as well as to encourage repenting sinners to expect pardon: and this shows that the best of men are not exempted from sin, nor secure from falling; and that though Noah was a perfect man, yet not as to be without sin; and that whereas he was a righteous man, he was not so by the righteousness of works, but by the righteousness of faith:

and he was uncovered within his tent; being in liquor when he laid down, he was either negligent of his long and loose garments, such as the eastern people wore without breeches, and did not take care to wrap them about him; or in his sleep, through the heat of the weather, or of the wine, or both, threw them off.

Gill: Gen 9:22 - And Ham, the father of Canaan, saw the nakedness of his father // and told his two brethren without And Ham, the father of Canaan, saw the nakedness of his father,.... Which, had it been through surprise, and at an unawares, would not have been thoug...

And Ham, the father of Canaan, saw the nakedness of his father,.... Which, had it been through surprise, and at an unawares, would not have been thought criminal; but be went into his father's tent, where he ought not to have entered; he looked with pleasure and delight on his father's nakedness: Ham is represented by many writers as a very wicked, immodest, and profligate creature: Berosus i makes him a magician, and to be the same with Zoroast or Zoroastres, and speaks of him as the public corrupter of mankind; and says that he taught men to live as before the flood, to lie with mothers, sisters, daughters, males and brutes, and creatures of all sorts; and that he actually did so himself, and therefore was cast out by his father Janus, or Noah, and got the name of "Chem", the infamous and immodest:

and told his two brethren without; he went out of the tent after he had pleased himself with the sight; see Hab 2:15 and in a wanton, ludicrous, and scoffing manner, related what he had seen: some of the Jewish Rabbins k, as Jarchi relates, say that Canaan first saw it, and told his father of it; and some say l, that he or Ham committed an unnatural crime with him; and others m, that he castrated him; and hence, it is supposed, came the stories of Jupiter castrating his father Saturn, and Chronus his father Uranus: and Berosus n says, that Ham taking hold of his father's genitals, and muttering some words, by a magic charm rendered him impotent: and some o will have it that he committed incest with his father's wife; but these things are said without foundation: what Noah's younger son did unto him, besides looking on him, we are not told, yet it was such as brought a curse on Canaan; and one would think it would be more than bare sight, nay, it is expressly said there was something done, but what is not said, Gen 9:24.

Gill: Gen 9:23 - And Shem and Japheth took a garment // and laid it upon both their shoulders // and went backward, and covered the nakedness of their father // and their faces were backward, and they saw not their father's nakedness And Shem and Japheth took a garment,.... Who were the two brothers Ham told what he had seen, and who, no doubt, reproved him for his ill behaviour, a...

And Shem and Japheth took a garment,.... Who were the two brothers Ham told what he had seen, and who, no doubt, reproved him for his ill behaviour, and then took a garment, a coat of their own, very probably, some large garment fit for the purpose:

and laid it upon both their shoulders; one part of it on the right shoulder of the one, and the other on the left shoulder of the other:

and went backward, and covered the nakedness of their father; going backward when they came into the tent, and to the place where their father lay, they threw the garment off from their shoulders over him, and so covered him:

and their faces were backward, and they saw not their father's nakedness: which they purposely shunned, for which reason they went backwards, and their faces were backwards to their father; which showed their modesty, and their filial piety and duty, and thus by their actions reproved Ham, as well as doubtless they did by words.

Gill: Gen 9:24 - And Noah awoke from his wine // and knew what his younger son had done to him And Noah awoke from his wine,.... From his sleep, which his wine brought on him; when the force and strength of that was gone, and when not only he aw...

And Noah awoke from his wine,.... From his sleep, which his wine brought on him; when the force and strength of that was gone, and when not only he awaked, but came to himself, and was sober:

and knew what his younger son had done to him; either by revelation, as some, or prophecy, as Ben Gersom, or by the relation of his two sons, whom, when finding himself covered with another's garment, he might question how it came about, and they told him the whole affair: some, as Aben Ezra, Ben Gersom, and Abendana, think that this was not Ham, the younger son of Noah, and whom some also will have not to be the youngest, being always placed middlemost, but Canaan, the fourth and youngest son of Ham; and whom Noah indeed might call his younger, or "his son, the little one" p; as it was usual for grandchildren to be called the sons of their grandfather; see Gen 29:5 and Noah might be informed how his little son, or rather grandson Canaan, had been in his tent, and seeing him in the posture he was, went very merrily, and told his father Ham of it, who made a jest of it also; and this seems the more reasonable, since Canaan was immediately cursed by Noah, as in the following verse; See Gill on Gen 9:22 this affair must happen many years after Noah's coming out of the ark, since then his sons had no children; whereas Ham had at this time four sons, and Canaan was the youngest of them; and he was grown up to an age sufficient to be concerned in this matter, of treating his grandfather in an ill way, so as to bring his curse upon him: Jarchi interprets "little" by abominable and contemptible, supposing it refers not to age, but character, and which was bad both in Ham and Canaan: See Gill on Gen 9:22.

Gill: Gen 9:25 - And he said // cursed be Canaan // a servant of servants shall he be unto his brethren And he said,.... Not in a drunken fit, as some profane persons would suggest, for he was awaked from his wine; nor in the heat of passion, but by insp...

And he said,.... Not in a drunken fit, as some profane persons would suggest, for he was awaked from his wine; nor in the heat of passion, but by inspiration, under a spirit of prophecy:

cursed be Canaan; or, "O cursed Canaan", or rather, "Canaan is", or "shall be cursed" q; for the words are either a declaration of what was his case, or a prediction of what it should be. It may seem strange that Canaan should be cursed, and not Ham, who seems to he the only aggressor, by what is said in the context; hence one copy of the Septuagint, as Ainsworth observes, reads Ham, and the Arabic writers the father of Canaan; and so Saadiah Gaon supplies it, as Aben Ezra relates; and the same supplement is made by others r: but as both were guilty, as appears from what has been observed on the former verses, and Canaan particularly was first in the transgression; it seems most wise and just that he should be expressly named, since hereby Ham is not excluded a share in the punishment of the crime he had a concern in, being punished in his son, his youngest son, who perhaps was his darling and favourite, and which must be very afflicting to him to hear of; and since Canaan only, and not any of the other sons of Ham were guilty, he, and not Ham by name, is cursed, lest it should be thought that the curse would fall upon Ham and all his posterity; whereas the curse descends on him, and very justly proceeds in the line of Canaan; and who is the rather mentioned, because he was the father of the accursed race of the Canaanites, whom God abhorred, and, for their wickedness, was about to drive out of their land, and give it to his people for an inheritance; and in order to which the Israelites were now upon the expedition, when Moses wrote this account, and which must animate them to it; for by this prediction they would see that they were an accursed people, and that they were to be their servants:

a servant of servants shall he be unto his brethren; the posterities of Shem and Japheth, who stood in the relation of brethren to Canaan and his posterity; and to those he and his offspring were to become the most mean abject servants, as the phrase implies: this character agrees with the name of Canaan, which may be derived from כנע, "to depress", "humble", and "make mean and abject".

Gill: Gen 9:26 - And he said, blessed be the Lord God of Shem // And Canaan shall be his servant And he said, blessed be the Lord God of Shem,.... Shem was blessed before Japheth, because he was the first and principal in advising and conducting t...

And he said, blessed be the Lord God of Shem,.... Shem was blessed before Japheth, because he was the first and principal in advising and conducting the affair before ascribed to them, as Jarchi on Gen 9:23 suggests; and though the words are in the form of an ascription of blessedness to God, the fountain of all good, and by whose grace Shem was influenced and enabled to do the good he did, for which the Lord's name was to be praised and blessed; yet it includes the blessing of Shem, and indeed the greatest blessing he could possibly enjoy; for what greater blessing is there, than for a man to have God to be his God? this includes everything, all blessings temporal and spiritual; see Psa 144:15 some interpret the God of Shem of Christ, who, according to the human nature, was a descendant of Shem; and according to the divine nature the God of Shem, God over all, blessed for ever, Rom 9:4.

And Canaan shall be his servant; the posterity of Canaan be servants to the posterity of Shem: this was fulfilled in the times of Joshua, when the Israelites, who sprung from Shem, conquered the land of Canaan, slew thirty of their kings, and took their cities and possessed them, and made the Gibeonites, one of the states of Canaan, hewers of wood and drawers of water to them, or the most mean and abject servants.

Gill: Gen 9:27 - God shall enlarge Japheth // and he shall dwell in the tents of Shem // and Canaan shall be his servant God shall enlarge Japheth,.... Or give him a large part of the earth, and large dominions in it, as his posterity have had; for, as Bochart r observes...

God shall enlarge Japheth,.... Or give him a large part of the earth, and large dominions in it, as his posterity have had; for, as Bochart r observes, to them belonged all Europe, and lesser Asia, Media, Iberia, Albania, part of Armenia, and all those vast countries to the north, which formerly the Scythians, and now the Tartars inhabit; not to say anything of the new world (America), into which the Scythians might pass through the straights of Anian:

and he shall dwell in the tents of Shem; inhabit the countries belonging to the posterity of Shem: this was verified by the Medes, who were the descendants of Japheth, together with the Babylonians seizing upon the Assyrian empire and overthrowing that, for Ashur was of Shem; and in the Greeks and Romans, who sprung from Japheth, when they made conquests in Asia, in which were the tents of Shem's posterity; and who, according to the prophecy in Num 24:24 that ships from the coast of Chittim, Greece, or Italy, or both, should afflict Ashur and Eber, the Assyrians and the Hebrews, or those beyond the river Euphrates, who all belonged to Shem; and particularly this was fulfilled when the Romans, who are of Japheth, seized Judea, which had long been the seat of the children of Shem, the Jews; and at this day the Turks s, who are also Japheth's sons, literally dwell in the tents of Shem, or inhabit Judea: the Targums understand this in a mystical sense. Onkelos thus:"God shall cause his Shechinah or glorious Majesty to dwell in the tents of Shem;''which was remarkably true, when Christ, the brightness of his Father's glory, the Word, was made flesh, and tabernacled in Judea: Jonathan Ben Uzziel thus;"and his children shall be proselytes, and dwell in the school of Shem;''and many Christian writers interpret them of the conversion of the Gentiles, and of their union and communion with the believing Jews in one Gospel church state, which was very evidently fulfilled in the first times of the Gospel: and they read these words in connection with the former clause thus, "God shall persuade Japheth t, and he shall dwell in the tents of Shem"; that is, God shall persuade the Gentiles, the posterity of Japheth, by the sweet alluring voice of his Gospel, and through the power of his grace accompanying it, to embrace and profess Christ and his Gospel, and join with his churches, and walk with them in all the commandments and ordinances of Christ; and at this day all the posterity of Japheth, excepting Magog, or the Turks, bear the name of Christians: the Talmudists u interpret the passage of the language of Japheth being spoken in the tents of Shem; which had its accomplishment when the apostles of Christ spoke and wrote in Greek, one of the languages of Japheth's sons. Some understand this of God himself, he shall dwell in the tents of Shem, or in Israel, as Jarchi, and was verified remarkably in the incarnation of the Son of God:

and Canaan shall be his servant; the posterity of Canaan servants to the posterity of Japheth; as they were when Tyre, which was built by the Sidonians, and Sidon, which had its name from the eldest son of Canaan, fell into the hands of Alexander the Grecian, who sprung from Japheth; and when Carthage, a colony of the Phoenicians of Canaan's race, was taken and demolished by the Romans of the line of Japheth, which made Hannibal, a child of Canaan, say, "agnoscere se fortunam Carthaginis" w, that he owned the fate of Carthage; and in which some have thought that he refers to this prophecy.

Gill: Gen 9:28 - And Noah lived after the flood three hundred and fifty years. And Noah lived after the flood three hundred and fifty years. So that he not only saw the old world, and the wickedness of that, and the destruction o...

And Noah lived after the flood three hundred and fifty years. So that he not only saw the old world, and the wickedness of that, and the destruction of it for it, but an increase of wickedness again, the building of the tower of Babel, the confusion of languages, the dispersion of his offspring, and the wars among them in the times of Nimrod, and others: however, it was a blessing to mankind that he lived so long after the flood in the new world, to transmit to posterity, by tradition, the affairs of the old world; and to give a particular account of the destruction of it, and to instruct them in the doctrines and duties of religion. By this it appears, that he lived within thirty two years of the birth of Abraham. The Jews conclude from hence, that he lived to the fifty eighth year of Abraham's life: it may be remarked, that it is not added here as usual to the account of the years of the patriarchs, "and he begat sons and daughters"; from whence it may be concluded, that he had no more children than the three before mentioned, as well as from the silence of the Scriptures elsewhere, and from the old age of himself and his wife, and especially from what is said; see Gill on Gen 9:19.

Gill: Gen 9:29 - And all the days of Noah were nine hundred and fifty years // and he died And all the days of Noah were nine hundred and fifty years,.... He lived twenty years more than Adam did, and within nineteen of Methuselah, and his a...

And all the days of Noah were nine hundred and fifty years,.... He lived twenty years more than Adam did, and within nineteen of Methuselah, and his age must be called a good old age; but what is said of all the patriarchs is also said or him:

and he died: the Arabic writers say w, when the time of his death drew nigh, he ordered his son Shem by his will to take the body of Adam, and lay it in the middle of the earth, and appoint Melchizedek, the son of Peleg, minister at his grave; and one of them is very particular as to the time of his death; they say x he died on the second day of the month Ijar, on the fourth day (of the week), at two o'clock in the morning.

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki

NET Notes: Gen 9:2 Heb “into your hand are given.” The “hand” signifies power. To say the animals have been given into the hands of humans means ...

NET Notes: Gen 9:3 The perfect verb form describes the action that accompanies the declaration.

NET Notes: Gen 9:4 You must not eat meat with its life…in it. Because of the carnage produced by the flood, people might conclude that life is cheap and therefore ...

NET Notes: Gen 9:5 Heb “from the hand of a man, his brother.” The point is that God will require the blood of someone who kills, since the person killed is a...

NET Notes: Gen 9:6 Heb “he”; the referent (God) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

NET Notes: Gen 9:7 The disjunctive clause (conjunction + pronominal subject + verb) here indicates a strong contrast to what has preceded. Against the backdrop of the wa...

NET Notes: Gen 9:8 Heb “to Noah and to his sons with him, saying.”

NET Notes: Gen 9:9 The three pronominal suffixes (translated “you,” “your,” and “you”) are masculine plural. As v. 8 indicates, Noah ...

NET Notes: Gen 9:10 The verbal repetition is apparently for emphasis.

NET Notes: Gen 9:11 Heb “and all flesh will not be cut off again by the waters of the flood.”

NET Notes: Gen 9:12 The Hebrew term עוֹלָם (’olam) means “ever, forever, lasting, perpetual.” The covenant would ext...

NET Notes: Gen 9:13 The perfect verbal form with vav (ו) consecutive here has the same aspectual function as the preceding perfect of certitude.

NET Notes: Gen 9:14 The temporal indicator (וְהָיָה, vÿhayah, conjunction + the perfect verb form), often translated “...

NET Notes: Gen 9:15 Heb “all flesh.”

NET Notes: Gen 9:16 The translation assumes that the infinitive לִזְכֹּר (lizkor, “to remember”) here expresse...

NET Notes: Gen 9:17 Heb “all flesh.”

NET Notes: Gen 9:18 The concluding disjunctive clause is parenthetical. It anticipates the following story, which explains that the Canaanites, Ham’s descendants th...

NET Notes: Gen 9:19 Heb “was scattered.” The verb פָּצָה (patsah, “to scatter” [Niphal, “to be scattered...

NET Notes: Gen 9:20 Or “Noah, a man of the soil, was the first to plant a vineyard”; Heb “and Noah, a man of the ground, began and he planted a vineyard...

NET Notes: Gen 9:21 The Hebrew verb גָּלָה (galah) in the Hitpael verbal stem (וַיִּתְג...

NET Notes: Gen 9:22 Saw the nakedness. It is hard for modern people to appreciate why seeing another’s nakedness was such an abomination, because nakedness is so pr...

NET Notes: Gen 9:23 Heb “their faces [were turned] back.”

NET Notes: Gen 9:24 The Hebrew verb עָשָׂה (’asah, “to do”) carries too general a sense to draw the conclusion that ...

NET Notes: Gen 9:25 Heb “a servant of servants” (עֶבֶד עֲבָדִים, ’eved ...

NET Notes: Gen 9:26 Heb “a slave to him”; the referent (Shem) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

NET Notes: Gen 9:27 In this context the prefixed verbal form is a jussive (note the distinct jussive forms both before and after this in vv. 26 and 27).

Geneva Bible: Gen 9:1 And God ( a ) blessed Noah and his sons, and said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth. ( a ) God increased them with fruit,...

Geneva Bible: Gen 9:2 And the ( b ) fear of you and the dread of you shall be upon every beast of the earth, and upon every fowl of the air, upon all that moveth [upon] the...

Geneva Bible: Gen 9:3 Every ( c ) moving thing that liveth shall be meat for you; even as the green herb have I given you all things. ( c ) By this permission man may with...

Geneva Bible: Gen 9:4 ( d ) But flesh with the life thereof, [which is] the blood thereof, shall ye not eat. ( d ) That is, living creatures, and the flesh of beasts that ...

Geneva Bible: Gen 9:5 ( e ) And surely your blood of your lives will I require; at the hand of every beast will I require it, and at the hand of man; at the hand of every m...

Geneva Bible: Gen 9:6 Whoso sheddeth man's blood, ( f ) by man shall his blood be shed: for in the ( g ) image of God made he man. ( f ) Not only by the magistrate, but of...

Geneva Bible: Gen 9:9 And I, behold, I establish my ( h ) covenant with you, and with your ( i ) seed after you; ( h ) To assure you that the world will never again be des...

Geneva Bible: Gen 9:13 I do set my ( k ) bow in the cloud, and it shall be for a token of a covenant between me and the earth. ( k ) By this we see that signs or ordinances...

Geneva Bible: Gen 9:15 And I will remember my ( l ) covenant, which [is] between me and you and every living creature of all flesh; and the waters shall no more become a flo...

Geneva Bible: Gen 9:17 And God said unto Noah, ( m ) This [is] the token of the covenant, which I have established between me and all flesh that [is] upon the earth. ( m ) ...

Geneva Bible: Gen 9:19 These [are] the three sons of Noah: and of them was the whole earth ( n ) overspread. ( n ) This declares what the virtue of God's blessing was, when...

Geneva Bible: Gen 9:21 And he drank of the wine, and was ( o ) drunken; and he was uncovered within his tent. ( o ) This is set before us to show what a horrible thing drun...

Geneva Bible: Gen 9:22 And Ham, the father of ( p ) Canaan, saw the nakedness of his father, and ( q ) told his two brethren without. ( p ) Of whom came the Canaanites that...

Geneva Bible: Gen 9:25 And he said, ( r ) Cursed [be] Canaan; a ( s ) servant of servants shall he be unto his brethren. ( r ) He pronounces as a prophet the curse of God a...

Geneva Bible: Gen 9:27 God shall ( t ) enlarge Japheth, and he shall dwell in the tents of Shem; and Canaan shall be his servant. ( t ) He declares that the Gentiles, who c...

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Rentang Ayat

Maclaren: Gen 9:8-17 - The Sign For Man And The Remembrancer For God Genesis 9:8-17 The previous verses of this chapter lay down the outlines of the new order which followed the flood. The blessing and the command to be...

MHCC: Gen 9:1-3 - --The blessing of God is the cause of our doing well. On him we depend, to him we should be thankful. Let us not forget the advantage and pleasure we ha...

MHCC: Gen 9:4-7 - --The main reason of forbidding the eating of blood, doubtless was because the shedding of blood in sacrifices was to keep the worshippers in mind of th...

MHCC: Gen 9:8-17 - --As the old world was ruined, to be a monument of justice, so this world remains to this day a monument of mercy. But sin, that drowned the old world, ...

MHCC: Gen 9:18-23 - --The drunkenness of Noah is recorded in the Bible, with that fairness which is found only in the Scripture, as a case and proof of human weakness and i...

MHCC: Gen 9:24-29 - --Noah declares a curse on Canaan, the son of Ham; perhaps this grandson of his was more guilty than the rest. A servant of servants, that is, The meane...

Matthew Henry: Gen 9:1-7 - -- We read, in the close of the foregoing chapter, the very kind things which God said in his heart, concerning the remnant of mankind which was now le...

Matthew Henry: Gen 9:8-11 - -- Here is, I. The general establishment of God's covenant with this new world, and the extent of that covenant, Gen 9:9, Gen 9:10. Here observe, 1. Th...

Matthew Henry: Gen 9:12-17 - -- Articles of agreement among men are usually sealed, that the covenants may be the more solemn, and the performances of the covenants the more sure, ...

Matthew Henry: Gen 9:18-23 - -- Here is, I. Noah's family and employment. The names of his sons are again mentioned (Gen 9:18, Gen 9:19) as those from whom the whole earth was over...

Matthew Henry: Gen 9:24-27 - -- Here, I. Noah comes to himself: He awoke from his wine. Sleep cured him, and, we may suppose, so cured him that he never relapsed into that sin af...

Matthew Henry: Gen 9:28-29 - -- Here see, 1. How God prolonged the life of Noah; he lived 950 years, twenty more than Adam and but nineteen less than Methuselah: this long life was...

Keil-Delitzsch: Gen 9:1-2 - -- These divine purposes of peace, which were communicated to Noah while sacrificing, were solemnly confirmed by the renewal of the blessing pronounced...

Keil-Delitzsch: Gen 9:3-7 - -- " Every moving thing that liveth shall be food for you; even as the green of the herb have I given you all ( את־כּל = חכּל )."These words d...

Keil-Delitzsch: Gen 9:8-17 - -- To give Noah and his sons a firm assurance of the prosperous continuance of the human race, God condescended to establish a covenant with them and t...

Keil-Delitzsch: Gen 9:18-25 - -- The second occurrence in the life of Noah after the flood exhibited the germs of the future development of the human race in a threefold direction, ...

Keil-Delitzsch: Gen 9:26 - -- In contrast with the curse, the blessings upon Shem and Japhet are introduced with a fresh "and he said,"whilst Canaan's servitude comes in like a r...

Keil-Delitzsch: Gen 9:27-29 - -- " Wide let God make it to Japhet, and let him dwell in the tents of Shem. "Starting from the meaning of the name, Noah sums up his blessing in the w...

Constable: Gen 1:1--11:27 - --I. PRIMEVAL EVENTS 1:1--11:26 Chapters 1-11 provide an introduction to the Book of Genesis, the Pentateuch, and ...

Constable: Gen 6:9--10:1 - --D. What became of Noah 6:9-9:29 The Lord destroyed the corrupt, violent human race and deluged its world...

Constable: Gen 6:9--9:1 - --1. The Flood 6:9-8:22 The chiastic (palistrophic) structure of this section shows that Moses int...

Constable: Gen 9:1-17 - --2. The Noahic Covenant 9:1-17 Following the Flood God established human life anew on the earth showing His high regard for it. He promised to bless hu...

Constable: Gen 9:18-29 - --3. The curse on Canaan 9:18-29 This pericope presents the characteristics of the three branches of the human family that grew out of Noah. Moses stres...

Guzik: Gen 9:1-29 - God's Covenant with Noah and Creation Genesis 9 - God's Covenant with Noah and Creation A. God's covenant and instructions to Noah. 1. (1-4) Instructions for living in a new world. So ...

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Lainnya

Bible Query: Gen 9:3 Q: In Gen 9:3, can people eat meat, or only vegetables? A: Genesis 1:29 said Adam could eat fruits and vegetables. After the flood, Genesis 9:3 said...

Bible Query: Gen 9:4 Q: In Gen 9:4, is eating blood prohibited today? A: Some say no, because the Christ superseded the law, and in Acts 10:11-16, all "foods" were calle...

Bible Query: Gen 9:4 Q: In Gen 9:4, Lev 7:26-27, Lev 17:11-12, and Dt 12:16,23-25, does the prohibition on eating blood mean people should never have blood transfusions,...

Bible Query: Gen 9:6 Q: Does Gen 9:6 forbid executing criminals today? A: Not at all. Genesis 9:6 both prohibits only murder, and commanded execution punishment for murd...

Bible Query: Gen 9:6 Q: Does Gen 9:6 speak of capital punishment? A: It definitely speaks of capital punishment. It means execution and not mere physical death that happ...

Bible Query: Gen 9:12-13 Q: In Gen 9:12-13, does the rainbow as a sign of God’s covenant show that there were no rainbows before the flood? A: It implies this but does not...

Bible Query: Gen 9:20-21 Q: In Gen 9:20-21, how could a godly man like Noah get drunk? A: First, the Bible does not hide the fact that people of God sin too. Second, with lo...

Bible Query: Gen 9:20-21 Q: In Gen 9:20-21, why is this sad story of Noah getting drunk in the Bible? A: The Bible not only shows us why it is important to do what is right,...

Bible Query: Gen 9:21-25 Q: In Gen 9:21-25, was Genesis a scaled-down version of an original story where Ham castrated Noah to prevent him from having more sons, similar to ...

Bible Query: Gen 9:22 Q: In Gen 9:22 what was wrong with Ham seeing his father naked? A: Sons should not freely broadcast their parent’s shortcomings, and Ham’s attit...

Bible Query: Gen 9:22-23 Q: In Gen 9:22-23, what do you do if you are embarrassed by your parents? A: First understand why you are embarrassed. Are your parents actually doi...

Bible Query: Gen 9:22-23 Q: In Gen 9:22-23, what do you do if your children are embarrassed by you? A: There are at least four ways they can be embarrassed:   1) b...

Bible Query: Gen 9:22-23 Q: In Gen 9:22-23, how should we respond to the sin in others? A: In all cases, we should not give the appearance of condoning the sin, but we can s...

Bible Query: Gen 9:24 Q: In Gen 9:24 should it say "younger" (NKJV) or "youngest"? A: In Hebrew it can be either way according to Strong’s Concordance. Regardless, the ...

Bible Query: Gen 9:25-26 Q: In Gen 9:25-26, what was the curse of Canaan? A: Genesis only says that the lowest of slaves will he be to his brothers. Note that the curse is n...

Bible Query: Gen 9:25 Q: In Gen 9:25, why was Canaan, not Ham, cursed? A: Ham learned that his descendants would be an example of sin’s consequences. The Expositor’s ...

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Pendahuluan / Garis Besar

JFB: Genesis (Pendahuluan Kitab) GENESIS, the book of the origin or production of all things, consists of two parts: the first, comprehended in the first through eleventh chapters, gi...

JFB: Genesis (Garis Besar) THE CREATION OF HEAVEN AND EARTH. (Gen 1:1-2) THE FIRST DAY. (Gen 1:3-5) SECOND DAY. (Gen 1:6-8) THIRD DAY. (Gen 1:9-13) FOURTH DAY. (Gen 1:14-19) FI...

TSK: Genesis (Pendahuluan Kitab) The Book of Genesis is the most ancient record in the world; including the History of two grand and stupendous subjects, Creation and Providence; of e...

TSK: Genesis 9 (Pendahuluan Pasal) Overview Gen 9:1, God blesses Noah and his sons, and grants them flesh for food; Gen 9:4, Blood and murder are forbidden; Gen 9:8, God’s covenan...

Poole: Genesis 9 (Pendahuluan Pasal) CHAPTER 9 God renews his blessing, Gen 9:1 , and confirms our dominion over the creatures, Gen 9:2 . Grants flesh for food, but with the blood forb...

MHCC: Genesis (Pendahuluan Kitab) Genesis is a name taken from the Greek, and signifies " the book of generation or production;" it is properly so called, as containing an account of ...

MHCC: Genesis 9 (Pendahuluan Pasal) (Gen 9:1-3) God blesses Noah, and grants flesh for food. (Gen 9:4-7) Blood, and murder forbidden. (Gen 9:8-17) God's covenant by the rainbow. (Gen ...

Matthew Henry: Genesis (Pendahuluan Kitab) An Exposition, with Practical Observations, of The First Book of Moses, Called Genesis We have now before us the holy Bible, or book, for so bible ...

Matthew Henry: Genesis 9 (Pendahuluan Pasal) Both the world and the church were now again reduced to a family, the family of Noah, of the affairs of which this chapter gives us an account, of ...

Constable: Genesis (Pendahuluan Kitab) Introduction Title Each book of the Pentateuch (the first five books of the Old Testam...

Constable: Genesis (Garis Besar) Outline The structure of Genesis is very clear. The phrase "the generations of" (toledot in Hebrew, from yalad m...

Constable: Genesis Bibliography Aalders, Gerhard Charles. Genesis. The Bible Student's Commentary series. 2 vols. Translated by William Hey...

Haydock: Genesis (Pendahuluan Kitab) THE BOOK OF GENESIS. INTRODUCTION. The Hebrews now entitle all the Five Books of Moses, from the initial words, which originally were written li...

Gill: Genesis (Pendahuluan Kitab) INTRODUCTION TO GENESIS This book, in the Hebrew copies of the Bible, and by the Jewish writers, is generally called Bereshith, which signifies "in...

Gill: Genesis 9 (Pendahuluan Pasal) INTRODUCTION TO GENESIS 9 In this chapter we have an account of God's blessing Noah and his sons, being just come out of the ark, with a renewal of...

Advanced Commentary (Kamus, Lagu-Lagu Himne, Gambar, Ilustrasi Khotbah, Pertanyaan-Pertanyaan, dll)


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