11:20 There will arise after him 1 one 2 who will send out an exactor 3 of tribute to enhance the splendor of the kingdom, but after a few days he will be destroyed, 4 though not in anger or battle.
11:21 “Then there will arise in his place a despicable person 5 to whom the royal honor has not been rightfully conferred. He will come on the scene in a time of prosperity and will seize the kingdom through deceit. 11:22 Armies 6 will be suddenly 7 swept away in defeat 8 before him; both they and a covenant leader 9 will be destroyed. 10 11:23 After 11 entering into an alliance with him, he will behave treacherously; he will ascend to power with only a small force. 12 11:24 In a time of prosperity for the most productive areas of the province he will come and accomplish what neither his fathers nor their fathers accomplished. He will distribute loot, spoils, and property to his followers, and he will devise plans against fortified cities, but not for long. 13 11:25 He will rouse his strength and enthusiasm 14 against the king of the south 15 with a large army. The king of the south will wage war with a large and very powerful army, but he will not be able to prevail because of the plans devised against him. 11:26 Those who share the king’s fine food will attempt to destroy him, and his army will be swept away; 16 many will be killed in battle. 11:27 These two kings, their minds 17 filled with evil intentions, will trade 18 lies with one another at the same table. But it will not succeed, for there is still an end at the appointed time. 11:28 Then the king of the north 19 will return to his own land with much property. His mind will be set against the holy covenant. He will take action, and then return to his own land. 11:29 At an appointed time he will again invade the south, but this latter visit will not turn out the way the former one did. 11:30 The ships of Kittim 20 will come against him, leaving him disheartened. 21 He will turn back and direct his indignation against the holy covenant. He will return and honor 22 those who forsake the holy covenant. 11:31 His forces 23 will rise up and profane the fortified sanctuary, 24 stopping the daily sacrifice. In its place they will set up 25 the abomination that causes desolation. 11:32 Then with smooth words he will defile 26 those who have rejected 27 the covenant. But the people who are loyal to 28 their God will act valiantly. 29 11:33 These who are wise among the people will teach the masses. 30 However, they will fall 31 by the sword and by the flame, 32 and they will be imprisoned and plundered for some time. 33 11:34 When they stumble, they will be granted some help. But many will unite with them deceitfully. 11:35 Even some of the wise will stumble, resulting in their refinement, purification, and cleansing until the time of the end, for it is still for the appointed time.
[11:23] 11 tn The preposition מִן (min) is probably temporal here (so BDB 583 s.v. 7.c; cf. KJV, NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV), although it could also be understood here as indicating means (so J. Goldingay, Daniel [WBC], 279, n. 23a; cf. TEV, NLT).
[11:30] 20 sn The name Kittim has various designations in extra-biblical literature. It can refer to a location on the island of Cyprus, or more generally to the island itself, or it can be an inclusive term to refer to parts of the Mediterranean world that lay west of the Middle East (e.g., Rome). For ships of Kittim the Greek OT (LXX) has “Romans,” an interpretation followed by a few English versions (e.g., TEV). A number of times in the Dead Sea Scrolls the word is used in reference to the Romans. Other English versions are more generic: “[ships] of the western coastlands” (NIV, NLT); “from the west” (NCV, CEV).
[11:30] 21 sn This is apparently a reference to the Roman forces, led by Gaius Popilius Laenas, which confronted Antiochus when he came to Egypt and demanded that he withdraw or face the wrath of Rome. Antiochus wisely withdrew from Egypt, albeit in a state of bitter frustration.