the city filled with oppressors is finished! 2
for they taunted and verbally harassed 4 the people of the Lord who commands armies.
the city that was so secure. 6
What a heap of ruins she has become, a place where wild animals live!
[3:1] 1 tn The present translation assumes מֹרְאָה (mor’ah) is derived from רֹאִי (ro’i,“excrement”; see Jastrow 1436 s.v. רֳאִי). The following participle, “stained,” supports this interpretation (cf. NEB “filthy and foul”; NRSV “soiled, defiled”). Another option is to derive the form from מָרָה (marah, “to rebel”); in this case the term should be translated “rebellious” (cf. NASB, NIV “rebellious and defiled”). This idea is supported by v. 2. For discussion of the two options, see HALOT 630 s.v. I מרא and J. J. M. Roberts, Nahum, Habakkuk, and Zephaniah (OTL), 206.
[3:1] sn The following verses show that Jerusalem, personified as a woman (“she”), is the referent.