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Matius 10:1

Konteks
Sending Out the Twelve Apostles

10:1 Jesus 1  called his twelve disciples and gave them authority over unclean spirits 2  so they could cast them out and heal every kind of disease and sickness. 3 

Matius 10:8

Konteks
10:8 Heal the sick, raise the dead, 4  cleanse lepers, cast out demons. Freely you received, freely give.

Matius 12:22-29

Konteks
Jesus and Beelzebul

12:22 Then they brought to him a demon-possessed man who was blind and mute. Jesus 5  healed him so that he could speak and see. 6  12:23 All the crowds were amazed and said, “Could this one be the Son of David?” 12:24 But when the Pharisees 7  heard this they said, “He does not cast out demons except by the power of Beelzebul, 8  the ruler 9  of demons!” 12:25 Now when Jesus 10  realized what they were thinking, he said to them, 11  “Every kingdom divided against itself is destroyed, 12  and no town or house divided against itself will stand. 12:26 So if 13  Satan casts out Satan, he is divided against himself. How then will his kingdom stand? 12:27 And if I cast out demons by Beelzebul, by whom do your sons 14  cast them 15  out? For this reason they will be your judges. 12:28 But if I cast out demons by the Spirit of God, then the kingdom of God 16  has already overtaken 17  you. 12:29 How 18  else can someone enter a strong man’s 19  house and steal his property, unless he first ties up the strong man? Then he can thoroughly plunder the house. 20 

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[10:1]  1 tn Grk “And he.”

[10:1]  2 sn Unclean spirits refers to evil spirits.

[10:1]  3 tn Grk “and every [kind of] sickness.” Here “every” was not repeated in the translation for stylistic reasons.

[10:8]  4 tc The majority of Byzantine minuscules, along with a few other witnesses (C3 K L Γ Θ 700* al), lack νεκροὺς ἐγείρετε (nekrou" ejgeirete, “raise the dead”), most likely because of oversight due to a string of similar endings (-ετε in the second person imperatives, occurring five times in v. 8). The longer version of this verse is found in several diverse and ancient witnesses such as א B C* (D) N 0281vid Ë1,13 33 565 al lat; P W Δ 348 have a word-order variation, but nevertheless include νεκροὺς ἐγείρετε. Although some Byzantine-text proponents charge the Alexandrian witnesses with theologically-motivated alterations toward heterodoxy, it is interesting to find a variant such as this in which the charge could be reversed (do the Byzantine scribes have something against the miracle of resurrection?). In reality, such charges of wholesale theologically-motivated changes toward heterodoxy are immediately suspect due to lack of evidence of intentional changes (here the change is evidently due to accidental omission).

[12:22]  5 tn Grk “And he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[12:22]  6 tn Grk “demoniac, and he healed him, so that the mute man spoke and saw.”

[12:24]  7 sn See the note on Pharisees in 3:7.

[12:24]  8 tn Grk “except by Beelzebul.”

[12:24]  sn Beelzebul is another name for Satan. So some people recognized Jesus’ work as supernatural, but called it diabolical.

[12:24]  9 tn Or “prince.”

[12:25]  10 tc The majority of mss read ὁ ᾿Ιησοῦς (Jo Ihsous, “Jesus”), which clarifies who is the subject of the sentence. Although the shorter text is attested in far fewer witnesses (Ì21 א B D 892* sys,c sa bo), both the pedigree of the mss and the strong internal evidence (viz., scribes were not prone to intentionally delete the name of Jesus) argue for the omission of Jesus’ name. The name has been included in the translation, however, for clarity.

[12:25]  11 sn Jesus here demonstrated the absurdity of the thinking of the religious leaders who maintained that he was in league with Satan and that he actually derived his power from the devil. He first teaches (vv. 25-28) that if he casts out demons by the ruler of the demons, then in reality Satan is fighting against himself, with the result that his kingdom has come to an end. He then teaches (v. 29) about tying up the strong man to prove that he does not need to align himself with the devil because he is more powerful. Jesus defeated Satan at his temptation (4:1-11) and by his exorcisms he clearly demonstrated himself to be stronger than the devil. The passage reveals the desperate condition of the religious leaders, who in their hatred for Jesus end up attributing the work of the Holy Spirit to Satan (a position for which they will be held accountable, 12:31-32).

[12:25]  12 tn Or “is left in ruins.”

[12:26]  13 tn This first class condition, the first of three “if” clauses in the following verses, presents the example vividly as if it were so. In fact, all three conditions in these verses are first class. The examples are made totally parallel. The expected answer is that Satan’s kingdom will not stand, so the suggestion makes no sense. Satan would not seek to heal.

[12:27]  14 sn Most read your sons as a reference to Jewish exorcists (cf. “your followers,” L&N 9.4), but more likely this is a reference to the disciples of Jesus themselves, who are also Jewish and have been healing as well (R. J. Shirock, “Whose Exorcists are they? The Referents of οἱ υἱοὶ ὑμῶν at Matthew 12:27/Luke 11:19,” JSNT 46 [1992]: 41-51). If this is a reference to the disciples, then Jesus’ point is that it is not only him, but those associated with him whose power the hearers must assess. The following reference to judging also favors this reading.

[12:27]  15 tn The pronoun “them” is not in the Greek text, but is implied. Direct objects were frequently omitted in Greek when clear from the context.

[12:28]  16 sn The kingdom of God is a major theme of Jesus. It is a realm in which Jesus rules and to which those who trust him belong.

[12:28]  17 tn The phrase ἔφθασεν ἐφ᾿ ὑμᾶς (efqasen efJuma") is quite important. Does it mean merely “approach” (which would be reflected in a translation like “has come near to you”) or actually “come upon” (as in the translation given above, “has already overtaken you,” which has the added connotation of suddenness)? Is the arrival of the kingdom merely anticipated or already in process? Two factors favor arrival over anticipation here. First, the prepositional phrase ἐφ᾿ ὑμᾶς (efJumas, “upon you”) in the Greek text suggests arrival (Dan 4:24, 28 Theodotion). Second, the following illustration in v. 29 looks at the healing as portraying Satan being overrun. So the presence of God’s authority has arrived. See also L&N 13.123 for the translation of φθάνω (fqanw) as “to happen to already, to come upon, to come upon already.”

[12:29]  18 tn Grk “Or how can.”

[12:29]  19 sn The strong man here pictures Satan.

[12:29]  20 sn Some see the imagery here as similar to Eph 4:7-10, although no opponents are explicitly named in that passage. Jesus has the victory over Satan. Jesus’ acts of healing mean that the war is being won and the kingdom is coming.



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