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Kisah Para Rasul 2:22-36


2:22 “Men of Israel, 1  listen to these words: Jesus the Nazarene, a man clearly attested to you by God with powerful deeds, 2  wonders, and miraculous signs 3  that God performed among you through him, just as you yourselves know – 2:23 this man, who was handed over by the predetermined plan and foreknowledge of God, you executed 4  by nailing him to a cross at the hands of Gentiles. 5  2:24 But God raised him up, 6  having released 7  him from the pains 8  of death, because it was not possible for him to be held in its power. 9  2:25 For David says about him,

I saw the Lord always in front of me, 10 

for he is at my right hand so that I will not be shaken.

2:26 Therefore my heart was glad and my tongue rejoiced;

my body 11  also will live in hope,

2:27 because you will not leave my soul in Hades, 12 

nor permit your Holy One to experience 13  decay.

2:28 You have made known to me the paths of life;

you will make me full of joy with your presence. 14 

2:29 “Brothers, 15  I can speak confidently 16  to you about our forefather 17  David, that he both died and was buried, and his tomb is with us to this day. 2:30 So then, because 18  he was a prophet and knew that God had sworn to him with an oath to seat one of his descendants 19  on his throne, 20  2:31 David by foreseeing this 21  spoke about the resurrection of the Christ, 22  that he was neither abandoned to Hades, 23  nor did his body 24  experience 25  decay. 26  2:32 This Jesus God raised up, and we are all witnesses of it. 27  2:33 So then, exalted 28  to the right hand 29  of God, and having received 30  the promise of the Holy Spirit 31  from the Father, he has poured out 32  what you both see and hear. 2:34 For David did not ascend into heaven, but he himself says,

The Lord said to my lord,

Sit 33  at my right hand

2:35 until I make your enemies a footstool 34  for your feet.”’ 35 

2:36 Therefore let all the house of Israel know beyond a doubt 36  that God has made this Jesus whom you crucified 37  both Lord 38  and Christ.” 39 

Kisah Para Rasul 3:13-15

3:13 The God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, 40  the God of our forefathers, 41  has glorified 42  his servant 43  Jesus, whom you handed over and rejected 44  in the presence of Pilate after he had decided 45  to release him. 3:14 But you rejected 46  the Holy and Righteous One and asked that a man who was a murderer be released to you. 3:15 You killed 47  the Originator 48  of life, whom God raised 49  from the dead. To this fact we are witnesses! 50 
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[2:22]  1 tn Or “Israelite men,” although this is less natural English. The Greek term here is ἀνήρ (anhr), which only exceptionally is used in a generic sense of both males and females. In this context, it is conceivable that this is a generic usage, although it can also be argued that Peter’s remarks were addressed primarily to the men present, even if women were there.

[2:22]  2 tn Or “miraculous deeds.”

[2:22]  3 tn Again, the context indicates the miraculous nature of these signs, and this is specified in the translation.

[2:23]  4 tn Or “you killed.”

[2:23]  5 tn Grk “at the hands of lawless men.” At this point the term ἄνομος (anomo") refers to non-Jews who live outside the Jewish (Mosaic) law, rather than people who broke any or all laws including secular laws. Specifically it is a reference to the Roman soldiers who carried out Jesus’ crucifixion.

[2:24]  6 tn Grk “Whom God raised up.”

[2:24]  7 tn Or “having freed.”

[2:24]  8 sn The term translated pains is frequently used to describe pains associated with giving birth (see Rev 12:2). So there is irony here in the mixed metaphor.

[2:24]  9 tn Or “for him to be held by it” (in either case, “it” refers to death’s power).

[2:25]  10 tn Or “always before me.”

[2:26]  11 tn Grk “my flesh.”

[2:27]  12 tn Or “will not abandon my soul to Hades.” Often “Hades” is the equivalent of the Hebrew term Sheol, the place of the dead.

[2:27]  13 tn Grk “to see,” but the literal translation of the phrase “to see decay” could be misunderstood to mean simply “to look at decay,” while here “see decay” is really figurative for “experience decay.”

[2:28]  14 sn A quotation from Ps 16:8-11.

[2:29]  15 tn Since this represents a continuation of the address beginning in v.14 and continued in v. 22, “brothers” has been used here rather than a generic expression like “brothers and sisters.”

[2:29]  16 sn Peter’s certainty is based on well-known facts.

[2:29]  17 tn Or “about our noted ancestor,” “about the patriarch.”

[2:30]  18 tn The participles ὑπάρχων (Juparcwn) and εἰδώς (eidw") are translated as causal adverbial participles.

[2:30]  19 tn Grk “one from the fruit of his loins.” “Loins” is the traditional translation of ὀσφῦς (osfu"), referring to the male genital organs. A literal rendering like “one who came from his genital organs” would be regarded as too specific and perhaps even vulgar by many contemporary readers. Most modern translations thus render the phrase “one of his descendants.”

[2:30]  20 sn An allusion to Ps 132:11 and 2 Sam 7:12-13, the promise in the Davidic covenant.

[2:31]  21 tn Grk “David foreseeing spoke.” The participle προϊδών (proidwn) is taken as indicating means. It could also be translated as a participle of attendant circumstance: “David foresaw [this] and spoke.” The word “this” is supplied in either case as an understood direct object (direct objects in Greek were often omitted, but must be supplied for the modern English reader).

[2:31]  22 tn Or “the Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”

[2:31]  sn The term χριστός (cristos) was originally an adjective (“anointed”), developing in LXX into a substantive (“an anointed one”), then developing still further into a technical generic term (“the anointed one”). In the intertestamental period it developed further into a technical term referring to the hoped-for anointed one, that is, a specific individual. In the NT the development starts there (technical-specific), is so used in the gospels, and then develops in Paul’s letters to mean virtually Jesus’ last name.

[2:31]  23 tn Or “abandoned in the world of the dead.” The translation “world of the dead” for Hades is suggested by L&N 1.19. The phrase is an allusion to Ps 16:10.

[2:31]  24 tn Grk “flesh.” See vv. 26b-27. The reference to “body” in this verse picks up the reference to “body” in v. 26. The Greek term σάρξ (sarx) in both verses literally means “flesh”; however, the translation “body” stresses the lack of decay of his physical body. The point of the verse is not merely the lack of decay of his flesh alone, but the resurrection of his entire person, as indicated by the previous parallel line “he was not abandoned to Hades.”

[2:31]  25 tn Grk “see,” but the literal translation of the phrase “see decay” could be misunderstood to mean simply “look at decay,” while here “see decay” is really figurative for “experience decay.”

[2:31]  26 sn An allusion to Ps 16:10.

[2:32]  27 tn Or “of him”; Grk “of which [or whom] we are all witnesses” (Acts 1:8).

[2:33]  28 tn The aorist participle ὑψωθείς (Juywqei") could be taken temporally: “So then, after he was exalted…” In the translation the more neutral “exalted” (a shorter form of “having been exalted”) was used to preserve the ambiguity of the original Greek.

[2:33]  29 sn The expression the right hand of God represents supreme power and authority. Its use here sets up the quotation of Ps 110:1 in v. 34.

[2:33]  30 tn The aorist participle λαβών (labwn) could be taken temporally: “So then, after he was exalted…and received from the Father the promised Holy Spirit.” In the translation the more neutral “having received” was used to preserve the ambiguity of the original Greek.

[2:33]  31 tn Here the genitive τοῦ πνεύματος (tou pneumato") is a genitive of apposition; the promise consists of the Holy Spirit.

[2:33]  32 sn The use of the verb poured out looks back to 2:17-18, where the same verb occurs twice.

[2:34]  33 sn Sit at my right hand. The word “sit” alludes back to the promise of “seating one on his throne” in v. 30.

[2:35]  34 sn The metaphor make your enemies a footstool portrays the complete subjugation of the enemies.

[2:35]  35 sn A quotation from Ps 110:1, one of the most often-cited OT passages in the NT, pointing to the exaltation of Jesus.

[2:36]  36 tn Or “know for certain.” This term is in an emphatic position in the clause.

[2:36]  37 tn Grk “has made him both Lord and Christ, this Jesus whom you crucified.” The clause has been simplified in the translation by replacing the pronoun “him” with the explanatory clause “this Jesus whom you crucified” which comes at the end of the sentence.

[2:36]  38 sn Lord. This looks back to the quotation of Ps 110:1 and the mention of “calling on the Lord” in 2:21. Peter’s point is that the Lord on whom one calls for salvation is Jesus, because he is the one mediating God’s blessing of the Spirit as a sign of the presence of salvation and the last days.

[2:36]  39 tn Or “and Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”

[2:36]  sn See the note on Christ in 2:31.

[3:13]  40 tc ‡ The repetition of ὁ θεός (Jo qeos, “God”) before the names of Isaac and Jacob is found in Ì74 א C (A D without article) 36 104 1175 pc lat. The omission of the second and third ὁ θεός is supported by B E Ψ 33 1739 Ï pc. The other time that Exod 3:6 is quoted in Acts (7:32) the best witnesses also lack the repeated ὁ θεός, but the three other times this OT passage is quoted in the NT the full form, with the thrice-mentioned θεός, is used (Matt 22:32; Mark 12:26; Luke 20:37). Scribes would be prone to conform the wording here to the LXX; the longer reading is thus most likely not authentic. NA27 has the words in brackets, indicating doubts as to their authenticity.

[3:13]  41 tn Or “ancestors”; Grk “fathers.”

[3:13]  sn The reference to the God of the patriarchs is a reminder that God is the God of the nation and of promises. The phrase God of our forefathers is from the Hebrew scriptures (Exod 3:6, 15-16; 4:5; see also the Jewish prayer known as “The Eighteen Benedictions”). Once again, event has led to explanation, or what is called the “sign and speech” pattern.

[3:13]  42 sn Has glorified. Jesus is alive, raised and active, as the healing illustrates so dramatically how God honors him.

[3:13]  43 sn His servant. The term servant has messianic connotations given the context of the promise, the note of suffering, and the titles and functions noted in vv. 14-15.

[3:13]  44 tn Or “denied,” “disowned.”

[3:13]  45 tn This genitive absolute construction could be understood as temporal (“when he had decided”) or concessive (“although he had decided”).

[3:14]  46 tn Or “denied,” “disowned.”

[3:15]  47 tn Or “You put to death.”

[3:15]  48 tn Or “Founder,” “founding Leader.”

[3:15]  49 sn Whom God raised. God is the main actor here, as he testifies to Jesus and vindicates him.

[3:15]  50 tn Grk “whom God raised from the dead, of which we are witnesses.” The two consecutive relative clauses make for awkward English style, so the second was begun as a new sentence with the words “to this fact” supplied in place of the Greek relative pronoun to make a complete sentence in English.

[3:15]  sn We are witnesses. Note the two witnesses here, Peter and John (Acts 5:32; Heb 2:3-4).

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