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Kisah Para Rasul 15:13-21

Konteks
15:13 After they stopped speaking, 1  James replied, 2  “Brothers, listen to me. 15:14 Simeon 3  has explained 4  how God first concerned himself 5  to select 6  from among the Gentiles 7  a people for his name. 15:15 The 8  words of the prophets agree 9  with this, as it is written,

15:16After this 10  I 11  will return,

and I will rebuild the fallen tent 12  of David;

I will rebuild its ruins and restore 13  it,

15:17 so that the rest of humanity 14  may seek the Lord,

namely, 15  all the Gentiles 16  I have called to be my own, 17  says the Lord, 18  who makes these things 15:18 known 19  from long ago. 20 

15:19 “Therefore I conclude 21  that we should not cause extra difficulty 22  for those among the Gentiles 23  who are turning to God, 15:20 but that we should write them a letter 24  telling them to abstain 25  from things defiled 26  by idols and from sexual immorality and from what has been strangled 27  and from blood. 15:21 For Moses has had those who proclaim him in every town from ancient times, 28  because he is read aloud 29  in the synagogues 30  every Sabbath.”

Kisah Para Rasul 21:18-26

Konteks
21:18 The next day Paul went in with us to see James, and all the elders were there. 31  21:19 When Paul 32  had greeted them, he began to explain 33  in detail 34  what God 35  had done among the Gentiles through his ministry. 21:20 When they heard this, they praised 36  God. Then they said to him, “You see, brother, how many thousands of Jews 37  there are who have believed, and they are all ardent observers 38  of the law. 39  21:21 They have been informed about you – that you teach all the Jews now living 40  among the Gentiles to abandon 41  Moses, telling them not to circumcise their children 42  or live 43  according to our customs. 21:22 What then should we do? They will no doubt 44  hear that you have come. 21:23 So do what 45  we tell you: We have four men 46  who have taken 47  a vow; 48  21:24 take them and purify 49  yourself along with them and pay their expenses, 50  so that they may have their heads shaved. 51  Then 52  everyone will know there is nothing in what they have been told 53  about you, but that you yourself live in conformity with 54  the law. 55  21:25 But regarding the Gentiles who have believed, we have written a letter, having decided 56  that they should avoid 57  meat that has been sacrificed to idols 58  and blood and what has been strangled 59  and sexual immorality.” 21:26 Then Paul took the men the next day, 60  and after he had purified himself 61  along with them, he went to the temple and gave notice 62  of the completion of the days of purification, 63  when 64  the sacrifice would be offered for each 65  of them.
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[15:13]  1 tn BDAG 922 s.v. σιγάω 1.b lists this passage under the meaning “stop speaking, become silent.”

[15:13]  2 tn Grk “answered, saying”; the redundant participle λέγων (legwn) has not been translated.

[15:14]  3 sn Simeon is a form of the apostle Peter’s Aramaic name. James uses Peter’s “Jewish” name here.

[15:14]  4 tn Or “reported,” “described.”

[15:14]  5 tn BDAG 378 s.v. ἐπισκέπτομαι 3 translates this phrase in Acts 15:14, “God concerned himself about winning a people fr. among the nations.”

[15:14]  6 tn Grk “to take,” but in the sense of selecting or choosing (accompanied by the preposition ἐκ [ek] plus a genitive specifying the group selected from) see Heb 5:1; also BDAG 584 s.v. λαμβάνω 6.

[15:14]  7 sn In the Greek text the expression “from among the Gentiles” is in emphatic position.

[15:15]  8 tn Grk “And the.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

[15:15]  9 sn The term agree means “match” or “harmonize with.” James’ point in the introduction argues that many of the OT prophets taught this. He gives one example (which follows).

[15:16]  10 tn Grk “After these things.”

[15:16]  11 sn The first person pronoun I refers to God and his activity. It is God who is doing this.

[15:16]  12 tn Or more generally, “dwelling”; perhaps, “royal tent.” According to BDAG 928 s.v. σκηνή the word can mean “tent” or “hut,” or more generally “lodging” or “dwelling.” In this verse (a quotation from Amos 9:11) BDAG refers this to David’s ruined kingdom; it is possibly an allusion to a king’s tent (a royal tent). God is at work to reestablish David’s line (Acts 2:30-36; 13:32-39).

[15:16]  13 tn BDAG 86 s.v. ἀνορθόω places this verb under the meaning “to build someth. up again after it has fallen, rebuild, restore,” but since ἀνοικοδομέω (anoikodomew, “rebuild”) has occurred twice in this verse already, “restore” is used here.

[15:17]  14 tn Or “so that all other people.” The use of this term follows Amos 9:11 LXX.

[15:17]  15 tn Here καί (kai) introduces an explanatory clause that explains the preceding phrase “the rest of humanity.” The clause introduced by καί (kai) could also be punctuated in English as a parenthesis.

[15:17]  16 tn Or “all the nations” (in Greek the word for “nation” and “Gentile” is the same).

[15:17]  sn Note the linkage back to v. 14 through the mention of Gentiles. What Simeon explained is what the OT text says would happen.

[15:17]  17 tn Grk “all the Gentiles on whom my name has been called.” Based on well-attested OT usage, the passive of ἐπικαλέω (epikalew) here indicates God’s ownership (“all the Gentiles who belong to me”) or calling (“all the Gentiles whom I have called to be my own”). See L&N 11.28.

[15:17]  18 sn A quotation from Amos 9:11-12 LXX. James demonstrated a high degree of cultural sensitivity when he cited a version of the text (the Septuagint, the Greek translation of the Old Testament) that Gentiles would use.

[15:18]  19 sn Who makes these things known. The remark emphasizes how God’s design of these things reaches back to the time he declared them.

[15:18]  20 sn An allusion to Isa 45:21.

[15:19]  21 tn Or “I have decided,” “I think.” The verb κρίνω (krinw) has a far broader range of meaning than the often-used English verb “judge.” BDAG 568 s.v. κρίνω 3 places this use in Acts 15:19 in the category “judge, think, consider, look upon” followed by double accusative of object and predicate. However, many modern translations give the impression that a binding decision is being handed down by James: “it is my judgment” (NASB, NIV); “I have reached the decision” (NRSV). L&N 22.25, on the other hand, translate the phrase here “I think that we should not cause extra difficulty for those among the Gentiles.” This gives more the impression of an opinion than a binding decision. The resolution of this lies not so much in the lexical data as in how one conceives James’ role in the leadership of the Jerusalem church, plus the dynamics of the specific situation where the issue of Gentile inclusion in the church was being discussed. The major possibilities are: (1) James is handing down a binding decision to the rest of the church as the one who has ultimate authority to decide this matter; (2) James is offering his own personal opinion in the matter, which is not binding on the church; (3) James is voicing a consensus opinion of all the apostles and elders, although phrasing it as if it were his own; (4) James is making a suggestion to the rest of the leadership as to what course they should follow. In light of the difficulty in reconstructing the historical situation in detail, it is best to use a translation which maintains as many of the various options as possible. For this reason the translation “Therefore I conclude” has been used, leaving open the question whether in reaching this conclusion James is speaking only for himself or for the rest of the leadership.

[15:19]  22 tn Or “trouble.” This term is a NT hapax legomenon (BDAG 775 s.v. παρενοχλέω).

[15:19]  23 tn Or “among the nations” (in Greek the word for “nation” and “Gentile” is the same).

[15:20]  24 tn The translation “to write a letter, to send a letter to” for ἐπιστέλλω (epistellw) is given in L&N 33.49.

[15:20]  25 tn Three of the four prohibitions deal with food (the first, third and fourth) while one prohibition deals with behavior (the second, refraining from sexual immorality). Since these occur in the order they do, the translation “abstain from” is used to cover both sorts of activity (eating food items, immoral behavior).

[15:20]  sn Telling them to abstain. These restrictions are not on matters of salvation, but are given as acts of sensitivity to their Jewish brethren, as v. 21 makes clear. Another example of such sensitivity is seen in 1 Cor 10:14-11:1.

[15:20]  26 tn Or “polluted.”

[15:20]  27 sn What has been strangled. That is, to refrain from eating animals that had been killed without having the blood drained from them. According to the Mosaic law (Lev 17:13-14), Jews were forbidden to eat flesh with the blood still in it (note the following provision in Acts 15:20, and from blood).

[15:21]  28 tn Grk “from generations of old”; the translation “fr. ancient times” is given by BDAG 192 s.v. γενεά 3.b.

[15:21]  29 tn The translation “read aloud” is used to indicate the actual practice; translating as “read” could be misunderstood to mean private, silent reading.

[15:21]  30 sn See the note on synagogue in 6:9.

[21:18]  31 tn BDAG 760 s.v. παραγίνομαι 1 has this use under the broad category of meaning “draw near, come, arrive, be present.”

[21:18]  sn All the elders were there. This meeting shows how the Jerusalem church still regarded Paul and his mission with favor, but also with some concerns because of the rumors circulating about his actions.

[21:19]  32 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Paul) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[21:19]  33 tn Or “to report,” “to describe.” The imperfect verb ἐξηγεῖτο (exhgeito) has been translated as an ingressive imperfect.

[21:19]  34 tn BDAG 293 s.v. εἷς 5.e has “καθ᾿ ἕν one after the other (hence τὸ καθ᾿ ἕν ‘a detailed list’: PLille 11, 8 [III bc]; PTebt. 47, 34; 332, 16) J 21:25. Also καθ᾿ ἕν ἕκαστονAc 21:19.”

[21:19]  35 sn Note how Paul credited God with the success of his ministry.

[21:20]  36 tn Or “glorified.”

[21:20]  37 tn Grk “how many thousands there are among the Jews.”

[21:20]  sn How many thousands of Jews. See Acts 2-5 for the accounts of their conversion, esp. 2:41 and 4:4. Estimates of the total number of Jews living in Jerusalem at the time range from 20,000 to 50,000.

[21:20]  38 tn Or “are all zealous for the law.” BDAG 427 s.v. ζηλωτής 1.a.β has “of thing…τοῦ νόμου an ardent observer of the law Ac 21:20.”

[21:20]  39 sn That is, the law of Moses. These Jewish Christians had remained close to their Jewish practices after becoming believers (1 Cor 7:18-19; Acts 16:3).

[21:21]  40 tn BDAG 511 s.v. κατά B.1.a has “τοὺς κ. τὰ ἔθνη ᾿Ιουδαίους the Judeans (dispersed) throughout the nations 21:21.” The Jews in view are not those in Palestine, but those who are scattered throughout the Gentile world.

[21:21]  41 tn Or “to forsake,” “to rebel against.” BDAG 120 s.v. ἀποστασία has “ἀποστασίαν διδάσκεις ἀπὸ Μωϋσέως you teach (Judeans) to abandon Moses Ac 21:21.”

[21:21]  sn The charge that Paul was teaching Jews in the Diaspora to abandon Moses was different from the issue faced in Acts 15, where the question was whether Gentiles needed to become like Jews first in order to become Christians. The issue also appears in Acts 24:5-6, 13-21; 25:8.

[21:21]  42 sn That is, not to circumcise their male children. Biblical references to circumcision always refer to male circumcision.

[21:21]  43 tn Grk “or walk.”

[21:22]  44 tn L&N 71.16 has “pertaining to being in every respect certain – ‘certainly, really, doubtless, no doubt.’…‘they will no doubt hear that you have come’ Ac 21:22.”

[21:23]  45 tn Grk “do this that.”

[21:23]  46 tn Grk “There are four men here.”

[21:23]  47 tn L&N 33.469 has “‘there are four men here who have taken a vow’ or ‘we have four men who…’ Ac 21:23.”

[21:23]  48 tn On the term for “vow,” see BDAG 416 s.v. εὐχή 2.

[21:24]  49 sn That is, undergo ritual cleansing. Paul’s cleansing would be necessary because of his travels in “unclean” Gentile territory. This act would represent a conciliatory gesture. Paul would have supported a “law-free” mission to the Gentiles as an option, but this gesture would represent an attempt to be sensitive to the Jews (1 Cor 9:15-22).

[21:24]  50 tn L&N 57.146 has “δαπάνησον ἐπ᾿ αὐτοῖς ‘pay their expenses’ Ac 21:24.”

[21:24]  51 tn The future middle indicative has causative force here. BDAG 686 s.v. ξυράω has “mid. have oneself shavedτὴν κεφαλήν have ones head shavedAc 21:24.”

[21:24]  sn Having their heads shaved probably involved ending a voluntary Nazirite vow (Num 6:14-15).

[21:24]  52 tn Grk “and.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was begun in the translation, and καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the logical sequence.

[21:24]  53 tn The verb here describes a report or some type of information (BDAG 534 s.v. κατηχέω 1).

[21:24]  54 tn Grk “adhere to the keeping of the law.” L&N 41.12 has “στοιχέω: to live in conformity with some presumed standard or set of customs – ‘to live, to behave in accordance with.’”

[21:24]  55 sn The law refers to the law of Moses.

[21:25]  56 tn L&N 13.154 has “‘having decided that they must keep themselves from food offered to idols, from blood, from an animal that has been strangled, and from sexual immorality’ Ac 21:25.”

[21:25]  sn Having decided refers here to the decision of the Jerusalem council (Acts 15:6-21). Mention of this previous decision reminds the reader that the issue here is somewhat different: It is not whether Gentiles must first become Jews before they can become Christians (as in Acts 15), but whether Jews who become Christians should retain their Jewish practices. Sensitivity to this issue would suggest that Jewish Christians and Gentile Christians might engage in different practices.

[21:25]  57 tn This is a different Greek word than the one used in Acts 15:20, 29. BDAG 1068 s.v. φυλάσσω 3 has “to be on one’s guard against, look out for, avoid…w. acc. of pers. or thing avoided…Ac 21:25.” The Greek word used in Acts 15:20, 29 is ἀπέχω (apecw). The difference in meaning, although slight, has been maintained in the translation.

[21:25]  58 tn There is no specific semantic component in the Greek word εἰδωλόθυτος that means “meat” (see BDAG 280 s.v. εἰδωλόθυτος; L&N 5.15). The stem –θυτος means “sacrifice” (referring to an animal sacrificially killed) and thereby implies meat.

[21:25]  59 sn What has been strangled. That is, to refrain from eating animals that had been killed without having the blood drained from them. According to the Mosaic law (Lev 17:13-14) Jews were forbidden to eat flesh with the blood still in it (note the preceding provision in this verse, and blood).

[21:26]  60 tn BDAG 422 s.v. ἔχω 11.b.β has “temporal, to be next, immediately followingτῇ ἐχομένῃon the next day Lk 13:33Ac 20:15; w. ἡμέρᾳ added…21:26.”

[21:26]  61 tn That is, after he had undergone ritual cleansing. The aorist passive participle ἁγνισθείς (Jagnisqei") has been taken temporally of antecedent action.

[21:26]  62 tn Grk “entered the temple, giving notice.” The participle διαγγέλλων (diangellwn) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

[21:26]  63 sn The days of purification refers to the days of ritual cleansing.

[21:26]  64 tn Grk “until” (BDAG 423 s.v. ἕως 1.b.β.א), but since in English it is somewhat awkward to say “the completion of the days of purification, until the sacrifice would be offered,” the temporal clause was translated “when the sacrifice would be offered.” The point is that the sacrifice would be offered when the days were completed. Paul honored the request of the Jewish Christian leadership completely. As the following verse makes clear, the vow was made for seven days.

[21:26]  65 tn Grk “for each one.”



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