18:21 You must not give any of your children as an offering to Molech, 1 so that you do not profane 2 the name of your God. I am the Lord!
20:2 “You are to say to the Israelites, ‘Any man from the Israelites or from the foreigners who reside in Israel 3 who gives any of his children 4 to Molech 5 must be put to death; the people of the land must pelt him with stones. 6 20:3 I myself will set my face 7 against that man and cut him off from the midst of his people, 8 because he has given some of his children to Molech and thereby defiled my sanctuary and profaned my holy name. 9 20:4 If, however, the people of the land shut their eyes 10 to that man 11 when he gives some of his children to Molech so that they do not put him to death, 20:5 I myself will set my face against that man and his clan. I will cut off from the midst of their people both him and all who follow after him in spiritual prostitution, 12 to commit prostitution by worshiping Molech. 13
[18:21] 1 tn Heb “And from your seed you shall not give to cause to pass over to Molech.” Smr (cf. also the LXX) has “to cause to serve” rather than “to cause to pass over.” For detailed remarks on Molech and Molech worship see N. H. Snaith, Leviticus and Numbers (NCBC), 87-88; P. J. Budd, Leviticus (NCBC), 259-60; and J. E. Hartley, Leviticus (WBC), 333-37, and the literature cited there. It could refer to either human sacrifice or a devotion of children to some sort of service of Molech, perhaps of a sexual sort (cf. Lev 20:2-5; 2 Kgs 23:10, etc.). The inclusion of this prohibition against Molech worship here may be due to some sexual connection of this kind, or perhaps simply to the lexical link between זֶרַע (zera’) meaning “seed, semen” in v. 20 but “offspring” in v. 21.
[20:2] 6 tn This is not the most frequently-used Hebrew verb for stoning (see instead סָקַל, saqal), but a word that refers to the action of throwing, slinging, or pelting someone with stones (רָגָם, ragam; see HALOT 1187 s.v. רגם qal.a, and B. A. Levine, Leviticus [JPSTC], 136).