10:1 1 In the third 2 year of King Cyrus of Persia a message was revealed to Daniel (who was also called Belteshazzar). This message was true and concerned a great war. 3 He understood the message and gained insight by the vision.
10:2 In those days I, Daniel, was mourning for three whole weeks. 4 10:3 I ate no choice food; no meat or wine came to my lips, 5 nor did I anoint myself with oil 6 until the end of those three weeks.
10:4 On the twenty-fourth day of the first month 7 I was beside the great river, the Tigris. 8 10:5 I looked up 9 and saw a 10 man 11 clothed in linen; 12 around his waist was a belt made of gold from Upaz. 13 10:6 His body resembled yellow jasper, 14 and his face had an appearance like lightning. His eyes were like blazing torches; 15 his arms and feet had the gleam of polished bronze. His voice 16 thundered forth like the sound of a large crowd.
10:7 Only I, Daniel, saw the vision; the men who were with me did not see it. 17 On the contrary, they were overcome with fright 18 and ran away to hide. 10:8 I alone was left to see this great vision. My strength drained from 19 me, and my vigor disappeared; 20 I was without energy. 21 10:9 I listened to his voice, 22 and as I did so 23 I fell into a trance-like sleep with my face to the ground. 10:10 Then 24 a hand touched me and set me on my hands and knees. 25 10:11 He said to me, “Daniel, you are of great value. 26 Understand the words that I am about to 27 speak to you. So stand up, 28 for I have now been sent to you.” When he said this 29 to me, I stood up shaking. 10:12 Then he said to me, “Don’t be afraid, Daniel, for from the very first day you applied your mind 30 to understand and to humble yourself before your God, your words were heard. I have come in response to your words. 10:13 However, the prince of the kingdom of Persia was opposing me for twenty-one days. But 31 Michael, one of the leading princes, came to help me, because I was left there 32 with the kings of Persia. 10:14 Now I have come to help you understand what will happen to your people in the latter days, for the vision pertains to future days.”
10:15 While he was saying this to me, 33 I was flat on 34 the ground and unable to speak. 10:16 Then 35 one who appeared to be a human being 36 was touching my lips. I opened my mouth and started to speak, saying to the one who was standing before me, “Sir, 37 due to the vision, anxiety has gripped me and I have no strength. 10:17 How, sir, am I able to speak with you? 38 My strength is gone, 39 and I am breathless.” 10:18 Then the one who appeared to be a human being touched me again 40 and strengthened me. 10:19 He said to me, “Don’t be afraid, you who are valued. 41 Peace be to you! Be strong! Be really strong!” When he spoke to me, I was strengthened. I said, “Sir, you may speak now, 42 for you have given me strength.” 10:20 He said, “Do you know why I have come to you? 43 Now I am about to return to engage in battle with the prince of Persia. When I go, the prince of Greece is coming. 10:21 However, I will first tell you what is written in a dependable book. 44 (There is no one who strengthens me against these princes, 45 except Michael your 46 prince.
[10:1] sn Cyrus’ third year would have been ca. 536
[10:1] 3 tn The meaning of the Hebrew word צָבָא (tsava’) is uncertain in this context. The word most often refers to an army or warfare. It may also mean “hard service,” and many commentators take that to be the sense here (i.e., “the service was great”). The present translation assumes the reference to be to the spiritual conflicts described, for example, in 10:16–11:1.
[10:2] 4 tn Heb “three weeks of days.” The inclusion of “days” here and in v. 3 is perhaps intended to call attention to the fact that these weeks are very different in nature from those of chap. 9, which are “weeks of years.”
[10:3] 6 sn Anointing oneself with oil (usually olive oil) was a common OT practice due to the severity of the Middle Eastern sun (cf. Ps 121:6). It was also associated with rejoicing (e.g., Prov 27:9) and was therefore usually not practiced during a period of mourning.
[10:4] 8 tn The Hebrew text has חִדָּקֶל (hiddaqel). “Tigris” appears here in the LXX, since it is the Greek name for this river. Elsewhere in the OT “the great river” refers to the Euphrates (e.g., Gen 15:18; Josh 1:4), leading some interpreters to think that a mistake is involved in using the expression to refer to the Tigris. But it is doubtful that the expression had such a fixed and limited usage. The Syriac, however, does render the word here by “Euphrates” (Syr. perat) in keeping with biblical usage elsewhere.
[10:5] 13 tn The location of this place and even the exact form of the Hebrew name אוּפָז (’ufaz) are uncertain. Apparently it was a source for pure gold. (See Jer 10:9.) The Hebrew word פָז (paz, “refined gold” or “pure gold”) is more common in the OT than אוּפָז, and some scholars emend the text of Dan 10:5 to read this word. Cf. also “Ophir” (1 Kgs 9:28; Isa 13:12; Job 22:24; 28:16).
[10:6] 14 tn The Hebrew word translated “yellow jasper” is תַּרשִׁישׁ (tarshish); it appears to be a semiprecious stone, but its exact identity is somewhat uncertain. It may be the yellow jasper, although this is conjectural. Cf. NAB, NIV “chrysolite”; NASB, NRSV “beryl.”
[10:10] tn Heb “on my knees and the palms of my hands.”
[10:21] 44 tn Heb “a book of truth.” Several English versions treat this as a title of some sort (cf. NIV, NCV, TEV, CEV, NLT), although the NAB’s rendering “the truthful book” regards “truth” as an attributive adjective, as does the present translation.