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Ester 4:1--7:10

Konteks
Esther Decides to Risk Everything in order to Help Her People

4:1 Now when Mordecai became aware of all that had been done, he 1  tore his garments and put on sackcloth and ashes. He went out into the city, crying out in a loud 2  and bitter voice. 4:2 But he went no further than the king’s gate, for no one was permitted to enter the king’s gate clothed in sackcloth. 4:3 Throughout each and every province where the king’s edict and law were announced 3  there was considerable 4  mourning among the Jews, along with fasting, weeping, and sorrow. 5  Sackcloth and ashes were characteristic 6  of many. 4:4 When Esther’s female attendants and her eunuchs came and informed her about Mordecai’s behavior, 7  the queen was overcome with anguish. Although she sent garments for Mordecai to put on so that he could remove his sackcloth, he would not accept them. 4:5 So Esther called for Hathach, one of the king’s eunuchs who had been placed at her service, 8  and instructed him to find out the cause and reason for Mordecai’s behavior. 9  4:6 So Hathach went to Mordecai at the plaza of the city in front of the king’s gate. 4:7 Then Mordecai related to him everything that had happened to him, even the specific amount of money that Haman had offered to pay to the king’s treasuries for the Jews to be destroyed. 4:8 He also gave him a written copy of the law that had been disseminated 10  in Susa for their destruction so that he could show it to Esther and talk to her about it. He also gave instructions that she should go to the king to implore him and petition him on behalf of her people. 4:9 So Hathach returned and related Mordecai’s instructions 11  to Esther.

4:10 Then Esther replied to Hathach with instructions for Mordecai: 4:11 “All the servants of the king and the people of the king’s provinces know that there is only one law applicable 12  to any man or woman who comes uninvited to the king in the inner court – that person will be put to death, unless the king extends to him the gold scepter, permitting him to be spared. 13  Now I have not been invited to come to the king for some thirty days!”

4:12 When Esther’s reply 14  was conveyed to Mordecai, 4:13 he 15  said to take back this answer to Esther: 4:14 “Don’t imagine that because you are part of the king’s household you will be the one Jew 16  who will escape. If you keep quiet at this time, liberation and protection for the Jews will appear 17  from another source, 18  while you and your father’s household perish. It may very well be 19  that you have achieved royal status 20  for such a time as this!”

4:15 Then Esther sent this reply to Mordecai: 4:16 “Go, assemble all the Jews who are found in Susa and fast in my behalf. Don’t eat and don’t drink for three days, night or day. My female attendants and I 21  will also fast in the same way. Afterward I will go to the king, even though it violates the law. 22  If I perish, I perish!”

4:17 So Mordecai set out to do everything that Esther had instructed him.

Esther Appeals to the King for Help

5:1 It so happened that on the third day Esther put on her royal attire and stood in the inner court of the palace, 23  opposite the king’s quarters. 24  The king was sitting on his royal throne in the palace, opposite the entrance. 25  5:2 When the king saw Queen Esther standing in the court, she met with his approval. 26  The king extended to Esther the gold scepter that was in his hand, and Esther approached and touched the end of the scepter.

5:3 The king said to her, “What is on your mind, 27  Queen Esther? What is your request? Even as much as half the kingdom will be given to you!”

5:4 Esther replied, “If the king is so inclined, 28  let the king and Haman come today to the banquet that I have prepared for him.” 5:5 The king replied, “Find Haman quickly so that we can do as Esther requests.”

So the king and Haman went to the banquet that Esther had prepared. 5:6 While at the banquet of wine, the king said to Esther, “What is your request? It shall be given to you. What is your petition? Ask for as much as half the kingdom, 29  and it shall be done!”

5:7 Esther responded, 30  “My request and my petition is this: 5:8 If I have found favor in the king’s sight and if the king is inclined 31  to grant my request and perform my petition, let the king and Haman come tomorrow to the banquet that I will prepare for them. At that time 32  I will do as the king wishes. 33 

Haman Expresses His Hatred of Mordecai

5:9 Now Haman went forth that day pleased and very much encouraged. 34  But when Haman saw Mordecai at the king’s gate, and he did not rise nor tremble in his presence, 35  Haman was filled with rage toward Mordecai. 5:10 But Haman restrained himself and went on to his home.

He then sent for his friends to join him, 36  along with his wife Zeresh. 5:11 Haman then recounted to them his fabulous wealth, 37  his many sons, 38  and how the king had magnified him and exalted him over the king’s other officials and servants. 5:12 Haman said, “Furthermore, Queen Esther invited 39  only me to accompany the king to the banquet that she prepared! And also tomorrow I am invited 40  along with the king. 5:13 Yet all of this fails to satisfy me so long as I have to see Mordecai the Jew sitting at the king’s gate.”

5:14 Haman’s 41  wife Zeresh and all his friends said to him, “Have a gallows seventy-five feet 42  high built, and in the morning tell the king that Mordecai should be hanged on it. Then go with the king to the banquet contented.” 43 

It seemed like a good idea to Haman, so he had the gallows built.

The Turning Point: The King Honors Mordecai

6:1 Throughout that night the king was unable to sleep, 44  so he asked for the book containing the historical records 45  to be brought. As the records 46  were being read in the king’s presence, 6:2 it was found written that Mordecai had disclosed that Bigthana 47  and Teresh, two of the king’s eunuchs who guarded the entrance, had plotted to assassinate 48  King Ahasuerus.

6:3 The king asked, “What great honor 49  was bestowed on Mordecai because of this?” The king’s attendants who served him responded, “Not a thing was done for him.”

6:4 Then the king said, “Who is that in the courtyard?” Now Haman had come to the outer courtyard of the palace to suggest that the king hang Mordecai on the gallows that he had constructed for him. 6:5 The king’s attendants said to him, “It is Haman who is standing in the courtyard.” The king said, “Let him enter.”

6:6 So Haman came in, and the king said to him, “What should be done for the man whom the king wishes to honor?” Haman thought to himself, 50  “Who is it that the king would want to honor more than me?” 6:7 So Haman said to the king, “For the man whom the king wishes to honor, 6:8 let them bring royal attire which the king himself has worn and a horse on which the king himself has ridden – one bearing the royal insignia! 51  6:9 Then let this clothing and this horse be given to one of the king’s noble officials. Let him 52  then clothe the man whom the king wishes to honor, and let him lead him about through the plaza of the city on the horse, calling 53  before him, ‘So shall it be done to the man whom the king wishes to honor!’”

6:10 The king then said to Haman, “Go quickly! Take the clothing and the horse, just as you have described, and do as you just indicated to Mordecai the Jew who sits at the king’s gate. Don’t neglect 54  a single thing of all that you have said.”

6:11 So Haman took the clothing and the horse, and he clothed Mordecai. He led him about on the horse throughout the plaza of the city, calling before him, “So shall it be done to the man whom the king wishes to honor!”

6:12 Then Mordecai again sat at the king’s gate, while Haman hurried away to his home, mournful and with a veil over his head. 6:13 Haman then related to his wife Zeresh and to all his friends everything that had happened to him. These wise men, 55  along with his wife Zeresh, said to him, “If indeed this Mordecai before whom you have begun to fall is Jewish, 56  you will not prevail against him. No, you will surely fall before him!”

6:14 While they were still speaking with him, the king’s eunuchs arrived. They quickly brought Haman to the banquet that Esther had prepared.

The King Has Haman Executed

7:1 So the king and Haman came to dine 57  with Queen Esther. 7:2 On the second day of the banquet of wine the king asked Esther, “What is your request, Queen Esther? It shall be granted to you. And what is your petition? Ask up to half the kingdom, and it shall be done!”

7:3 Queen Esther replied, “If I have met with your approval, 58  O king, and if the king is so inclined, grant me my life as my request, and my people as my petition. 7:4 For we have been sold 59  – both I and my people – to destruction and to slaughter and to annihilation! If we had simply been sold as male and female slaves, I would have remained silent, for such distress would not have been sufficient for troubling the king.”

7:5 Then King Ahasuerus responded 60  to Queen Esther, “Who is this individual? Where is this person to be found who is presumptuous enough 61  to act in this way?”

7:6 Esther replied, “The oppressor and enemy is this evil Haman!”

Then Haman became terrified in the presence of the king and queen. 7:7 In rage the king arose from the banquet of wine and withdrew to the palace garden. Meanwhile, Haman stood to beg Queen Esther for his life, 62  for he realized that the king had now determined a catastrophic end for him. 63 

7:8 When the king returned from the palace garden to the banquet of wine, Haman was throwing himself down 64  on the couch where Esther was lying. 65  The king exclaimed, “Will he also attempt to rape the queen while I am still in the building!”

As these words left the king’s mouth, they covered Haman’s face. 7:9 Harbona, 66  one of the king’s eunuchs, said, “Indeed, there is the gallows that Haman made for Mordecai, who spoke out in the king’s behalf. It stands near Haman’s home and is seventy-five feet 67  high.”

The king said, “Hang him on it!” 7:10 So they hanged Haman on the very gallows that he had prepared for Mordecai. The king’s rage then abated.

Seret untuk mengatur ukuranSeret untuk mengatur ukuran

[4:1]  1 tn Heb “Mordecai.” The pronoun (“he”) was used in the translation for stylistic reasons. A repetition of the proper name here is redundant in terms of contemporary English style.

[4:1]  2 tn Heb “great.”

[4:3]  3 tn Heb “reached” (so NAB, NLT); KJV, NASB, NIV “came”; TEV “wherever the king’s proclamation was made known.”

[4:3]  4 tn Heb “great” (so KJV, NIV, NRSV, NLT); NAB “the Jews went into deep mourning.”

[4:3]  5 sn Although prayer is not specifically mentioned here, it is highly unlikely that appeals to God for help were not a part of this reaction to devastating news. As elsewhere in the book of Esther, the writer seems deliberately to keep religious actions in the background.

[4:3]  6 tn Heb “were spread to many”; KJV, NIV “many (+ people NLT) lay in sackcloth and ashes.”

[4:4]  7 tn The words “about Mordecai’s behavior” are not in the Hebrew text, but are supplied in translation for the sake of clarity. Cf. NIV, NLT “about Mordecai”; TEV, CEV “what Mordecai was doing.”

[4:5]  8 tn Heb “whom he caused to stand before her”; NASB “whom the king had appointed to attend her.”

[4:5]  9 tn Heb “concerning Mordecai, to know what this was, and why this was.”

[4:8]  10 tn Heb “given” (so KJV); NASB, NRSV, TEV, NLT “issued”; NIV “published”; NAB “promulgated.”

[4:9]  11 tn Heb “the words of Mordecai” (so KJV); NIV, NRSV, CEV “what Mordecai had said”; NLT “with Mordecai’s message.”

[4:11]  12 tn Heb “one is his law”; NASB “he (the king NIV) has but one law”

[4:11]  13 tn Heb “and he will live”; KJV, ASV “that he may live”; NIV “and spare his life.”

[4:12]  14 tn Heb “the words of Esther”; TEV, NLT “Esther’s message.”

[4:13]  15 tn Heb “Mordecai.” The pronoun (“he”) was used in the translation for stylistic reasons. A repetition of the proper name here is redundant in terms of contemporary English style.

[4:14]  16 tn Heb “from all the Jews”; KJV “more than all the Jews”; NIV “you alone of all the Jews.”

[4:14]  17 tn Heb “stand”; KJV, NASB, NIV, NLT “arise.”

[4:14]  18 tn Heb “place” (so KJV, NIV, NLT); NRSV “from another quarter.” This is probably an oblique reference to help coming from God. D. J. A. Clines disagrees; in his view a contrast between deliverance by Esther and deliverance by God is inappropriate (Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther [NCBC], 302). But Clines’ suggestion that perhaps the reference is to deliverance by Jewish officials or by armed Jewish revolt is less attractive than seeing this veiled reference as part of the literary strategy of the book, which deliberately keeps God’s providential dealings entirely in the background.

[4:14]  19 tn Heb “And who knows whether” (so NASB). The question is one of hope, but free of presumption. Cf. Jonah 3:9.

[4:14]  20 tn Heb “have come to the kingdom”; NRSV “to royal dignity”; NIV “to royal position”; NLT “have been elevated to the palace.”

[4:16]  21 tn Heb “I and my female attendants.” The translation reverses the order for stylistic reasons.

[4:16]  22 tn Heb “which is not according to the law” (so KJV, NASB); NAB “contrary to the law.”

[5:1]  23 tn Heb “of the house of the king”; NASB, NRSV “of the king’s palace.”

[5:1]  24 tn Heb “the house of the king”; NASB “the king’s rooms”; NIV, NLT “the king’s hall.” This expression is used twice in this verse. In the first instance, it is apparently the larger palace complex that is in view, whereas in the second instance the expression seems to refer specifically to the quarters from which the king governed.

[5:1]  25 tn Heb “the entrance of the house” (so ASV).

[5:2]  26 tn Heb “she obtained grace in his eyes”; NASB “she obtained favor in his sight”; NIV “he was pleased with her”; NLT “he welcomed her.”

[5:3]  27 tn Heb “What to you?”; NAB, NIV NRSV “What is it, Queen Esther?”

[5:4]  28 tn Heb “If upon the king it is good”; NASB “If it please the king.”

[5:6]  29 sn As much as half the kingdom. Such a statement would no doubt have been understood for the exaggeration that it clearly was. Cf. the similar NT scene recorded in Mark 6:23, where Herod makes a similar promise to the daughter of Herodias. In that case the request was for the head of John the Baptist, which is a lot less than half the kingdom.

[5:7]  30 tn Heb “answered and said.” This is somewhat redundant in contemporary English and has been simplified in the translation.

[5:8]  31 tn Heb “if upon the king it is good.” Cf. the similar expression in v. 4, which also occurs in 7:3; 8:5; 9:13.

[5:8]  32 tn Heb “and tomorrow” (so NASB); NAB, NRSV “and then.”

[5:8]  33 tn Heb “I will do according to the word of the king,” i.e., answer the question that he has posed. Cf. NCV “Then I will answer your question about what I want.”

[5:9]  34 tn Heb “happy and good of heart”; NASB “glad and pleased of heart”; NIV “happy and in high spirits.”

[5:9]  35 tn Heb “tremble from before him”; NIV “nor showed fear in his presence”; TEV “or show any sign of respect as he passed.”

[5:10]  36 tn Heb “sent and brought.” The expression is probably a hendiadys (a figure of speech in which a single idea is expressed through two words or phrases), in which case the two verbs could be translated simply as “summoned” (so NAB) or “sent for” (NASB).

[5:11]  37 tn Heb “the glory of his riches” (so KJV, NASB); NRSV “the splendor of his riches.”

[5:11]  38 sn According to Esth 9:10 Haman had ten sons.

[5:12]  39 tn Heb “caused to come”; KJV “did let no man come in…but myself.”

[5:12]  40 tn Heb “called to her”; KJV “invited unto her”; NAB “I am to be her guest.”

[5:14]  41 tn Heb “his”; the referent (Haman) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[5:14]  42 tn Heb “fifty cubits.” Assuming a standard length for the cubit of about 18 inches (45 cm), this would be about seventy-five feet (22.5 meters), which is a surprisingly tall height for the gallows. Perhaps the number assumes the gallows was built on a large supporting platform or a natural hill for visual effect, in which case the structure itself may have been considerably smaller. Cf. NCV “a seventy-five foot platform”; CEV “a tower built about seventy-five feet high.”

[5:14]  43 tn Or “joyful”; NRSV “in good spirits”; TEV “happy.”

[6:1]  44 tn Heb “and the sleep of the king fled.” In place of the rather innocuous comment of the Hebrew text, the LXX reads here, “And the Lord removed the sleep from the king.” The Greek text thus understands the statement in a more overtly theological way than does the Hebrew text, although even in the Hebrew text there may be a hint of God’s providence at work in this matter. After all, this event is crucial to the later reversal of Haman’s plot to destroy the Jewish people, and a sympathetic reader is likely to look beyond the apparent coincidence.

[6:1]  45 tn Heb “the book of the remembrances of the accounts of the days”; NAB “the chronicle of notable events.”

[6:1]  46 tn Heb “they”; the referent (the records) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[6:2]  47 tn This individual is referred to as “Bigthan,” a variant spelling of the name, in Esth 2:21.

[6:2]  48 tn Heb “to send a hand against”; NASB “had sought to lay hands on.”

[6:3]  49 tn Heb “honor and greatness.” The expression is a hendiadys (see the note on 5:10 for an explanation of this figure).

[6:6]  50 tn Heb “said in his heart” (so ASV); NASB, NRSV “said to himself.”

[6:8]  51 tc The final comment (“one on whose head the royal crown has been”) is not included in the LXX.

[6:8]  tn Heb “a royal crown on his head.” The reference is to an official decoration or headdress for horses in royal service. See HALOT 506 s.v. כֶּתֶר; DCH 4:477 s.v. כֶּתֶר. Cf. TEV “a royal ornament”; CEV “a fancy headdress.”

[6:9]  52 tc The present translation reads with the LXX וְהִלְבִּישׁוֹ (vÿhilbisho, “and he will clothe him”) rather than the reading of the MT וְהִלְבִּישׁוּ (vÿhilbishu, “and they will clothe”). The reading of the LXX is also followed by NAB, NRSV, TEV, CEV, and NLT. Likewise, the later verbs in this verse (“cause him to ride” and “call”) are better taken as singulars rather than plurals.

[6:9]  53 tn Heb “and let them call” (see the previous note).

[6:10]  54 tn Heb “do not let fall”; NASB “do not fall short.”

[6:13]  55 tc Part of the Greek tradition and the Syriac Peshitta understand this word as “friends,” probably reading the Hebrew term רֲכָמָיו (rakhamayv, “his friends”) rather than the reading of the MT חֲכָמָיו (hakhamayv, “his wise men”). Cf. NLT “all his friends”; the two readings appear to be conflated by TEV as “those wise friends of his.”

[6:13]  56 tn Heb “from the seed of the Jews”; KJV, ASV similar.

[7:1]  57 tn Heb “to drink”; NASB “to drink wine.” The expression is a metaphor for lavish feasting, cf. NRSV “to feast”; KJV “to banquet.”

[7:3]  58 tn Heb “If I have found grace in your eyes” (so also in 8:5); TEV “If it please Your Majesty.”

[7:4]  59 sn The passive verb (“have been sold”) is noncommittal and nonaccusatory with regard to the king’s role in the decision to annihilate the Jews.

[7:5]  60 tc The second occurrence of the Hebrew verb וַיּאמֶר (vayyomer, “and he said”) in the MT should probably be disregarded. The repetition is unnecessary in the context and may be the result of dittography in the MT.

[7:5]  61 tn Heb “has so filled his heart”; NAB “who has dared to do this.”

[7:7]  62 sn There is great irony here in that the man who set out to destroy all the Jews now finds himself begging for his own life from a Jew.

[7:7]  63 tn Heb “for he saw that calamity was determined for him from the king”; NAB “the king had decided on his doom”; NRSV “the king had determined to destroy him.”

[7:8]  64 tn Heb “falling”; NAB, NRSV “had (+ just TEV) thrown himself (+ down TEV).”

[7:8]  65 tn Heb “where Esther was” (so KJV, NASB). The term “lying” has been supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons; cf. NAB, NIV, NRSV, NLT “was reclining.”

[7:9]  66 sn Cf. 1:10, where Harbona is one of the seven eunuchs sent by the king to summon Queen Vashti to his banquet.

[7:9]  67 tn Heb “fifty cubits.” See the note on this expression in Esth 5:14.



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