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Teks -- Exodus 19:1-25 (NET)

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Konteks
Israel at Sinai
19:1 In the third month after the Israelites went out from the land of Egypt, on the very day, they came to the Desert of Sinai. 19:2 After they journeyed from Rephidim, they came to the Desert of Sinai, and they camped in the desert; Israel camped there in front of the mountain. 19:3 Moses went up to God, and the Lord called to him from the mountain, “Thus you will tell the house of Jacob, and declare to the people of Israel: 19:4 ‘You yourselves have seen what I did to Egypt and how I lifted you on eagles’ wings and brought you to myself. 19:5 And now, if you will diligently listen to me and keep my covenant, then you will be my special possession out of all the nations, for all the earth is mine, 19:6 and you will be to me a kingdom of priests and a holy nation.’ These are the words that you will speak to the Israelites.” 19:7 So Moses came and summoned the elders of Israel. He set before them all these words that the Lord had commanded him, 19:8 and all the people answered together, “All that the Lord has commanded we will do!” So Moses brought the words of the people back to the Lord. 19:9 The Lord said to Moses, “I am going to come to you in a dense cloud, so that the people may hear when I speak with you and so that they will always believe in you.” And Moses told the words of the people to the Lord. 19:10 The Lord said to Moses, “Go to the people and sanctify them today and tomorrow, and make them wash their clothes 19:11 and be ready for the third day, for on the third day the Lord will come down on Mount Sinai in the sight of all the people. 19:12 You must set boundaries for the people all around, saying, ‘Take heed to yourselves not to go up on the mountain nor touch its edge. Whoever touches the mountain will surely be put to death! 19:13 No hand will touch him– but he will surely be stoned or shot through, whether a beast or a human being; he must not live.’ When the ram’s horn sounds a long blast they may go up on the mountain.” 19:14 Then Moses went down from the mountain to the people and sanctified the people, and they washed their clothes. 19:15 He said to the people, “Be ready for the third day. Do not go near your wives.” 19:16 On the third day in the morning there was thunder and lightning and a dense cloud on the mountain, and the sound of a very loud horn; all the people who were in the camp trembled. 19:17 Moses brought the people out of the camp to meet God, and they took their place at the foot of the mountain. 19:18 Now Mount Sinai was completely covered with smoke because the Lord had descended on it in fire, and its smoke went up like the smoke of a great furnace, and the whole mountain shook violently. 19:19 When the sound of the horn grew louder and louder, Moses was speaking and God was answering him with a voice. 19:20 The Lord came down on Mount Sinai, on the top of the mountain, and the Lord summoned Moses to the top of the mountain, and Moses went up. 19:21 The Lord said to Moses, “Go down and solemnly warn the people, lest they force their way through to the Lord to look, and many of them perish. 19:22 Let the priests also, who approach the Lord, sanctify themselves, lest the Lord break through against them.” 19:23 Moses said to the Lord, “The people are not able to come up to Mount Sinai, because you solemnly warned us, ‘Set boundaries for the mountain and set it apart.’” 19:24 The Lord said to him, “Go, get down, and come up, and Aaron with you, but do not let the priests and the people force their way through to come up to the Lord, lest he break through against them.” 19:25 So Moses went down to the people and spoke to them.
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Aaron a son of Amram; brother of Moses,son of Amram (Kohath Levi); patriarch of Israel's priests,the clan or priestly line founded by Aaron
 · Egypt descendants of Mizraim
 · Egyptians descendants of Mizraim
 · Israel a citizen of Israel.,a member of the nation of Israel
 · Jacob the second so of a pair of twins born to Isaac and Rebeccaa; ancestor of the 12 tribes of Israel,the nation of Israel,a person, male,son of Isaac; Israel the man and nation
 · Moses a son of Amram; the Levite who led Israel out of Egypt and gave them The Law of Moses,a Levite who led Israel out of Egypt and gave them the law
 · Rephidim an encampment where water came out of a rock for Israel
 · Sinai a mountain located either between the gulfs of Suez and Akaba or in Arabia, east of Akaba,a mountain; the place where the law was given to Moses


Topik/Tema Kamus: Sinai | Quotations and Allusions | PENTECOST | GENESIS, 4 | Law | Commandments, the Ten | Moses | Israel | God | Reverence | Miracles | Worship | Trumpet | LAW, JUDICIAL | Government | SACRIFICE, IN THE OLD TESTAMENT, 2 | LAW IN THE OLD TESTAMENT | Rephidim | ESCHATOLOGY OF THE OLD TESTAMENT | BLACKNESS | selebihnya
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Catatan Kata/Frasa
Wesley , JFB , Clarke , Calvin , Defender , TSK

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Poole , Haydock , Gill

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NET Notes , Geneva Bible

Catatan Rentang Ayat
MHCC , Matthew Henry , Keil-Delitzsch , Constable , Guzik

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Evidence

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per frasa)

Wesley: Exo 19:1 - -- In the third month after they came out of Egypt. It is computed that the law was given just fifty days after their coming out of Egypt, in remembrance...

In the third month after they came out of Egypt. It is computed that the law was given just fifty days after their coming out of Egypt, in remembrance of which the feast of Pentecost was observed the fiftieth day after the passover, and in compliance with which the spirit was poured out upon the apostles, at the feast of Pentecost, fifty days after the death of Christ. Mount Sinai was a place which nature, not art, had made conspicuous, for it was the highest in all that range of mountains. Thus God put contempt upon cities and palaces, setting up his pavilion on the top of a mountain, in a barren desert. It is called Sinai, from the multitude of thorny bushes that over-spread it.

Wesley: Exo 19:3 - Thus shalt thou say to the house of Jacob, and the children of Israel The people are called by the names both of Jacob and Israel, to mind them that they who had lately been as low as Jacob when he went to Padan-aram, we...

The people are called by the names both of Jacob and Israel, to mind them that they who had lately been as low as Jacob when he went to Padan-aram, were now grown as great as God made him when he came from thence, and was called Israel.

Wesley: Exo 19:4 - Ye have seen what I did unto the Egyptians, and how I bare you on Eagle's wings An high expression of the wonderful tenderness God shewed for them. It notes great speed; God not only came upon the wing for their deliverance, but h...

An high expression of the wonderful tenderness God shewed for them. It notes great speed; God not only came upon the wing for their deliverance, but he hastened them out, as it were upon the wing. Also that he did it with great ease, with the strength as well as with the swiftness of an eagle. They that faint not, nor are weary, are said to mount up with wings as eagles, Isa 40:31. Especially it notes God's particular care of them, and affection to them. Even Egypt was the nest in which these young ones were first formed as the embryo of a nation: when by the increase of their numbers they grew to some maturity, they were carried out of that nest.

Wesley: Exo 19:4 - I brought you unto myself They were brought not only into a state of liberty, but into covenant and communion with God. This, God aims at in all the gracious methods of his pro...

They were brought not only into a state of liberty, but into covenant and communion with God. This, God aims at in all the gracious methods of his providence and grace, to bring us back to himself, from whom we have revolted, and to bring us home to himself, in whom alone we can be happy.

Wesley: Exo 19:5 - Then ye shall be a peculiar treasure to me He doth not instance in any one particular favour, but expresseth it in that which was inclusive of all happiness, that he would be to them a God in c...

He doth not instance in any one particular favour, but expresseth it in that which was inclusive of all happiness, that he would be to them a God in covenant, and they should be to him a people. Nay you shall be a peculiar treasure: not that God was enriched by them, as a man is by his treasure, but he was pleased to value and esteem them as a man doth his treasure; they were precious in his sight. He took them under his special care and protection, as a treasure that is kept under lock and key. He distinguished them from, and dignified them above all people, as a people devoted to him, and to his service.

Wesley: Exo 19:6 - A kingdom of priests, a holy nation All the Israelites, if compared with other people, were priests unto God, so near were they to him, so much employed in his immediate service, and suc...

All the Israelites, if compared with other people, were priests unto God, so near were they to him, so much employed in his immediate service, and such intimate communion they had with him. The tendency of the laws given them was to distinguish them from others, and engage them for God as a holy nation. Thus all believers are, through Christ, made to our God kings and priests, Rev 1:6, a chosen generation, a royal priesthood, 1Pe 2:9.

Wesley: Exo 19:7 - And Moses laid before their faces all these words He not only explained to them what God had given him in charge, but put it to their choice, whether they would accept these promises upon these terms ...

He not only explained to them what God had given him in charge, but put it to their choice, whether they would accept these promises upon these terms or no. His laying it to their faces speaks his laying it to their consciences.

Wesley: Exo 19:8 - And they answered together; all that the Lord hath spoken we will do Thus accepting the Lord to be to them a God, and giving up themselves to be to him a people.

Thus accepting the Lord to be to them a God, and giving up themselves to be to him a people.

Wesley: Exo 19:10 - Sanctify the people As Job before sent and sanctified his sons, Job 1:5. Sanctify them, that is, call them off from their worldly business, and call them to religious exe...

As Job before sent and sanctified his sons, Job 1:5. Sanctify them, that is, call them off from their worldly business, and call them to religious exercises, meditation and prayer, that they may receive the law from God's mouth with reverence and devotion. Two things particularly were prescribed as instances of their preparation. 1st, In token of cleansing of themselves from all sinful pollutions, they must wash their clothes. Not that God regards our clothes, but while they were washing their clothes, he would have them think of washing their souls by repentance. It becomes us to appear in clean clothes when we wait upon great men; so clean hearts are required in our attendance on the great God. 2dly, In token of their devoting themselves entirely to religious exercises upon this occasion they must abstain even from lawful enjoyments during these three days, and not come at their wives.

Wesley: Exo 19:11 - In the sight of all the people Though they should see no manner of similitude, yet they should see so much as would convince them, that God was among them of a truth. And so high wa...

Though they should see no manner of similitude, yet they should see so much as would convince them, that God was among them of a truth. And so high was the top of Mount Sinai, that it is supposed not only the camp of Israel, but even the countries about might discern some extraordinary appearance of glory upon it.

Wesley: Exo 19:12 - Set bounds Probably he drew a ditch round at the foot of the hill, which none were to pass upon pain of death. This was to intimate, 1st, That awful reverence wh...

Probably he drew a ditch round at the foot of the hill, which none were to pass upon pain of death. This was to intimate, 1st, That awful reverence which ought to possess the minds of all that worship God. 2dly, The distance which worshippers were kept at under that dispensation, which we ought to take notice of, that we may the more value our privilege under the gospel, having boldness to enter into the holiest by the blood of Jesus, Heb 10:19.

Wesley: Exo 19:13 - When the trumpet soundeth long Then let them take their places at the foot of the mount. Never was so great a congregation called together and preached to at once as this was here. ...

Then let them take their places at the foot of the mount. Never was so great a congregation called together and preached to at once as this was here. No one man's voice could have reached so many, but the voice of God did.

Wesley: Exo 19:16 - -- Now at length is come that memorable day, in which Israel heard the voice of the Lord God speaking to them out of the midst of the fire and lived, Deu...

Now at length is come that memorable day, in which Israel heard the voice of the Lord God speaking to them out of the midst of the fire and lived, Deu 4:33. Never was there such a sermon preached before or since, as this, which was here preached to the church in the wilderness. For, the preacher was God himself, Exo 19:17, The Lord descended in fire; and Exo 19:18. The Lord came down upon mount Sinai. The Shechinah, or glory of the Lord, appeared in the sight of all the people; he shined forth from mount Paran with ten thousand of his saints, attended with a multitude of the holy angels. Hence the law is said to be given by the disposition of angels, Act 7:53. He spake from mount Sinai, hung with a thick cloud, Exo 19:16, covered with smoke, Exo 19:18, and made to quake greatly. Now it was that the earth trembled at the presence of the Lord, and the mountains skipped like rams, Psa 114:4, Psa 114:7, that Sinai itself, though rough and rocky, melted from before the Lord God of Israel, Jdg 5:5. The congregation was called together by the sound of a trumpet exceeding loud, Exo 19:16, and waxing louder and louder, Exo 19:19. This was done by the ministry of the angels, and made all the people tremble. The introductions to the service were thunders and lightnings, Exo 19:16. These have natural causes; but the scripture directs us in a particular manner to take notice of the power of God, and his terror in them. Thunder is the voice of God, and lightning the fire of God, proper to engage both the learning senses of seeing and hearing.

JFB: Exo 19:1 - In the third month According to Jewish usage, the first day of that month--"same day."--It is added, to mark the time more explicitly, that is, forty-five days after Egy...

According to Jewish usage, the first day of that month--"same day."--It is added, to mark the time more explicitly, that is, forty-five days after Egypt--one day spent on the mount (Exo 19:3), one returning the people's answer (Exo 19:7-8), three days of preparation, making the whole time fifty days from the first passover to the promulgation of the law. Hence the feast of pentecost, that is, the fiftieth day, was the inauguration of the Old Testament church, and the divine wisdom is apparent in the selection of the same reason for the institution of the New Testament church (Joh 1:17; Act 2:1).

JFB: Exo 19:2 - were come to the desert of Sinai The desert has its provinces, or divisions, distinguished by a variety of names; and the "desert of Sinai" is that wild and desolate region which occu...

The desert has its provinces, or divisions, distinguished by a variety of names; and the "desert of Sinai" is that wild and desolate region which occupies the very center of the peninsula, comprising the lofty range to which the mount of God belongs. It is a wilderness of shaggy rocks of porphyry and red granite, and of valleys for the most part bare of verdure.

JFB: Exo 19:2 - and there Israel camped before the mount Sinai, so called from Seneh, or acacia bush. It is now called Jebel Musa. Their way into the interior of the gigantic cluster was by Wady Feiran, whic...

Sinai, so called from Seneh, or acacia bush. It is now called Jebel Musa. Their way into the interior of the gigantic cluster was by Wady Feiran, which would lead the bulk of the hosts with their flocks and herds into the high valleys of Jebel Musa, with their abundant springs, especially into the great thoroughfare of the desert--the longest, widest, and most continuous of all the valleys, the Wady-es-Sheikh, while many would be scattered among the adjacent valleys; so that thus secluded from the world in a wild and sublime amphitheatre of rocks, they "camped before the mount." "In this valley--a long flat valley--about a quarter of a mile in breadth, winding northwards, Israel would find ample room for their encampment. Of all the wadys in that region, it seems the most suitable for a prolonged sojourn. The 'goodly tents' of Israel could spread themselves without limit" [BONAR].

JFB: Exo 19:3-6 - Moses went up unto God The Shekinah--within the cloud (Exo 33:20; Joh 1:18).

The Shekinah--within the cloud (Exo 33:20; Joh 1:18).

JFB: Exo 19:3-6 - Thus shalt thou say to the house of Jacob, &c. The object for which Moses went up was to receive and convey to the people the message contained in these verses, and the purport of which was a gener...

The object for which Moses went up was to receive and convey to the people the message contained in these verses, and the purport of which was a general announcement of the terms on which God was to take the Israelites into a close and peculiar relation to Himself. In thus negotiating between God and His people, the highest post of duty which any mortal man was ever called to occupy, Moses was still but a servant. The only Mediator is Jesus Christ [1Ti 2:5; Heb 12:24].

JFB: Exo 19:6 - ye shall be unto me a kingdom of priests As the priestly order was set apart from the common mass, so the Israelites, compared with other people, were to sustain the same near relation to God...

As the priestly order was set apart from the common mass, so the Israelites, compared with other people, were to sustain the same near relation to God; a community of spiritual sovreigns.

JFB: Exo 19:6 - an holy nation Set apart to preserve the knowledge and worship of God.

Set apart to preserve the knowledge and worship of God.

JFB: Exo 19:7-8 - Moses came and called for the elders of the people The message was conveyed to the mighty multitude through their elders, who, doubtless, instructed them in the conditions required. Their unanimous acc...

The message was conveyed to the mighty multitude through their elders, who, doubtless, instructed them in the conditions required. Their unanimous acceptance was conveyed through the same channel to Moses, and by him reported to the Lord. Ah! how much self-confidence did their language betray! How little did they know what spirit they were of!

JFB: Exo 19:9-15 - The Lord said unto Moses, Lo, I come . . . in a thick cloud, &c. The deepest impressions are made on the mind through the medium of the senses; and so He who knew what was in man signalized His descent at the inaugu...

The deepest impressions are made on the mind through the medium of the senses; and so He who knew what was in man signalized His descent at the inauguration of the ancient church, by all the sensible tokens of august majesty that were fitted to produce the conviction that He is the great and terrible God. The whole multitude must have anticipated the event with feelings of intense solemnity and awe. The extraordinary preparations enjoined, the ablutions and rigid abstinence they were required to observe, the barriers erected all round the base of the mount, and the stern penalties annexed to the breach of any of the conditions, all tended to create an earnest and solemn expectation which increased as the appointed day drew near.

JFB: Exo 19:16 - on the third day in the morning, that there were thunders and lightnings, &c. The descent of God was signalized by every object imagination can conceive connected with the ideas of grandeur and of awe. But all was in keeping wit...

The descent of God was signalized by every object imagination can conceive connected with the ideas of grandeur and of awe. But all was in keeping with the character of the law about to be proclaimed. As the mountain burned with fire, God was exhibited as a consuming fire to the transgressors of His law. The thunder and lightning, more awful amid the deep stillness of the region and reverberating with terrific peals among the mountains, would rouse the universal attention; a thick cloud was an apt emblem of the dark and shadowy dispensation (compare Mat 17:5).

JFB: Exo 19:16 - the voice of a trumpet This gave the scene the character of a miraculous transaction, in which other elements than those of nature were at work, and some other than material...

This gave the scene the character of a miraculous transaction, in which other elements than those of nature were at work, and some other than material trumpet was blown by other means than human breath.

JFB: Exo 19:17 - Moses brought forth the people out of the camp to meet with God Wady-er-Raheh, where they stood, has a spacious sandy plain; immediately in front of Es Suksafeh, considered by ROBINSON to be the mount from which th...

Wady-er-Raheh, where they stood, has a spacious sandy plain; immediately in front of Es Suksafeh, considered by ROBINSON to be the mount from which the law was given. "We measured it, and estimate the whole plain at two geographical miles long, and ranging in breadth from one-third to two-thirds of a mile, or as equivalent to a surface of one square mile. This space is nearly doubled by the recess on the west, and by the broad and level area of Wady-es-Sheikh on the east, which issues at right angles to the plain, and is equally in view of the front and summit of the mount. The examination convinced us that here was space enough to satisfy all the requisitions of the Scripture narrative, so far as it relates to the assembling of the congregation to receive the law. Here, too, one can see the fitness of the injunction to set bounds around the mount, that neither man nor beast might approach too near, for it rises like a perpendicular wall." But Jebel Musa, the old traditional Sinai, and the highest peak, has also a spacious valley, Wady Sebaiyeh, capable of holding the people. It is not certain on which of these two they stood.

JFB: Exo 19:21 - the Lord said unto Moses, Go down, charge the people No sooner had Moses proceeded a little up the mount, than he was suddenly ordered to return, in order to keep the people from breaking through to gaze...

No sooner had Moses proceeded a little up the mount, than he was suddenly ordered to return, in order to keep the people from breaking through to gaze--a course adopted to heighten the impressive solemnity of the scene. The strict injunctions renewed to all, whatever their condition, at a time and in circumstances when the whole multitude of Israel were standing at the base of the mount, was calculated in the highest degree to solemnize and awe every heart.

Clarke: Exo 19:1 - In the third month In the third month - This was called Sivan, and answers to our May. For the Jewish months, years, etc

In the third month - This was called Sivan, and answers to our May. For the Jewish months, years, etc

Clarke: Exo 19:1 - The same day The same day - There are three opinions concerning the meaning of this place, which are supported by respectable arguments 1.    The ...

The same day - There are three opinions concerning the meaning of this place, which are supported by respectable arguments

1.    The same day means the same day of the third month with that, viz., the 15th, on which the Israelites had left Egypt

2.    The same day signifies here a day of the same number with the month to which it is applied, viz., the third day of the third month

3.    By the same day, the first day of the month is intended. The Jews celebrate the feast of pentecost fifty days after the passover: from the departure out of Egypt to the coming to Sinai were forty-five days; for they came out the fifteenth day of the first month, from which day to the first of the third month forty-five days are numbered. On the 2d day of this third month Moses went up into the mountain, when three days were given to the people to purify themselves; this gives the fourth day of the third month, or the forty-ninth from the departure out of Egypt. On the next day, which was the fiftieth from the celebration of the passover, the glory of God appeared on the mount; in commemoration of which the Jews celebrate the feast of pentecost. This is the opinion of St. Augustine and of several moderns, and is defended at large by Houbigant. As the word חדש chodesh , month, is put for new moon, which is with the Jews the first day of the month, this may be considered an additional confirmation of the above opinion

Clarke: Exo 19:1 - The wilderness of Sinai The wilderness of Sinai - Mount Sinai is called by the Arabs Jibel Mousa or the Mount of Moses, or, by way of eminence, El Tor, The Mount. It is one...

The wilderness of Sinai - Mount Sinai is called by the Arabs Jibel Mousa or the Mount of Moses, or, by way of eminence, El Tor, The Mount. It is one hill, with two peaks or summits; one is called Horeb, the other Sinai. Horeb was probably its most ancient name, and might designate the whole mountain; but as the Lord had appeared to Moses on this mountain in a bush סנה seneh , Exo 3:2, from this circumstance it might have received the name of Sinai or הר סיני har Sinai , the mount of the bush or the mount of bushes; for it is possible that it was not in a single bush, but in a thicket of bushes, that the Angel of God made his appearance. The word bush is often used for woods or forests.

Clarke: Exo 19:3 - Moses went up unto God Moses went up unto God - It is likely that the cloud which had conducted the Israelitish camp had now removed to the top of Sinai; and as this was t...

Moses went up unto God - It is likely that the cloud which had conducted the Israelitish camp had now removed to the top of Sinai; and as this was the symbol of the Divine presence, Moses went up to the place, there to meet the Lord

Clarke: Exo 19:3 - The Lord called unto him The Lord called unto him - This, according to St. Stephen, was the Angel of the Lord, Act 7:38. And from several scriptures we have seen that the Lo...

The Lord called unto him - This, according to St. Stephen, was the Angel of the Lord, Act 7:38. And from several scriptures we have seen that the Lord Jesus was the person intended; see Clarke’ s note on Gen 16:7; see Clarke’ s note on Gen 18:13; see Clarke’ s note on Exo 3:2.

Clarke: Exo 19:4 - How I bare you on eagles’ wings How I bare you on eagles’ wings - Mr. Bruce contends that the word נשר nesher does not mean the bird we term eagle; but a bird which the...

How I bare you on eagles’ wings - Mr. Bruce contends that the word נשר nesher does not mean the bird we term eagle; but a bird which the Arabs, from its kind and merciful disposition, call rachama , which is noted for its care of its young, and its carrying them upon its back. See his Travels, vol. vii., pl. 33. It is not unlikely that from this part of the sacred history the heathens borrowed their fable of the eagle being a bird sacred to Jupiter, and which was employed to carry the souls of departed heroes, kings, etc., into the celestial regions. The Romans have struck several medals with this device, which may be seen in different cabinets, among which are the following: one of Faustina, daughter of Antoninus Pius, on the reverse of which she is represented ascending to heaven on the back of an eagle; and another of Salonia, daughter of the Emperor Galienus, on the reverse of which she is represented on the back of an eagle, with a scepter in her hand, ascending to heaven. Jupiter himself is sometimes represented on the back of an eagle also, with his thunder in his hand, as on a medal of Licinus. This brings us nearer to the letter of the text, where it appears that the heathens confounded the figure made use of by the sacred penman, I bare you on eagles’ wings, with the manifestation of God in thunder and lightning on Mount Sinai. And it might be in reference to all this that the Romans took the eagle for their ensign. See Scheuchzer, Fusellius, etc

Clarke: Exo 19:4 - Brought you unto myself Brought you unto myself - In this and the two following verses, we see the design of God in selecting a people for himself 1.    They...

Brought you unto myself - In this and the two following verses, we see the design of God in selecting a people for himself

1.    They were to obey his voice, Exo 19:5, to receive a revelation from him, and to act according to that revelation, and not according to their reason or fancy, in opposition to his declarations

2.    They were to obey his voice indeed, שמוע תשמעו shamoa tishmeu , in hearing they should hear; they should consult his testimonies, hear them whenever read or proclaimed, and obey them as soon as heard, affectionately and steadily

3.    They must keep his covenant - not only copy in their lives the ten commandments, but they must receive and preserve the grand agreement made between God and man by sacrifice, in reference to the incarnation and death of Christ; for from the foundation of the world the covenant of God ratified by sacrifices referred to this, and now the sacrificial system was to be more fully opened by the giving of the law

4.    They should then be God’ s peculiar treasure, סגלה segullah , his own patrimony, a people in whom he should have all right, and over whom he should have exclusive authority above all the people of the earth; for though all the inhabitants of the world were his by his right of creation and providence, yet these should be peculiarly his, as receiving his revelation and entering into his covenant

5.    They should be a kingdom of priests, Exo 19:6. Their state should be a theocracy; and as God should be the sole governor, being king in Jeshurun, so all his subjects should be priests, all worshippers, all sacrificers, every individual offering up the victim for himself. A beautiful representation of the Gospel dispensation, to which the Apostles Peter and John apply it, 1Pe 2:5, 1Pe 2:9; Rev 1:6; Rev 5:10, and Rev 20:6; under which dispensation every believing soul offers up for himself that Lamb of God which was slain for and which takes away the sin of the world, and through which alone a man can have access to God.

Clarke: Exo 19:6 - And a holy nation And a holy nation - They should be a nation, one people; firmly united among themselves, living under their own laws; and powerful, because united, ...

And a holy nation - They should be a nation, one people; firmly united among themselves, living under their own laws; and powerful, because united, and acting under the direction and blessing of God. They should be a holy nation, saved from their sins, righteous in their conduct, holy in their hearts; every external rite being not only a significant ceremony, but also a means of conveying light and life, grace and peace, to every person who conscientiously used it. Thus they should be both a kingdom, having God for their governor; and a nation, a multitude of peoples connected together; not a scattered, disordered, and disorganized people, but a royal nation, using their own rites, living under their own laws, subject in religious matters only to God, and in things civil, to every ordinance of man for God’ s sake

This was the spirit and design of this wonderful institution, which could not receive its perfection but under the Gospel, and has its full accomplishment in every member of the mystical body of Christ.

Clarke: Exo 19:7 - The elders of the people The elders of the people - The head of each tribe, and the chief of each family, by whose ministry this gracious purpose of God was speedily communi...

The elders of the people - The head of each tribe, and the chief of each family, by whose ministry this gracious purpose of God was speedily communicated to the whole camp.

Clarke: Exo 19:8 - And all the people answered, etc. And all the people answered, etc. - The people, having such gracious advantages laid before them, most cheerfully consented to take God for their po...

And all the people answered, etc. - The people, having such gracious advantages laid before them, most cheerfully consented to take God for their portion; as he had graciously promised to take them for his people. Thus a covenant was made, the parties being mutually bound to each other

Clarke: Exo 19:8 - Moses returned the words Moses returned the words - When the people had on their part consented to the covenant, Moses appears to have gone immediately up to the mountain an...

Moses returned the words - When the people had on their part consented to the covenant, Moses appears to have gone immediately up to the mountain and related to God the success of his mission; for he was now on the mount, as appears from Exo 19:14.

Clarke: Exo 19:9 - A thick cloud A thick cloud - This is interpreted by Exo 19:18 : And Mount Sinai was altogether on a Smoke - and the Smoke thereof ascended as the Smoke of a furn...

A thick cloud - This is interpreted by Exo 19:18 : And Mount Sinai was altogether on a Smoke - and the Smoke thereof ascended as the Smoke of a furnace; his usual appearance was in the cloudy pillar, which we may suppose was generally clear and luminous. That the people may hear - See Clarke’ s note on Exo 15:9. The Jews consider this as the fullest evidence their fathers had of the Divine mission of Moses; themselves were permitted to see this awfully glorious sight, and to hear God himself speak out of the thick darkness: for before this, as Rabbi Maymon remarks, they might have thought that Moses wrought his miracles by sorcery or enchantment; but now, hearing the voice of God himself, they could no longer disbelieve nor even doubt.

Clarke: Exo 19:10 - Sanctify them Sanctify them - See the meaning of this term, Exo 13:2

Sanctify them - See the meaning of this term, Exo 13:2

Clarke: Exo 19:10 - Let them wash their clothes Let them wash their clothes - And consequently bathe their bodies; for, according to the testimony of the Jews, these always went together It was ne...

Let them wash their clothes - And consequently bathe their bodies; for, according to the testimony of the Jews, these always went together

It was necessary that, as they were about to appear in the presence of God, every thing should be clean and pure about them; that they might be admonished by this of the necessity of inward purity, of which the outward washing was the emblem

From these institutions the heathens appear to have borrowed their precepts relative to washings and purifications previously to their offering sacrifice to their gods, examples of which abound in the Greek and Latin writers. They washed their hands and clothes, and bathed their bodies in pure water, before they performed any act of religious worship; and in a variety of cases, abstinence from all matrimonial connections was positively required, before a person was permitted to perform any religious rite, or assist at the performance.

Clarke: Exo 19:12 - Thou shalt set bounds Thou shalt set bounds - Whether this was a line marked out on the ground, beyond which they were not to go, or whether a fence was actually made to ...

Thou shalt set bounds - Whether this was a line marked out on the ground, beyond which they were not to go, or whether a fence was actually made to keep them off, we cannot tell; or whether this fence was made all round the mountain, or only at that part to which one wing of the camp extended, is not evident

This verse strictly forbids the people from coming near and touching Mount Sinai, which was burning with Fire. The words therefore in Exo 19:15, אל תגשו אל אשה al tiggeshu el ishshah , come not at your wives, seem rather to mean, come not near unto the Fire; especially as the other phrase is not at all probable: but the fire is, on this occasion, spoken of so emphatically (see Deu 5:4, Deu 5:5, Deu 5:22-25) that we are naturally led to consider אשה ishshah here as האש ha -esh transposed, or to say, with Simon in his Lexicon, אשה faem, idem quod masc . אש ignis . So among other instances, we have אבר and אברה a wing; אור and אורה light; אמץ and אמצה strength; and אמר and אמרה a speech - Burt. See Kennicott’ s Remarks

Clarke: Exo 19:12 - Whosoever toucheth the mount shall be surely put to death Whosoever toucheth the mount shall be surely put to death - The place was awfully sacred, because the dreadful majesty of God was displayed on it. A...

Whosoever toucheth the mount shall be surely put to death - The place was awfully sacred, because the dreadful majesty of God was displayed on it. And this taught them that God is a consuming fire, and that it is a fearful thing to fall into the hands of the living God.

Clarke: Exo 19:13 - There shall not a hand touch it There shall not a hand touch it - בו bo , Him, not the mountain, but the man who had presumed to touch the mountain. He should be considered alto...

There shall not a hand touch it - בו bo , Him, not the mountain, but the man who had presumed to touch the mountain. He should be considered altogether as an unclean and accursed thing, not to be touched for fear of conveying defilement; but should be immediately stoned or pierced through with a dart, Heb 12:20.

Clarke: Exo 19:16 - Thunders and lightnings, and a thick cloud - and the voice of the trumpet Thunders and lightnings, and a thick cloud - and the voice of the trumpet - The thunders, lightnings, etc., announced the coming, as they proclaimed...

Thunders and lightnings, and a thick cloud - and the voice of the trumpet - The thunders, lightnings, etc., announced the coming, as they proclaimed the majesty, of God. Of the thunders and lightnings, and the deep, dark, dismal, electric cloud, from which the thunders and lightnings proceeded, we can form a tolerable apprehension; but of the loud, long-sounding trumpet, we can scarcely form a conjecture. Such were the appearances and the noise that all the people in the camp trembled, and Moses himself was constrained to say, "I exceedingly fear and quake,"Heb 12:21. Probably the sound of the trumpet was something similar to that which shall be blown by the angel when he sweareth, by Him that liveth for ever, There shall be time no longer!

Clarke: Exo 19:17 - And Moses brought forth the people - to meet with God And Moses brought forth the people - to meet with God - For though they might not touch the mount till they had permission, yet when the trumpet sou...

And Moses brought forth the people - to meet with God - For though they might not touch the mount till they had permission, yet when the trumpet sounded long, it appears they might come up to the nether part of the mount, (see Exo 19:13, and Deu 4:11); and when the trumpet had ceased to sound, they might then go up unto the mountain, as to any other place

It was absolutely necessary that God should give the people at large some particular evidence of his being and power, that they might be saved from idolatry, to which they were most deplorably prone; and that they might the more readily credit Moses, who was to be the constant mediator between God and them. God, therefore, in his indescribable majesty, descended on the mount; and, by the thick dark cloud, the violent thunders, the vivid lightnings, the long and loud blasts of the trumpet, the smoke encompassing the whole mountain, and the excessive earthquake, proclaimed his power, his glory, and his holiness; so that the people, however unfaithful and disobedient afterwards, never once doubted the Divine interference, or suspected Moses of any cheat or imposture. Indeed, so absolute and unequivocal were the proofs of supernatural agency, that it was impossible these appearances could be attributed to any cause but the unlimited power of the author of Nature

It is worthy of remark that the people were informed three days before, Exo 19:9-11, that such an appearance was to take place; and this answered two excellent purposes

1.    They had time to sanctify and prepare themselves for this solemn transaction; and

2.    Those who might be skeptical had sufficient opportunity to make use of every precaution to prevent and detect an imposture; so this previous warning strongly serves the cause of Divine revelation

Their being at first prohibited from touching the mount on the most awful penalties, and secondly, being permitted to see manifestations of the Divine majesty, and hear the words of God, subserved the same great purposes. Their being prohibited in the first instance would naturally whet their curiosity, make them cautious of being deceived, and ultimately impress them with a due sense of God’ s justice and their own sinfulness; and their being permitted afterwards to go up to the mount, must have deepened the conviction that all was fair and real, that there could be no imposture in the case, and that though the justice and purity of God forbade them to draw nigh for a time, yet his mercy, which had prescribed the means of purification, had permitted an access to his presence. The directions given from Exo 19:10-15 inclusive show, not only the holiness of God, but the purity he requires in his worshippers

Besides, the whole scope and design of the chapter prove that no soul can possibly approach this holy and terrible Being but through a mediator; and this is the use made of this whole transaction by the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews, Heb 12:18-24.

Clarke: Exo 19:20 - The Lord came down The Lord came down - This was undoubtedly done in a visible manner, that the people might witness the awful appearance. We may suppose that every th...

The Lord came down - This was undoubtedly done in a visible manner, that the people might witness the awful appearance. We may suppose that every thing was arranged thus: the glory of the Lord occupied the top of the mountain, and near to this Moses was permitted to approach. Aaron and the seventy elders were permitted to advance some way up the mountain, while the people were only permitted to come up to its base. Moses, as the lawgiver, was to receive the statutes and judgments from God’ s mouth; Aaron and the elders were to receive them from Moses, and deliver them to the people; and the people were to act according to the direction received. Nothing can be imagined more glorious, terrible, majestic, and impressive, than the whole of this transaction; but it was chiefly calculated to impress deep reverence, religious fear, and sacred awe; and he who attempts to worship God uninfluenced by these, has neither a proper sense of the Divine majesty, nor of the sinfulness of sin. It seems in reference to this that the apostle says, Let us have grace whereby we may serve God acceptably with Reverence and Godly Fear: for our God is a Consuming Fire; Heb 12:28, Heb 12:29. Who then shall dare to approach him in his own name and without a mediator?

Clarke: Exo 19:22 - Let the priests also - sanctify themselves Let the priests also - sanctify themselves - That there were priests among the Hebrews before the consecration of Aaron and his sons, cannot be doub...

Let the priests also - sanctify themselves - That there were priests among the Hebrews before the consecration of Aaron and his sons, cannot be doubted; though their functions might be in a considerable measure suspended while under persecution in Egypt, yet the persons existed whose right and duty it was to offer sacrifices to God. Moses requested liberty from Pharaoh to go into the wilderness to sacrifice; and had there not been among the people both sacrifices and priests, the request itself must have appeared nugatory and absurd. Sacrifices from the beginning had constituted an essential part of the worship of God, and there certainly were priests whose business it was to offer them to God before the giving of the law; though this, for especial reasons, was restricted to Aaron and his sons after the law had been given. As sacrifices had not been offered for a considerable time, the priests themselves were considered in a state of impurity; and therefore God requires that they also should be purified for the purpose of approaching the mountain, and hearing their Maker promulgate his laws. See Clarke’ s note on Exo 28:1.

Clarke: Exo 19:23 - The people cannot come up The people cannot come up - Either because they had been so solemnly forbidden that they would not dare, with the penalty of instant death before th...

The people cannot come up - Either because they had been so solemnly forbidden that they would not dare, with the penalty of instant death before their eyes, to transgress the Divine command; or the bounds which were set about the mount were such as rendered their passing them physically impossible

Clarke: Exo 19:23 - And sanctify it And sanctify it - וקדשהי vekiddashio . Here the word קדש kadash is taken in its proper literal sense, signifying the separating of a t...

And sanctify it - וקדשהי vekiddashio . Here the word קדש kadash is taken in its proper literal sense, signifying the separating of a thing, person or place, from all profane or common uses, and devoting it to sacred purposes.

Clarke: Exo 19:24 - Let not the priests and the people break through Let not the priests and the people break through - God knew that they were heedless, criminally curious, and stupidly obstinate; and therefore his m...

Let not the priests and the people break through - God knew that they were heedless, criminally curious, and stupidly obstinate; and therefore his mercy saw it right to give them line upon line, that they might not transgress to their own destruction

From the very solemn and awful manner in which the Law was introduced, we may behold it as the ministration of terror and death, 2Co 3:7, appearing rather to exclude men from God than to bring them nigh; and from this we may learn that an approach to God would have been for ever impossible, had not infinite mercy found out the Gospel scheme of salvation. By this, and this alone, we draw nigh to God; for we have an entrance into the holiest by the blood of Jesus, Heb 10:19. "For,"says the apostle, "ye are not come unto the mount that might be touched, and that burned with fire; nor unto blackness, and darkness, and tempest, and to the sound of a trumpet, and the voice of words; which voice they that heard entreated that the word should not be spoken to them any more, (for they could not endure that which was commanded, And if so much as a beast touch the mountain it shall be stoned, or thrust through with a dart: and so terrible was the sight that Moses said, I exceedingly fear and quake): but ye are come unto Mount Sion, and unto the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem, and to an innumerable company of angels, to the general assembly and Church of the first-born, which are written in heaven; and to God, the Judge of all; and to the spirits of just men made perfect; and to Jesus the Mediator of the New Covenant; and to the blood of sprinkling, that speaketh better things than that of Abel;"Heb 12:18-24. Reader, art thou still under the influence and condemning power of that fiery law which proceeded from his right hand? Art thou yet afar off? Remember, thou canst only come nigh by the blood of sprinkling; and till justified by his blood, thou art under the curse. Consider the terrible majesty of God. If thou have his favor thou hast life; if his frown, death. Be instantly reconciled to God, for though thou hast deeply sinned, and he is just, yet he is the justifier of him that believeth in Christ Jesus. Believe on him, receive his salvation, Obey his voice indeed, and Keep his covenant, and Then shalt thou be a king and a priest unto God and the Lamb, and be finally saved with all the power of an endless life. Amen.

Calvin: Exo 19:1 - In the third month 1.In the third month This chapter informs us by what means God rendered the people attentive and teachable when He would promulgate His laws. He had,...

1.In the third month This chapter informs us by what means God rendered the people attentive and teachable when He would promulgate His laws. He had, indeed, previously delivered the rule of a just and pious life, but by writing the Law on tables, and by then adding its exposition, He not only embraced the perfect doctrine of piety and righteousness, but ratified it by a solemn rite, so that the recognition of it might remain and flourish in future times. And this is the main and principal thing which the prophets celebrate in the redemption of the people; and in this, as in a mirror, propose for consideration the image of the renewed Church, that God made known His testimonies to His redeemed, and bound the people, whom He had purchased, to Himself by a new covenant. He had indeed made with Abraham an eternal, and inviolable covenant; but because it had grown into disregard from the lapse of time, and the carelessness of mankind, it became needful that it should be again renewed. To this end, then, it was engraved upon the tables of stone, and written in a book, that the marvelous grace, which God had conferred on the race of Abraham, should never sink into oblivion. But in the first place we must observe that, although the Law is a testimony of God’s gratuitous adoption, and teaches that salvation is based upon His mercy, and invites men to call upon God with sure confidence, yet it has this peculiar property, that it; covenants conditionally. Therefore it is worth while to distinguish between the general doctrine, which was delivered by Moses, and the special command which he received. Moses everywhere exhorts men, by holding forth the hope of pardon, to reconcile themselves to God; and, whenever he prescribes expiatory rites, he doubtless encourages miserable sinners to have a good hope, and bears witness that God will be merciful to them. Meanwhile this office was separately imposed upon him, to demand perfect; righteousness of the people, and to promise them a reward, as if by compact, upon no other condition than that they should fulfill whatever was enjoined them, but to threaten and to denounce vengeance against them if ever they wandered from the way. It is certain indeed that the same covenant, of which Abraham had been the minister and keeper, was repeated to his descendants by the instrumentality of Moses; and yet Paul declares, that the Law “was added because of transgressions,” (Gal 3:19,) and opposes it to the promise given to Abraham; because, as he is treating of the peculiar office, power, and end of the Law, he separates it from the promises of grace. With the same import, he elsewhere calls it “the ministration of death,” and “the letter that killeth.” (2Co 3:6.) Again, in another place, he states that it “worketh wrath,” (Rom 4:15;) as if by its arraignment it inflicted a deadly wound on the human race, and left them no hope of salvation. In this preparation, then, wherein God instructed the people to reverence and fear, a twofold object may be perceived; for, since men’s minds are partly swollen with pride and haughtiness, and partly stupified by indifference, they must needs be either humbled or awakened, in order to their reception of divine teaching with the attention it deserves; nor can any be prepared to obey God, except he be bowed down and subdued by fear. Moreover, they then begin to be afraid when God’s majesty is displayed to inspire them with terror. Thus, therefore, let the fact that the authority of the Law was ratified by many signs and wonders, teach us that this is the beginning of piety and faith in God’s children. To this end also did God shake the earth, to arouse men’s hearts from their slumber, or to correct them by taming their pride. This object is common to the Law, the Prophets, and the Gospel, and to the whole sum of divine teaching, to which due honor is never paid, unless God’s majesty first shines forth, whereby He casts down all the haughtiness of the world. But we must not pass over what I lately asserted to be peculiar to the Law, via, to fill men’s minds with fear, and by setting forth its terrible curse, to cut off the hope of salvation; for, whilst it consists of three parts, each of them tends to the same end, that all should acknowledge themselves deserving of the judgment of eternal death, because in it God sustains no other character than that of a Judge, who, after having rigidly exacted what is due to Him, promises only a just reward, and threatens the transgressors with vengeance. But who will be found to be a perfect keeper of the Law? Nay, it is certain that all, from the least to the greatest, are guilty of transgression, wherefore God’s wrath overhangs them all This is what Paul means, when he writes that believers

“have not received the spirit of bondage again to fear; but the spirit of adoption, whereby they cry, Abba, Father,”
(Rom 8:15;)

showing how much better is our condition than that of the old fathers, because the Law kept them enslaved in its bondage, whilst the Gospel delivers us from anxiety, and frees us from the stings of conscience; for all must necessarily tremble, and finally be overwhelmed by despair, who seek for salvation by works; but peace and rest only exist in the mercy of God. The author of the Epistle to the Hebrews pursues this idea at greater length, where he says,

“Ye are not come unto the mount that must be touched, and that burned with fire, nor unto blackness, and darkness, and tempest, and the sound of a trumpet, and the voice of words: which voice they that heard entreated that the word should not be spoken to them any more, etc., ( whence Moses said I exceedingly fear and quake:) but ye are come unto Mount Sion,” etc.
(Heb 12:18.)

The antithesis here proves, that what was entrusted to Moses is separate and distinct from the Gospel; because God, who appeared in the Law as an avenger, now with fatherly kindness gently invites us unto salvation, and soothes our troubled minds by offering us the forgiveness of our sins. Now, Paul shows us that there is no contradiction in this diversity, because the people were taught by the Law not to seek for salvation anywhere but in the grace of Christ, and being convinced of the horrible condemnation under which they lay, were driven by fear to implore God’s mercy; for, as men are apt to 207 allow themselves in sin, “sin (as Paul says, Rom 5:13) is not imputed, where there is no law;” but those, who delight themselves in darkness, are by the teaching of the Law brought before God’s tribunal, that they may fully perceive their filthiness and be ashamed. Thus is Paul’s saying fulfilled, that the life of the Law is man’s death. (Rom 7:9.) Now we understand why the promulgation of the Law was ratified by so many miracles; viz., because, in general, the authority of the divine teaching was to be established among the dull and careless, or the proud and rebellious; and, secondly, because the Law was propounded to men, who sought the means of flattering themselves, as the mirror of the curse, so that, in themselves lost, they might fly to the refuge of pardon. I have thought it advisable to say thus much by way of preface, for the purpose of directing my readers to the proper object of the history, which is here related. But Moses first recounts that the people came, at a single march, from Rephidim into the region of Sinai; for so I interpret it, that there was no intervening station; for their interpretation is forced and unnatural, who take “the same day” for the beginning of the month.

Calvin: Exo 19:3 - And Moses went up 3.And Moses went up It is probable that Moses sought, as he was wont, retirement., in order to take counsel of God; for he speaks not as of some new ...

3.And Moses went up It is probable that Moses sought, as he was wont, retirement., in order to take counsel of God; for he speaks not as of some new or unusual circumstance, but of a custom previously observed; because he dared not stop anywhere, nor make any further advances, except as far as was prescribed him by the mouth of God. His going up to God signifies no more than that he went; out of the camp, that afar from the multitude, and from all distractions he might in secrecy and quiet inquire of God, what was His pleasure; for he did not, like the superstitious, choose a lofty position, that he might be nearer to God; but he withdrew himself from every disturbance, that he might engage all his senses in the occupation of learning. Afterwards, however, he adds, that he had obtained more than he had hoped for, because God, beyond what was customary with Him, addressed him respecting the renewal of His covenant. And to this the opening words have reference — “Thus shalt thou say to the house of Jacob, and tell the children of Israel;” wherein the repetition and diversity of expression is emphatic, as though He would speak of a very serious matter, and would thus awaken greater attention.

Calvin: Exo 19:4 - Ye have seen 4.Ye have seen With the view of gently inviting the people to obedience, He first recalls to their recollection the blessing of their deliverance, an...

4.Ye have seen With the view of gently inviting the people to obedience, He first recalls to their recollection the blessing of their deliverance, and then promises that the blessings of the future would be not inferior, if they on their part honored their deliverer with the piety and gratitude which belong to Him. He recounts the two parts of His loving-kindness, first that He had exerted His tremendous power against the Egyptians, and secondly, that He had marvelously brought His redeemed people through the sea, and the mighty wilderness, as through the clouds and the air; for this was an instance of His inestimable grace, that He had made war against a most powerful king, had afflicted a most flourishing nation, and had devastated a land remarkable for its extreme fertility, in order to succor a body of despised slaves. For there was no dignity in them, who first of all were strangers, and moreover abject herdsmen, and devoted to base and shameful slavery, whereby God might be incited for their sakes to destroy the Egyptians, who were illustrious in glory, in wealth, in the richness of their land, and in the splendor of their empire. Wherefore it would have been detestable ingratitude not to acknowledge their great obligations to God. What He adds in the second place, that He bare them as eagles are wont to carry their young, has reference to the constant course of His paternal care. Moses will hereafter use the same comparison in his song, and it often occurs in the prophets. But He mentions the eagle rather than other birds, in my opinion, that He may magnify their difficulties, and thus commend His grace; for eagles lift up their young ones upon high places, and accustom them to look at the sun; thus the people, as if carried above the clouds on the wings of God, had surmounted every obstacle, however great. For the notion which some have, that eagles are mentioned instead of other birds, because they alone bear up their young ones on their wings, is a foolish and truly Rabbinical gloss. 208

Calvin: Exo 19:5 - Now, therefore 5.Now, therefore God declares that He will ever be the same, and will constantly persevere 209 (in blessing them), provided the Israelites do not deg...

5.Now, therefore God declares that He will ever be the same, and will constantly persevere 209 (in blessing them), provided the Israelites do not degenerate, but remain devoted to their Deliverer; at the same time, He reminds them also, wherefore he has been so bountiful to them, viz., that they may continually aspire unto the end of their calling; for He had not willed to perform toward them a single act of liberality, but to purchase them as His peculiar, people. This privilege he sets before them in the word סגלה , 210 segullah, which means all things most precious, whatever, in fact, is deposited in a treasury; although the word “peculium,” a peculiar possession, by which the old interpreter 211 has rendered it, is not unsuitable to the passage; because it is plain from the immediate context, that it denotes the separation of this people from all others; since these words directly follow: “for,” or, although “all the earth is mine;” the particle כי , ki, being often taken adversatively, and there is no doubt but that God would more exalt His grace, by comparing this one nation with the whole world, as it is said in the song of Moses,

“When the Most High divided to the nations their inheritance, when he separated the sons of Adam, he set the bounds of the people according to the number of the children of Israel; for the Lord’s portion is his people; Jacob is the lot of his inheritance.” (Deu 32:8.)

The sum then is, that whilst the whole earth is in God’s dominion, yet the race of Israel has been chosen by Him to excel all nations. Whence it is evident, that whereas the condition of all is alike, some are not distinguished from others by nature, but by gratuitous adoption; but, in order that they should abide in the possession of so great a blessing, fidelity towards God is required on their part. And, first, they are commanded to listen to his voice, (since no sacrifice is more pleasing to him than obedience, 1Sa 15:22;) and then a definition of obedience is added, viz., to keep His covenant.

Calvin: Exo 19:6 - And ye shall be unto me 6.And ye shall be unto me He points out more clearly, and more at length, how the Israelites will be precious unto God; viz., because they will be fo...

6.And ye shall be unto me He points out more clearly, and more at length, how the Israelites will be precious unto God; viz., because they will be for “a kingdom of priests, and an holy nation.” By these words, he implies that they will be endowed with sacerdotal as well as royal honors; as much as to say, that they would not only be free, but also like kings, if they persevered in faith and obedience, since no kingdom is more desirable, or more happy, than to be the subjects of God. Moreover, he calls this “an holy kingdom,” because all the kingdoms of the world were then in heathenism; for the genitive, according to the usual idiom of the language, is put for an adjective, as if he had said, that they would enjoy not merely an earthly and transitory dominion, but also a sacred and heavenly one. Others understand it passively, that God would be their king; whilst mortals, and for the most part cruel tyrants, would rule over other nations. Though I do not altogether reject this sense, yet I rather prefer the other, to which also St. Peter leads us: for when the Jews, who by their refusal of Christ had departed from the covenant, still improperly gloried in this title, he claims this honor for the members of Christ only, saying, “Ye are a chosen generation, a royal priesthood,” etc. (1Pe 2:9.) But the passive sense would not accord with these words, viz., that believers are subject to the priesthood of God, for the Apostle gracefully applies the words to take away the unacceptableness of novelty; as if he had said, God formerly promised to our fathers that they should be to Him for a royal priesthood. This privilege all, who separate themselves from Christ the Head, falsely lay claim to, since He alone makes us a royal priesthood. Meanwhile he teaches, by this apparent adaptation of the words, that what had been spoken by Moses is actually fulfilled. And, in fact, Christ appeared invested with the kingdom and the priesthood, that He might confer both of these privileges upon His members; whence it follows, that whosoever divorce themselves from Him, are unworthy of either honor, and are justly deprived of them. The nation is here called holy, not with reference to their piety or personal holiness, but as set apart from others by God by special privilege. Yet on this kind of sanctification the other depends, viz., that they who are exalted by God’s favor should cultivate holiness, and thus on their part sanctify God.

Calvin: Exo 19:8 - And all the people answered 8.And all the people answered We shall see in its proper place why God employed Moses as a messenger to carry backwards and forwards the commands and...

8.And all the people answered We shall see in its proper place why God employed Moses as a messenger to carry backwards and forwards the commands and replies; now he merely relates what all the people answered, viz., that they would be obedient in all things. It was not a part, but the whole of the people who promised this, and the reply was unreserved, declaring that they would do whatsoever God required. Yet soon after they relapsed into their natural mind, and kept not their promise even in the smallest degree. Still we may believe that they spoke without dissembling; but that, although without any intention of deceiving God, they were carried away by a kind of headlong zeal, and deceived themselves. Nor was it the object of Moses to tell them in reproach that they had lied to God, or deceitfully boasted with their lips what they did not feel in their hearts; but, by stating how ready they were to obey, he deprives them hereafter of all pretense of ignorance. Nor is there any doubt that God inclined their minds to this docility, in order to establish the doctrine of His law. Meanwhile, let us learn from their example, that we must not merely obey God’s word by some earnest impulse; and that a hasty feeling is of no use, unless it be followed by constant perseverance; and, therefore, let us learn to sift; ourselves well, lest: we rashly promise, without serious self-examination, more, than we are able to perform. Yet we must not forget what. I have already said, that they were all made willing by the secret inspiration of God, in order that they might be witnesses both to themselves and others of the many signs, by which the truth and faithfulness of the 212 heavenly doctrine was then confirmed.

Calvin: Exo 19:9 - And the Lord said unto Moses 9.And the Lord said unto Moses God here proclaims, that by a manifest symbol of His glory, He will make it evident that the Law proceeded not from Mo...

9.And the Lord said unto Moses God here proclaims, that by a manifest symbol of His glory, He will make it evident that the Law proceeded not from Moses, but that he merely delivered faithfully what he received from heaven; for God was so covered with the cloud, as with a veil that He still upraised their minds as by a certain sign of His presence. On this was the authority of Moses founded, that the Israelites knew God to be the author of the doctrine, of which he was the minister. And this is especially worth remarking, because we gather from hence that there is no other mode of proving a doctrine, except by the assurance that it comes not from elsewhere, but from God alone; and thus is every mortal brought down to his level, lest any one, however excellent in wisdom, should dare to advance his own imaginations. For if the mightiest of prophets, Moses, obtained credit in the Church on no other grounds than because he bore the commands of God, and only taught what he had heard, how foolish and impudent will it be in teachers, who sink down far beneath him, to endeavor to attain a higher point! In fine, this passage shows that we must believe in God alone, but that at the same time we must listen to the prophets, who spoke out of His mouth. Besides this, it appears that God did not wish to obtain credit for His servant Moses during a short period of time, but that posterity should pay him the same reverence even after his death. The call of some is temporary; and it may happen that God takes away the spirit of prophecy from those to whom He has given it; but so did He appear to Moses, as to ratify, and, as it were, consecrate the truth of his doctrine in all ages. Thence it follows, that the brightness of God’s glory, which was shown to his ancient people in the thick cloud, is not yet extinct, but that it ought to illuminate the minds of all the godly, reverently to submit themselves to Moses. What follows at the end of the verse is a repetition from the last; for there was no intervening reply of the people which Moses could report. The meaning is, that although the Israelites had voluntarily promised to abide in the path of duty, yet that this confirmation was added, like a spur to those who are running, that they may proceed more nimbly.

Calvin: Exo 19:10 - And the Lord said unto Moses 10.And the Lord said unto Moses Before propounding His law, it is not unreasonable that God should command the people to be sanctified, lest He shoul...

10.And the Lord said unto Moses Before propounding His law, it is not unreasonable that God should command the people to be sanctified, lest He should cast pearls before swine, or give that which is holy unto dogs; for although by right of adoption they were holy, yet, as regarded themselves, the filthiness of their nature unfitted them for participating in so great a blessing. It was by no means right or just that the inestimable treasure should be polluted by foul and stinking vessels. Therefore, in the injunction that they should be sanctified, two things were pointed out, — that the sacred doctrine of God was not to be handled by unwashen hands, and that the whole human race is impure and polluted, and, consequently, that none can duly enter God’s school save those who are cleansed from their filthiness. And, doubtless, it is the just reward of their unworthy profanation that so many readers or hearers profit not by heavenly doctrine, because they rush in without fear or reverence, as to some ridiculous stage play. This preparation, then, is seasonably commanded, to make ready God’s scholars and render them fit to be taught. But while the inward purity of the heart is chiefly demanded, this ceremony was not without its use to accustom an ignorant people to meditate upon true holiness. That they should wash their clothes and abstain from the nuptial bed were things of naught in themselves; but when external rites are referred to their proper end, viz., to be exercises unto spiritual worship, they are useful aids to piety; and we know that God, in consideration of the times, before Christ’s coming, employed such figures which now have no place under the brightness of the Gospel. But although the use of them be grown obsolete, yet the truth, which I spoke of, still remains, viz., that if we desire to be admitted to a participation in heavenly doctrine, we should

“cleanse ourselves from all filthiness of the flesh and spirit.”
(2Co 7:1.)

But here a question arises; for if, as Peter bears witness, faith purifies the heart, (Act 15:9,) and understanding of the doctrine goes before faith, since Paul declares that it “cometh by hearing,” (Rom 10:17,) the consequence is, that the order of things is inverted if the people are to be sanctified before they hear the Law, because in this way the means of sanctification is wanting. My reply is, that albeit faith, in so far as it embraces the offer of reconciliation and the Spirit of regeneration, can alone truly purify us; yet this by no means prevents the fear of God from going before to prepare a place for the word in our minds. And, properly speaking, a pious desire of learning, humility, and reverence should be accounted the commencement of faith, since it is from these elements that God begins to perfect faith in us by certain progressive steps. On this account James exhorts us to “receive with meekness the engrafted word,” because the door of the entrance is shut against it by pride, and obstinacy, and profane contempt. As to the meaning of the passage, to be “sanctified,” and to “wash their clothes,” are not spoken of as different things, but the second is added as the symbol 213 of the first; for under the Law the rite of ablution reminded the ancient people that no one can please God, except he both seek for expiation in the blood of Christ, and labor to purify himself from the pollution’s of the flesh. Abstinence from cohabitation had the same object; for although there is nothing polluting or contaminating in the marriage bed, yet the Israelites were to be reminded that all earthly cares were, as much as possible, to be renounced, and all carnal affections to be put away, that they might give their entire attention to the hearing of the Law. The sanctity of marriage veils and covers whatever of sin there is in the cohabitation of man and wife; yet it is certain that it in some degree distracts them from having their whole minds occupied by spiritual affections. Therefore Paul makes this exception in the mutual obligation of the marriage bed, that couples may be separated for “fasting and prayer.” (1Co 7:5.) Yet the moderation which God prescribed is to be observed; for God did not enjoin perpetual celibacy, but so arranged the time that the Israelites might be disengaged from all earthly preoccupations, and might more freely apply their whole minds to the reverent reception of the Law.

Calvin: Exo 19:12 - And thou shalt set bounds 12.And thou shalt set bounds By this symbol the Israelites were admonished to restrain their natural inquisitiveness, that they may be sober in their...

12.And thou shalt set bounds By this symbol the Israelites were admonished to restrain their natural inquisitiveness, that they may be sober in their desires after knowledge, because God, by the teaching of His Law, only enlightens those who are as “little children.” We know how great is men’s natural curiosity, how forwardly they seek to penetrate the secrets of God, how daringly they indulge themselves, and how, by their irreverence, all religion and fear of God is extinguished in them; wherefore there was good cause why He should set these bounds, and restrain this perverse longing after unlawful knowledge. All would have wished to come, like Moses, to familiar converse with God; but they are commanded to stand within the boundaries, that they may obey God speaking to them by an interpreter. Thus are their modesty and docility proved, when they desire no more than is permitted them, and keep themselves within the bounds of revelation. What was then enjoined upon His ancient people is extended also to us, that in reading and hearing we should not overpass the limits which God assigns us, but, content with the form of doctrine which He delivers to us, should let alone what He would have concealed from us; and, although He speaks to us from afar, should not be offended by the distance. Yet does He not prohibit the people from ascending, as though he grudged them a nearer prospect of His glory; but because it is expedient that the proud and improperly arrogant should be kept within His narrow limit, that they may be reminded of their weakness. To alarm them yet more, He commands that the men themselves, 214 and even beasts, though harmless, should be killed if they passed over the borders. We have just before explained what is meant by God’s descending, viz., the manifestation of His power; since His essence which fills heaven and earth moves not from its place.

Calvin: Exo 19:13 - There shall not a hand touch it 13.There shall not a hand touch it 215 They ignorantly pervert the meaning who resolve the particle ב , be, into the adversative else; as if Moses ...

13.There shall not a hand touch it 215 They ignorantly pervert the meaning who resolve the particle ב , be, into the adversative else; as if Moses forbade them to touch the mountain with the hand, under penalty of stoning. 216 Those also are far from the truth who think that what is ordained is, that one should not follow the other, or that none should stretch forth his hand to the transgressors for their help. Moses referred to something altogether different; for in order to render more detestable those who, by rash advances, should violate the limits placed by God, he commanded them to be killed afar off by stones or darts; as if whosoever should touch them, even with a finger, would contract pollution. It is, then, as if he commanded them to be avoided as being accursed, lest they should infect others by their contagion. Therefore there is an antithesis between different kinds of death, viz., to smite with the sword or to shoot through with darts, and to strike with the hand. But lest the people should consider themselves rejected, and thus being offended by the ignominy of their repulse, should abandon their love and desire for the Law, He permits their ascent conditionally, viz., when the sound of the trumpet shall have been protracted for a long time, or it shall have done sounding. Thus there was no ground for complaining of the limitation which God had appointed for their safety.

Calvin: Exo 19:16 - And it came to pass on the third day 16.And it came to pass on the third day We must bear in mind what I have already adverted to, that this terrible spectacle was partly to set the pres...

16.And it came to pass on the third day We must bear in mind what I have already adverted to, that this terrible spectacle was partly to set the presence of God before their eyes, that His majesty might urge the beholders to obedience, and vindicate His doctrine from contempt, and partly to express the nature of the Law, which in itself produces nothing but mere terror. The air was disturbed by thunder and lightning’s, and the sound of the trumpet; the mountain was wrapped in smoke and darkness, that the people might humbly prostrate themselves before God, and solemnly embrace the covenant proposed to them; since religion never penetrates the mind so that it seriously receives God’s word until its vices are cleansed and corrected, and it is really subdued. And this fear is common also to the Gospel; for as in the promulgation of the Law God shook the earth, so when He speaks by the Prophet of the coming of Christ, and the restoration of His Church, He says, “Yet once, it is a little while, and I will shake the heavens and the earth,” etc. (Hag 2:6.) Thus, too, David, when he would point to God as the avenger of His Church, describes Him under this image; for no doubt when, in Psa 18:7, he says, “Then the earth shook and trembled, the foundations also of the hills moved and were shaken, — there went up a smoke out of his nostrils, and fire out of his mouth devoured; he bowed the heavens also, and came down; and darkness was under his feet,” he alludes to the history which Moses here relates. Hab 3:3 yet more plainly does so, — “God came from Teman, and the Holy One from Mount Paran.” Meanwhile the other point remains, that the awful prodigies, at which the people needs must tremble, were added as seals to the promulgation of the Law, because the Law was given to cite slumbering consciences to the judgment-seat, that, through fear of eternal death, they might flee for refuge to God’s mercy.

Calvin: Exo 19:17 - And Moses brought forth the people 17.And Moses brought forth the people We learn from these words that the prodigies were not intended to drive the people from God’s sight, and that...

17.And Moses brought forth the people We learn from these words that the prodigies were not intended to drive the people from God’s sight, and that they were not smitten with fear to exasperate and disgust them with the doctrine, but that God’s covenant was no less lovely than alarming; for they are commanded to go and “meet God,” presenting themselves with minds ready unto obedience. But this could not be unless they heard in the Law something besides precepts and threatenings. Yet in the smoke and fire, and other signs, some fear was added, in accordance with the office of the Law, because the sinner will never be capable of pardon until he learns to tremble from consciousness of his guilt, nay, until confounded with dread he lies like one dead before the tribunal of God. In the two following verses, Moses explains what he had briefly touched upon respecting the meeting with God; for he shows that God was near, since His majesty appeared upon the top of Sinai. He adds that he stood within the bounds, because he went up by himself alone, and that by invitation; for he clears himself from the accusation of temerity, by expressly stating that he passed over the limits assigned to the people, not voluntarily, but at the command and call of God. 217 It appears from the context itself that the order of the narration is inverted, which the old translator does not perceive, and perverts the sense. God’s answering him “by a voice,” means that He spoke aloud and clearly, viz., so that the people might hear, as we shall see hereafter in Deu 4:0.

Calvin: Exo 19:18 - And all the people saw the thunderings 18.And all the people saw the thunderings Because in the parallel passage 218 Moses more largely pursues what he here only touches upon briefly, I sh...

18.And all the people saw the thunderings Because in the parallel passage 218 Moses more largely pursues what he here only touches upon briefly, I shall also defer my full exposition of it. If he had been the only spectator of God’s glory, the credit of his testimony would be lighter; after having, then, reported the ten commandments, which God Himself spoke with His own sacred lips in the hearing of the people, he adds, at the same time, that the lightning’s shone openly, the mountain smoked, the trumpets sounded, and the thunder rolled. It follows, therefore, that by these conspicuous and illustrious signs, the law was ratified before all the people, from the greatest even to the least. The confession of the whole people is added; when, overwhelmed with alarm, they supplicate God to go on speaking no more. For no longer could they now despise the voice of the man, whom they had of their own accord desired to be given them as their mediator, lest they should be consumed by the awful voice of God. He lays before them the object, for which those signs had appeared to terrify them, viz., that God might subdue them to obedience. They were terrified, then, not that they might be stupified with astonishment, but only that they might be humbled and submit themselves to God. And this is a peculiar privilege, that the majesty of God, before whom heaven and earth tremble, does not 219 destroy but only proves and searches His children.

Calvin: Exo 19:21 - And the Lord said unto Moses 21.And the Lord said unto Moses By God’s command the same prohibition is repeated, that the people should not pass over the bounds, because, withou...

21.And the Lord said unto Moses By God’s command the same prohibition is repeated, that the people should not pass over the bounds, because, without doubt, it was not enough to have forbidden them once, as we may gather from the reply of Moses; for he thought that since they were all admonished, there was no necessity for a new prohibition. But God insists with greater vehemence, and again with threatenings, orders them to be charged that they take diligent heed to themselves. He knew, forsooth, that He had to do with the rebellious, for whose subjugation a sorer dread of punishment would be necessary. Now, since we are no better than they, let us not be surprised if God often spurs us on by the application of many exhortations, and redoubles His threats, for else forgetfulness of all which He has once enjoined would creep over us. This passage also confirms the fact, that the curiosity which influences men’s minds is greatly displeasing to God; for He expressly commands that they should not break through to gaze, — not because He would have anything concealed or hidden which it was profitable for them to know, but because their inquiries ought to be sober; and this is the legitimate limit of knowledge, humbly to learn at God’s mouth what He voluntarily teaches, — not to advance with too anxious longings, but to follow Him as He leads us.

Calvin: Exo 19:23 - And Moses said unto the Lord 23.And Moses said unto the Lord Because Moses was persuaded that the people would be obedient, he rejoins that the decree which had already been pron...

23.And Moses said unto the Lord Because Moses was persuaded that the people would be obedient, he rejoins that the decree which had already been pronounced would be sufficient, and that the repetition of it would be in some degree supererogatory; for when he says that “the people cannot come up,” he replies that he puts himself forward in the name of all as their surety. And this he does honestly, and in accordance with the rule of charity; yet it appears from God’s reply that he was deceived, whilst judging of others by his own feelings. Whilst, however, he unhesitatingly executes the task allotted to him, it is plain that he preferred the command of God to his own preconceived opinion; and thus taught us by his example, that whatever may be the imaginations which come into our minds, they must still be submitted to this yoke, that God’s authority alone may have the pre-eminence. A doubt may arise because He names “the priests;” since the priestly office was not yet committed to the Levites. Some, therefore, understand it to mean all the first-born, because, by ancient and common consent, it is allowed that they were always invested with the honor of the priesthood. But although I readily admit that they were chosen from the first-born, yet I do not think it probable that out of that immense multitude there were special priests for every house. In the meantime we may conjecture that since no heathen nations were then without priests, there was no less method amongst the chosen people; for what common sense dictated to the blind, assuredly a purer religion more clearly showed, viz., that God’s worship should not be separated from the priesthood.

Defender: Exo 19:8 - we will do Moses, as the mediator between God and His people, is here a distinct type of the Lord Jesus Christ (1Ti 2:5). Note that the people promised, both bef...

Moses, as the mediator between God and His people, is here a distinct type of the Lord Jesus Christ (1Ti 2:5). Note that the people promised, both before and after the giving of the law (Exo 24:3), to do everything the Lord commanded."

TSK: Exo 19:1 - the third // came am 2513, bc 1491, An, Ex, Is, 1, Sivan the third : Exo 12:2, Exo 12:6; Lev 23:16-18 came : Exo 16:1; Num 33:15

am 2513, bc 1491, An, Ex, Is, 1, Sivan

the third : Exo 12:2, Exo 12:6; Lev 23:16-18

came : Exo 16:1; Num 33:15

TSK: Exo 19:2 - Rephidim // the desert // camped Rephidim : Exo 17:1, Exo 17:8 the desert : Mount Sinai, called by the Arabs Jibbel Mousa, the Mountain of Moses, and sometimes by way of eminence, El ...

Rephidim : Exo 17:1, Exo 17:8

the desert : Mount Sinai, called by the Arabs Jibbel Mousa, the Mountain of Moses, and sometimes by way of eminence, El Tor, the Mount, is a range of mountains in the peninsula formed by the gulfs of the Red Sea. It consists of several peaks, the principal of which are Horeb and Sinai; the former, still called Oreb, being on the west, and the latter, called Tur Sina, on the east, at the foot of which is the convent of St. Catherine. Dr. Shaw conceives that the wilderness of Sinai, properly so called, is that part which is to the eastward of this mount; so that the removal of the Israelites from Rephidim, which was on the West, to the desert of Sinai, was only removing from one part of the mountain to another.

camped : Exo 3:1, Exo 3:12, Exo 18:5; Act 7:30, Act 7:38; Gal 4:24

TSK: Exo 19:3 - went up // called went up : Exo 20:21, Exo 24:15-18, Exo 34:2; Deut. 5:5-31; Act 7:38 called : Exo 3:4

went up : Exo 20:21, Exo 24:15-18, Exo 34:2; Deut. 5:5-31; Act 7:38

called : Exo 3:4

TSK: Exo 19:4 - seen // I bare you seen : Exod. 7:1-14:31; Deu 4:9, Deu 4:33-36, Deu 29:2; Isa 63:9 I bare you : Deu 32:11, Deu 32:12; Isa 40:31, Isa 63:9; Rev 12:14

seen : Exod. 7:1-14:31; Deu 4:9, Deu 4:33-36, Deu 29:2; Isa 63:9

I bare you : Deu 32:11, Deu 32:12; Isa 40:31, Isa 63:9; Rev 12:14

TSK: Exo 19:5 - if ye // keep // a peculiar // all the earth if ye : Exo 23:22, Exo 24:7; Deu 11:27, Deu 28:1; Jos 24:24; 1Sa 15:22; Isa 1:19; Jer 7:23, Jer 11:4-7; Heb 11:8 keep : Deu 5:2; Psa 25:10, Psa 103:17...

TSK: Exo 19:6 - a kingdom // and an a kingdom : Deu 33:2-4; Isa 61:6; Rom 12:1; 1Pe 2:5, 1Pe 2:9; Rev 1:6, Rev 5:10, Rev 20:6 and an : Lev 11:44, Lev 11:45, Lev 19:2, Lev 20:24, Lev 20:2...

TSK: Exo 19:7 - the elders // and laid the elders : Exo 3:16 and laid : Exo 4:29, Exo 4:30; 1Co 15:1

the elders : Exo 3:16

and laid : Exo 4:29, Exo 4:30; 1Co 15:1

TSK: Exo 19:8 - -- Exo 20:19, Exo 24:3, Exo 24:7; Deu 5:27-29, Deu 26:17-19; Jos 24:24; Neh 10:29

TSK: Exo 19:9 - Lo // that the // believe Lo : Exo 19:16, Exo 20:21, Exo 24:15, Exo 24:16; Deu 4:11; 1Ki 8:12; 2Ch 6:1; Psa 18:11, Psa 18:12; Psa 97:2; Isa 19:1; Mat 17:5; Mar 9:7; Luk 9:34, L...

TSK: Exo 19:10 - sanctify // wash sanctify : Exo 19:15; Lev 11:44, Lev 11:45; Jos 3:5, Jos 7:13; 1Sa 16:5; 2Ch 29:5, 2Ch 29:34, 2Ch 30:17-19; Job 1:5; 1Co 6:11 wash : Exo 19:14; Gen 35...

TSK: Exo 19:11 - the Lord the Lord : Exo 19:16, Exo 19:18, Exo 19:20, Exo 3:8, Exo 34:5; Num 11:17; Deu 33:2; Psa 18:9, Psa 144:5; Isa 64:1, Isa 64:2; Hab 3:3-6; Joh 3:13, Joh ...

TSK: Exo 19:12 - set bounds // Take // or touch set bounds : Exo 19:21, Exo 19:23; Jos 3:4 Take : Exo 10:28, Exo 34:12; Deu 2:4, Deu 4:9 or touch : Heb 12:20, Heb 12:21

TSK: Exo 19:13 - whether // when the trumpet whether : Exo 21:28, Exo 21:29; Lev 20:15, Lev 20:16 when the trumpet : or, cornet, Exo 19:16, Exo 19:19; 1Co 15:52; 1Th 4:16

whether : Exo 21:28, Exo 21:29; Lev 20:15, Lev 20:16

when the trumpet : or, cornet, Exo 19:16, Exo 19:19; 1Co 15:52; 1Th 4:16

TSK: Exo 19:14 - and sanctified and sanctified : Exo 19:10

and sanctified : Exo 19:10

TSK: Exo 19:15 - Be ready // the third // come not Be ready : Amo 4:12; Mal 3:2; Mat 3:10-12, Mat 24:44; 2Pe 3:11, 2Pe 3:12 the third : Exo 19:11, Exo 19:16 come not : 1Sa 21:4, 1Sa 21:5; Joe 2:16; Zec...

TSK: Exo 19:16 - thunders // thick // voice // all the people thunders : Exo 9:23, Exo 9:28, Exo 9:29, Exo 20:18; 1Sa 12:17, 1Sa 12:18; Job 37:1-5, Job 38:25; Psa 18:11-14; Psa 29:3-11, Psa 50:3, Psa 77:18, Psa 9...

TSK: Exo 19:17 - -- Deu 4:10, Deu 5:5

TSK: Exo 19:18 - mount Sinai // in fire // as the smoke // whole Exo 19:13; Isa 6:4; Rev 15:8 mount Sinai : Exo 20:18; Deu 4:11, Deu 4:12, Deu 5:22, Deu 33:2; Jdg 5:5; Psa 68:7, Psa 68:8, Psa 104:32, Psa 144:5 in fi...

TSK: Exo 19:19 - And when // Moses // God And when : Exo 19:13, Exo 19:16 Moses : Heb 12:21 God : Psa 81:7

And when : Exo 19:13, Exo 19:16

Moses : Heb 12:21

God : Psa 81:7

TSK: Exo 19:20 - the Lord came // Moses went up the Lord came : Exo 19:11; Neh 9:13; Psa 81:7 Moses went up : Exo 19:3, Exo 24:12, Exo 24:13, Exo 24:18, Exo 34:2, Exo 34:4; Deu 9:9

TSK: Exo 19:21 - charge // break charge : Heb. contest, Exo 19:12, Exo 19:13 break : Exo 3:3, Exo 3:5, Exo 33:20; 1Sa 6:19; Ecc 5:1; Heb 12:28, Heb 12:29

TSK: Exo 19:22 - the priests // sanctify // break the priests : Exo 24:5; Lev 10:1-3; Isa 52:11 sanctify : Exo 19:5, Exo 19:14, Exo 19:15 break : 2Sa 6:6-8; 1Ch 13:9-11, 1Ch 15:13; 2Ch 30:3, 2Ch 30:15...

TSK: Exo 19:23 - Set bounds Set bounds : Exo 19:12; Jos 3:4, Jos 3:5

Set bounds : Exo 19:12; Jos 3:4, Jos 3:5

TSK: Exo 19:24 - and thou // but let // lest and thou : Exo 19:20 but let : Exo 19:12, Exo 19:21; Mat 11:12; Luk 13:24, Luk 16:16; Joh 1:17; Heb 4:16, Heb 10:19-22; Heb 12:18-25, Heb 12:29 lest :...

TSK: Exo 19:25 - -- Exo 19:24

kecilkan semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per Ayat)

Poole: Exo 19:1 - The same day The same day Heb. in that day , to wit, when the month or new moon began, and when they departed from Rephidim, to note, that there was no station b...

The same day Heb. in that day , to wit, when the month or new moon began, and when they departed from Rephidim, to note, that there was no station between these two. This is set down thus accurately, because it gives an account of the original of the feast of pentecost, because the giving of the law, which was three or four days after this time, was fifty days after the passover, whereof forty-six or forty-seven were past at their first coming to Sinai, reckoning from the fifteenth day of the first month, when they came out of Egypt, to this time.

Poole: Exo 19:2 - To the desert of Sinai To the desert of Sinai i.e. to that part of the desert which adjoined to Mount Sinai, as Rephidim, from whence they came, was in that part of the wil...

To the desert of Sinai i.e. to that part of the desert which adjoined to Mount Sinai, as Rephidim, from whence they came, was in that part of the wilderness adjoining to Horeb, which was another part of the same mountain. See Exo 17:6 . So they seem to have fetched a large compass, and to have come from one side of the mountain to the other.

Poole: Exo 19:3 - Moses went up Moses went up into the mount of God, to the place where God had now fixed his cloudy pillar, and where he was about to manifest himself in a glorious...

Moses went up into the mount of God, to the place where God had now fixed his cloudy pillar, and where he was about to manifest himself in a glorious manner. So it is an anticipation.

Poole: Exo 19:4 - Unto myself i. e. Safely, out of the reach of danger; and strongly, against all opposition. Compare Deu 32:11 Isa 63:9 Rev 12:14 . Unto myself into my presenc...

i. e. Safely, out of the reach of danger; and strongly, against all opposition. Compare Deu 32:11 Isa 63:9 Rev 12:14 .

Unto myself into my presence, and favour, and fellowship, to be my peculiar people, to serve and worship me as your only Lord and King.

Poole: Exo 19:5 - If ye will obey my voice indeed // A peculiar treasure If ye will obey my voice indeed Heb. obeying ye will obey ; i.e. if ye will obey me sincerely, diligently, and constantly. A peculiar treasure hig...

If ye will obey my voice indeed Heb. obeying ye will obey ; i.e. if ye will obey me sincerely, diligently, and constantly.

A peculiar treasure highly prized and loved, and carefully kept by me, as men’ s treasures generally are. For all people upon earth are mine by creation and dominion, and I can dispose of them all as I please, and either choose or refuse any of them as I think fit; and therefore though I might refuse you, as well as any others, yet it is my pleasure to single you out of all the world, upon whom to confer my chiefest and peculiar blessings. Or, though all the earth be mine , by general right, yet you only are mine by special title and privilege.

Poole: Exo 19:6 - A kingdom of priests A kingdom of priests so they are called in regard, 1. Of their exemption and separation from all the people of the world, as priests are taken out o...

A kingdom of priests so they are called in regard,

1. Of their exemption and separation from all the people of the world, as priests are taken out of the multitude of men.

2. Of their consecration to the worship and service of God, every subject of this kingdom being in some sort a priest to offer some kind of sacrifices to God,

3. Of their privileges, because God conferred upon them singular honour, safety, and immunity, and liberty of coming near to him, as priests among all nations have been esteemed privileged persons. An holy nation, purged from the idolatry and other abominations of the heathen world, and separated from them by a avail of partition; allied to me by a holy covenant, and consecrated to my use and service.

Poole: Exo 19:8 - -- Not for God’ s information, but for the people’ s greater obligation, and to learn what answer he should return from God to them.

Not for God’ s information, but for the people’ s greater obligation, and to learn what answer he should return from God to them.

Poole: Exo 19:9 - I come unto thee // In a thick cloud // The words of the people I come unto thee as to the mediator between me and them, and the interpreter of my mind to them. In a thick cloud: Exo 19:16 , and compare 1Ki 8:12...

I come unto thee as to the mediator between me and them, and the interpreter of my mind to them.

In a thick cloud: Exo 19:16 , and compare 1Ki 8:12 2Ch 6:1 .

The words of the people those mentioned Exo 19:8 . This is here repeated, because God’ s answer to them now follows.

Poole: Exo 19:10 - Let them wash their clothes i.e. Command them to sanctify and cleanse themselves from all filthiness of flesh and spirit, and to prepare their hearts for the right receiving of...

i.e. Command them to sanctify and cleanse themselves from all filthiness of flesh and spirit, and to prepare their hearts for the right receiving of my laws, and solemn entering into covenant with me. Compare Lev 11:45 Jos 3:5 7:13 .

Let them wash their clothes by which external washing, which was agreeable to that state of the church, they were taught to cleanse their inward man.

Poole: Exo 19:11 - For the third day // the Lord will come down For the third day from this time, and the fiftieth day from the passover, as was noted before, the Lord will come down in a visible and glorious ma...

For the third day from this time, and the fiftieth day from the passover, as was noted before,

the Lord will come down in a visible and glorious manifestation of his presence.

Poole: Exo 19:12 - -- By this symbolical injunction God designed, 1. To restrain men’ s curious and bold inquiries into the things of God. 2. To possess the Israel...

By this symbolical injunction God designed,

1. To restrain men’ s curious and bold inquiries into the things of God.

2. To possess the Israelites then present, and all succeeding generations, with the dread and reverence of the Divine Majesty, and of his holy law.

3. To prepare and inure the people to the obedience of God’ s commands, even when they discern not the reasons of them.

4. To make them sensible of their own impurity and infirmity, and of their absolute need of a mediator, through whom they might have access to God. See Gal 3:19 .

Poole: Exo 19:13 - There shall not an hand touch it // touch him // Whether it be beast // When the trumpet soundeth long // They shall come up to the mount There shall not an hand touch it i.e. the mountain. But, 1. This seems to be a gross tautology, for it was twice forbidden in the words next foregoi...

There shall not an hand touch it i.e. the mountain. But,

1. This seems to be a gross tautology, for it was twice forbidden in the words next foregoing.

2. So the word hand would seem to be ascribed both to man and beast. Others therefore render it

touch him i.e. they shall look upon such an impudent transgressor of my express command as an abominable person, whom they cannot touch without defilement, and therefore he shall be put to death in such a manner as may be performed without touching him.

Whether it be beast for though the beasts are not capable of a law, yet they might be threatened for man’ s caution, and punished for the fault of their owners in not keeping them at a distance from the mount.

When the trumpet soundeth long i.e. with one continued, equal, and gentle sound, as is usual in the end of the music song, which is opposed to a rough, and loud, and unequal sound. There was no real trumpet here, but an angel made a sound like that of a trumpet.

They shall come up to the mount

Object . This was forbidden to them, Exo 19:12 .

Answ . 1. They were forbidden to come up to the mount whilst God was delivering his laws, but allowed it afterwards when that action ceased, which was signified by the long sound of the trumpet.

2. They might not come into the mount or towards the top of it, but they might come to the bottom or lower parts of it, where the bounds were set, or at least towards or near it, as the Hebrew preposition beth is sometimes used. So the mount may be understood, more strictly, Exo 19:12 , for an eminent part or top of it, where the thick cloud appeared, and where Moses was, and here more largely for the whole mountain.

Poole: Exo 19:14 - Moses sanctified the people Moses sanctified the people by commanding them to sanctify themselves, and directing them how to do it.

Moses sanctified the people by commanding them to sanctify themselves, and directing them how to do it.

Poole: Exo 19:15 - -- Abstain from the use of the marriage-bed, partly because your wives may haply have their uncleanness upon them, though unknown to themselves, at lea...

Abstain from the use of the marriage-bed, partly because your wives may haply have their uncleanness upon them, though unknown to themselves, at least to you, whereby you may be legally defiled; see Lev 15:18 ; and partly that your minds may be abstracted from all sensual delights, and wholly employed about this great and holy work and service. There is a like command 1Co 7:5 ; but both this and that do indifferently concern both ministers and people, and are limited to a certain time, and therefore are very impertinently alleged for the perpetual celibacy of ministers. See also 1Sa 21:5 .

Poole: Exo 19:16 - thunders and lightnings // A thick cloud // The trumpet // All the people The thunders and lightnings were sent partly as evidences and tokens both of God’ s glorious presence, and of the anger of God, and the dread...

The

thunders and lightnings were sent partly as evidences and tokens both of God’ s glorious presence, and of the anger of God, and the dreadful punishments due to the transgressors of the law now to be delivered; and partly as means to humble, and awaken, and convince, and terrify proud and secure sinners, that they might more reverently attend to the words and commands of God, more willingly yield obedience to them, and be more afraid of the violation of them.

A thick cloud was both a fit mean for the production and reception of the thunders and lightnings, and a signification as well of the invisible and unconceivable nature of God, as of the obscurity of the legal dispensation in regard of its types and shadows, & c., 2Co 3:13,18 4:6 .

The trumpet was a fit instrument, both for the promulgation of God’ s law, and for the signification of that war that is between God and sinners.

All the people Moses himself not excepted, as appears from Heb 12:21 .

Poole: Exo 19:17 - -- Therefore one part of the mount they might come to, though not to another, to wit, the higher; which may clear the difficulty and seeming contradict...

Therefore one part of the mount they might come to, though not to another, to wit, the higher; which may clear the difficulty and seeming contradiction betwixt Exo 19:12,13 .

Poole: Exo 19:18 - The Lord descended in fire // The whole mount quaked greatly The Lord descended in fire for further terror to obstinate sinners. Hence this law is called a fiery law Deu 33:2 . The whole mount quaked greatly ...

The Lord descended in fire for further terror to obstinate sinners. Hence this law is called a

fiery law Deu 33:2 .

The whole mount quaked greatly by an earthquake, as appears from Psa 60:2 104:32 .

Poole: Exo 19:19 - Waxed louder and louder // God answered him by a voice Waxed louder and louder Heb. went on , or increased and grew very strong, or vehement , or loud . This is opposed to the sounding long, Exo 19:13 ...

Waxed louder and louder Heb. went on , or increased and grew very strong, or vehement , or loud . This is opposed to the sounding long, Exo 19:13 .

God answered him by a voice i.e. by plain, distinct, and audible words, as Psa 81:7 Joh 12:29 , so as the people also might hear, as appears from Exo 19:9 . See Deu 5:24 1Ki 19:12,13 Heb 12:19 .

Poole: Exo 19:20 - -- So here are three parts of the mount manifestly distinguished; the top, where the cloud was; the middle part, where Moses now stood, and about which...

So here are three parts of the mount manifestly distinguished; the top, where the cloud was; the middle part, where Moses now stood, and about which the bounds seem to have been put; and the nether or lower part, where the people were.

Poole: Exo 19:21 - -- Through curiosity to know in what form or manner I appear to thee.

Through curiosity to know in what form or manner I appear to thee.

Poole: Exo 19:22 - Which come near to the Lord For though the Aaronical priesthood was not yet appointed, it is certain, that as there were sacrifices before, so there were priests to offer them,...

For though the Aaronical priesthood was not yet appointed, it is certain, that as there were sacrifices before, so there were priests to offer them, which were either the first-born, who were consecrated to God, and did execute the office of priests, as may be gathered from Exo 13:2 24:5 Num 3:12 8:26 , or some other persons appointed by God for doing that work till the office was settled in Aaron’ s family.

Which come near to the Lord not at this time, for both priests and people are now kept at equal distance, Exo 19:24 ; but usually: q.d. Whose duty and privilege it is to approach unto God, and to present the people’ s prayers and sacrifices to him, and therefore are here particularly admonished, because they above all others are obliged to this care, and because they might seem to claim this privilege by their function.

Poole: Exo 19:23 - -- The people are sufficiently admonished in that particular, because as thou didst command this same thing before, Exo 19:12 , so I have informed and ...

The people are sufficiently admonished in that particular, because as thou didst command this same thing before, Exo 19:12 , so I have informed and warned them of it; so that it may seem superfluous for me to go down again to acquaint them herewith. But God, who better knew the dulness and the hardness of their hearts than Moses did, saw it necessary to repeat the same command again and again. Some read the words interrogatively, lo for halo , as it is 2Sa 13:26 2Ki 5:26 Job 2:10 Mal 2:15 ; May not the people (i.e. some of the people, the priests at least, which, as thou hast now said, may come near to the Lord ) go up? Is this a universal prohibition? To this answer is given by a distinction in the next verse, that he and Aaron might come up, but no other.

Haydock: Exo 19:1 - This day This day. The same on which they departed from the Raphidim, or on the third day of the third month; though St. Augustine understands the first of t...

This day. The same on which they departed from the Raphidim, or on the third day of the third month; though St. Augustine understands the first of the month; (Calmet) on which last supposition, allowing 16 days of the month Nisan, 30 of Jiar, and 4 of Sivan, the law was given 50 days after the liberation of the Jews, as the new law was promulgated on Whit-Sunday, on the day of Pentecost. (St. Augustine, ep. 119. 16.) (Worthington)

Haydock: Exo 19:3 - And Moses went up to God And Moses went up to God. Moses went up to Mount Sinai, where God spoke to him.

And Moses went up to God. Moses went up to Mount Sinai, where God spoke to him.

Haydock: Exo 19:4 - Eagles Eagles. Out of the reach of danger. As eagles carry their young upon their wings, so I have protected you from all your enemies, Deuternomy xxxii. ...

Eagles. Out of the reach of danger. As eagles carry their young upon their wings, so I have protected you from all your enemies, Deuternomy xxxii. 11. (Calmet)

Haydock: Exo 19:5 - Possession // Mine Possession, ( peculium ). Hebrew segula, "a chosen portion or treasure." (Menochius) --- Mine. I could have made choice of others. We cannot b...

Possession, ( peculium ). Hebrew segula, "a chosen portion or treasure." (Menochius) ---

Mine. I could have made choice of others. We cannot but admire the goodness of God, who asks for the free consent of the people. Hence they can have no pretence for breaking this solemn covenant. (Calmet) (Theodoret, 9. 35.)

Haydock: Exo 19:6 - Priestly kingdom Priestly kingdom. "Priests and kings," Chaldean. You shall rule over the Chanaanites, &c., and you shall offer sacrifice to me, at least, by slaying...

Priestly kingdom. "Priests and kings," Chaldean. You shall rule over the Chanaanites, &c., and you shall offer sacrifice to me, at least, by slaying the paschal lamb. This kingdom shall not be merely of a civil nature; it shall be also sacred. The whole nation shall be holy, separated from the pagans, and consecrated to me. (Menochius)

Haydock: Exo 19:8 - Related Related, as a mediator acting between two parties, (Haydock) though God knew all before. Thus his servants cease not to lay before him their own and...

Related, as a mediator acting between two parties, (Haydock) though God knew all before. Thus his servants cease not to lay before him their own and our wants. (Worthington)

Haydock: Exo 19:9 - Cloud Cloud, to veil his majesty, while he spoke to Moses in the hearing of all. (Haydock) --- Then they began to place an entire confidence in their lea...

Cloud, to veil his majesty, while he spoke to Moses in the hearing of all. (Haydock) ---

Then they began to place an entire confidence in their leader. (Maimonides)

Haydock: Exo 19:10 - Garments Garments, with their bodies, as the Jews understand by this expression. They were also to abstain from their wives, &c. By which exterior practices...

Garments, with their bodies, as the Jews understand by this expression. They were also to abstain from their wives, &c. By which exterior practices, they were admonished of the interior purity which God required. All nations seem to have adopted similar observances of continence, washing themselves, and putting on their best attire, when they appeared before God. See Herod., &c. (Calmet)

Haydock: Exo 19:13 - Him // Go up into Him. In detestation of his impiety, which has made him unclean. (Haydock) --- Go up into the precincts of the mountain, to which Moses conducte...

Him. In detestation of his impiety, which has made him unclean. (Haydock) ---

Go up into the precincts of the mountain, to which Moses conducted them; (ver. 17. 21,) or they might ascend after the trumpet ceased, and the law was given. For some understand shall begin, in a contrary sense with the Roman Septuagint, "when the voices of thunder, and the trumpets, and the cloud shall be no more;" ( apelthe ) so also the Chaldean, Syriac. (Vatable) The sound which was heard, resembled that of a horn. (Jobel.) See Leviticus xxv. 10. (Calmet)

Haydock: Exo 19:15 - Wives Wives. St. Paul recommends continence when people have to pray, 1 Corinthians vii. On the pagan temple of Epidaurus, this inscription was placed, "...

Wives. St. Paul recommends continence when people have to pray, 1 Corinthians vii. On the pagan temple of Epidaurus, this inscription was placed, "Let those be chaste who enter here." (Clement of Alexandria, strom. 5.)

Haydock: Exo 19:18 - Terrible Terrible, by the display of so many instruments of God's power; lightning, fire, a thick cloud, and various peals of thunder, and the sound of a trum...

Terrible, by the display of so many instruments of God's power; lightning, fire, a thick cloud, and various peals of thunder, and the sound of a trumpet; besides rain, and the company of millions of angels, Psalm lxvii. 9, 18. How different was the appearance of Sion, when Jesus proclaimed his gospel! (Hebrews xii. 18.)

Haydock: Exo 19:19 - Answered him Answered him, "in a speech," articulated and heard by all the people, as the Hebrew, Septuagint, Syriac, &c., intimate. Many legislators have preten...

Answered him, "in a speech," articulated and heard by all the people, as the Hebrew, Septuagint, Syriac, &c., intimate. Many legislators have pretended that their laws came from heaven. But they had no witnesses. Moses does all openly. His laws are preceded, accompanied, and followed by prodigies.

Haydock: Exo 19:22 - Sanctified Sanctified, in an extraordinary manner, above the rest. These priests, according to St. Augustine, are the children of Aaron, and the whole race of ...

Sanctified, in an extraordinary manner, above the rest. These priests, according to St. Augustine, are the children of Aaron, and the whole race of Levi, who would shortly be selected by God. But others think, they are those who, by the law of nature, were accustomed to officiate. Or, as God had declared that they were all a priestly kingdom, some of the most comely and irreproachable youths of each family, had been chosen to present victims, when the covenant with God was to be ratified, chap. xxiv. 15. (Calmet)

Haydock: Exo 19:23 - The people The people. Glassius understands this with an interrogation, "Can no one?" God exempts Aaron from the common law, ver. 24. (Haydock)

The people. Glassius understands this with an interrogation, "Can no one?" God exempts Aaron from the common law, ver. 24. (Haydock)

Haydock: Exo 19:24 - Pass Pass. Septuagint, "contend violently to pass." The kingdom of heaven suffereth violence, Matthew xi. 12. (Menochius) --- Moses was the mediator...

Pass. Septuagint, "contend violently to pass." The kingdom of heaven suffereth violence, Matthew xi. 12. (Menochius) ---

Moses was the mediator of this covenant, and Aaron his interpreter, to explain to the people the orders of Moses. (Calmet) ---

Thus we have seen the dreadful apparatus of the law of fear, with the preface to it, and the approbation of the people.

Gill: Exo 19:1 - In the third month, when the children of Israel were gone forth out of the land of Egypt // the same day came they into the wilderness of Sinai In the third month, when the children of Israel were gone forth out of the land of Egypt,.... Which was the month Sivan, and answers to part of May an...

In the third month, when the children of Israel were gone forth out of the land of Egypt,.... Which was the month Sivan, and answers to part of May and part of June:

the same day came they into the wilderness of Sinai; which had its name from the mountain situated in it, and that from the bushes which grew upon it. Justin z calls it Synan, which he says Moses occupied, and Strabo a, Sinnan. Hither they came either on the same day they came from Rephidim; which, according to Bunting b, were eight miles from it, or on the same day of the month, as to number, that is, on the third day of the third month; and so Jerom c and others say it was on the forty seventh day after their coming out of Egypt, three days after which they received the law on Mount Sinai, it being a generally received notion that the law was given fifty days after the passover; hence the feast of weeks is called from thence the feast of pentecost, or fifty days: or rather this was the first day of the month, as Jarchi and R. Moses; with which agrees the Targum of Jonathan; and so was the forty fifth of their coming out of Egypt, five days after which they received the law; it being a tradition with the Jews, as Aben Ezra observes, that that was given on the sixth of Sivan, and may be accounted for thus; on the first day they came to Sinai, and encamped there, on the day following Moses went up to God, Exo 19:3, on the third day Moses gathered the elders together, Exo 19:7, and declared to them the words of God, and on the third day after that, which was the sixth, the law was delivered to them.

Gill: Exo 19:2 - For they were departed from Rephidim // and were come to the desert of Sinai, and had pitched in this wilderness // and there Israel encamped before the mount For they were departed from Rephidim,.... After they had fought with Amalek, and came to the western part of the mount to Horeb, where the rock was sm...

For they were departed from Rephidim,.... After they had fought with Amalek, and came to the western part of the mount to Horeb, where the rock was smitten for them; and they were come from that now, and encamped at Sinai, after Jethro had paid a visit to Moses:

and were come to the desert of Sinai, and had pitched in this wilderness; that is, of Sinai, as in the preceding verse:

and there Israel encamped before the mount; Mount Sinai, from whence the desert or wilderness was called. This, as Jarchi says, was on the east side of the mount; Horeb and Sinai were but one and the same mountain, which had two tops. Horeb was on the western side, near to which lay the plain of Rephidim; and Sinai was on the eastern side, on which the wilderness of that name bordered: so that the children of Israel, when they came from Rephidim, came from the western side, and took a circuit about and came to the eastern; which, according to a fore mentioned writer, was eight miles, and was the twelfth station or mansion of the children of Israel. This number twelve is taken notice of by some, as having something singular and peculiar in it; there were the twelve tribes of Israel, and at their twelfth mansion the law was given them; Christ had twelve apostles, and there are twelve foundations of the new Jerusalem, and 12,000 were sealed out of every tribe of Israel.

Gill: Exo 19:3 - And Moses went up unto God // saying, thus shalt thou say, to the house of Jacob, and tell the children of Israel And Moses went up unto God,.... Who was in the pillar of cloud upon the top of the mount; this was on the second day, according to the Targum of Jonat...

And Moses went up unto God,.... Who was in the pillar of cloud upon the top of the mount; this was on the second day, according to the Targum of Jonathan: "the Lord called unto him out of the mountain"; or had called unto him, as Aben Ezra, since without his leave he could not have gone up. He called to him out of the cloud upon the top of the mountain to come up, and being come near him, he called to him, and spoke with an articulate voice, as follows:

saying, thus shalt thou say, to the house of Jacob, and tell the children of Israel; which are the same, and are described as descending from the same person, who was called by both names; the one was his name in the former and lower state of his life, the other in the latter and more prosperous one; and his posterity are called by these two names, as Bishop Patrick observes, to put them in mind, that they who had lately been as low as Jacob, when he went to Padanaram, were now grown as great as God made him when he came from thence, and was called Israel.

Gill: Exo 19:4 - Ye have seen what I did to the Egyptians // and how I bare you on eagles' wings // and brought you unto myself Ye have seen what I did to the Egyptians,.... The plagues he brought upon them in Egypt, and the destruction of them at the Red sea; these things they...

Ye have seen what I did to the Egyptians,.... The plagues he brought upon them in Egypt, and the destruction of them at the Red sea; these things they were eyewitnesses of, and needed no other proof or evidence to convince and assure them of them, and therefore must be under obligation to attend to what he was about to recommend unto them, for which reason this is observed:

and how I bare you on eagles' wings; that is, as on eagles' wings, the note of similitude being wanting, but to be supplied; for it cannot be thought that they were literally bore on eagles' wings; but as that creature is reported to be very affectionate to its young, and careful of it, and, as is said, only to one; for, having more, it will cast away all but one, and reserve that, which it carefully nourishes; and being swift of flight, and strong of wing, it will in a remarkable manner take its young upon it, and safely and swiftly convey it where it pleases; of which See Gill on Deu 32:11. The eagle excels other birds both in its strength and in the size of its body; and especially its pectoral muscles, by which its wings are supported; are very strong, so that it can carry its young, and other things, on its back and wings; and some such thing nature itself seems to have required, as naturalists observe d; and there are some histories, which, if true, greatly confirm and illustrate this. Aelianus e reports of Tilgamus, a Babylonian, and who afterwards was king of Babylon, and who seems to be the Tilgath Pilneser of the Scriptures, king of Assyria, that when a lad, being thrown down from the top of a tower, an eagle, which is a very quick sighted bird, saw him, and, before he came to the ground, flew under him, took him upon its back, and carried him into a garden, and gently let him down. So it is related of Aristomenes f, that as he was casting headlong into a deep ditch by the Lacedemonians, where they used to throw condemned malefactors, an eagle flew under him, and bore him on its wings, and carried him to the bottom, without any hurt to any part of his body. Jarchi observes, that whereas other birds carry their young between their feet, for fear of those that fly above them, the eagle flying above all others, and so in no fear of them, carries its young upon its wings, judging it better that a dart should pierce that than its young. The Targums of Jonathan and Jerusalem paraphrase the words,"and I bore you on clouds, as on eagles' wings;''which covered, and protected, and sustained them, as the eagles' wings do its young; the former adds, from Pelusium, a city in Egypt, supposed by the Targumist to be the same with Rameses; where Jarchi observes the people of Israel were very swiftly gathered together as the place of their rendezvous, and were as safely brought from thence to the place where they now were. Thus the Lord showed an affectionate concern for Israel, took them under his care and protection, stood between them and the Egyptians in a pillar of cloud, and secured them from their arrows, and swiftly and safely removed them from the land of Egypt to the place where they now were, distinguishing them from all other nations, having chosen them to be a special people to himself:

and brought you unto myself: to the mountain of God, where he had appeared to Moses, and given this as a sign and token of the truth of his mission, that he and Israel, when brought out of Egypt by him, should serve him on this mount; and now they were brought thither, where he was about not only to grant his presence in a very singular manner, but to deliver his law unto them, and enter into a covenant with them, and establish and settle them as his people; so that they were a people near unto the Lord, taken into covenant, and indulged with communion with him, and made partakers of various distinguished blessings of his: both the above Targums are, "I brought you to the doctrine of my law", to receive it at this mount.

Gill: Exo 19:5 - Now therefore // if ye will obey my voice indeed // and keep my covenant // then ye shall be a peculiar treasure unto me above all people // for all the earth is mine Now therefore,.... Since they had received such marks of his favour, and were laid under great obligations to him: if ye will obey my voice indeed;...

Now therefore,.... Since they had received such marks of his favour, and were laid under great obligations to him:

if ye will obey my voice indeed; truly, sincerely, and heartily; or "in hearkening hearken", or "in obeying obey" g; that is, closely and attentively hearken to what he should say to them, and thoroughly and constantly yield a cheerful obedience to his commands:

and keep my covenant; now about to be made with them, which would consist of promises of good things to be done to them on his part, and of duties to be performed by them on their part, and so would constitute a formal covenant by stipulation and restipulation:

then ye shall be a peculiar treasure unto me above all people; be as highly valued by him, and as carefully preserved as the richest treasure among men; even as the treasure of princes, consisting of gold and silver, precious stones, pearls and jewels, and everything that is valuable; and of this he would give such proof and demonstration, as would make it appear that they were esteemed by him above all people upon the face of the earth; being chosen for his peculiar treasure, and redeemed out of the house of bondage and slavery to be his peculiar people, and distinguished from all others by particular favours and blessings:

for all the earth is mine; as it is, and the inhabitants of it, by creation, sustentation, preservation, and dominion, all being made, upheld, preserved, and governed by him; and therefore, as he had a right to all, could choose what part he pleased for his special use and service; or "though all the earth is mine" h, as Marinus in Aben Ezra, which yet the latter does not seem to approve of; and then the sense is, though the whole world was his, and all that is in it, yet such was his special affection, and peculiar regard to Israel, as to choose them, and esteem them as his portion and inheritance, his jewel, and peculiar treasure.

Gill: Exo 19:6 - And ye shall be unto me a kingdom of priests // these are the words thou shalt speak unto the children of Israel And ye shall be unto me a kingdom of priests,.... Instead of being in a state of servitude and bondage, as they had been in Egypt, they should be erec...

And ye shall be unto me a kingdom of priests,.... Instead of being in a state of servitude and bondage, as they had been in Egypt, they should be erected into a kingdom, become a body politic, a free state, a commonwealth governed by its own laws, and those laws of God's making; yea, they should be a kingdom to him, and he be more immediately the king of them, as he was not of others, the government of Israel being a Theocracy; and this kingdom should consist of men that were priests, who had access to God, served him, and offered sacrifice to him; or of men greatly esteemed and honoured, as priests were in those times. Jarchi interprets it, a kingdom of princes, as the word sometimes signifies: the subjects of this kingdom were princes, men of a princely spirit, and these princes, like those of the king of Babylon, who boasted they were altogether kings; and like the Roman senators, of whom the ambassador of Pyrrhus said, that he saw at Rome as many kings as he saw senators. And so here all the Targums render it, "kings and priests": to which reference seems to be had not only in 1Pe 2:9 but in Rev 1:6, they were kings when they got the victory, as in the times of Joshua, over the several kings of Canaan, and had their kingdoms divided among them; and before the priesthood was settled in the family of Aaron, every head of a family in Israel was a priest; and they were all priests at the passover, as Philo i observes: and so the spiritual Israel of God are kings and priests; they are kings, having the power and riches of kings; having got through Christ the victory over sin, Satan, and the world; and being possessed of the kingdom of grace, and heirs of the kingdom of glory; and priests, being allowed to draw nigh to God, to present themselves, souls and bodies, a holy and living sacrifice, to offer to him the sacrifices of prayer and praise through Christ, by whom they become acceptable to him: "and an holy nation"; being separated from all others, and devoted to the worship and service of God, having holy laws, and holy ordinances, and a holy service, and a holy place to perform it in, and holy persons to attend unto it, as they afterwards had. In allusion to this, the spiritual Israel, or people of God, are also called so, 1Pe 2:9 being chosen unto holiness, redeemed from all iniquity, called with an holy calling, sanctified by the blood of Christ, and made holy by the Spirit of God, and under the influence of his grace live holy lives and conversations:

these are the words thou shalt speak unto the children of Israel: what he would have them do, and they were bound to do in a way of duty to him, and what he in a way of grace would do for them, and they should be unto him,

Gill: Exo 19:7 - And Moses came and called for the elders of the people // and // laid before their faces all these words which the Lord commanded him And Moses came and called for the elders of the people,.... After he had heard the above words from the mouth of God, he came down from the mount into...

And Moses came and called for the elders of the people,.... After he had heard the above words from the mouth of God, he came down from the mount into the camp of Israel, and sent for the elders or principal men of the tribes and families of Israel to come to him:

and, being gathered together:

laid before their faces all these words which the Lord commanded him; expressed them in the plainest manner, set them in the clearest light to their minds and consciences; so that they thoroughly understood them, were fully convinced of the propriety of these things God required of them, and their obligation to observe them, and saw plainly the greatness and importance of what he promised unto them.

Gill: Exo 19:8 - And all the people answered together // all that the Lord hath spoken we will do // and Moses returned the words of the people unto the Lord And all the people answered together,.... By their heads and representatives, the elders, summoned before Moses, to whom he declared the whole will of...

And all the people answered together,.... By their heads and representatives, the elders, summoned before Moses, to whom he declared the whole will of God; or this being communicated by them to their respective tribes and families, they were all of one mind; there was not a contradicting voice among them, they all gave the same answer, or all united in returning for answer what follows:

all that the Lord hath spoken we will do; obey his voice in all things he directs unto, or commands to be done, and keep the covenant he should make with them, and observe whatever was required on their parts; which was well spoken, if with the heart, and if, under a consciousness of their own weakness, they had expressed their desire of dependence upon the grace of God to enable them to perform, see Deu 5:28. The Septuagint version adds, "and we will hear", or be obedient, as in Exo 24:7,

and Moses returned the words of the people unto the Lord; not for his information, who knew very well what they had said, but for the discharge of his office as a mediator and messenger between God and them: this, according to Jarchi, was on the third day of the month.

Gill: Exo 19:9 - And the Lord said unto Moses // lo, I come unto thee in a thick cloud // that the people may hear when I speak with thee, and believe thee for ever // and Moses told the words of the people unto the Lord And the Lord said unto Moses,.... As the Targum of Jonathan, on the third day; though Jarchi says the fourth; which seems not so well to agree with hi...

And the Lord said unto Moses,.... As the Targum of Jonathan, on the third day; though Jarchi says the fourth; which seems not so well to agree with his words on the preceding verse, since it seems to be at the same time that Moses returned the words of the people to the Lord, that he said what follows to him:

lo, I come unto thee in a thick cloud; which was different from the pillar of cloud in which he went before the people, and now stood in it on the top of the mount; for he speaks not now of his present appearance to Moses, but of his appearance on the mount three days after; wherefore the Septuagint version wrongly renders it, "in a pillar of cloud": there were appearances of the divine Majesty in a cloud frequently afterwards, both in the Old and New Testament, see Exo 40:34 and so Christ, the mighty Angel, is said to be clothed with a cloud, Rev 10:1. And from such appearances as these, the Heathens have represented their deities, as Apollo k, Venus l, Juno m, and others, coming in a cloud, or clothed with one:

that the people may hear when I speak with thee, and believe thee for ever; they had believed Moses already, particularly at the Red sea, when they saw what was done there, but afterwards, as it seems, returned to their unbelief again; but now, as they would be eyewitnesses of the cloud in which the Lord would appear to Moses, so they would be ear witnesses of what he said to him; for though the cloud was a thick one in which he came, so that they could not see any similitude, any likeness at all, not so much as a brightness, a shining glory, as they had seen in the pillar of cloud, see Exo 16:7, yet, the voice of God out of it was so loud, when he spoke with Moses, that this vast body of people being placed around, at the lower part of the mount, heard plainly and distinctly all that was said; so that they were sure they were not imposed upon by Moses, but that the law he delivered to them was from God, since they heard it with their own ears; and therefore they and their posterity believed it for ever, and never entertained the least distrust of the divinity and authority of it. This case was widely different from that of Numa or Mahomet, the one pretending to receive instructions from the goddess Egeria, and the other from the angel Gabriel; but all depended upon their own word, none were, nor did they pretend that any were eye or ear witnesses of what they declared; but such was the case here:

and Moses told the words of the people unto the Lord; the same which he is said to return to him in the preceding verse, and here repeated for the confirmation of it, and to lead on to what the Lord had to say further concerning them.

Gill: Exo 19:10 - And the Lord said unto Moses // go unto the people // and sanctify them today and tomorrow // and let them wash their clothes And the Lord said unto Moses,.... On the fourth day, according to the Targum of Jonathan: go unto the people; go down from the mountain, from the t...

And the Lord said unto Moses,.... On the fourth day, according to the Targum of Jonathan:

go unto the people; go down from the mountain, from the top of it, where he now was, to the camp of Israel, which was pitched before it:

and sanctify them today and tomorrow; the fourth and fifth days of the month; that is, he was, to instruct them how they were to sanctify themselves in an external way, by washing themselves, as after mentioned, their bodies and clothes, and by abstaining from all sensual pleasures, lawful or unlawful:

and let them wash their clothes; which the Jews understood not of their garments, but of their bodies also; teaching them by these outward things the necessity of internal purity and holiness, to appear before God: these outward rites were in use before the law of Moses, as appears from Gen 35:2 and the Heathens themselves have similar notions of the cleanness of bodies and garments, as well as the purity of mind, being acceptable to their deities n.

Gill: Exo 19:11 - And be ready against the third day // for the third day the Lord will come down in the sight of all the people upon Mount Sinai And be ready against the third day,.... Not the third day of the month, but the third day from hence, this being the fourth, and the morrow the fifth,...

And be ready against the third day,.... Not the third day of the month, but the third day from hence, this being the fourth, and the morrow the fifth, and the third day, the day following that, the sixth, on which day it is generally agreed by the Jews that the law was given; see Gill on Exo 19:16.

for the third day the Lord will come down in the sight of all the people upon Mount Sinai; which must be understood, consistent with his omnipresence, and is only expressive of some visible display of his power, and of some sensible token of his presence to the people; he was now upon it in the pillar of cloud, but then he would appear in another manner, and descend in a thick cloud and fire, which all the people would see, though they could not see the similitude of anything in it.

Gill: Exo 19:12 - And thou shall set bounds to the people round about // saying, take heed unto yourselves that ye go not up into the mount // or touch the border of it // whosoever toucheth the mount shall be surely put to death And thou shall set bounds to the people round about,.... That is, round about the mountain, by drawing a line, throwing up a foss or ditch, or else by...

And thou shall set bounds to the people round about,.... That is, round about the mountain, by drawing a line, throwing up a foss or ditch, or else by laying up heaps of stones or sand, which might be come at easily, or bushes and branches of trees, which grew thick on the mount, from whence it had its name; but be it what will that were used, these were to signify, that so far the people might go, but no further, which their curiosity might prompt them to:

saying, take heed unto yourselves that ye go not up into the mount; so far were they from being allowed to go up to the top of it, that they were not allowed to ascend it at all, or to go any further than where the ascent or rise began; it was at their peril to ascend, and this was what they were to take heed unto, lest they incurred danger:

or touch the border of it; it being the mountain of God, and relatively holy through his presence on it:

whosoever toucheth the mount shall be surely put to death; which severe law was made to deter them from any attempt to go up the mountain, since it was death even to touch it, see Heb 12:18.

Gill: Exo 19:13 - There shall not a hand touch it // but he shall surely be stoned, or shot through // whether it be beast, or man, it shall not live // when the trumpet soundeth long, they shall come up to the mount There shall not a hand touch it,.... The mountain or the border of it, which is repeated that it might be taken notice of; and to show that it would b...

There shall not a hand touch it,.... The mountain or the border of it, which is repeated that it might be taken notice of; and to show that it would be resented if they were to stretch out their hand and only lightly touch it, much more should they set their feet upon it and attempt to ascend it: or rather, "shall not touch him" o; that is, the man that shall touch the mountain; he shall be so detestable and abominable, whoever touches it or breaks through the bounds of it, and attempts to ascend it, that no man shall follow him to lay hold on him, in order to bring him back to justice, but shall dispatch him at once in one or other of the ways directed to:

but he shall surely be stoned, or shot through; if near at hand, all about him shall rise upon him, and take up stones and stone him; but if he is got at a distance, then they were to shoot arrows at him; and in this way Aben Ezra interprets it; the words, says he, refer to the man that toucheth the mount, who is not to be followed and apprehended, but those that see him, and are near, abiding in the place where they are, are to stone him immediately, and if afar off they are to throw darts at him: though the Targum of Jonathan seems to understand it, as if punishment would be immediately inflicted upon such a person, not by the hands of men, but by the hand of God; for it says, such an one shall be stoned with hailstones, and fiery darts shall be spread upon him; or, as the Jerusalem Targum, shall be shot at him:

whether it be beast, or man, it shall not live; that touches the mountain, and so it is explained, Heb 12:20, the word beast comprehends all kinds of beasts, wild and tame, and all sorts of cattle, of the herd or flock; as the word "man" takes in women as well as men, as Ben Gersom observes; Aben Ezra thinks fowls are not mentioned, because they cannot be taken, but fly away immediately; but then they might be shot:

when the trumpet soundeth long, they shall come up to the mount; this, according to Jarchi, was a trumpet of a ram's horn; the word used in the Arabic language signifying a ram; but it is a mere fancy and fable of his, that this was of the ram of Isaac which was sacrificed in his stead; it is much more likely that there was indeed no real trumpet, only a sound was formed like the sound of one; and, it is highly probable, was formed by the ministering angels; Aben Ezra observes, that the sound of a trumpet was never heard until the day of the decalogue, until the day that was given; and that there was not a greater wonder on Mount Sinai than this: the design and use of it was to gather, this vast body of people together, to come and hear what God had to say unto them; and when its sound was protracted to a great length, or was in one continued tone, and somewhat lower, as is usual when a trumpet is about to cease blowing, then the people were to take it as a token that they should approach the mountain; not to ascend it, but come to the lower and nether part of it, where bounds were set to direct them how far they might go, and no further: so the Septuagint version is,"when the voices (or thunders) and the trumpets and the cloud departed from the mountain, they went up to the mountain:''a certain Jewish writer p interprets this, not of the people in general, but of Aaron and his sons, and of the seventy elders, see Exo 19:24.

Gill: Exo 19:14 - And Moses went down from the mount unto the people // and sanctified the people // and they washed their clothes And Moses went down from the mount unto the people,.... The same day that he went up, the fourth day of the month: and sanctified the people; instr...

And Moses went down from the mount unto the people,.... The same day that he went up, the fourth day of the month:

and sanctified the people; instructed them and ordered them what they should do for their sanctification, in order to their hearing the law from the mouth of the Lord:

and they washed their clothes; as the Lord had directed Moses to enjoin them, and as he had commanded them; see Gill on Exo 19:10.

Gill: Exo 19:15 - And he said unto the people, be ready against the third day // come not at your wives And he said unto the people, be ready against the third day,.... The third day from thence, the sixth of the month Sivan, against which day they were ...

And he said unto the people, be ready against the third day,.... The third day from thence, the sixth of the month Sivan, against which day they were to prepare themselves, by washing their garments, and all other outward acts of sanctification and purity they were directed to, that they might be ready for the service of that day, to hear and receive the law from God himself: Aben Ezra has this note on the passage,"perhaps not a man slept that night, that he might hear the voice of the Lord in the morning, as was the way or custom of the high priest on the day of atonement;''that is, not to sleep the night before:

come not at your wives; or, "do not draw nigh to a woman" q, to lie with her; meaning not with a strange woman, or one that was not his wife, for that was not lawful at any time; nor with a menstruous woman who was unclean, and so forbidden, but with a man's own wife: what was lawful must now be abstained from, for the greater sanctification and solemnity of the service of this day, see 1Co 7:5, so Chaeremoh r the stoic says of the Egyptian priests, that when the time is at hand that they are to perform some very sacred and solemn service, they spend several days in preparing for it; sometimes two and forty, sometimes more, sometimes less, but never under seven; when they abstain from all animals, and from all kind of herbs and pulse, and especially from venereal conversation with women; and to this latter Juvenal s the poet has respect.

Gill: Exo 19:16 - And it came to pass on the third day in the morning, // there were thunders, and lightnings, and a thick cloud upon the mount // and the voice of the trumpet exceeding loud // so that all the people that was in the camp trembled And it came to pass on the third day in the morning, The sixth of the month, according to the Targum of Jonathan, and so Jarchi; on which day, as the ...

And it came to pass on the third day in the morning, The sixth of the month, according to the Targum of Jonathan, and so Jarchi; on which day, as the Jews generally say t, the law was given, and which, they also observe, was a sabbath day: yea, they are sometimes so very particular as to fix the hour of the day, and say u, it was the sixth hour of the day, or twelve o'clock at noon, that Israel received the decalogue, and at the ninth hour, at three o'clock in the afternoon, returned to their stations:

there were thunders, and lightnings, and a thick cloud upon the mount; which were to awaken the attention of the people to what they were to hear and receive, and to strike their minds with an awe of the divine Being; and to add to the solemnity of the day, and the service of it; and to signify the obscurity and terror of the legal dispensation, and the wrath and curse that the transgressors the law might expect, even an horrible tempest of divine vengeance, see Heb 12:18.

and the voice of the trumpet exceeding loud; or, "exceeding strong" w; being blown by the mighty angels, and by ten thousand them, with whom the Lord now descended:

so that all the people that was in the camp trembled, at the sound of it, it was so loud and terrible, and it so pierced their ears and their hearts: a different effect the Gospel trumpet the jubilee trumpet, the joyful sound of love, grace, and mercy, has upon sensible sinners, and on true believers: the law with its curses terrifies, the Gospel with its blessings comforts.

Gill: Exo 19:17 - And Moses brought forth the people out of the camp // to meet with God // and they stood at the nether part of the mount And Moses brought forth the people out of the camp,.... Which was before the mountain and near it, when the above tokens were given of the divine Pres...

And Moses brought forth the people out of the camp,.... Which was before the mountain and near it, when the above tokens were given of the divine Presence on it; as they were thrown into a panic upon the sound of the trumpet, it was, perhaps, with some difficulty that they were brought out of the camp, or persuaded to quit it; and nothing short of the presence of Moses at the head of them, to go before them, and lead them to the foot of the mountain, could have prevailed upon them to have done it:

to meet with God; who came forth in such an awful and solemn manner, as their King and lawgiver, to deliver a body of laws to them, to be the rule of their future conduct:

and they stood at the nether part of the mount; at the bottom of it, where bounds were set, and a fence made, that they should proceed no further, and yet near enough to hear what God said to Moses and to them.

Gill: Exo 19:18 - And Mount Sinai was altogether on a smoke // because the Lord descended upon it in fire // and the smoke thereof ascended as the smoke of a furnace // and the whole mount quaked greatly And Mount Sinai was altogether on a smoke,.... Not from nature, as volcanos, but for a reason after given; it seemed to be one large body of smoke, no...

And Mount Sinai was altogether on a smoke,.... Not from nature, as volcanos, but for a reason after given; it seemed to be one large body of smoke, nothing else to be seen but smoke; an emblem of the darkness of the legal dispensation, which was full of obscure types and figures, of dark shadows and smoky sacrifices, to which the clear day, of the Gospel dispensation is opposed, see 2Co 3:12.

because the Lord descended upon it in fire; in flaming fire, as the Targums, which set the mountain on fire, and caused this prodigious smoke; for if he, who is a consuming fire, but toucheth the hills and mountains, they smoke, Psa 104:32.

and the smoke thereof ascended as the smoke of a furnace such an one as that which Abraham in vision saw, Gen 15:17.

and the whole mount quaked greatly; to which circumstance Deborah refers in her song, when she speaks of mountains melting and flowing from before the presence of the God of Israel, and particularly of Sinai, Jdg 5:4, and the psalmist, who makes mention of the earth shaking, and the heavens dropping, and of Sinai being moved at his presence, Psa 68:8, it is probable there was an earthquake at this time, which sometimes attends thunders and lightnings, see Rev 16:18.

Gill: Exo 19:19 - And when the voice of the trumpet sounded long // Moses spake // and God answered him by a voice And when the voice of the trumpet sounded long,.... Not in one continued tone, as before, Exo 19:13, where a different word is used, and when it decre...

And when the voice of the trumpet sounded long,.... Not in one continued tone, as before, Exo 19:13, where a different word is used, and when it decreased, and was about to cease, which was to summon the people to attend; but now they were come to the foot of the mount, and this sounding was a preparation to the giving of the law unto them, and was not one continued even tone: but waxed louder and louder; or, "going, and exceeding strong"; or, "strengthening itself exceedingly" x; it went on to an high pitch, until it was exceeding vehement and strong, and so sonorous as scarce to be bore:

Moses spake; what he said is not here recorded; it is highly probable, as has been observed by some, that he uttered those words related of him in Heb 12:21 "I exceedingly fear and quake": such an impression did this loud and strong voice of the trumpet make upon him:

and God answered him by a voice; a still and gentle one, in order to encourage and comfort him; and so the Targum of Jonathan paraphrases it,"with a pleasant and audible voice, and with delightful words.''

Gill: Exo 19:20 - And the Lord came down on Mount Sinai // on the top of the mount // and the Lord called Moses up to the top of the mount // and Moses went up And the Lord came down on Mount Sinai,.... In the above visible tokens of his presence and power; otherwise he is the incomprehensible Jehovah, that i...

And the Lord came down on Mount Sinai,.... In the above visible tokens of his presence and power; otherwise he is the incomprehensible Jehovah, that immense and omnipotent Being, who fills heaven and earth, and cannot be contained and circumscribed in either:

on the top of the mount; where the fire he descended in rested, and where the smoke and thick cloud were, as a token of his presence:

and the Lord called Moses up to the top of the mount; who either was at the bottom of it with the people, or in a higher ascent of it between God and them:

and Moses went up; to the top of it, where the Lord was, as he ordered him: a certain traveller y tells us that the top of this mount was scarce thirty feet in circumference.

Gill: Exo 19:21 - And the Lord said unto Moses, go down // charge the people, lest they break through unto the Lord to gaze // and many of them perish And the Lord said unto Moses, go down,.... As soon as he was got to the top of the mount he was bid to go down again to the bottom, with a message to ...

And the Lord said unto Moses, go down,.... As soon as he was got to the top of the mount he was bid to go down again to the bottom, with a message to the people:

charge the people, lest they break through unto the Lord to gaze; to see if they could observe any similitude or likeness of God, that they might have an idea of it in their minds, or make an image like unto it; to prevent which, the Lord, knowing the vanity and curiosity of their minds, ordered Moses to give them a strict charge not to transgress the bounds set them, or to break down or break through the fence of stones and sand, or hedge of bushes, brambles, and branches of trees, or whatever was placed for bounds:

and many of them perish; or "fall" z; by the hand of God; either fall by death, or into some grievous calamity, as the men of Bethshemesh perished through looking into the ark, 1Sa 6:19.

Gill: Exo 19:22 - And let the priests also, which come near unto the Lord // sanctify themselves // lest the Lord break forth upon them And let the priests also, which come near unto the Lord,.... Either the firstborn, as the Jews generally interpret it, so Jarchi and Aben Ezra; who we...

And let the priests also, which come near unto the Lord,.... Either the firstborn, as the Jews generally interpret it, so Jarchi and Aben Ezra; who were sanctified to the Lord, and in whose stead afterwards the Levites were taken; or the sons of Aaron, who should be, and were potentially, though not actually priests, as Ben Gersom expresses it, from an ancient book of theirs called Mechilta; or rather some principal persons, as heads of families and the like, who, before the priesthood was settled in the family of Aaron, officiated as priests, and drew nigh to God, and offered up sacrifices for themselves and others, and were distinguished from others by this character, and therefore do not intend princes, as some interpret the word; for the description of them will not agree to them, but plainly points to a sort of men, to whom it was peculiar to perform that office. These Moses is bid to charge that they

sanctify themselves; in the same manner as the people in general were before ordered, and keep themselves within the same bounds; not daring to transgress them, because they were persons that used to draw nigh to God in the performance of religious actions:

lest the Lord break forth upon them; and smite them, that they die, in like manner as he made a breach on Uzzah afterwards for touching the ark of the Lord, 2Sa 6:6.

Gill: Exo 19:23 - And Moses said unto the Lord // the people cannot come up to Mount Sinai // for thou chargedst us, saying, set bounds about the mount, and sanctify it And Moses said unto the Lord,.... Upon his giving such strict orders both with respect to the people and the priests: the people cannot come up to ...

And Moses said unto the Lord,.... Upon his giving such strict orders both with respect to the people and the priests:

the people cannot come up to Mount Sinai; suggesting as if there was no need for him to go down on that account, to give them a charge not to break through and gaze; since, as he thought, there was no probability that they ever would attempt it, seeing such a solemn charge had been given, nor any possibility of it, since such a fence was made:

for thou chargedst us, saying, set bounds about the mount, and sanctify it; and accordingly bounds have been set, that the people may not go up it, and the place has been declared sacred, that so none will presume to do it, according to the solemn charge that has been given: some a read the preceding clause by way of interrogation, "may not the people come up to Mount Sinai?" may not any of them? or, if any of them, who may? and there was the greater reason for asking such a question, since the priests that drew near to God might not, and so the next words are conceived to be an answer to it.

Gill: Exo 19:24 - And the Lord said unto him, away, get thee down // and thou shall come up, thou, and Aaron with thee // but let not the priests and the people break through to come up unto the Lord, lest he break forth upon them And the Lord said unto him, away, get thee down,.... And prevent the people and priests from breaking through the bounds and gazing, to which their cu...

And the Lord said unto him, away, get thee down,.... And prevent the people and priests from breaking through the bounds and gazing, to which their curiosity would tempt them; as the Lord knew better than Moses, and it was high time for him to be gone, the matter required haste, the people were under great temptations of indulging their curiosity, to the peril of their lives:

and thou shall come up, thou, and Aaron with thee; which is thought to be an answer to the question, who might come up? only himself and Aaron, who was his prophet and spokesman, and concerned with him in his miracles, and in conducting the people of Israel; and who was to be chief priest as Moses was to be, and was the leader and governor of the people:

but let not the priests and the people break through to come up unto the Lord, lest he break forth upon them; it required the immediate presence of Moses below, and immediate care was to be taken by him, lest the priests and people, led by a vain curiosity, should attempt to ascend the mount, and come where God was, to see if they could observe any likeness of him; which would so provoke him, that in just retaliation, as they had broke through the bounds set, he would break forth on them by inflicting sudden death upon them.

Gill: Exo 19:25 - So Moses went down to the people // and spake unto them So Moses went down to the people,.... As the Lord commanded him: and spake unto them: charging them to keep their distance, and not presume to pass...

So Moses went down to the people,.... As the Lord commanded him:

and spake unto them: charging them to keep their distance, and not presume to pass the line he had drawn, or the foss or fence he had made: in the Jerusalem Targum it is added,"come and receive the ten words;''the decalogue or ten commands; and the Targum of Jonathan,"come and receive the law with the ten words;''the ten commandments of the law, which are delivered in the following chapter.

buka semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki

NET Notes: Exo 19:1 Heb “on this day.”

NET Notes: Exo 19:2 The mountain is Mount Sinai, the mountain of God, the place where God had met and called Moses and had promised that they would be here to worship him...

NET Notes: Exo 19:3 This expression is normally translated as “Israelites” in this translation, but because in this place it is parallel to “the house o...

NET Notes: Exo 19:4 The language here is the language of a bridegroom bringing the bride to the chamber. This may be a deliberate allusion to another metaphor for the cov...

NET Notes: Exo 19:5 The noun is סְגֻלָּה (sÿgullah), which means a special possession. Israel was to be God’s s...

NET Notes: Exo 19:6 They are also to be “a holy nation.” They are to be a nation separate and distinct from the rest of the nations. Here is another aspect of...

NET Notes: Exo 19:8 The verb is an imperfect. The people are not being presumptuous in stating their compliance – there are several options open for the interpretat...

NET Notes: Exo 19:9 Since “and also in you” begins the clause, the emphasis must be that the people would also trust Moses. See Exod 4:1-9, 31; 14:31.

NET Notes: Exo 19:10 The form is a perfect 3cpl with a vav (ו) consecutive. It is instructional as well, but now in the third person it is like a jussive, “let...

NET Notes: Exo 19:12 The Niphal imperative (“guard yourselves, take heed to yourselves”) is followed by two infinitives construct that provide the description ...

NET Notes: Exo 19:13 The nuance here is permissive imperfect, “they may go up.” The ram’s horn would sound the blast to announce that the revelation peri...

NET Notes: Exo 19:15 B. Jacob (Exodus, 537) notes that as the people were to approach him they were not to lose themselves in earthly love. Such separations prepared the p...

NET Notes: Exo 19:16 The word here is שֹׁפָר (shofar), the normal word for “horn.” This word is used especially to announce...

NET Notes: Exo 19:18 This is the same word translated “trembled” above (v. 16).

NET Notes: Exo 19:19 The text simply has בְּקוֹל (bÿqol); it could mean “with a voice” or it could mean “i...

NET Notes: Exo 19:21 Heb “and fall”; NAB “be struck down.”

NET Notes: Exo 19:22 The verb יִפְרֹץ (yifrots) is the imperfect tense from פָּרַץ (parats, &...

NET Notes: Exo 19:23 Heb “sanctify it.”

NET Notes: Exo 19:25 The passage has many themes and emphases that could be developed in exposition. It could serve for meditation: the theology drawn from the three parts...

Geneva Bible: Exo 19:1 In the ( a ) third month, when the children of Israel were gone forth out of the land of Egypt, the same ( b ) day came they [into] the wilderness of ...

Geneva Bible: Exo 19:3 And Moses went up unto God, and the LORD called unto him out of the mountain, saying, Thus shalt thou say to the house of ( c ) Jacob, and tell the ch...

Geneva Bible: Exo 19:4 Ye have seen what I did unto the Egyptians, and [how] I bare you on ( d ) eagles' wings, and brought you unto myself. ( d ) For the eagle by flying h...

Geneva Bible: Exo 19:10 And the LORD said unto Moses, Go unto the people, and ( e ) sanctify them to day and to morrow, and let them wash their clothes, ( e ) Teach them to ...

Geneva Bible: Exo 19:15 And he said unto the people, Be ready against the third day: come not at [your] ( f ) wives. ( f ) But give yourselves to prayer and abstinence, that...

Geneva Bible: Exo 19:18 And mount Sinai was altogether on a smoke, because the LORD descended upon it in fire: and the smoke thereof ascended as the smoke of a furnace, and t...

Geneva Bible: Exo 19:19 And when the voice of the trumpet sounded long, and waxed louder and louder, Moses spake, and God answered him by a ( h ) voice. ( h ) He gave author...

Geneva Bible: Exo 19:24 And the LORD said unto him, Away, get thee down, and thou shalt come up, thou, and Aaron with thee: but let not the ( i ) priests and the people break...

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Rentang Ayat

MHCC: Exo 19:1-8 - --Moses was called up the mountain, and was employed as the messenger of this covenant. The Maker and first Mover of the covenant, is God himself. This ...

MHCC: Exo 19:9-15 - --The solemn manner in which the law was delivered, was to impress the people with a right sense of the Divine majesty. Also to convince them of their o...

MHCC: Exo 19:16-25 - --Never was there such a sermon preached, before or since, as this which was preached to the church in the wilderness. It might be supposed that the ter...

Matthew Henry: Exo 19:1-8 - -- Here is, I. The date of that great charter by which Israel was incorporated. 1. The time when it bears date (Exo 19:1) - in the third month after ...

Matthew Henry: Exo 19:9-15 - -- Here, I. God intimates to Moses his purpose of coming down upon mount Sinai, in some visible appearance of his glory, in a thick cloud (Exo 19:9);...

Matthew Henry: Exo 19:16-25 - -- Now, at length, comes that memorable day, that terrible day of the Lord, that day of judgment, in which Israel heard the voice of the Lord God spe...

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 19:1-2 - -- In the third month after their departure from Egypt, the Israelites arrived at Sinai, proceeding from Rephidim into the desert of Sinai, and encampi...

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 19:3-4 - -- Moses had known from the time of his call that Israel would serve God on this mountain (Exo 3:12); and as soon as the people were encamped opposite ...

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 19:5-6 - -- This manifestation of the love of God to Israel formed only the prelude, however, to that gracious union which Jehovah was now about to establish be...

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 19:7-9 - -- When Moses communicated to the people through their elders this incomparable promise of the Lord, they promised unanimously ( יחדּו ) to do all ...

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 19:10-15 - -- God then commanded Moses to prepare the people for His appearing or speaking to them: (1) by their sanctification, through the washing of the body a...

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 19:16-25 - -- After these preparations, on the morning of the third day (from the issuing of this divine command), Jehovah came down upon the top of Mount Sinai (...

Constable: Exo 15:22--Lev 1:1 - --II. THE ADOPTION OF ISRAEL 15:22--40:38 The second major section of Exodus records the events associated with Go...

Constable: Exo 19:1--24:12 - --B. The establishment of the Mosaic Covenant 19:1-24:11 The Lord had liberated Israel from bondage in Egy...

Constable: Exo 19:1-25 - --1. Preparation for the Covenant ch. 19 Moses revealed God's purpose for giving the Mosaic Covenant in this chapter. 19:1-6 The Israelites arrived at t...

Guzik: Exo 19:1-25 - The Nation of Israel Comes to Mount Sinai Exodus 19 - The Nation of Israel Comes to Mount Sinai A. Coming to the Mountain. 1. (1-2) Israel camps at Mount Sinai. In the third month after th...

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Lainnya

Evidence: Exo 19:20 If the sinner will humble himself before God, Gsd wilt-draw near to the sinner (James 4:8-10).

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Pendahuluan / Garis Besar

JFB: Exodus (Pendahuluan Kitab) EXODUS, a "going forth," derives its name from its being occupied principally with a relation of the departure of the Israelites from Egypt, and the i...

JFB: Exodus (Garis Besar) INCREASE OF THE ISRAELITES. (Exo. 1:1-22) BIRTH AND PRESERVATION OF MOSES. (Exo 2:1-10) there went a man of the house of Levi, &c. Amram was the hus...

TSK: Exodus (Pendahuluan Kitab) The title of this Book is derived from the Septuagint; in which it is called ΕΞΟΔΟΣ , " Exodus;" or, as it is in the Codex Alexandrinus, Ε...

TSK: Exodus 19 (Pendahuluan Pasal) Overview Exo 19:1, The people arrive at Sinai; Exo 19:3, God’s message by Moses unto the people out of the mount; Exo 19:8, The people’s answe...

Poole: Exodus (Pendahuluan Kitab) SECOND BOOK OF MOSES CALLED EXODUS. THE ARGUMENT. AFTER the death of Joseph, who had sent for his father’ s house into Egypt, the children o...

Poole: Exodus 19 (Pendahuluan Pasal) CHAPTER 19 The people come to Sinai, Exo 19:1,2 . God’ s proposal to them by Moses. Of the terms of the covenant, Exo 19:3-6 . Moses lays befo...

MHCC: Exodus (Pendahuluan Kitab) The Book of Exodus relates the forming of the children of Israel into a church and a nation. We have hitherto seen true religion shown in domestic lif...

MHCC: Exodus 19 (Pendahuluan Pasal) (Exo 19:1-8) The people come to Sinai, God's message to them, and their answer. (Exo 19:9-15) The people directed to prepare to hear the law. (Exo 1...

Matthew Henry: Exodus (Pendahuluan Kitab) An Exposition, with Practical Observations, of The Second Book of Moses, Called Exodus Moses (the servant of the Lord in writing for him as well as ...

Matthew Henry: Exodus 19 (Pendahuluan Pasal) This chapter introduces the solemnity of the giving of the law upon mount Sinai, which was one of the most striking appearances of the divine glory...

Constable: Exodus (Pendahuluan Kitab) Introduction Title The Hebrew title of this book (we'elleh shemot) originated from the...

Constable: Exodus (Garis Besar) Outline I. The liberation of Israel 1:1-15:21 A. God's preparation of Israel and Moses chs. ...

Constable: Exodus Exodus Bibliography Adams, Dwayne H. "The Building Program that Works (Exodus 25:4--36:7 [31:1-11])." Exegesis ...

Haydock: Exodus (Pendahuluan Kitab) THE BOOK OF EXODUS. INTRODUCTION. The second Book of Moses is called Exodus from the Greek word Exodos, which signifies going out; becaus...

Gill: Exodus (Pendahuluan Kitab) INTRODUCTION TO EXODUS This book is called by the Jews Veelleh Shemoth, from the first words with which it begins, and sometimes Sepher Shemoth, an...

Gill: Exodus 19 (Pendahuluan Pasal) INTRODUCTION TO EXODUS 19 In this chapter we have an account of the coming of the children of Israel to Mount Sinai, Exo 19:1, of the covenant made...

Advanced Commentary (Kamus, Lagu-Lagu Himne, Gambar, Ilustrasi Khotbah, Pertanyaan-Pertanyaan, dll)


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