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Teks -- Leviticus 23:1-44 (NET)

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Konteks
Regulations for Israel’s Appointed Times
23:1 The Lord spoke to Moses: 23:2 “Speak to the Israelites and tell them, ‘These are the Lord’s appointed times which you must proclaim as holy assemblies– my appointed times:
The Weekly Sabbath
23:3 “‘Six days work may be done, but on the seventh day there must be a Sabbath of complete rest, a holy assembly. You must not do any work; it is a Sabbath to the Lord in all the places where you live.
The Festival of Passover and Unleavened Bread
23:4 “‘These are the Lord’s appointed times, holy assemblies, which you must proclaim at their appointed time. 23:5 In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month, at twilight, is a Passover offering to the Lord. 23:6 Then on the fifteenth day of the same month will be the festival of unleavened bread to the Lord; seven days you must eat unleavened bread. 23:7 On the first day there will be a holy assembly for you; you must not do any regular work. 23:8 You must present a gift to the Lord for seven days, and the seventh day is a holy assembly; you must not do any regular work.’”
The Presentation of First Fruits
23:9 The Lord spoke to Moses: 23:10 “Speak to the Israelites and tell them, ‘When you enter the land that I am about to give to you and you gather in its harvest, then you must bring the sheaf of the first portion of your harvest to the priest, 23:11 and he must wave the sheaf before the Lord to be accepted for your benefit– on the day after the Sabbath the priest is to wave it. 23:12 On the day you wave the sheaf you must also offer a flawless yearling lamb for a burnt offering to the Lord, 23:13 along with its grain offering, two tenths of an ephah of choice wheat flour mixed with olive oil, as a gift to the Lord, a soothing aroma, and its drink offering, one fourth of a hin of wine. 23:14 You must not eat bread, roasted grain, or fresh grain until this very day, until you bring the offering of your God. This is a perpetual statute throughout your generations in all the places where you live.
The Festival of Weeks
23:15 “‘You must count for yourselves seven weeks from the day after the Sabbath, from the day you bring the wave offering sheaf; they must be complete weeks. 23:16 You must count fifty days– until the day after the seventh Sabbath– and then you must present a new grain offering to the Lord. 23:17 From the places where you live you must bring two loaves of bread for a wave offering; they must be made from two tenths of an ephah of fine wheat flour, baked with yeast, as first fruits to the Lord. 23:18 Along with the loaves of bread, you must also present seven flawless yearling lambs, one young bull, and two rams. They are to be a burnt offering to the Lord along with their grain offering and drink offerings, a gift of a soothing aroma to the Lord. 23:19 You must also offer one male goat for a sin offering and two yearling lambs for a peace offering sacrifice, 23:20 and the priest is to wave them– the two lambs– along with the bread of the first fruits, as a wave offering before the Lord; they will be holy to the Lord for the priest. 23:21 “‘On this very day you must proclaim an assembly; it is to be a holy assembly for you. You must not do any regular work. This is a perpetual statute in all the places where you live throughout your generations. 23:22 When you gather in the harvest of your land, you must not completely harvest the corner of your field, and you must not gather up the gleanings of your harvest. You must leave them for the poor and the foreigner. I am the Lord your God.’”
The Festival of Horn Blasts
23:23 The Lord spoke to Moses: 23:24 “Tell the Israelites, ‘In the seventh month, on the first day of the month, you must have a complete rest, a memorial announced by loud horn blasts, a holy assembly. 23:25 You must not do any regular work, but you must present a gift to the Lord.’”
The Day of Atonement
23:26 The Lord spoke to Moses: 23:27 “The tenth day of this seventh month is the Day of Atonement. It is to be a holy assembly for you, and you must humble yourselves and present a gift to the Lord. 23:28 You must not do any work on this particular day, because it is a day of atonement to make atonement for yourselves before the Lord your God. 23:29 Indeed, any person who does not behave with humility on this particular day will be cut off from his people. 23:30 As for any person who does any work on this particular day, I will exterminate that person from the midst of his people! 23:31 You must not do any work. This is a perpetual statute throughout your generations in all the places where you live. 23:32 It is a Sabbath of complete rest for you, and you must humble yourselves on the ninth day of the month in the evening, from evening until evening you must observe your Sabbath.”
The Festival of Booths
23:33 The Lord spoke to Moses: 23:34 “Tell the Israelites, ‘On the fifteenth day of this seventh month is the Festival of Temporary Shelters for seven days to the Lord. 23:35 On the first day is a holy assembly; you must do no regular work. 23:36 For seven days you must present a gift to the Lord. On the eighth day there is to be a holy assembly for you, and you must present a gift to the Lord. It is a solemn assembly day; you must not do any regular work. 23:37 “‘These are the appointed times of the Lord that you must proclaim as holy assemblies to present a gift to the Lord– burnt offering, grain offering, sacrifice, and drink offerings, each day according to its regulation, 23:38 besides the Sabbaths of the Lord and all your gifts, votive offerings, and freewill offerings which you must give to the Lord. 23:39 “‘On the fifteenth day of the seventh month, when you gather in the produce of the land, you must celebrate a pilgrim festival of the Lord for seven days. On the first day is a complete rest and on the eighth day is complete rest. 23:40 On the first day you must take for yourselves branches from majestic trees– palm branches, branches of leafy trees, and willows of the brook– and you must rejoice before the Lord your God for seven days. 23:41 You must celebrate it as a pilgrim festival to the Lord for seven days in the year. This is a perpetual statute throughout your generations; you must celebrate it in the seventh month. 23:42 You must live in temporary shelters for seven days; every native citizen in Israel must live in temporary shelters, 23:43 so that your future generations may know that I made the Israelites live in temporary shelters when I brought them out from the land of Egypt. I am the Lord your God.’” 23:44 So Moses spoke to the Israelites about the appointed times of the Lord.
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Egypt descendants of Mizraim
 · Israel a citizen of Israel.,a member of the nation of Israel
 · Moses a son of Amram; the Levite who led Israel out of Egypt and gave them The Law of Moses,a Levite who led Israel out of Egypt and gave them the law


Topik/Tema Kamus: Convocation | TRUMPETS, FEAST OF | Sabbath | LAW IN THE OLD TESTAMENT | Festivals, Religious | Israel | FEASTS AND FASTS | CRITICISM | LEVITICUS, 1 | Passover | Sanitation | LAW OF MOSES | Pentecost | Seven | Ethanim | Tabernacles, Feast of | Offerings | TABERNACLE, B | ATONEMENT, DAY OF | Firstfruits | selebihnya
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Maclaren , MHCC , Matthew Henry , Keil-Delitzsch , Constable , Guzik

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Wesley: Lev 23:2 - Ye shall proclaim Cause to be proclaimed, by the priests.

Cause to be proclaimed, by the priests.

Wesley: Lev 23:2 - Holy convocations Days for your assembling together to my worship in a special manner.

Days for your assembling together to my worship in a special manner.

Wesley: Lev 23:3 - Ye shall do no work therein So it runs in the general for the sabbath day, and for the day of expiation, Lev 23:28, excluding all works about earthly employments whether of profi...

So it runs in the general for the sabbath day, and for the day of expiation, Lev 23:28, excluding all works about earthly employments whether of profit or of pleasure; but upon other feast days he forbids only servile works, as Lev 23:7, Lev 23:21, Lev 23:36, for surely this manifest difference in the expressions used by the wife God must needs imply a difference in the things.

Wesley: Lev 23:3 - In all your dwellings Other feasts, were to be kept before the Lord in Jerusalem only, whither all the males were to come for that end; but the sabbath was to be kept in al...

Other feasts, were to be kept before the Lord in Jerusalem only, whither all the males were to come for that end; but the sabbath was to be kept in all places, both in synagogues, and in their private houses.

Wesley: Lev 23:4 - These are the feasts of the Lord Or rather, the solemnities: (for the day of atonement was a fast:) and so the word is used, Isa 33:20, where Zion is called the city of our solemnitie...

Or rather, the solemnities: (for the day of atonement was a fast:) and so the word is used, Isa 33:20, where Zion is called the city of our solemnities.

Wesley: Lev 23:10 - An omer They did not offer this corn in the ear, or by a sheaf or handful, but, as Josephus, 3. 10 affirms, and may be gathered from Lev 2:14-16, purged from ...

They did not offer this corn in the ear, or by a sheaf or handful, but, as Josephus, 3. 10 affirms, and may be gathered from Lev 2:14-16, purged from the chaff, and dryed, and beaten out.

Wesley: Lev 23:11 - He shall wave the sheaf before the Lord In the name of the whole congregation, which as it were sanctified to them the whole harvest, and gave them a comfortable use of all the rest. For the...

In the name of the whole congregation, which as it were sanctified to them the whole harvest, and gave them a comfortable use of all the rest. For then we may eat our bread with joy, when God hath accepted our works. And thus should we always begin with God; begin our lives with him, begin every day with him, begin every work and business with him: seek ye first the kingdom of God.

Wesley: Lev 23:11 - The morrow after the sabbath After the first day of the feast of unleavened bread, which was a sabbath or day of rest, as appears from Lev 23:7, or upon the sixteenth day of the m...

After the first day of the feast of unleavened bread, which was a sabbath or day of rest, as appears from Lev 23:7, or upon the sixteenth day of the month. And this was the first of those fifty days, in the close whereof was the feast of pentecost.

Wesley: Lev 23:13 - Two tenth deals Or, parts, of an ephah, that is, two omers, whereas in other sacrifices of lambs there was but one tenth deal prescribed. The reason of which dispropo...

Or, parts, of an ephah, that is, two omers, whereas in other sacrifices of lambs there was but one tenth deal prescribed. The reason of which disproportion may be this, that one of the tenth deals was a necessary attendant upon the lamb, and the other was peculiar to this feast, and was an attendant upon that of the corn, and was offered with it in thanksgiving to God for the fruits of the earth.

Wesley: Lev 23:14 - Bread Made of new wheat.

Made of new wheat.

Wesley: Lev 23:14 - Nor green ears Which were usual, not only for offerings to God, but also for man's food.

Which were usual, not only for offerings to God, but also for man's food.

Wesley: Lev 23:15 - From the morrow From the sixteenth day of the month, and the second day of the feast of unleavened bread inclusively.

From the sixteenth day of the month, and the second day of the feast of unleavened bread inclusively.

Wesley: Lev 23:16 - A new meal-offering Of new corn made into loaves.

Of new corn made into loaves.

Wesley: Lev 23:18 - One bullock and two rams In Num 28:11, Num 28:19, it is two young bullocks and one ram. Either therefore it was left to their liberty to chuse which they would offer, or one o...

In Num 28:11, Num 28:19, it is two young bullocks and one ram. Either therefore it was left to their liberty to chuse which they would offer, or one of the bullocks there, and one of the rams here, were the peculiar sacrifices of the feast day, and the other were attendants upon the two loaves, which were the proper offering at this time. And the one may be mentioned there, and the other here, to teach us, that the addition of a new sacrifice did not destroy the former, but both were to be offered, as the extraordinary sacrifices of every feast did not hinder the oblation of the daily sacrifice.

Wesley: Lev 23:19 - One kid In Lev 4:14, the sin-offering for the sin of the people is a bullock, but here a kid; &c. the reason of the difference may be this, because that was f...

In Lev 4:14, the sin-offering for the sin of the people is a bullock, but here a kid; &c. the reason of the difference may be this, because that was for some particular sin of the people, but this only in general for all their sins.

Wesley: Lev 23:20 - Wave them Some part of them in the name of the whole; and so for the two lambs, otherwise they had been too big and too heavy, to be waved.

Some part of them in the name of the whole; and so for the two lambs, otherwise they had been too big and too heavy, to be waved.

Wesley: Lev 23:20 - For the priests Who had to themselves not only the breast and shoulder as in others, which belonged to the priest, but also the rest which belonged to the offerer; be...

Who had to themselves not only the breast and shoulder as in others, which belonged to the priest, but also the rest which belonged to the offerer; because the whole congregation being the offerer here, it could neither be distributed to them all, nor given to some without offence to the rest.

Wesley: Lev 23:21 - An holy convocation A sabbath or day of rest, called pentecost; which was instituted, partly in remembrance of the consummation of their deliverance out of Egypt by bring...

A sabbath or day of rest, called pentecost; which was instituted, partly in remembrance of the consummation of their deliverance out of Egypt by bringing them thence to the mount of God, or Sinai, as God had promised, and of that admirable blessing of giving the law to them on the 50th day, and forming them into a commonwealth under his own immediate government; and partly in gratitude for the farther progress of their harvest, as in the passover they offered a thank-offering to God for the beginning of their harvest. The perfection of this feast, was the pouring out of the holy spirit upon the apostles on this very day, in which the law of faith was given, fifty days after Christ our passover was sacrificed for us. And on that day the apostles, having themselves received the first-fruits of the spirit, begat three thousand souls thro' the word of truth, as the first-fruits of the Christian church.

Wesley: Lev 23:22 - When ye reap, thou From the plural, ye, he comes to the singular, thou, because he would press this duty upon every person who hath an harvest to reap, that none might p...

From the plural, ye, he comes to the singular, thou, because he would press this duty upon every person who hath an harvest to reap, that none might plead exemption from it. And it is observable, that though the present business is only concerning the worship of God, yet he makes a kind of excursion to repeat a former law of providing for the poor, to shew that our devotion to God is little esteemed by him if it be not accompanied with acts of charity to men.

Wesley: Lev 23:24 - A sabbath Solemnized with the blowing of trumpets by the priests, not in a common way, as they did every first day of every month, but in an extraordinary manne...

Solemnized with the blowing of trumpets by the priests, not in a common way, as they did every first day of every month, but in an extraordinary manner, not only in Jerusalem, but in all the cities of Israel.

Wesley: Lev 23:24 - They began to blow at sun rise, and continued blowing till sun - set. This seems to have been instituted, To solemnize the beginning of the new year, whereof as to civil matter...

rise, and continued blowing till sun - set. This seems to have been instituted, To solemnize the beginning of the new year, whereof as to civil matters and particularly as to the Jubilee, this was the first day; concerning which it was fit the people should be admonished, both to excite their thankfulness for God's blessings in the last year, and to direct them in the management of their civil affairs. To put a special honour upon this month. For as the seventh day was the sabbath, and the seventh year was a sabbatical year, so God would have the seventh month to be a kind of sabbatical month, for the many sabbaths and solemn feasts which were observed in this more than in any other month. And by this sounding of the trumpets in its beginning, God would quicken and prepare them for the following sabbaths, as well as that of atonement and humiliation for their sins, as those of thanksgiving for God's mercies.

Wesley: Lev 23:27 - Afflict your souls With fasting, and bitter repentance for all, especially their national sins, among which no doubt God would have them remember their sin of the golden...

With fasting, and bitter repentance for all, especially their national sins, among which no doubt God would have them remember their sin of the golden calf. For as God had threatened to remember it in after times to punish them for it, so there was great reason why they should remember it to humble themselves for it.

Wesley: Lev 23:28 - Whatsoever soul Either of the Jewish nation, or religion. Hereby God would signify the absolute necessity which every man had of repentance and forgiveness of sin, an...

Either of the Jewish nation, or religion. Hereby God would signify the absolute necessity which every man had of repentance and forgiveness of sin, and the desperate condition of all impenitent persons.

Wesley: Lev 23:32 - From even to even The day of atonement began at the evening of the ninth day, and continued till the evening of the tenth day.

The day of atonement began at the evening of the ninth day, and continued till the evening of the tenth day.

Wesley: Lev 23:32 - Ye shall celebrate your sabbath This particular sabbath is called your sabbath, possibly to note the difference between this and other sabbaths: for the weekly sabbath is oft called ...

This particular sabbath is called your sabbath, possibly to note the difference between this and other sabbaths: for the weekly sabbath is oft called the sabbath of the Lord. The Jews are supposed to begin every day, and consequently their sabbaths, at the evening, in remembrance of the creation, as Christians generally begin their days and sabbaths with the morning in memory of Christ's resurrection.

Wesley: Lev 23:34 - Of tabernacles Of tents or booths or arbours. This feast was appointed to remind them of that time when they had no other dwellings in the wilderness, and to stir th...

Of tents or booths or arbours. This feast was appointed to remind them of that time when they had no other dwellings in the wilderness, and to stir them up to bless God, as well for the gracious protection then afforded them, as for the more commodious habitations now given them; and to excite them to gratitude for all the fruits of the year newly ended, which were now compleatly brought in.

Wesley: Lev 23:36 - Ye shall offer A several-offering each day.

A several-offering each day.

Wesley: Lev 23:36 - The eighth day Which though it was not one of the days of this feast strictly taken. Yet in a larger sense it belonged to this feast, and is called the great day of ...

Which though it was not one of the days of this feast strictly taken. Yet in a larger sense it belonged to this feast, and is called the great day of the feast, Joh 7:37. And so indeed it was, as for other reasons, so because, by their removal from the tabernacles into fixed habitations, it represented that happy time wherein their 40 years tedious march in the wilderness was ended with their settlement in the land of Canaan, which it was most fit they should acknowledge with such a solemn day of thanksgiving as this was.

Wesley: Lev 23:37 - A sacrifice A sin-offering, called by the general name, a sacrifice, because it was designed for that which was the principal end of all sacrifices, the expiation...

A sin-offering, called by the general name, a sacrifice, because it was designed for that which was the principal end of all sacrifices, the expiation of sin.

Wesley: Lev 23:38 - Beside the sabbaths The offerings of the weekly sabbaths.

The offerings of the weekly sabbaths.

Wesley: Lev 23:38 - God will not have any sabbath sacrifice diminished because of the addition of others, proper to any other feast. And it is here to be noted, that though other festival days are som...

sacrifice diminished because of the addition of others, proper to any other feast. And it is here to be noted, that though other festival days are sometimes called sabbaths, yet these are here called the sabbaths of the Lord, in way of contradistinction, to shew that this was more eminently such than other feast - days.

Wesley: Lev 23:38 - Your gifts Which being here distinguished from the free - will-offerings made to the Lord, may note what they freely gave to the priests over and above their fir...

Which being here distinguished from the free - will-offerings made to the Lord, may note what they freely gave to the priests over and above their first-fruits and tithes or other things which they were enjoined to give.

Wesley: Lev 23:39 - -- This is no addition of a new, but only a repetition of the former injunction, with a more particular explication both of the manner and reason of the ...

This is no addition of a new, but only a repetition of the former injunction, with a more particular explication both of the manner and reason of the feast.

Wesley: Lev 23:39 - The fruit Not the corn, which was gathered long before, but that of the trees, as vines, olives, and other fruit - trees: which compleated the harvest, whence t...

Not the corn, which was gathered long before, but that of the trees, as vines, olives, and other fruit - trees: which compleated the harvest, whence this is called the feast of in - gathering.

Wesley: Lev 23:40 - Of goodly trees Namely, olive, myrtle and pine, mentioned, Neh 8:15-16, which were most plentiful there, and which would best preserve their greenness.

Namely, olive, myrtle and pine, mentioned, Neh 8:15-16, which were most plentiful there, and which would best preserve their greenness.

Wesley: Lev 23:40 - Thick trees Fit for shade and shelter.

Fit for shade and shelter.

Wesley: Lev 23:40 - And willows To mix with the other, and in some sort bind them together. And as they made their booths of these materials, so they carried some of these boughs in ...

To mix with the other, and in some sort bind them together. And as they made their booths of these materials, so they carried some of these boughs in their hands, as is affirmed by Jewish and other ancient writers.

Wesley: Lev 23:42 - In booths Which were erected in their cities or towns, either in their streets, or gardens, or the tops of their houses. These were made flat, and therefore wer...

Which were erected in their cities or towns, either in their streets, or gardens, or the tops of their houses. These were made flat, and therefore were fit for the use.

Wesley: Lev 23:44 - The feasts of the Lord We have reason to be thankful, that the feasts of the Lord, now are not so numerous, nor the observance of them so burdensome and costly; but more spi...

We have reason to be thankful, that the feasts of the Lord, now are not so numerous, nor the observance of them so burdensome and costly; but more spiritual and significant, and surer and sweeter earnests of the everlasting feast, at the last in - gathering, which we hope to be celebrating to eternity.

JFB: Lev 23:2 - Speak unto the children of Israel, . . . concerning the feasts of the Lord Literally, "the times of assembling, or solemnities" (Isa 33:20); and this is a preferable rendering, applicable to all sacred seasons mentioned in th...

Literally, "the times of assembling, or solemnities" (Isa 33:20); and this is a preferable rendering, applicable to all sacred seasons mentioned in this chapter, even the day of atonement, which was observed as a fast. They were appointed by the direct authority of God and announced by a public proclamation, which is called "the joyful sound" (Psa 89:15). Those "holy convocations" were evidences of divine wisdom, and eminently subservient to the maintenance and diffusion of religious knowledge and piety.

JFB: Lev 23:3 - Six days shall work be done: but the seventh day is the sabbath of rest (See on Exo 20:8). The Sabbath has the precedence given to it, and it was to be "a holy convocation," observed by families "in their dwellings"; where...

(See on Exo 20:8). The Sabbath has the precedence given to it, and it was to be "a holy convocation," observed by families "in their dwellings"; where practicable, by the people repairing to the door of the tabernacle; at later periods, by meeting in the schools of the prophets, and in synagogues.

JFB: Lev 23:4 - These are the feasts of the Lord, which ye shall proclaim in their seasons Their observance took place in the parts of the year corresponding to our March, May, and September. Divine wisdom was manifested in fixing them at th...

Their observance took place in the parts of the year corresponding to our March, May, and September. Divine wisdom was manifested in fixing them at those periods; in winter, when the days were short and the roads broken up, a long journey was impracticable; while in summer the harvest and vintage gave busy employment in the fields. Besides, another reason for the choice of those seasons probably was to counteract the influence of Egyptian associations and habits. And God appointed more sacred festivals for the Israelites in the month of September than the people of Egypt had in honor of their idols. These institutions, however, were for the most part prospective, the observance being not binding on the Israelites during their wanderings in the wilderness, while the regular celebration was not to commence till their settlement in Canaan.

JFB: Lev 23:5 - the Lord's passover (See Exo 12:2, Exo 12:14, Exo 12:18). The institution of the passover was intended to be a perpetual memorial of the circumstances attending the redem...

(See Exo 12:2, Exo 12:14, Exo 12:18). The institution of the passover was intended to be a perpetual memorial of the circumstances attending the redemption of the Israelites, while it had a typical reference to a greater redemption to be effected for God's spiritual people. On the first and last days of this feast, the people were forbidden to work [Lev 23:7-8]; but while on the Sabbath they were not to do any work, on feast days they were permitted to dress meat--and hence the prohibition is restricted to "no servile work." At the same time, those two days were devoted to "holy convocation"--special seasons of social devotion. In addition to the ordinary sacrifices of every day, there were to be "offerings by fire" on the altar (see Num 28:19), while unleavened bread was to be eaten in families all the seven days (see 1Co 5:8).

JFB: Lev 23:10 - ye shall bring a sheaf of the first-fruits of your harvest unto the priest A sheaf, literally, an omer, of the first-fruits of the barley harvest. The barley being sooner ripe than the other grains, the reaping of it formed t...

A sheaf, literally, an omer, of the first-fruits of the barley harvest. The barley being sooner ripe than the other grains, the reaping of it formed the commencement of the general harvest season. The offering described in this passage was made on the sixteenth of the first month, the day following the first Passover Sabbath, which was on the fifteenth (corresponding to the beginning of our April); but it was reaped after sunset on the previous evening by persons deputed to go with sickles and obtain samples from different fields. These, being laid together in a sheaf or loose bundle, were brought to the court of the temple, where the grain was winnowed, parched, and bruised in a mortar. Then, after some incense had been sprinkled on it, the priest waved the sheaf aloft before the Lord towards the four different points of the compass, took a part of it and threw it into the fire of the altar--all the rest being reserved to himself. It was a proper and beautiful act, expressive of dependence on the God of nature and providence--common among all people, but more especially becoming the Israelites, who owed their land itself as well as all it produced to the divine bounty. The offering of the wave-sheaf sanctified the whole harvest (Rom 11:16). At the same time, this feast had a typical character, and pre-intimated the resurrection of Christ (1Co 15:20), who rose from the dead on the very day the first-fruits were offered.

JFB: Lev 23:15 - ye shall count unto you from the morrow after the sabbath That is, after the first day of the passover week, which was observed as a Sabbath.

That is, after the first day of the passover week, which was observed as a Sabbath.

JFB: Lev 23:16 - number fifty days The forty-ninth day after the presentation of the first-fruits, or the fiftieth, including it, was the feast of Pentecost. (See also Exo 23:16; Deu 16...

The forty-ninth day after the presentation of the first-fruits, or the fiftieth, including it, was the feast of Pentecost. (See also Exo 23:16; Deu 16:9).

JFB: Lev 23:17 - Ye shall bring out of your habitations two wave loaves of two tenth deals, &c. These loaves were made of "fine" or wheaten flour, the quantity contained in them being somewhat more than ten pounds in weight. As the wave-sheaf gav...

These loaves were made of "fine" or wheaten flour, the quantity contained in them being somewhat more than ten pounds in weight. As the wave-sheaf gave the signal for the commencement, the two loaves solemnized the termination of the harvest season. They were the first-fruits of that season, being offered unto the Lord by the priest in name of the whole nation. (See Exo 34:22). The loaves used at the Passover were unleavened; those presented at Pentecost were leavened--a difference which is thus accounted for, that the one was a memorial of the bread hastily prepared at their departure, while the other was a tribute of gratitude to God for their daily food, which was leavened.

JFB: Lev 23:21 - ye shall proclaim on the selfsame day, that it may be an holy convocation unto you: ye shall do no servile work therein Though it extended over a week, the first day only was held as a Sabbath, both for the national offering of first-fruits and a memorial of the giving ...

Though it extended over a week, the first day only was held as a Sabbath, both for the national offering of first-fruits and a memorial of the giving of the law.

JFB: Lev 23:22 - thou shalt not make clean riddance of the corners of thy field when thou reapest, &c. (See on Lev 19:9). The repetition of this law here probably arose from the priests reminding the people, at the presentation of the first-fruits, to u...

(See on Lev 19:9). The repetition of this law here probably arose from the priests reminding the people, at the presentation of the first-fruits, to unite piety to God with charity to the poor.

JFB: Lev 23:24 - In the seventh month, in the first day of the month, shall ye have a sabbath That was the first day of the ancient civil year.

That was the first day of the ancient civil year.

JFB: Lev 23:24 - a memorial of blowing of trumpets Jewish writers say that the trumpets were sounded thirty successive times, and the reason for the institution was for the double purpose of announcing...

Jewish writers say that the trumpets were sounded thirty successive times, and the reason for the institution was for the double purpose of announcing the commencement of the new year, which was (Lev 23:25) to be religiously observed (see Num 29:3), and of preparing the people for the approaching solemn feast.

JFB: Lev 23:27-32 - there shall be a day of atonement . . . and ye shall afflict your souls An unusual festival, at which the sins of the whole year were expiated. (See Lev 16:29-34). It is here only stated that the severest penalty was incur...

An unusual festival, at which the sins of the whole year were expiated. (See Lev 16:29-34). It is here only stated that the severest penalty was incurred by the violation of this day.|| 03437||1||11||0||@the feast of tabernacles, for seven days unto the Lord==--This festival, which was instituted in grateful commemoration of the Israelites having securely dwelt in booths or tabernacles in the wilderness, was the third of the three great annual festivals, and, like the other two, it lasted a week. It began on the fifteenth day of the month, corresponding to the end of our September and beginning of October, which was observed as a Sabbath; and it could be celebrated only at the place of the sanctuary, offerings being made on the altar every day of its continuance. The Jews were commanded during the whole period of the festival to dwell in booths, which were erected on the flat roofs of houses, in the streets or fields; and the trees made use of are by some stated to be the citron, the palm, the myrtle, and the willow, while others maintain the people were allowed to take any trees they could obtain that were distinguished for verdure and fragrance. While the solid branches were reserved for the construction of the booths, the lighter branches were carried by men, who marched in triumphal procession, singing psalms and crying "Hosanna!" which signifies, "Save, we beseech thee!" (Psa 118:15, Psa 118:25-26). It was a season of great rejoicing. But the ceremony of drawing water from the pool, which was done on the last day, seems to have been the introduction of a later period (Joh 7:37). That last day was the eighth, and, on account of the scene at Siloam, was called "the great day of the feast." The feast of ingathering, when the vintage was over, was celebrated also on that day [Exo 23:16; Exo 34:22], and, as the conclusion of one of the great festivals, it was kept as a sabbath.

Clarke: Lev 23:2 - These are my feasts These are my feasts - The original word מועד moad is properly applied to any solemn anniversary, by which great and important ecclesiastical,...

These are my feasts - The original word מועד moad is properly applied to any solemn anniversary, by which great and important ecclesiastical, political, or providential facts were recorded; see Clarke on Gen 1:14 (note). Anniversaries of this kind were observed in all nations; and some of them, in consequence of scrupulously regular observation, became chronological epochs of the greatest importance in history: the Olympiads, for example.

Clarke: Lev 23:3 - The seventh day is the Sabbath The seventh day is the Sabbath - This, because the first and greatest solemnity, is first mentioned. He who kept not this, in the most religious man...

The seventh day is the Sabbath - This, because the first and greatest solemnity, is first mentioned. He who kept not this, in the most religious manner, was not capable of keeping any of the others. The religious observance of the Sabbath stands at the very threshold of all religion. See Clarke’ s note on Gen 2:3.

Clarke: Lev 23:5 - The Lord’ s passover The Lord’ s passover - See this largely explained in the notes on Exo 12:21-27 (note).

The Lord’ s passover - See this largely explained in the notes on Exo 12:21-27 (note).

Clarke: Lev 23:11 - He shalt wave the sheaf He shalt wave the sheaf - He shall move it to and fro before the people, and thereby call their attention to the work of Divine Providence, and exci...

He shalt wave the sheaf - He shall move it to and fro before the people, and thereby call their attention to the work of Divine Providence, and excite their gratitude to God for preserving to them the kindly fruits of the earth. See Clarke’ s note on Exo 29:27, and Exodus 7 at end.

Clarke: Lev 23:14 - Ye shall eat neither bread, nor parched corn, nor green ears Ye shall eat neither bread, nor parched corn, nor green ears - It is right that God, the dispenser of every blessing, should be acknowledged as such...

Ye shall eat neither bread, nor parched corn, nor green ears - It is right that God, the dispenser of every blessing, should be acknowledged as such, and the first-fruits of the field, etc., dedicated to him. Concerning the dedication of the first-fruits, see the note on Exo 22:29. Parched ears of corn and green ears, fried, still constitute a part, and not a disagreeable one, of the food of the Arabs now resident in the Holy Land. See Hasselquist.

Clarke: Lev 23:15 - Ye shall count unto you - seven Sabbaths Ye shall count unto you - seven Sabbaths - That is, from the sixteenth of the first month to the sixth of the third month. These seven weeks, called...

Ye shall count unto you - seven Sabbaths - That is, from the sixteenth of the first month to the sixth of the third month. These seven weeks, called here Sabbaths, were to be complete, i. e., the forty-nine days must be finished, and the next day, the fiftieth, is what, from the Septuagint, we call pentecost. See the note on Luk 6:1.

Clarke: Lev 23:22 - Neither shalt thou gather any gleaning Neither shalt thou gather any gleaning - See the note on Lev 19:9.

Neither shalt thou gather any gleaning - See the note on Lev 19:9.

Clarke: Lev 23:24 - A memorial of blowing of trumpets A memorial of blowing of trumpets - This is generally called the feast of trumpets; and as it took place on the first day of the seventh month, Tisr...

A memorial of blowing of trumpets - This is generally called the feast of trumpets; and as it took place on the first day of the seventh month, Tisri, which answers to September, which month was the commencement of what was called the civil year, the feast probably had no other design than to celebrate the commencement of that year, if indeed such a distinction obtained among the ancient Jews. See the note on Exo 12:2. Some think creation began at this time.

Clarke: Lev 23:28 - A day of atonement A day of atonement - See the note on Lev 16:2, etc., where this subject is largely explained.

A day of atonement - See the note on Lev 16:2, etc., where this subject is largely explained.

Clarke: Lev 23:34 - The feast of tabernacles The feast of tabernacles - In this solemnity the people left their houses, and dwelt in booths or tents made of the branches of goodly trees and thi...

The feast of tabernacles - In this solemnity the people left their houses, and dwelt in booths or tents made of the branches of goodly trees and thick trees, (of what kind the text does not specify), together with palm-trees and willows of the brook, Lev 23:40. And in these they dwelt seven days, in commemoration of their forty years’ sojourning and dwelling in tents in the wilderness while destitute of any fixed habitations. In imitation of this feast among the people of God, the Gentiles had their feasts of tents. Plutarch speaks particularly of feasts of this kind in honor of Bacchus, and thinks from the custom of the Jews in celebrating the feast of tabernacles, that they worshipped the god Bacchus, "because he had a feast exactly of the same kind called the feast of tabernacles, Σκηνη, which they celebrated in the time of vintage, bringing tables out into the open air furnished with all kinds of fruit, and sitting under tents made of vine branches and ivy."- Plut. Symp., lib. iv., Q. 6. According to Ovid the feast of Anna Perenna was celebrated much in the same way. Some remained in the open air, others formed to themselves tents and booths made of branches of trees, over which they spread garments, and kept the festival with great rejoicings

" Sub Jove pars durat; pauci tentoria ponunt

Sunt, quibus e ramis frondea facta easa est

Pars sibi pro rigidis calamos statuere columnis

Desuper extentas imposuere togas .

Ovid, Fast., lib. ill

Concerning this feast of tabernacles, see the note on Joh 7:37, Joh 7:38; and for the various feasts among the Jews, See the note on Exo 23:14.

Clarke: Lev 23:40 - Boughs of goodly trees Boughs of goodly trees - The Jews and many critics imagine the citron-tree to be intended, and by boughs of thick tree the myrtle.

Boughs of goodly trees - The Jews and many critics imagine the citron-tree to be intended, and by boughs of thick tree the myrtle.

Clarke: Lev 23:43 - That your generations may know, etc. That your generations may know, etc. - By the institution of this feast God had two great objects in view 1.    To perpetuate the won...

That your generations may know, etc. - By the institution of this feast God had two great objects in view

1.    To perpetuate the wonderful display of his providence and grace in bringing them out of Egypt, and in preserving them in the wilderness

2.    To excite and maintain in them a spirit of gratitude and obedience, by leading them to consider deeply the greatness of the favors which they had received from his most merciful hands

Signal displays of the mercy, kindness, and providential care of God should be particularly remembered. When we recollect that we deserve nothing at his hands, and that the debt of gratitude is all the debt we can pay, in it we should be cheerful, fervent, and frequent. An ungrateful heart is an unfeeling, unloving, unbelieving, and disobedient heart. Reader, pray to God that he may deliver thee from its influence and its curse.

Calvin: Lev 23:4 - These are the feasts of the Lord 4.These are the feasts of the Lord The other festivals which Moses here enumerates have an affinity to the Sabbath. In the first place the Passover i...

4.These are the feasts of the Lord The other festivals which Moses here enumerates have an affinity to the Sabbath. In the first place the Passover is put, the mystery of which I have annexed, not without reason, to the First Commandment, for its institution was there explained, inasmuch as it acted as a restraint on the people from falling away to strange gods. In that rite they were initiated to the service of God, that they might abandon all the superstitions of the Gentiles, and acquiesce in the pure instruction of the Law. The Passover, therefore, in itself was a supplement to the First Commandment; yet the day recurring from year to year is fitly enumerated amongst the other festivals. And surely it is plain that the Fourth Commandment had no other object or use except to exercise the people in the service of God; but since the killing of the lamb represented the grace of adoption whereby God had bound them to Himself, it was necessary to annex it to the First Commandment. Let my readers therefore now be content with the other part, i.e., that its annual celebration was a help to the perpetual recollection by the Israelites of their redemption.

Calvin: Lev 23:10 - When ye be come to the land 10.When ye be come to the land Moses now lays down rules as to the second day of festival, which was dedicated to the offering of the first-fruits. T...

10.When ye be come to the land Moses now lays down rules as to the second day of festival, which was dedicated to the offering of the first-fruits. The ceremony is described that they should deliver a handful into the hand of the priest; though some think that the measure is signified which was the tenth part of an Ephah. The word Omer 345 means both. But in this passage the expression “handful” is most appropriate, since it represented in a lively manner the beginning of the harvest; inasmuch as it was not lawful to taste even of parched grain before the offering of the firstfruits. The priest lifted it up before the altar, but with a waving motion; for thus the Hebrews distinguish between the two modes, 346 תרומה , therumah, which was lifted up, and תנופה , thenuphah, which is mentioned here, and which was waved towards the four points of the compass, and then a sacrifice and libation were made. We know that heathen nations 347 thus invented gods and goddesses presiding over the fruits, so that the earth was the great and common mother of gods and men. Into this error the Jews would have straightway fallen, or would have gorged themselves without thinking about God, unless they had been reminded by this ceremony that the Father of their subsistence was in heaven, whose minister the earth was for providing their food. For since the whole harvest was consecrated in the single handful, it was as if they had shewn that whatever the earth produced altogether belonged to God. But thus the admirable goodness of God was conspicuous, when, in claiming what was His own, He did not at all diminish the food of the people; afterwards they received, as if from His hand, whatever each individual had stored at home, just as though it had come out of His sanctuary. Paul’s statement is well known, “For if the first-fruit be holy, the lump is also holy,” (Rom 11:16,) wherein he alludes to this ancient ceremony of the Law. The word which they translate “unto your acceptance,” 348 is the same which interpreters elsewhere render “good pleasure,” and refer to the people, as if it were said, “at your own will,” or “ ad libitum,” as it is barbarously said. But I have before shewn that it must be understood of the favor and good-will of God, although it is transferred in a passive sense to the people, as in Psa 106:4, רצון , ratson, or the favor of the chosen people, means the gratuitous love wherewith God regards His Church. But Moses signifies that the fruits of the earth cannot otherwise be eaten with a clear conscience, because they would not feel that God accepted them, and looked upon them with paternal affection. The ceremony, now abolished, still remains in full force amongst us as regards its substance, for nothing but the acknowledgment of God’s bounty, which springs from faith and thanksgiving, sanctifies whatever we receive of His hand.

Next to the first-fruits comes the feast of seven weeks, which the Greeks have rendered Pentecost, having reference to the same object; for after they had offered the first-fruits from the standing harvest, they added another token of gratitude in the shape of the loaves and the greater sacrifice. It must however be observed, that the two loaves are required of every family, and that they consist of two-tenths; but that the sacrifices of seven lambs, one bullock, and two rams, and also of a goat and two lambs, is enjoined upon the whole people. This is in fact the legitimate acknowledgment of God’s liberality, because the waving of the sheaf, as being performed in haste, was but a trifling one; since we have seen that before they touched the grain, God required that the first-fruits should be offered to Him, until at leisure and in a more convenient season they might more fully discharge their duty. Thus what we have above observed respecting the first-fruits, was only a preparation for the day of Pentecost, on which the holy oblation was not ears of wheat, but loaves made of the new wheat.

Calvin: Lev 23:24 - In the seventh month, in the first day of the month 24.In the seventh month, in the first day of the month I wonder how it ever entered the mind of the Jews 349 that in the feast of trumpets the delive...

24.In the seventh month, in the first day of the month I wonder how it ever entered the mind of the Jews 349 that in the feast of trumpets the deliverance of Isaac was commemorated, when a goat was substituted to be slain in his stead; 350 but they have invented this with their wonted audacity. Surely it is as baseless as it is unreasonable. Others more rightly suppose that it was a preparation for the approaching feast of atonement, on account of the slight interval of time; for since this day is distinguished by no peculiar mark, it is probable that it ought not to be separated from the other which follows soon afterwards, viz., on the tenth day. Unless, perhaps, it is more probable that they were thus called together once a year by the sound of trumpets, first of all, that they might learn that all their sacred assemblies were appointed by the voice of God; and secondly, that this His voice was thus renewed, that they might always be ready to obey Him. And this seems to signify by the expression, “a memorial of blowing of trumpets;” as if He had said that the trumpets sounded in their ears once a year, that they might be attentive to God’s voice throughout their lives, and ever willing to follow whithersoever He should command them to go. Others think that the trumpets sounded at the beginning of the month, that they might prepare themselves for the three festivals, and also because this month was remarkable both in the Sabbatical year and in the Jubilee. But what, if when God displaced this month from being the beginning of the year to stand seventh, He chose to leave it some traces of its original dignity? for by general consent it is admitted that, until the people came out of Egypt, this was the first month. Some even think that the world was created in it, which is not without probable show of reason. And the Jews now also, in political matters and in things which relate to this earthly life, retain this original computation in accordance with unbroken custom: it is only in sacred matters that they commence the year in March. This indeed seems to me the probable reason why, on the day now referred to, God renewed the memory of His dominion by a solemn proclamation, and assigned this seventh month both to the Jubilee and the Sabbatical year. 351 The solemnity was completed in one day, differing very little from an ordinary Sabbath, except by the trumpet-blowing and the sacrifice, as is described in Num 29:0. For Moses there speaks of more than he does here; he there enumerates a calf, a ram, seven lambs, a goat for a sin-offering, with its accompaniments, besides the burnt-offering of the new moon, and commands an offering to be made by fire of them all. Here he speaks generally in a single word.

Calvin: Lev 23:27 - Also on the tenth day of this seventh month 27.Also on the tenth day of this seventh month The word כפר , caphar, whence the noun כפרים , cephurim, signifies both to propitiate an...

27.Also on the tenth day of this seventh month The word כפר , caphar, whence the noun כפרים , cephurim, signifies both to propitiate and to blot out guilt and accusation by means of expiation; כפרים , therefore, are atonements ( libationes) for appeasing God; and the word is used in the plural number, because they were not under the imputation of a single kind of guilt, but had need of manifold reconciliations on account of their many and various transgressions. This was indeed done both publicly and privately throughout the rest of the year, for all the victims they offered were so many satisfactions in order to obtain pardon and to reconcile God. Still to these daily exercises was added also a yearly feast-day as a special memorial, and as a sharper spur to repentance: for it was fit that they should be stirred up to pious grief by solemn fasting and sacrifices, inasmuch as they had provoked God’s wrath against themselves through the whole year. Therefore on this feast-day they were cited before His tribunal, in order that, placing themselves there, they should acknowledge that they deserved this judgment, and yet prayed that they might escape punishment; and this was the object of the fast. Meanwhile they learnt from the sacrifices that they were restored to His favor, since simple confession would have been only a ground for despair. Thus, therefore, God required of them sorrow and other indications of penitence, that on His part He might testify that He was duly appeased so as to be propitious to them. The expression, “ye shall afflict your souls,” here refers to the fast, which was required as an outward profession of repentance. And assuredly there was no weight in the fast of itself, since God plainly shews through Isaiah that He makes no account of hypocrites, who trust that they appease him by fasting, (Isa 58:3;) but being withdrawn from mere luxurious food and all delicacies, they were reminded of their misery, so that being cast down by grief and humbled, they might more ardently and zealously seek for the remedy. For remission of sins is promised to none but those who, affected with serious sorrow, feel themselves to be lost and miserable, and acknowledge and confess what they have deserved. In this way a door is opened for imploring God’s mercy. Still it is not to be supposed that those who are thus dissatisfied with themselves deserve pardon by their preparation for it. 352 But since it would be contrary to God’s nature to embrace men with His favor who are plunged in their iniquities and obstinate in sin; and again, since it would be most unreasonable that by His clemency license to sin should be given under the pretext of impunity, it is needful that penitence should precede our reconciliation to God. Whence also it appears that He so pardons sinners as still to hate their sins, since He only absolves those who voluntarily condemn themselves, nor admits any into His favor except those who forsake their sins; not that any one perfectly renounces himself or his sins, but through indulgence that penitence is acceptable to God, 353 which might justly be rejected on the ground of its deficiencies. Whereby also what I have just said is confirmed, that it is not on account of the merit of our penitence that God acquits us of our sins; as if we redeemed ourselves from guilt and punishment by weeping, sorrowing, and confession, whereas in the best of us all penitence will always be found to be weak and imperfect. Wherefore the cause and the honor of our pardon must only be ascribed to the gratuitous goodness of God. Hence I have said that in their fast the Israelites professed their guilt and condemnation, whilst they were expiated by the sacrifice, since there is no other means of satisfaction.

Calvin: Lev 23:29 - For whatsoever soul it be that shall not be afflicted 29.For whatsoever soul it be that shall not be afflicted Hence let us learn how greatly the sacrifice of an afflicted and humbled heart pleases God; ...

29.For whatsoever soul it be that shall not be afflicted Hence let us learn how greatly the sacrifice of an afflicted and humbled heart pleases God; since He commands so severe a punishment to be inflicted for the contempt of this ceremony. And surely this would have been a proof of most gross indifference, if, when God was inspiring men with the dread of His wrath, and inviting them to tears, they should rest in security and ease, and give themselves up to luxuries. On this account He declares with a terrible oath in Isaiah, that will never pardon the Jews, to whom the hour of repentance never came, but, when he reprovingly called upon them by His prophets to make haste “to weeping, and to mourning, and to baldness, and to girding with sackcloth,” merrily feasted and drank together, and said, “Let us eat and drink, for to-morrow we die.” (Isa 22:12.) And no wonder, since this is the extreme height of impiety, to stupify our consciences in brutal contumacy, and to rob God of His judicial power. As long as the sinner is so far affected, and pricked by a sense of sins, as anxiously to sigh for a remedy, there is some hope of his recovery; whilst he who shakes off fear as well as shame, is in altogether a desperate state. Now, since it was not without reason that God exercised His ancient people under the Law with external rudiments, it was an act of profane and intolerable carelessness to omit what was so necessary; and of still greater hardness of heart purposely, as it were, to despise it, so that no one need wonder at the severity of the punishment. In Num 29:0 the number of the victims is stated; but I pass over this point, as not requiring to be expounded.

Calvin: Lev 23:34 - The fifteenth day of this seventh month 34.The fifteenth day of this seventh month It is shewn in the end of the chapter why God instituted the Feast of Tabernacles, viz, that the children ...

34.The fifteenth day of this seventh month It is shewn in the end of the chapter why God instituted the Feast of Tabernacles, viz, that the children of Israel might remember that they dwelt in tents in the desert, when they had no certain dwelling-place, but, as it were, passed a wandering life. The Passover shewed how they were marvellously rescued from immediate death by the hand of God; but by this other day God magnified the continuous and daily flow of His grace; for it would not have been enough to acknowledge His power in their actual departure, and to give Him thanks for their momentary deliverance, unless they reflected altogether on the progress of their perfect deliverance, which they had experienced during forty years. In allusion to this the Prophet Zechariah, when he is speaking of the second redemption, enjoins upon all the nations which should be converted to God’s worship, that they should go up every year to celebrate this day. (Zec 14:16.) And why this rather than the other festivals? because their return from Babylon by a long and difficult journey, endangered by the violent assaults of enemies, would be equally memorable with the passage of the people from Egypt into the Promised Land. Hence we gather that, though the ceremony is now abolished, yet its use still exists in spirit and in truth, in order that the incomparable power and mercy of God should be constantly kept before our eyes, when He has delivered us from darkness and from the deep abyss of death, and has translated us into the heavenly life. But it behooved that the ancient people in their ignorance should be thus exercised, that all from youth to old age, going forth from their homes, should be brought, as it were, into the actual circumstances, and in that spectacle should perceive what would have else never sufficiently penetrated their minds; whilst at the same time they were instructed for the time to come, that even in the land of Canaan they were to be sojourners, since this is the condition prescribed to all the pious, and children of God, that they should be strangers on earth, if they desire to be inheritors of heaven. Especially, however, God would stir them up to gratitude, that they might more highly estimate their quiet occupation of the Promised Land, and the comfort of their houses, when they recollected that they were brought hither by His hand out of the desert, and from the most wretched destitution of all things.

Calvin: Lev 23:36 - Seven days ye shall offer 36.Seven days ye shall offer They only kept holiday on the first and eighth day, yet they dwelt in huts, and for seven successive days offered sacrif...

36.Seven days ye shall offer They only kept holiday on the first and eighth day, yet they dwelt in huts, and for seven successive days offered sacrifices, of which a fuller account was elsewhere given. What, therefore, Moses distinctly treats of in the book of Numbers, I have preferred to introduce in another place, where I have spoken of the sacrifices in general. All are not agreed about the word I have translated “solemnity.” 354 עצרת , gnatsereth, is derived from עצר , gnatsar, which means both to restrain and to gather together. Some interpreters, therefore, preserve the first etymology, translating it, “it is the retaining or prohibition of God;” but since this meaning is somewhat obscure, I have not hesitated to take it, as in other passages, for a solemnity; for, without controversy, it sometimes means feast days, sometimes assemblies or conventions. Let my readers, however, make choice of whichever sense they prefer. After Moses has prescribed concerning the rest and the offerings, he adds a caution, that there should be no diminution of the ordinary service; for else they might, have transferred fraudulently the sacrifices, which they were already obliged to offer, to the feast days, and thus, as the saying is, have endeavored to whitewash two walls out of the same pot. Wherefore, at the beginning of verse 39, the particle אך , ac, seems to be taken adversatively; 355 for there is an antithesis between the peculiar service of this solemnity and the common rites which were to be observed at other times; as if he had said, that when they had done all which the Law required every day, still they were not to fail in this observance; and hence, that they must comply severally with both the general and special command, if they would properly do their duty. Moreover, by reference to the time, he shews that they ought to be cheerful in its performance, because they would then incur but little loss, as the fruits would all be harvested; and this is what he refers to when he says, “when ye have gathered in the fruit of the land;” as if he had said, that he had regard to their convenience, since otherwise they would have been at leisure at home; and thus he takes away all excuse (for neglect.)

Calvin: Lev 23:40 - And ye shall take you on the first day 40.And ye shall take you on the first day By this symbol the Jews were instructed that this day was to be celebrated with joy and gladness; for it wa...

40.And ye shall take you on the first day By this symbol the Jews were instructed that this day was to be celebrated with joy and gladness; for it was not only a memorial of the favor which He had graciously bestowed on their fathers in the desert, when they were exposed to all the vicissitudes of heaven, 356 and He cherished them under His wings as an eagle does her brood; but it was also an act of thanksgiving, because He had provided them so commodious a reception in the Promised Land; thus, by carrying the boughs, they proclaimed their joy and triumph as it were. Nor would it have been reasonable that they should go into the booths in sorrow and sadness, since they represented visibly to them both the former and present goodness of God, and at the same time gave them a foretaste of the life of heaven, inasmuch as they were but sojourners on earth. Some suppose הדר , hadar, 357 to be a proper name, but since it everywhere means “comeliness,” I have been unwilling to depart from its ordinary sense; nor do I curiously insist on the words, except so far as it is necessary to ascertain the actual substance.

Defender: Lev 23:3 - seventh day is the sabbath The weekly day of rest, commemorating God's completed work of creation (Exo 20:8-11), was even more sacred than the seven annual feasts. No "servile" ...

The weekly day of rest, commemorating God's completed work of creation (Exo 20:8-11), was even more sacred than the seven annual feasts. No "servile" work could be done in the latter (Lev 23:8, Lev 23:21, Lev 23:25, Lev 23:35, Lev 23:36), but no work at all could be performed on the sabbath. Also, no work could be performed on the great day of atonement (Lev 23:28)."

Defender: Lev 23:4 - feasts of the Lord Many commentators, ancient and modern, have noted that these seven annual "feasts [or religious festivals] of Jehovah" not only had spiritual value to...

Many commentators, ancient and modern, have noted that these seven annual "feasts [or religious festivals] of Jehovah" not only had spiritual value to the Israelites who observed them, but also gave prophetic witness to God's great redemptive work.

(1) Feast of the Passover (Lev 23:5) testifies of the shedding of the blood of the Lamb of God. "Christ our passover ... sacrificed for us" (1Co 5:7).

(2) Feast of the Unleavened Bread (Lev 23:6-8) speaks of the Lord's supper which would be instituted by Him on the night of the Passover and would serve to remind His followers to walk in communion with Him. "Therefore let us keep the feast, ... with the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth" (1Co 5:8).

(3) Feast of Firstfruits (Lev 23:9-14) foreshadows the coming resurrection and restoration. "Christ the firstfruits; afterward they that are Christ's at His coming" (1Co 15:23).

(4) Feast of Pentecost (Lev 23:15-22) was fulfilled in the descent of the Holy Spirit on the first body of Christian believers after Christ's ascension, testifying to the world "that God hath made that same Jesus, whom ye have crucified, both Lord and Christ" (Act 2:36).

(5) Feast of Trumpets (Lev 23:23-25) is separated by a long period of time from the first four festivals and promises that someday "the Lord Himself shall descend from heaven ... with the trump of God," when "the trumpet shall sound, and the dead shall be raised incorruptible" (1Th 4:16; 1Co 15:52).

(6) Day of Atonement (Lev 23:26-32) testifies of the certain judgments to come - on Israel, on the nations, on believers and on the lost - when complete separation between unforgiven sinners and perfected saints will be established forever (note the two goats in Leviticus 16, the chapter giving the details of this observance).

(7) Feast of Tabernacles (Lev 23:33-43) speaks of the coming eternal rest in the Holy City when "the tabernacle of God is with men, and He will dwell with them, and they shall be His people" (Rev 21:3)."

Defender: Lev 23:16 - fifty days The Lord "came down" at Sinai on the 50th day after the first Passover (Exo 12:6; Exo 19:1, Exo 19:11), just as the Holy Spirit came down fifty days a...

The Lord "came down" at Sinai on the 50th day after the first Passover (Exo 12:6; Exo 19:1, Exo 19:11), just as the Holy Spirit came down fifty days after Christ's crucifixion (Act 1:3, Act 1:4; Act 2:1-4)."

Defender: Lev 23:24 - blowing of trumpets This day has been observed by the Jews as Rosh Hashanah, beginning the new year of the Jewish civil calendar."

This day has been observed by the Jews as Rosh Hashanah, beginning the new year of the Jewish civil calendar."

Defender: Lev 23:27 - day of atonement The "day of atonement" is Yom Kippur in the Jewish calendar. The details of its divinely prescribed observance are given in Leviticus 16."

The "day of atonement" is Yom Kippur in the Jewish calendar. The details of its divinely prescribed observance are given in Leviticus 16."

TSK: Lev 23:2 - the feasts // proclaim the feasts : God appointed several festivals among the Jews. The Passover was celebrated on the 14th, or rather 15th day of the first month in the ec...

the feasts : God appointed several festivals among the Jews. The Passover was celebrated on the 14th, or rather 15th day of the first month in the ecclesiastical year, which was the seventh of the civil year, and lasted seven days. The Pentecost was celebrated on the fiftieth day after the passover, in memory of the law’ s being given to Moses on Mount Sinai, fifty days, or seven weeks after the departure out of Egypt. The word is derived from the Greek word Πεντηκοστη , which signifies the fiftieth. The Hebrews call it the feast of weeks, Exo 34:22. The feast of trumpets, celebrated on the first day of the civil year, when a trumpet was sounded, to proclaim its commencement, which was in the month Tisri , answering to our September, Lev 23:24, Lev 23:25. The new moons, or first days of every month, were, in some sort, a consequence of the feast of trumpets. God ordained that, by giving him the first-fruits of every month they should acknowledge him as the Lord of all their time, and own his providence, by which all times and seasons are ordered. The feast of expiation or atonement was kept on the 10th day of Tisri or September: the Hebrews call it Kippur , i.e., pardon or expiation, because it was instituted for the expiation of their sins. The feast of tents or tabernacles was so called, because the Israelites kept it under green tents or arbours, in memory of their dwelling in their passage through the wilderness. It was celebrated on the 15th day of Tisri , and continued eight dayscaps1 . tcaps0 he first and last days are the most solemn. Besides the feasts mentioned by Moses, we find the feast of lots, or Purim , which was celebrated among the Jews of Shushan on the 14th of Adar , which answers to our February. The feast of the dedication of the temple, or rather, of the restoration of the temple, which had been profaned by Antiochus Epiphanes, which is thought to be the feast mentioned in the gospel Joh 10:22, was celebrated in the winter. Moâdim , properly means assemblies, convened at an appointed time and place. Lev 23:4, Lev 23:37; Exo 23:14-17; Isa 1:13, Isa 1:14, Isa 33:20; Lam 1:4; Hos 2:11; Nah 1:15; Joh 5:1; Col 2:1

proclaim : Exo 32:5; Num 10:2, Num 10:3, Num 10:10; 2Ki 10:20; 2Ch 30:5; Psa 81:3; Joe 1:14, Joe 2:15; Jon 3:5-9

TSK: Lev 23:3 - -- Lev 19:3; Exo 16:23, Exo 16:29, Exo 20:8-11, Exo 23:12, Exo 31:15, Exo 34:21, Exo 35:2, Exo 35:3; Deu 5:13; Isa 56:2, Isa 56:6, Isa 58:13; Luk 13:14, ...

TSK: Lev 23:4 - -- Lev 23:2, Lev 23:37; Exo 23:14

TSK: Lev 23:5 - -- Exo 12:2-14, Exo 12:18, Exo 13:3-10, Exo 23:15; Num 9:2-7, Num 28:16; Deu 16:1-8; Jos 5:10; 2Ch 35:18, 2Ch 35:19; Mat 26:17; Mar 14:12; Luk 22:7; 1Co ...

TSK: Lev 23:6 - -- Exo 12:15, Exo 12:16, Exo 13:6, Exo 13:7, Exo 34:18; Num 28:17, Num 28:18; Deu 16:8; Act 12:3, Act 12:4

TSK: Lev 23:7 - -- Num 28:18-25

TSK: Lev 23:10 - When // and shall // sheaf When : Lev 14:34 and shall : Lev 2:12-16; Exo 22:29, Exo 23:16, Exo 23:19, Exo 34:22, Exo 34:26; Num 15:2, Num 15:18-21, Num 28:26; Deu 16:9; Jos 3:15...

When : Lev 14:34

and shall : Lev 2:12-16; Exo 22:29, Exo 23:16, Exo 23:19, Exo 34:22, Exo 34:26; Num 15:2, Num 15:18-21, Num 28:26; Deu 16:9; Jos 3:15

sheaf : or, handful, Heb. omer, the first fruits, This offering was a public acknowledgment of the bounty and goodness of God for the kindly fruits of the earth. From the practice of the people of God, the heathen borrowed a similar one, founded on the same reason. Pro 3:9, Pro 3:10; Eze 44:30; Rom 11:16; 1Co 15:20-23; Jam 1:18; Rev 14:4

TSK: Lev 23:11 - -- Lev 9:21, Lev 10:14; Exo 29:24

TSK: Lev 23:12 - -- Lev 1:10; Heb 10:10-12; 1Pe 1:19

TSK: Lev 23:13 - the meat // the drink // the fourth the meat : Lev 2:14-16, Lev 14:10; Num 15:3-12 the drink : Exo 29:40, Exo 29:41, Exo 30:9; Num 28:10; Joe 1:9, Joe 1:13, Joe 2:14 the fourth : Exo 30:...

TSK: Lev 23:14 - eat // it shall be eat : Lev 19:23-25, Lev 25:2, Lev 25:3; Gen 4:4, Gen 4:5; Jos 5:11, Jos 5:12 it shall be : Lev 3:17, Lev 10:11; Deu 16:12; Neh 9:14; Psa 19:8

TSK: Lev 23:15 - -- Lev 23:10, Lev 23:11, Lev 25:8; Exo 34:22; Deu 16:9, Deu 16:10

TSK: Lev 23:16 - -- Act 2:1

TSK: Lev 23:17 - two wave // leaven // the firstfruits two wave : Num 28:26 leaven : Lev 7:13; Mat 13:33 the firstfruits : Lev 23:10; Exo 22:29, Exo 23:16, Exo 23:19, Exo 34:22, Exo 34:26; Num 15:17, Num 1...

TSK: Lev 23:18 - seven lambs // with their seven lambs : Lev 23:12, Lev 23:13; Num 28:27-31; Mal 1:13, Mal 1:14 with their : Num 15:4-12

seven lambs : Lev 23:12, Lev 23:13; Num 28:27-31; Mal 1:13, Mal 1:14

with their : Num 15:4-12

TSK: Lev 23:19 - one kid // two lambs one kid : Lev 4:23-28, Lev 16:15; Num 15:24, Num 28:30; Rom 8:3; 2Co 5:21 two lambs : Lev. 3:1-17, Lev 7:11-18

one kid : Lev 4:23-28, Lev 16:15; Num 15:24, Num 28:30; Rom 8:3; 2Co 5:21

two lambs : Lev. 3:1-17, Lev 7:11-18

TSK: Lev 23:20 - wave them // holy to wave them : Lev 23:17, Lev 7:29, Lev 7:30; Exo 29:24; Luk 2:14; Eph 2:14 holy to : Lev 7:31-34, Lev 8:29, Lev 10:14, Lev 10:15; Num 18:8-12; Deu 18:4;...

TSK: Lev 23:21 - proclaim // a statute proclaim : Lev 23:2, Lev 23:4; Exo 12:16; Deu 16:11; Isa 11:10 a statute : Lev 23:14; Gen 17:7; Exo 12:17; Num 18:23

TSK: Lev 23:22 - -- Lev 19:9, Lev 19:10; Deu 16:11-14, Deu 24:19-21; Rth 2:3-7, Rth 2:15, Rth 2:16-23; Job 31:16-21; Psa 41:1-3, Psa 112:9; Pro 11:24, Pro 11:25; Isa 58:7...

Lev 19:9, Lev 19:10; Deu 16:11-14, Deu 24:19-21; Rth 2:3-7, Rth 2:15, Rth 2:16-23; Job 31:16-21; Psa 41:1-3, Psa 112:9; Pro 11:24, Pro 11:25; Isa 58:7, Isa 58:8, Isa 58:10; Luk 11:41; 2Co 9:5-12; To the institution of the feast of pentecost is annexed a repetition of that law, by which they were required to leave the gleanings of their fields, and the corn that grew on the ends of the butts, for the poor. It may come in here as a thing which the priests must take occasion to remind the people of, when they brought their first-fruits, intimating to them, that to obey even in this small matter was better than sacrifice; and that unless they were obedient, their offerings should not be accepted. It also taught them that the joy of harvest should express itself in charity to the poor, who must have their due out of what we have, as well as God his. They that are truly sensible of the mercy they receive from God, will without grudging shew mercy to the poor.

TSK: Lev 23:24 - In the seventh // a memorial In the seventh : Num 10:10, Num 29:1-6; 1Ch 15:28; 2Ch 5:13; Ezr 3:6; Psa 81:1-4, Psa 98:6; Isa 27:13; 1Co 15:52; 1Th 4:16 a memorial : Zichron teroo...

In the seventh : Num 10:10, Num 29:1-6; 1Ch 15:28; 2Ch 5:13; Ezr 3:6; Psa 81:1-4, Psa 98:6; Isa 27:13; 1Co 15:52; 1Th 4:16

a memorial : Zichron terooâh , here rendered ""a memorial of blowing the trumpets""properly signifies a memorial of triumph or shouting for joy. This festival is generally called the feast of trumpets; and, though the Scriptures have not expressly declared the reason of its celebration, yet, as it fell in the seventh month of the sacred year, which was the first of the civil year, that is, the month Tisri , answering to our September, the opinion very generally embraced by both Jews and Christians is, that it was a memorial of the creation of the world, at which ""the sons of God shouted for joy,""(Job 38:7); and which is supposed, not altogether without reason, to have been at this season of the year. The month Tisri was not only anciently, but still is, reckoned by the Jews the first month of the year; and the feast of tabernacles, kept in this month, was said to be, as it is correctly rendered in the margin, ""at the revolution of the year,""(Exo 34:22); importing, that at this season the year had revolved, and was beginning anew. So that this feast was the new year’ s day, on which the people rejoiced in a grateful remembrance of God’ s benefits, and implored his blessing for the future year. Lev 25:9

TSK: Lev 23:27 - the tenth // afflict // offer the tenth : Lev 16:29, Lev 16:30, Lev 25:9; Num 29:7-11 afflict : Lev 16:31; Num 29:7; Ezr 8:21; Psa 35:13; Isa 58:5; Dan 10:2, Dan 10:3; Zec 12:10; A...

TSK: Lev 23:28 - -- Lev 16:34; Isa 53:10; Dan 9:24; Zec 3:9; Rom 5:10, Rom 5:11; Heb 9:12, Heb 9:26; Heb 10:10, Heb 10:14; 1Jo 2:2, 1Jo 4:10, 1Jo 5:6

TSK: Lev 23:29 - that shall // he shall be that shall : Lev 23:27, Lev 23:32; Isa 22:12; Jer 31:9; Eze 7:16 he shall be : Gen 17:14

that shall : Lev 23:27, Lev 23:32; Isa 22:12; Jer 31:9; Eze 7:16

he shall be : Gen 17:14

TSK: Lev 23:30 - -- Lev 20:3, Lev 20:5, Lev 20:6; Gen 17:14; Jer 15:7; Eze 14:9; Zep 2:5; 1Co 3:17

TSK: Lev 23:32 - a sabbath // afflict // celebrate your sabbath a sabbath : Lev 16:31; Mat 11:28-30; Heb 4:3, Heb 4:11 afflict : Lev 23:27; Psa 35:13, Psa 51:17, Psa 69:10, Psa 69:11, Psa 126:5, Psa 126:6; Isa 57:1...

TSK: Lev 23:34 - The fifteenth // the feast of tabernacles The fifteenth : Exo 23:16, Exo 34:22; Num 29:12; Deu 16:13-15; Ezr 3:4; Neh 8:14; Zec 14:16-19; Joh 1:14, Joh 7:2; Heb 11:9, Heb 11:13 the feast of ta...

The fifteenth : Exo 23:16, Exo 34:22; Num 29:12; Deu 16:13-15; Ezr 3:4; Neh 8:14; Zec 14:16-19; Joh 1:14, Joh 7:2; Heb 11:9, Heb 11:13

the feast of tabernacles : This feast was celebrated in commemoration of the Israelites’ dwelling in tents in the wilderness for forty years; and was kept with greater hilarity than any of the other festivals. Hence, in the Talmud, it is often called chag , the feast, by way of excellence; and by Philo, εορτων μεγιστην , the greatest of the feasts; it was therefore more noticed by the heathen than any other. It is probable that Cecrops borrowed from it the law which he made in Athens, ""that the master of every family should after harvest make a feast for his servants, and eat together with them who had taken pains with him in tilling his grounds.""

TSK: Lev 23:35 - -- Lev 23:7, Lev 23:8, Lev 23:24, Lev 23:25

TSK: Lev 23:36 - Seven // the eighth // solemn Seven : Num. 29:12-38 the eighth : 2Ch 7:8-11; Neh 8:18; Joh 7:37 solemn : Heb. day of restraint, Deu 16:8; Joe 1:14, Joe 2:15 *marg.

Seven : Num. 29:12-38

the eighth : 2Ch 7:8-11; Neh 8:18; Joh 7:37

solemn : Heb. day of restraint, Deu 16:8; Joe 1:14, Joe 2:15 *marg.

TSK: Lev 23:37 - the feasts // every thing the feasts : Lev 23:2, Lev 23:4; Deu 16:16, Deu 16:17 every thing : Ecc 3:1

the feasts : Lev 23:2, Lev 23:4; Deu 16:16, Deu 16:17

every thing : Ecc 3:1

TSK: Lev 23:38 - the sabbaths // and beside the sabbaths : Lev 23:3, Lev 19:3; Gen 2:2, Gen 2:3; Exo 20:8-11 and beside : Num 29:39; Deu 12:6; 1Ch 29:3-8; 2Ch 35:7, 2Ch 35:8; Ezr 2:68, Ezr 2:69

TSK: Lev 23:39 - when // on the first when : Lev 23:34; Exo 23:16; Deu 16:13 on the first : Lev 23:24, Lev 23:36

when : Lev 23:34; Exo 23:16; Deu 16:13

on the first : Lev 23:24, Lev 23:36

TSK: Lev 23:40 - the boughs // of palm trees // rejoice the boughs : Heb. fruit, Neh 8:15; Mat 21:8 of palm trees : Psa 92:12; Joh 12:13; Rev 7:9 rejoice : Deu 16:14, Deu 16:15; Isa 35:10, Isa 66:10; Joh 16...

the boughs : Heb. fruit, Neh 8:15; Mat 21:8

of palm trees : Psa 92:12; Joh 12:13; Rev 7:9

rejoice : Deu 16:14, Deu 16:15; Isa 35:10, Isa 66:10; Joh 16:22; Rom 5:11; Phi 3:3, Phi 4:4; 1Pe 1:8

TSK: Lev 23:41 - -- Num 29:12; Neh 8:18

TSK: Lev 23:42 - -- Gen 33:17; Num 24:2, Num 24:5; Neh 8:14-17; Jer 35:10; 2Co 5:1; Heb 11:13-16

TSK: Lev 23:43 - -- Exo 13:14; Deu 31:10-13; Psa 78:5, Psa 78:6

TSK: Lev 23:44 - -- Lev 23:1, Lev 23:2, Lev 21:24; Mat 18:20

kecilkan semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per Ayat)

Poole: Lev 23:2 - Ye shall proclaim // Holy convocations // These are my feasts Ye shall proclaim i.e. cause to be proclaimed by the priests. See Num 10:8-10 . Holy convocations days for your assembling together to my worship a...

Ye shall proclaim i.e. cause to be proclaimed by the priests. See Num 10:8-10 .

Holy convocations days for your assembling together to my worship and service in a special manner.

These are my feasts which I have appointed, and the right observation whereof I will accept.

Poole: Lev 23:3 - -- No work ; so it runs in the general for the sabbath day, and for the day of expiation, Lev 23:28 , excluding all works about earthly occasions or e...

No work ; so it runs in the general for the sabbath day, and for the day of expiation, Lev 23:28 , excluding all works about earthly occasions or employments, whether of profit or pleasure; but on other feast days he forbids only servile works, as Lev 23:7,21,36 , for surely this manifest difference in the expressions used by the wise God must needs imply a difference in the things. In all your dwellings : this is added to distinguish the sabbath from other feasts, which were to be kept before the Lord in Jerusalem only, whither all the males were to come for that end; but the sabbath was to be kept in all places, where they were, both in synagogues, which were erected for that end, and in their private houses.

Poole: Lev 23:4 - -- In their appointed and proper times, as the word is used Gen 1:14 Psa 104:19 .

In their appointed and proper times, as the word is used Gen 1:14 Psa 104:19 .

Poole: Lev 23:8 - -- Seven days, the matter and manner whereof, see Num 28:18 , &c.

Seven days, the matter and manner whereof, see Num 28:18 , &c.

Poole: Lev 23:10 - When ye be come into the land // Shall reap // A sheaf When ye be come into the land therefore this obliged them not in the desert, where they reaped no harvest, &c. Shall reap i.e. begin to reap, as it...

When ye be come into the land therefore this obliged them not in the desert, where they reaped no harvest, &c.

Shall reap i.e. begin to reap, as it is expounded Deu 16:9 . So, he begat , i.e. began to beget, Gen 5:32 11:26 ; and, he built , 1Ki 6:1 , i.e. he began to build, as it is explained 2Ch 3:2 . The harvest thereof , to wit, barley harvest, which was before wheat harvest. See Exo 9:31,32 34:22 Rth 2:23 .

A sheaf Heb. an omer , which is the tenth part of an ephah. It seems here to note the measure of corn which was to be offered. For it is to be considered that they did not offer this corn in the ear, or by a sheaf or handful, but as Josephus, iii. 10, affirms, and may be gathered from Lev 2:14-16 , purged from the chaff, and dried, and beaten out, and, some add, ground into meal, and sifted into fine flour; though this may be doubted of, because the meat-offering attending upon this was of fine flour, Lev 23:13 , and because this offering is said to be of green ears of corn dried , &c., Lev 2:14 .

Poole: Lev 23:11 - To be accepted for you // On the morrow after the sabbath To be accepted for you that God may accept of you, and bless you in the rest of your harvest. On the morrow after the sabbath i.e. after the first ...

To be accepted for you that God may accept of you, and bless you in the rest of your harvest.

On the morrow after the sabbath i.e. after the first day of the feast of unleavened bread, which was a sabbath, or day of rest, as appears from Lev 23:7 , or upon the sixteenth day of the month. And this was the first of those fifty days, in the close whereof was the feast of pentecost, or Whitsuntide.

Poole: Lev 23:12 - An he lamb An he lamb besides the daily morning and evening sacrifice, which it was needless to mention here, and besides one of those sacrifices to be offered ...

An he lamb besides the daily morning and evening sacrifice, which it was needless to mention here, and besides one of those sacrifices to be offered every day of the seven, Lev 23:8 .

Poole: Lev 23:13 - Two tenth deals // An hin Two tenth deals or, parts , to wit, of an ephah, i. e. two omers, whereas in other sacrifices of lambs there was but one tenth deal prescribed, Num ...

Two tenth deals or, parts , to wit, of an ephah, i. e. two omers, whereas in other sacrifices of lambs there was but one tenth deal prescribed, Num 15:4 . The reason of which disproportion may be this, that one of the tenth deals was a necessary attendant upon the lamb, and the other was peculiar to this feast and occasion, and was an attendant upon that of the sheaf or corn, and was offered with it in thanksgiving to God for the fruits of the earth. Drink-offerings were added to all burnt-offerings, as we may see Num 15:5 .

An hin the measure appointed for every lamb, Num 15:5 . This also probably would have been doubled, for the reason now mentioned, had this been a thank-offering for the vintage, as it was for the harvest.

Poole: Lev 23:14 - Bread // Nor green ears // Until the selfsame day Bread made of new wheat, as the nature and reason of the law showeth. Nor green ears which were usual, not only for offerings to God, as Lev 2:14 ,...

Bread made of new wheat, as the nature and reason of the law showeth.

Nor green ears which were usual, not only for offerings to God, as Lev 2:14 , but also for man’ s food. See Jos 5:11 Rth 2:14 1Sa 17:17 Mat 12:1 .

Until the selfsame day: good reason God should be first served and owned as the supreme Landlord.

Poole: Lev 23:15 - From the morrow after the sabbath // Seven sabbaths From the morrow after the sabbath i.e. from the sixteenth day of the month, and the second day of the feast of unleavened bread inclusively. See on L...

From the morrow after the sabbath i.e. from the sixteenth day of the month, and the second day of the feast of unleavened bread inclusively. See on Lev 23:11 .

Seven sabbaths i.e. weeks, which are so called, by a synecdoche, from the chief day of it, both here and Luk 18:12 Act 20:7 1Co 16:2 .

Poole: Lev 23:16 - A new meat offering i.e. After seven weeks, or forty-nine days, the morrow after which was the fiftieth day, called also pentecost. A new meat offering to wit, of new...

i.e. After seven weeks, or forty-nine days, the morrow after which was the fiftieth day, called also pentecost.

A new meat offering to wit, of new corn made into loaves, as it follows.

Poole: Lev 23:17 - Out of your habitations // Two wave loaves // Baken with leaven Out of your habitations i.e. out of the corn of your own land, for which and for the fruits of it you are now to offer praises unto God. And this als...

Out of your habitations i.e. out of the corn of your own land, for which and for the fruits of it you are now to offer praises unto God. And this also, as well as the former sacrifice, was brought out of the common charge, and in the name of the whole nation, whence it is said to be brought out of their habitations in the plural number. Some conceive two several loaves were brought from every family, or, as others, from every city or town. But this is easily confuted from Lev 23:18 , where we read that with the bread, to wit, the two loaves, were to be offered seven lambs, one bullock, &c., which doubtless was a common oblation, and in the name of all.

Two wave loaves in double proportion, as before, Lev 23:13 .

Baken with leaven because these were not offered to God, but wholly given to the priest for food. See on Lev 2:11 7:13 .

Poole: Lev 23:18 - Two rams Two rams in Num 28:11,19 it is two young bullocks and one ram. Either therefore it was left to their liberty to choose which they would offer, or ...

Two rams in Num 28:11,19 it is two young bullocks and one ram. Either therefore it was left to their liberty to choose which they would offer, or one of the bullocks there, and one of the rams here, were the peculiar sacrifices of the feast-day, and the other were attendants upon the two loaves, which were the principal and most proper offering at this time. And the one may be mentioned there, and the other here, to teach us that the addition of a new sacrifice did not destroy the former, but both were to be offered, as the extraordinary sacrifices of every feast did not hinder the oblation of the daily sacrifice.

Poole: Lev 23:19 - One kid One kid: in Lev 4:14 the sin-offering for the sin of the people is a bullock, but here a kid , &c.; the reason of the difference may be this, becau...

One kid: in Lev 4:14 the sin-offering for the sin of the people is a bullock, but here a kid , &c.; the reason of the difference may be this, because that was for some particular sin of the people, but this only in general for all their sins. If it be said, then this should have been the better sacrifice, as being for far more, and possibly greater, offences; it may be replied, that this is not the only instance wherein the greater sins are expiated by smaller sacrifices, and the smaller sins by greater sacrifices, which was to instruct us, that sins were not expiated by the sacrifices for any worth in them, but only in respect of Christ, and that, though all sins are not equal, yet they are all expiated by one and the same price, even by the blood of Christ.

Poole: Lev 23:20 - The priest shall wave them The priest shall wave them i.e. some part of them in the name of the whole, and so for the two lambs, otherwise they had been too big and too heavy t...

The priest shall wave them i.e. some part of them in the name of the whole, and so for the two lambs, otherwise they had been too big and too heavy to be waved. So it is a synecdochical expression. For the priests ; who had to themselves not only the breast and shoulder, as in others, which belonged to the priest, but also the rest which belonged to the offerer, because the whole congregation being the offerer here, it could neither be distributed to them all, nor given to some without offence or injury to the rest.

Poole: Lev 23:21 - An holy convocation An holy convocation a sabbath or day of rest, called pentecost, which was instituted, partly in remembrance of the consummation of their deliverance ...

An holy convocation a sabbath or day of rest, called pentecost, which was instituted, partly in remembrance of the consummation of their deliverance out of Egypt, by bringing them thence to the mount of God, or Sinai, as God had promised, and of that admirable blessing of giving the law to them at that time, and forming them into a commonwealth under his own immediate government; and partly in gratitude for the further progress of their harvest, as in the passover they offered a thank-offering to God for the beginning of their harvest.

Poole: Lev 23:22 - -- From the plural ye he comes to the singular thou, because he would press this duty upon every person who hath a harvest to reap, that none might ple...

From the plural ye he comes to the singular thou, because he would press this duty upon every person who hath a harvest to reap, that none might plead exemption from it. And it is observable, that though the present business is only concerning the worship of God, yet he makes a kind of excursion to repeat a former law of providing for the poor, to show that our piety and devotion to God is little esteemed by him, if it be not accompanied with acts of charity to men.

Poole: Lev 23:24 - A memorial of blowing of trumpets A memorial of blowing of trumpets i.e. solemnized with the blowing of trumpets by the priests; not in a common way, as they did every first day of ev...

A memorial of blowing of trumpets i.e. solemnized with the blowing of trumpets by the priests; not in a common way, as they did every first day of every month, Num 10:10 , but in an extraordinary manner, not only in Jerusalem, but in all the cities of Israel. This seems to have been instituted,

1. To solemnize the beginning of the new year, whereof as to civil matters, and particularly as to the jubilee, this was the first day; concerning which it was fit the people should be admonished, both to excite their thankfulness for God’ s blessing in the last year, and to direct them in the management of their civil affairs.

2. To put a special honour upon this month. For as the seventh day was the sabbath, and the seventh year was a sabbatical year; so God would have the seventh month to be a kind of sabbatical month, for the many sabbaths and solemn feasts which were observed in this more than in any other month. And by this sounding of the trumpets in its beginning, God would quicken and prepare them for the following sabbaths, as well that of atonement and humiliation for their sins, as those of thanksgiving for God’ s mercies.

Poole: Lev 23:27 - Ye shall afflict your souls Ye shall afflict your souls with fasting, and bitter repentance for all, especially their national sins, among which no doubt God would have them rem...

Ye shall afflict your souls with fasting, and bitter repentance for all, especially their national sins, among which no doubt God would have them remember their sin of the golden calf. For as God had threatened to remember it in after-times to punish them for it, Exo 32:34 , so there was great reason why they should remember it to humble themselves for it.

Poole: Lev 23:29 - Whatsoever soul Whatsoever soul either of the Jewish nation or religion. Hereby God would signify the absolute necessity which every man had of repentance and forgiv...

Whatsoever soul either of the Jewish nation or religion. Hereby God would signify the absolute necessity which every man had of repentance and forgiveness of sin, and the desperate condition of all impenitent persons.

Poole: Lev 23:32 - your sabbath This clause seems to be added to answer an objection, how this day of atonement could be both on the tenth day Lev 23:27 , and on the ninth day here...

This clause seems to be added to answer an objection, how this day of atonement could be both on the tenth day Lev 23:27 , and on the ninth day here. The answer is, it began at the evening or close of the ninth day, and continued till the evening or close of the tenth day; and so both were true, especially if you consider, that the Jews did take in some part of the sixth day’ s evening by way of preparation for the sabbath, and therefore would much more take in a part of the ninth day to prepare and begin the great and solemn work of their yearly atonement. And this clause may be understood either,

1. Of this-particular sabbath, called here

your sabbath in the singular number, possibly to note the difference between this and other sabbaths; for the weekly sabbath is oft called the sabbath of the Lord , because that was in a special manner appointed for the praising, honouring, and serving of God, and celebrating his glorious works, as also the other sabbaths here mentioned were, whereas this was principally ordained for their need and for their good, even to seek and obtain the pardon of their sins. Or,

2. Of all their sabbaths, and consequently of this. The Jews are supposed to begin every day, and consequently their sabbaths, at the evening, in remembrance of the creation, Gen 1:5 , as Christians generally begin their days and sabbaths with the morning, in memory of Christ’ s resurrection.

Poole: Lev 23:34 - Of tabernacles Of tabernacles i.e. of tents, or booths, or arbours. This feast was appointed principally to remind them of that time when they had no other dwelling...

Of tabernacles i.e. of tents, or booths, or arbours. This feast was appointed principally to remind them of that time when they had no other dwellings in the wilderness, as it is expressed Lev 23:43 , and to stir them up to bless God as well for the gracious conduct and protection then afforded them, as for their more commodious and secure habitations now given them; and secondarily, to excite them to gratitude for all the fruits of the year newly ended, which were now completely brought in, as may be gathered from Lev 23:39 Exo 23:16 Deu 16:13,14 . See an instance of this feast Neh 8:16 .

Poole: Lev 23:36 - Seven days ye shall offer an offering // On the eighth day // A solemn assembly Seven days ye shall offer an offering a several offering each day, which is particularly described Num 29:13 , &c. On the eighth day which though i...

Seven days ye shall offer an offering a several offering each day, which is particularly described Num 29:13 , &c.

On the eighth day which though it was not one of the days of this feast strictly taken, nor is it here affirmed to be so, but on the contrary is expressly said to consist of seven days, Lev 23:31,39 , nor did they dwell longer in tabernacles; yet in a larger sense it belonged to this feast, and is called the great day of the feast , Joh 7:37 . And so indeed it was, as for other reasons, so because, by their removal from their tabernacles into more fixed and comfortable habitations, it represented that happy time wherein their forty years’ tedious march in the wilderness was ended, with their introduction into, and settlement in, the land of Canaan, which it was most fit and just they should acknowledge with such a solemn day of thanksgiving as this was.

A solemn assembly Heb. a day of conclusion , because it was the end of the feast, Joh 7:37 ; or, of restraint , because they were restrained from servile work, and obliged to attendance upon God’ s worship; or, of detention , because they were yet detained before the Lord, and kept together for his service, and not suffered to return to their tents till this was over.

Poole: Lev 23:37 - A sacrifice A sacrifice i.e. another sacrifice, to wit, for a sin-offering, as we shall find it Num 29:16,19,22 , &c., called by the general name, a sacrifice, b...

A sacrifice i.e. another sacrifice, to wit, for a sin-offering, as we shall find it Num 29:16,19,22 , &c., called by the general name, a sacrifice, because it was designed for that which was the principal end of all sacrifices, to wit, for the expiation of sin.

Poole: Lev 23:38 - Beside the sabbaths // the sabbaths of the Lord // Beside your gifts Beside the sabbaths i.e. the offerings of the weekly sabbaths, by a metonymy, as the day is sometimes put for the actions done in it, as Pro 27:1 1...

Beside the sabbaths i.e. the offerings of the weekly sabbaths, by a metonymy, as the day is sometimes put for the actions done in it, as Pro 27:1 1Co 3:13 . God will not have any sabbath sacrifice diminished, because of the addition of others proper to any, other feast. And it is here to be noted, that though other festival days are sometimes called sabbaths, as here Lev 23:39 , yet these are here called

the sabbaths of the Lord in way of contradistinction to other days of rest, to show that this was more eminently such than other feast-days, which also sufficiently appears from the fourth commandment.

Beside your gifts which, being here distinguished from free-will offerings made to the Lord, may seem to note what they freely gave to the priests over and above their first-fruits and tithes, or other things which they were enjoined to give.

Poole: Lev 23:39 - Also // The fruit Also or rather, surely , as this particle is oft used; for this is no addition of a new, but only a repetition of the former injunction, with a more...

Also or rather, surely , as this particle is oft used; for this is no addition of a new, but only a repetition of the former injunction, with a more particular explication both of the manner and reason of the feast.

The fruit not the corn, which was gathered long before, but of their trees, as vines, olives, and other fruit-trees; which completed the harvest, whence this is called the feast of ingathering , Exo 23:16 .

Poole: Lev 23:40 - Boughs // Thick trees // Willows of the brook // Ye shall rejoice Boughs Heb. the fruit , i.e. fruit-bearing boughs, or branches with the fruit on them, as the word fruit seems to be taken, 2Ki 19:30 Eze 19:12 . ...

Boughs Heb. the fruit , i.e. fruit-bearing boughs, or branches with the fruit on them, as the word fruit seems to be taken, 2Ki 19:30 Eze 19:12 . Goodly trees , to wit, the olive, myrtle, and pine, as they are mentioned, Neh 8:15,16 , which were most plentiful there, and which would best preserve their greenness or freshness.

Thick trees fit for shade and shelter.

Willows of the brook which might do well to mix with the other, and in some sort to bind them together. And as they made their booths of these materials, as is apparent from Ne 8 , so it seems they did also carry some of these boughs in their hands, as is affirmed by Jewish and other ancient writers.

Ye shall rejoice which joy they testified by feasting, thanksgiving, &c.

Poole: Lev 23:42 - Booths Booths were erected in their cities or towns, either in their streets or gardens, or the tops of their houses, Neh 8:16 , which were made flat, and t...

Booths were erected in their cities or towns, either in their streets or gardens, or the tops of their houses, Neh 8:16 , which were made flat, and therefore were proper and fit for that use.

Haydock: Lev 23:2 - Holy Holy. The Hebrew, Chaldean, and Septuagint add, "and meet together; or, these are my feasts of assembly." On these days the people were called to...

Holy. The Hebrew, Chaldean, and Septuagint add, "and meet together; or, these are my feasts of assembly." On these days the people were called together to hear the word of God, &c. (Menochius)

Haydock: Lev 23:3 - Sabbath // Called // Day // Lord // Habitations Sabbath. Hebrew, "the rest of rest;" a day in which no unnecessary servile work must be done, no more than on the great holidays, ver. 6, 8. (Haydo...

Sabbath. Hebrew, "the rest of rest;" a day in which no unnecessary servile work must be done, no more than on the great holidays, ver. 6, 8. (Haydock) ---

Called holy, because it shall be really so: in which sense the word is often used, Isaias ix. 6, &c. ---

Day; you must not even dress meat, which was also forbidden on the day of expiation. ---

Lord, on which he ceased from work, and which you must keep in his honour. ---

Habitations. In the temple, the priests were intent upon sacrificing, which was indeed a material, but not a formal, violation of the sabbath, Matthew xii. 5.

Haydock: Lev 23:6 - Bread Bread. The obligation of eating none but this sort of bread began at the second evening of the 14th, which was the beginning of the 15th of Nisan, E...

Bread. The obligation of eating none but this sort of bread began at the second evening of the 14th, which was the beginning of the 15th of Nisan, Exodus xii. 6, 12. (Menochius)

Haydock: Lev 23:8 - In fire // More holy In fire. Septuagint, "holocausts," extraordinary ones, besides the daily burnt-offerings, Numbers xxviii. 19. --- More holy than the five intermed...

In fire. Septuagint, "holocausts," extraordinary ones, besides the daily burnt-offerings, Numbers xxviii. 19. ---

More holy than the five intermediate days, on which servile work was allowed. In this and the former verse, more and most are not specified in the Hebrew and Septuagint. (Calmet)

Haydock: Lev 23:10 - Land // Of ears Land of Chanaan, at which time these feasts began to be observed. (Menochius) See Leviticus ii. 14. --- Before the harvest commenced, first-fruits...

Land of Chanaan, at which time these feasts began to be observed. (Menochius) See Leviticus ii. 14. ---

Before the harvest commenced, first-fruits were offered to the Lord. A gomer containing about three pints of barley was given to the priests, by the nation at large, as each individual was not bound to make a particular solemn offering. The judges deputed three men to gather this barley on the evening of the 15th Nisan, where the neighbourhood assembled near Jerusalem. It was gathered by them in three different fields, after having been thrice assured that the sun was set, and that they had leave to reap, in answer to their triple demands on each head. Then they placed the ears in three boxes, which they brought to the court of the sanctuary, and having ground the barley, and poured a log of oil and an handful of incense upon it, presented it to the priest, who heaving it in the form of a cross, threw as much as he could hold in his hand upon the altar, and kept the rest for himself. (Josephus, [Antiquities?] iii. 10; &c. Private people offered also in kind or in money their first-fruits, or between the 40th and the 60th part of what their land produced. This custom is almost as ancient as the world, (Genesis iv. 3,) and we may say that it forms a part of natural religion, which all nations have observed. Porphyrius esteems it an impiety to neglect it. He says that the Thoes, living on the borders of Thrace, were in a moment destroyed, because they offered neither sacrifices nor first-fruits. (De Abstin. ii. 7.) The ancient Romans and Greeks were very punctual in this respect. (Pliny, xviii. 20.) Those officers who collected this first-fruits among the latter were styled Parasites. Many of the festivals among the heathens, occurred at the end of harvest. (Aristotle, ad Nicom. viii.) The Jews might reap their wheat, but they could not taste it, before they had offered the first-fruits, at Pentecost. (Chap. xxiii. 17; Exodus xxiii. 16.) ---

Of ears. Hebrew homor, or gomer, "a sheaf," denotes also a measure, which was called an assaron, containing almost three pints.

Haydock: Lev 23:11 - Sabbath Sabbath. Onkelos has "the good day," from which the fifty days of Pentecost were counted. (Calmet)

Sabbath. Onkelos has "the good day," from which the fifty days of Pentecost were counted. (Calmet)

Haydock: Lev 23:14 - Corn // Dwellings Corn ( polentam ). Some translate bruised corn, or a sort of cake. See chap. ii. 4. --- Dwellings, even out of the holy land, which was peculiar ...

Corn ( polentam ). Some translate bruised corn, or a sort of cake. See chap. ii. 4. ---

Dwellings, even out of the holy land, which was peculiar to this law. (Grotius)

Haydock: Lev 23:15 - Sabbath Sabbath. Not the ninth day of the week, but the first day of the Passover; from the morrow of which seven weeks or 49 days were reckoned; and the ne...

Sabbath. Not the ninth day of the week, but the first day of the Passover; from the morrow of which seven weeks or 49 days were reckoned; and the next day was Pentecost. (Menochius) ---

They began, therefore, to count on the 16th of Nisan, and end on the 6th of the third month Sivan. All the intermediate days took their denomination from this second day of the Passover; so that the next Saturday was called the first sabbath after the second day; in Greek Deuteroproton, the second-first; (Luke vi. 1,) a term which had puzzled all the interpreters until Jos. Scaliger made this discovery. (Emend. 6.) The Samaritans count from the day after that sabbath which follows the Passover; so that if the festival fall on Monday, they celebrate Pentecost later than the Jews. See their Letter to Huntington. (Calmet)

Haydock: Lev 23:16 - Sacrifice Sacrifice. Hebrew mincha, which relates to the offerings of corn and liquors. Two loaves of wheaten flour leavened, were presented probably by th...

Sacrifice. Hebrew mincha, which relates to the offerings of corn and liquors. Two loaves of wheaten flour leavened, were presented probably by the nation. This festival was instituted in memory of the law being given from Mount Sinai, which was a figure of the law of grace promulgated by the Holy Ghost and by the apostles, on the day of Pentecost. (Calmet)

Haydock: Lev 23:17 - Loaves Loaves. The Protestants supply wave loaves, (Haydock) though their Hebrew text has nothing. The Samaritan is more correct. (Houbigant)

Loaves. The Protestants supply wave loaves, (Haydock) though their Hebrew text has nothing. The Samaritan is more correct. (Houbigant)

Haydock: Lev 23:18 - Lambs Lambs. More were prescribed, Numbers xxviii. 27. Josephus joins all together. ([Antiquities?] B. iii. 10.)

Lambs. More were prescribed, Numbers xxviii. 27. Josephus joins all together. ([Antiquities?] B. iii. 10.)

Haydock: Lev 23:20 - Use Use. None of the peace-offerings were burnt upon the altar, as the bread was leavened. (Calmet)

Use. None of the peace-offerings were burnt upon the altar, as the bread was leavened. (Calmet)

Haydock: Lev 23:21 - Most holy Most holy. Hebrew, "a holy convocation." (Haydock) --- It is generally supposed that it had an octave, though the Scripture says nothing of it.

Most holy. Hebrew, "a holy convocation." (Haydock) ---

It is generally supposed that it had an octave, though the Scripture says nothing of it.

Haydock: Lev 23:24 - Memorial Memorial, or a memorable sabbath. This third great festival sanctified the commencement of the civil year in Tisri, the sabbatical month, according t...

Memorial, or a memorable sabbath. This third great festival sanctified the commencement of the civil year in Tisri, the sabbatical month, according to the ecclesiastical calculation. (Tirinus) See Numbers xxix. 3. ---

The sound of trumpets, which ushered in the year with great solemnity, reminded the Jews of the approaching fast, ver. 27, (Maimonides) and of those terrible sounds which had been heard at Sinai. (Theodoret, q. 32.) The Rabbins say that a ram's horn was used, because Abraham had sacrificed a ram instead of his son. (Genesis xxii. 11.; Zacharias ix. 14.) The Jews on this day sound the horn 30 times, feast, and wish one another a happy year. (Boxtorf., xyn. xix.) We know not on what account this festival was instituted. But it was probably ordained in order that the people might learn to thank God for the favours received during the past year, and might beg his blessing on that, upon which they were now entering. (Calmet)

Haydock: Lev 23:28 - Servile Servile is not in the original, or in the other versions, nor in the Vulgate, ver. 30; whence it is inferred, that this day of atonement was to be ke...

Servile is not in the original, or in the other versions, nor in the Vulgate, ver. 30; whence it is inferred, that this day of atonement was to be kept like the sabbath: so that even meat could not be made ready on it lawfully, chap. xvi. 29. (Calmet)

Haydock: Lev 23:29 - Every Every. It was difficult for any grown-up person to be entirely guiltless, amid such a variety of precepts, (Menochius) which St. Peter says neither ...

Every. It was difficult for any grown-up person to be entirely guiltless, amid such a variety of precepts, (Menochius) which St. Peter says neither they nor their fathers could bear, Acts xv. 10: and St. James (iii.) observes, in many things we all offend. If any proved so happy as to keep without blame, (Luke i. 6.; Haydock) they were bound, at least, to grieve for the injury done to God by their fellow members. See Daniel ix. 5. (Menochius)

Haydock: Lev 23:32 - Sabbaths Sabbaths. The Church adopts this custom in her divine office. The Jewish day began and ended with sun-set, Exodus xii. 6. (Calmet) --- No part of...

Sabbaths. The Church adopts this custom in her divine office. The Jewish day began and ended with sun-set, Exodus xii. 6. (Calmet) ---

No part of the ninth of Tisri belonged to this feast, (ver. 27,) which only began at the expiration of it. (Haydock)

Haydock: Lev 23:34 - Seven days // Tabernacles Seven days, during which the people were bound to rejoice, but not to abstain from servile work; except on the first and eighth day. (Tirinus) --- T...

Seven days, during which the people were bound to rejoice, but not to abstain from servile work; except on the first and eighth day. (Tirinus) ---

Tabernacles: Greek Scenopegia; because, during the octave, the Jews lived in tents, or booths, made of branches, &c., ver. 42.

Haydock: Lev 23:36 - Most holy // Congregation Most holy. Hebrew, "an holy assembly." The great day of the festivity, John vii. 37. --- Congregation. Hebrew hatsereth, "retention." All w...

Most holy. Hebrew, "an holy assembly." The great day of the festivity, John vii. 37. ---

Congregation. Hebrew hatsereth, "retention." All were bound to wait till this day was over. In other festivals, it was sufficient if they were present one day. This was the concluding day of the feast of tabernacles. Septuagint exodion. Plutarch (Sym. iv. 5.) observes, that this festival greatly resembles that of Bacchus. Ovid (Fast. iii.) speaking of the feast of Anna Perenna, describes it thus: Sub Jove pars durat, pauci tentoria ponunt,

Sub quibus e ramis frondea facta casa est.

Casaubon (on Atheneus iv. 9. and v. 5.) mentions other feasts, on which the pagans dwelt under tents. The devil has caused his slaves to imitate most of the holy ceremonies of the true religion. (Calmet)

Haydock: Lev 23:39 - Eighth Eighth. On the feast of the Passover, the 7th day after the 15th was kept holy, because the 14th, or the Phase, made also a part of the solemnity,...

Eighth. On the feast of the Passover, the 7th day after the 15th was kept holy, because the 14th, or the Phase, made also a part of the solemnity, ver. 5, 8. (Haydock)

Haydock: Lev 23:40 - Fairest tree // Thick trees // Willows // Rejoice Fairest tree, branches of the orange or citron tree, laden with blossoms and fruit. (Tirinus) --- Josephus ([Antiquities?] iii. 10) says, they took ...

Fairest tree, branches of the orange or citron tree, laden with blossoms and fruit. (Tirinus) ---

Josephus ([Antiquities?] iii. 10) says, they took branches of myrtle, willows, and palm trees, on which they fixed oranges. This is the fruit which the Hebrews generally understand to be hereby designated. In the same sense the Arabic and Syriac translate "golden apples." ---

Thick trees, of any species; though Josephus, &c., restrain it to the myrtle, which was certainly used on this occasion, 2 Esdras viii. 12. ---

Willows. Septuagint adds also, "branches of agnus from the torrent." Perhaps Moses only meant that these branches should be used in forming the tents; but the Jews hold them in their hands, while they go in solemn procession round the pulpit in their synagogues, during every day of the octave, before breakfast, crying out Ana hosiah na, &c., "Save us, we beseech thee, O Lord; we beseech thee, grant us good success." They gave the title of hosannah to those branches; in allusion to which, the children sung in honour of Jesus Christ, Hosanna to the Son of David. ---

Rejoice; dancing and singing before the altar of holocausts, 2 Kings vi. 14. The wisdom of God shines forth, in thus attaching to his worship a carnal people, by intermingling with the most solemn ceremonies some relaxation and pleasure. By calling them together so often in the year, they became also better acquainted with one another, and more in love with their religion and country. The ancient lawgivers entertained the like sentiments. (Seneca, Strabo x.) But the pagans generally carried these diversions to excess. (Calmet) ---

In this chapter we find six festivals specified: 1. sabbath; 2. Passover; 3. Pentecost; 4. trumpets; 5. expiation; 6. tabernacles, lasting till the octave day of assembly and collection. These three last were celebrated in the 7th month, the 1st of the civil year. There was also a feast on all the new moons, Numbers xxviii. 11. (Haydock)

Haydock: Lev 23:42 - Days Days. Tostat affirms they might pass the nights in their houses; but most people suppose, the Jews spent the whole octave in bowers.

Days. Tostat affirms they might pass the nights in their houses; but most people suppose, the Jews spent the whole octave in bowers.

Haydock: Lev 23:44 - Feasts Feasts. In the institution of these feasts, as in the other regulations of Moses, there was something ceremonial, which might be altered, and someth...

Feasts. In the institution of these feasts, as in the other regulations of Moses, there was something ceremonial, which might be altered, and something moral, which regards even those times when the Jewish religion was to cease. (St. Augustine, q. 43.) ---

Hence we must conclude, that the obligation of keeping certain days holy must always remain. But those appointed for the Jews, as they foretold the future Messias, must be changed, lest otherwise we might seem to confess that he is still to come. (Romans xiv.; Galatians iv.; Colossians ii.) We are not therefore allowed to Judaize abstaining from work on the Jewish sabbath, (Council of Laodicea,) as Antichrist will require. (St. Gregory, ep. xi. 3.) ---

But we must keep Sunday instead, (as even Protestants maintain, though there be no Scripture for it,) by authority of tradition, in memory of Christ's resurrection, &c. (St. Jerome, ep. ad Hed.; ib.[St. Gregory, ep. xi. 3.?]; St. Augustine, de C.[City of God?] xxii. 30.) So also we observe the Christian festivals, in honour of our Lord and his saints, instead of those which God appointed for the Jews, either by himself or by his ministers: for we find that some were instituted after the time of Moses, (Esther ix., and 1 Machabees iv.) and these were sanctioned by the observance of Christ himself, It was the feast of the dedication, and Jesus walked in the temple, &c., John x. 22-23. (Worthington)

Gill: Lev 23:1 - And the Lord spake unto Moses // saying And the Lord spake unto Moses,.... Much about the same time as before; and having delivered to him various laws concerning the holiness of the people ...

And the Lord spake unto Moses,.... Much about the same time as before; and having delivered to him various laws concerning the holiness of the people of Israel, who were to serve him, and of the holiness of the priests, that were to minister in holy things to him, and of the purity and perfections of their sacrifices, he here appoints various times and seasons, for the more special worship and service of him:

saying; as follows.

Gill: Lev 23:2 - Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them // concerning the feasts of the Lord, which ye shall proclaim to be holy convocations, even these are my feasts Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them,.... Speak to them to gather together, and then say unto them what follows, they all being oblige...

Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them,.... Speak to them to gather together, and then say unto them what follows, they all being obliged to keep the feasts, and observe the solemnities hereafter directed to; though it may be the heads of the tribes and the elders of the people were summoned together, and the following things were delivered to them, and by them to the people:

concerning the feasts of the Lord, which ye shall proclaim to be holy convocations, even these are my feasts; appointed and ordered by God, and to be kept to the honour of his name; these are the general names for the particular holy times and seasons after appointed; they are in general called "feasts", though one of them, the day of atonement, was, strictly speaking, a fast; yet being a cessation from all work, and opposed to working days, days of labour and business, it is comprehended in this general title: nor is it unusual with other nations to call a fast a feast; so Aelianus h relates of the Tarentines, that having been besieged by the Romans, and delivered from them, in memory of their sufferings appointed a feast which was called a fast: the word used has the signification of stated, fixed, appointed times and seasons, and of convening or meeting together at such times, and that for the performance of solemn worship and service, which is true of them all; for there are certain times of the week and month fixed for them, and when the people in bodies assembled together, and in a solemn manner worshipped the Lord; and these are called "convocations", because the people were called together at those times by the priests, and that with the sound of a trumpet, Num 10:2; and "holy", because separated from other days, and set apart for holy services: the words may be rendered, as they are by many i: "the solemnities of the Lord, which ye shall proclaim holy convocations, these are my solemnities"; times for holy, religious, and solemn service, of his appointment and for his glory: Aben Ezra seems to understand all this of the sabbath only, which is next mentioned, expressed in the plural number, because, as he observes, there are many sabbaths in a year; and indeed the general title of the rest of the feasts is afterwards given, Lev 23:4.

Gill: Lev 23:3 - Six days shall work be done // but the seventh day is the sabbath of rest // an holy convocation // ye shall do no work therein // it is the sabbath of the Lord in all your dwellings Six days shall work be done,.... Or may be done by men, any sort of lawful work and honest labour, for the sustenance of themselves and families: b...

Six days shall work be done,.... Or may be done by men, any sort of lawful work and honest labour, for the sustenance of themselves and families:

but the seventh day is the sabbath of rest; from all bodily labour and work of any kind; typical of rest by Christ and in him:

an holy convocation; when the people were called to holy exercises, to pray and praise, and hear the word, and offer sacrifice:

ye shall do no work therein; not any at all, see Exo 31:15,

it is the sabbath of the Lord in all your dwellings: other feasts were kept in the sanctuary, in the tabernacle or temple, or where they were; but this was not only observed there and in their synagogues, but in their private houses, or wherever they were, whether, travelling by sea or land; and so the Targum of Jonathan and Aben Ezra interpret it.

Gill: Lev 23:4 - These are the feasts of the Lord, even holy convocations // which ye shall proclaim in their seasons These are the feasts of the Lord, even holy convocations,.... What follow besides the sabbath mentioned: which ye shall proclaim in their seasons;...

These are the feasts of the Lord, even holy convocations,.... What follow besides the sabbath mentioned:

which ye shall proclaim in their seasons; the proper times of the year, the day or days, and month in which they are to be observed; these were to be proclaimed by the priests with the sound of trumpet, namely, what follow, for they are put together, which had been before for the most part singly delivered.

Gill: Lev 23:5 - In the fourteenth day of the first month // at even is the Lord's passover In the fourteenth day of the first month,.... The month Nisan, the same with Abib, the month in which the children of Israel came out of Egypt, for w...

In the fourteenth day of the first month,.... The month Nisan, the same with Abib, the month in which the children of Israel came out of Egypt, for which reason it was made the first month in the year, answering to part of our March and part of April; and for the same reason was the passover kept at this time, as follows:

at even is the Lord's passover; that is, that was the time for the keeping the passover, even "between the two evenings", as it may be rendered; from the sixth hour and onward, as Jarchi, trial is, after noon or twelve o'clock the middle of the day, as Gersom, when the sun began to decline; See Gill on Exo 12:6.

Gill: Lev 23:6 - And on the fifteenth day of the same month is the feast of unleavened bread unto the Lord // seven days ye must eat unleavened bread And on the fifteenth day of the same month is the feast of unleavened bread unto the Lord,.... Which was the day the children of Israel went out of E...

And on the fifteenth day of the same month is the feast of unleavened bread unto the Lord,.... Which was the day the children of Israel went out of Egypt with their dough and leaven, having not time to leaven it; in remembrance of which this feast was appointed:

seven days ye must eat unleavened bread; see Exo 12:15.

Gill: Lev 23:7 - In the first day ye shall have an holy convocation // ye shall do no servile work therein In the first day ye shall have an holy convocation,.... That is, on the first of the seven days of the feast of unleavened bread, even the fifteenth d...

In the first day ye shall have an holy convocation,.... That is, on the first of the seven days of the feast of unleavened bread, even the fifteenth day of the month Nisan; this was separated from the other days of the festival, and more particularly devoted to religions exercises, see Exo 12:16,

ye shall do no servile work therein; such as agriculture, or any manufacture or mechanical business, which they and their servants were at other times employed in; but they might bake bread, and boil or roast their meat, and walk abroad, which they might not do on their sabbaths; and therefore it is so expressed as to distinguish it from the work forbidden on that day.

Gill: Lev 23:8 - But ye shall offer an offering made by, fire unto the Lord seven days // in the seventh day is an holy convocation, ye shall do no servile work therein But ye shall offer an offering made by, fire unto the Lord seven days,.... A burnt offering was to be offered unto the Lord on everyone of the seven d...

But ye shall offer an offering made by, fire unto the Lord seven days,.... A burnt offering was to be offered unto the Lord on everyone of the seven days, which were two young bullocks, one ram, and seven lambs; besides a meat offering, and a goat for a sin offering, Num 28:19,

in the seventh day is an holy convocation, ye shall do no servile work therein; as on the first day, that was on account of the Israelites going out of Egypt; and this is said, on account of Pharaoh and his host being drowned on it; See Gill on Exo 12:16.

Gill: Lev 23:9 - And the Lord spake unto Moses // saying And the Lord spake unto Moses,.... At the same time, for what follow are the other feasts and holy convocations before spoken of: saying; as follow...

And the Lord spake unto Moses,.... At the same time, for what follow are the other feasts and holy convocations before spoken of:

saying; as follows.

Gill: Lev 23:10 - Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them // when ye be come into the land which I give unto you // and shall reap the harvest thereof // then ye shall bring a sheaf of the firstfruits of your harvest unto the priest Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them,.... What is next observed, it being incumbent on them to do what is enjoined: when ye be come...

Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them,.... What is next observed, it being incumbent on them to do what is enjoined:

when ye be come into the land which I give unto you: the land of Canaan, which God had given by promise to their fathers and to them, and which they were now going to inherit: as yet they were in a wilderness, where there were no sowing nor reaping, nor any harvest; so that the following law, though now given, could not take place till they came into the land of Canaan:

and shall reap the harvest thereof; the barley harvest, which was about this time, the month Nisan, and which had the name Abib, from the barley being then in the ear, see Exo 9:31; for the wheat harvest was not till seven weeks after:

then ye shall bring a sheaf of the firstfruits of your harvest unto the priest; to with it as after directed: this is called an omer in the text, which was the tenth part of an ephah, Exo 16:36; and so Jarchi interprets it here; according to the Jewish writers, when the sheaf was reaped, the corn was beat out and winnowed, and dried by the fire, and then ground in a mill, and an omer, or a tenth part of an ephah of the flour of it was taken, and oil and frankincense put upon it, an handful of which being put upon the altar, the rest was the priest's; and with this pretty much agrees the account Josephus gives, who says, on the second day of unleavened bread, which is the sixteenth (day of Nisan), of the fruits they have reaped they take a part; for they do not touch them before, accounting it just to honour God first, from whom they receive the plenty of these things; and bring the firstfruits of the barley after this manner, having dried the handful of ears, and bruised them, and cleansed them from the bran, they bring to the altar a tenth part to God, and casting one handful of it on the altar, they leave the rest for the use of the priests; and from thence forward it is lawful to reap publicly and privately k: this has been in some part imitated by the Heathens: the Egyptians, who ascribe the invention of the fruits of the earth, particularly wheat and barley, to Isis and Osiris, in memory of it, and as a testimony of their gratitude for it, at the time of harvest, bring an handful of the first ears of corn, and beating themselves near them, call upon Isis; and in some cities, at the feast of Isis, vessels of wheat and barley were carried about in great pomp, as Diodorus Siculus l relates.

Gill: Lev 23:11 - And he shall wave the sheaf before the Lord // to be accepted for you // on the morrow after the sabbath the priest shall wave it And he shall wave the sheaf before the Lord,.... Or the omer of barley; this was done by the priest in the tabernacle and temple, where was the presen...

And he shall wave the sheaf before the Lord,.... Or the omer of barley; this was done by the priest in the tabernacle and temple, where was the presence of God, and that before the handful of it was put upon the altar; which agitation or waving was, as Gersom says, towards the cast; it was moved to and fro, backwards and forwards, upwards and downwards, to make an acknowledgment to the Lord of heaven and earth, that the fruits of the earth and the plentiful harvest were of him, and to give him the praise and glory of it:

to be accepted for you; of the Lord, as a thanksgiving to him, for the harvest now ripe, and the appointed time of it, and the plenty thereof; and that the remainder might be sanctified and blessed to them, and they have leave to gather it in, which they had not till this was done:

on the morrow after the sabbath the priest shall wave it; not after the seventh day, but after the first day of the feast of unleavened bread, which was a sabbath, in which no servile work was to be done, Lev 23:7; and so the Targum of Jonathan calls it the day after the first good day of the passover, which was the sixteenth of Nisan, as Josephus expressly says, in the place above referred to; and so it is generally understood by Jewish writers m the account given of this affair is this; the messengers of the sanhedrim went out (from Jerusalem over the brook Kidron to the fields near it) on the evening of the feast, (i.e. at the going out of the fifteenth) and at the beginning of the sixteenth of Nisan, and bound the standing corn in bundles, that so it might be the more easily reaped; and all the neighbouring cities gathered together there, that it might be reaped in great pomp; and when it was dark, one said to them, is the sun set? they said, yes. With this sickle (shall I reap?) they said, yes. In this basket (shall I put it?) they said, yes. If on a sabbath day, he said to them, On this sabbath day (shall I do it?) they said, yes n. These questions were put and answered three times; then they reaped it and put it into the baskets, and brought it to the court, where they parched it before the fire, to fulfil the commandment of parched corn; then they put it in mills for grinding beans, and took out of it a tenth part (of an ephah), which was sifted with eighteen sieves; then oil and frankincense were poured upon it, being mixed; and it was waved, and brought, and a handful taken and burnt, and the rest was eaten by the priests; and when they had offered the omer, they went out and found the streets of Jerusalem full of meal and parched corn o, there being now full liberty to reap what they would: now this sheaf of the firstfruits was typical of Christ; it being of barley, may denote the mean estate of Christ in his humiliation; and but one sheaf for all the people, may signify that Christ is the one Mediator, Saviour, and Redeemer: yet as a sheaf comprehends many stalks and grains, so Christ has a complication of blessings in him; yea, he had all his people representatively in him, when he was offered for the whole body of his mystical Israel, all the children of God scattered abroad; the manner of reaping it, by persons deputed by the sanhedrim on the eve of a festival of the passover, in the sight of much people, without Jerusalem, near Kidron, exactly agrees with the apprehending of Christ in the night near Kidron, by persons sent from the Jewish sanhedrim, and his suffering publicly without the gates of Jerusalem; it being brought to the priests in the court, and threshed, winnowed, dried, and parched by the fire, and ground in mills, may denote the various dolorous sufferings of Christ, by means of the priests and elders of the people; and oil and frankincense being put on it, may denote the acceptableness of his sacrifice to God; and the waving of it, his resurrection from the dead, which was on the very day this sheaf was waved; who is the firstfruits of them that sleep in him, and which sanctifies the whole body of them, and ensures their resurrection unto eternal life; see 1Co 15:20.

Gill: Lev 23:12 - And ye shall offer that day, when ye wave the sheaf // an he lamb without blemish of the first year, for a burnt offering unto the Lord And ye shall offer that day, when ye wave the sheaf,.... Besides the daily sacrifice of the morning and evening, and the additional offerings made on ...

And ye shall offer that day, when ye wave the sheaf,.... Besides the daily sacrifice of the morning and evening, and the additional offerings made on everyone of the seven days of the feast of unleavened bread:

an he lamb without blemish of the first year, for a burnt offering unto the Lord; typical of the perfect and immaculate Lamb of God, whose sufferings are fitly signified by a burnt offering; and which were endured at the time he became the firstfruits of his people, and sanctified them.

Gill: Lev 23:13 - And the meat offering thereof shall be two tenth deals of fine flour mingled with oil // an offering made by fire unto the Lord for a sweet savour // and the drink offering thereof shall be of wine, the fourth part of an hin And the meat offering thereof shall be two tenth deals of fine flour mingled with oil,.... The usual measure of flour to a meat offering was one tent...

And the meat offering thereof shall be two tenth deals of fine flour mingled with oil,.... The usual measure of flour to a meat offering was one tenth deal, Exo 29:40; but here it is doubled: some Jewish writers say p one tenth was on account of the lamb that was offered at this time, and the other as was suitable for a meat offering; but the true reason seems to be, because it was on account of the fruits of the earth and the plenty thereof; and therefore a double measure of fine flour mixed with oil was required as a token of gratitude; for thankfulness ought to be in proportion to mercies:

an offering made by fire unto the Lord for a sweet savour; an handful of it was burnt upon the altar, and was received with acceptance by the Lord, and the rest was eaten by the priests, Lev 2:2,

and the drink offering thereof shall be of wine, the fourth part of an hin; which was the common quantity for a drink offering, Exo 29:40; for, as Jarchi observes, though the meat offering was doubled, the drink offering was not; the reason of which seems to be, because these offerings were on account of the harvest and not the vintage: the Targum of Jonathan calls it wine of grapes, to distinguish it from wine that might be made of other things, but not to be used in drink offerings, only the pure juice of the grape.

Gill: Lev 23:14 - And ye shall eat neither bread, nor parched corn, nor green ears // until the selfsame day that ye have brought an offering unto your God // it shall be a statute for ever throughout your generations // in all your dwellings And ye shall eat neither bread, nor parched corn, nor green ears,.... That is, they were not allowed to make bread of the new corn, as Aben Ezra and G...

And ye shall eat neither bread, nor parched corn, nor green ears,.... That is, they were not allowed to make bread of the new corn, as Aben Ezra and Gersom explain it; for they were obliged to eat unleavened bread at this time: but it might not be made of the new corn, until the above offering was made; nay, they were not allowed to parch any of the grains of corn, and eat them; yea, even they might not pluck and eat the green ears, though of ever so small a quantity. The Jews say q, if it was the quantity of an olive of either of these, a man was to be beaten for it:

until the selfsame day that ye have brought an offering unto your God; which includes all the offerings on this account, the offering of the firstfruits, the offering of the he lamb, and the meat offering and the drink offering; until these were offered up, the new corn might not be eaten in any form:

it shall be a statute for ever throughout your generations; until the Messiah came, who is the substance of these shadows:

in all your dwellings; not at Jerusalem only, but in the several parts of the land of Canaan; yea, as Ben Gersom says, whether in the land, or without the land; a later writer says, it is forbidden to eat of the new corn at this time, whether bread, parched corn, or green ears, until the beginning of the night of the eighteenth of Nisan, and in the land of Israel, until the beginning of the night of the seventeenth of Nisan r.

Gill: Lev 23:15 - And ye shall count unto you from the morrow after the sabbath // from the day that ye brought the sheaf of the wave offering // seven sabbaths shall be complete And ye shall count unto you from the morrow after the sabbath,.... Not the seventh day sabbath in the passover week, nor the whole feast of unleavened...

And ye shall count unto you from the morrow after the sabbath,.... Not the seventh day sabbath in the passover week, nor the whole feast of unleavened bread, but the first day of it, which was an holy convocation, a sabbath in which no servile work was to be done, Lev 23:7; and it was from the day after this, even the sixteenth of Nisan, that the following count was to be made; so the Targum of Jonathan, after the first feast day of the passover: and Josephus s is very clear in it, that Pentecost, or the feast of weeks, was the fiftieth day from the sixteenth of Nisan, when the above offerings were made:

from the day that ye brought the sheaf of the wave offering; which plainly points out the express day from whence the count was to begin, even on the day when the sheaf of the firstfruits of the barley harvest was offered:

seven sabbaths shall be complete; or seven weeks, that is, forty nine days; and hence, Jarchi says, we learn that the count began from the evening, or otherwise the weeks would not be complete; and Gersom thinks the day in which the sheaf was offered is included in the days counted; for the count began from the day after the first of the passover, and lo, seven days are seven weeks of days, which make forty nine days.

Gill: Lev 23:16 - Even unto the morrow after the seventh sabbath // shall ye number fifty days Even unto the morrow after the seventh sabbath,.... Or weeks, forty nine days being counted, the following was the fiftieth day, or Pentecost: shal...

Even unto the morrow after the seventh sabbath,.... Or weeks, forty nine days being counted, the following was the fiftieth day, or Pentecost:

shall ye number fifty days; from whence this feast had the name of Pentecost, Act 2:1; all in Israel were obliged to number those days, except women and servants t: the manner of doing it was this u; on the night of the second (day of the passover), after the evening prayer, they began to number; but if anyone forgot to number at the beginning of the night, he went and numbered all the night; for the commandment is for everyone to number by himself, and he ought to number standing, and to bless first, and number the days and weeks: How? on the first day he says, This is one day, until he comes to seven days, and then he says, This is the seventh day, which is one week; and on the eighth day he says, This is the eighth day, which is one week and one day, and so till he comes to the fourteenth; then he says, This is the fourteenth day, which make two weeks; and in this way he numbers, and goes on until the forty ninth day: and ye shall offer a new meat offering unto the Lord; that is, of new corn, as the Targum of Jonathan and Jarchi explain it, and this was of wheat; for it was the offering for the wheat harvest, which was offered on the fiftieth day from the offering of the sheaf or omer of the barley harvest.

Gill: Lev 23:17 - And ye shall bring out of your habitations two wave loaves of two tenth deals // they shall be of fine flour // they shall be baked with leaven // they are the firstfruits unto the Lord And ye shall bring out of your habitations two wave loaves of two tenth deals,.... Out of their habitations in the land of Canaan; and not out of thos...

And ye shall bring out of your habitations two wave loaves of two tenth deals,.... Out of their habitations in the land of Canaan; and not out of those without the land, as Jarchi observes; and not out of all of them, as Ben Gersom remarks; though the Vulgate Latin version has it, out of "all" of our habitations, but wrongly; and indeed out of no one particular habitation, because it was at the public expense; but they were brought from some part of the country or another, even the quantity of two tenth parts of an ephah, or two omers of wheat flour made into two loaves, which were to be, and were waved before the Lord, and hence so called; and are the same with the new meat offering, or rather bread offering, made of the new corn, in the preceding verse, so Jarchi:

they shall be of fine flour; of wheat flour, the finest of it, of which all meat or bread offerings were made; and this was particularly on account of the wheat harvest, and therefore it was proper that the finest of the wheat should be used on this occasion; See Gill on Lev 2:1; each loaf or cake, according to Maimonides w, was seven hands' breadths long, four hands' breadths broad, and four fingers high:

they shall be baked with leaven; the common meat offering was unleavened, part of which was burnt on the altar, where no leaven might be burnt, Lev 2:4; and from hence it may be concluded that no part of these loaves was to be burnt, but the whole of them fell to the share of the priests:

they are the firstfruits unto the Lord; which he claimed as his, and gave unto his priests; and it was but right and just he should have them, as an acknowledgment of all coming from his hands, and as expressive of gratitude for them, and for the sanctification of the rest; hence this is called the feast of the firstfruits of wheat harvest, Exo 34:22.

Gill: Lev 23:18 - And ye shall offer with the bread seven lambs without blemish // of the first year // and one young bullock, and two rams // they shall be for a burnt offering unto the Lord, with their meat offering, and their drink offering // even an offering made by fire of a sweet savour unto the Lord And ye shall offer with the bread seven lambs without blemish, of the first year,.... That is, with the two wave loaves, the meat or bread offering...

And ye shall offer with the bread seven lambs without blemish,

of the first year,.... That is, with the two wave loaves, the meat or bread offering: and besides these:

and one young bullock, and two rams; in Num 28:27 it is two young bullocks, and one ram; and Aben Ezra suggests, that this was at the will and option of the priest, whether one bullock and two rams, or two bullocks and one ram; but according to Maimonides x, these sacrifices were distinct from them; they are sacrifices of the day, as being a feast day, and these belonged to the loaves; so that according to him, and so he expresses it, there were to be offered on this day, besides the daily sacrifices, three bullocks, three rams, and fourteen lambs, twenty beasts in all, for burnt offerings; and two goats for sin offerings to be eaten, and two lambs for peace offerings to be eaten; and with this account agrees Josephus y, they sacrifice for burnt offerings, he says, three bullocks, and two rams, (or, as Dr. Bernard thinks, it should be read three rams,) and fourteen lambs, and two goats for sin offerings:

they shall be for a burnt offering unto the Lord, with their meat offering, and their drink offering; each of the said beasts were offered, unto the Lord on the altar of burnt offering, and burnt thereon; and to every beast they offered, there was a meat offering and a drink offering: the meat offering consisted of three tenth deals, or omers, of fine flour, to a bullock, two to a ram, and one to a lamb; and the drink offering was half an hin of wine to a bullock, the third part of one to a ram, and a fourth part to a lamb, as Jarchi observes, which appears from Num 28:12,

even an offering made by fire of a sweet savour unto the Lord; an acceptable burnt offering to God.

Gill: Lev 23:19 - Then ye shall sacrifice one kid of the goats for a sin offering // and two lambs of the first year for a sacrifice of peace offerings Then ye shall sacrifice one kid of the goats for a sin offering,.... Which was for the sin of the whole congregation, typical of Christ, whose soul wa...

Then ye shall sacrifice one kid of the goats for a sin offering,.... Which was for the sin of the whole congregation, typical of Christ, whose soul was made an offering for sin; in virtue of which all other sacrifices become acceptable to God, and believers enjoy the fruits and blessings of divine grace:

and two lambs of the first year for a sacrifice of peace offerings; which Gersom says were the most holy things, and were only slain in the north, and only eaten by males, as the rest of the holy things, and are the only peace offerings of the congregation that were offered throughout the whole year.

Gill: Lev 23:20 - And the priests shall wave them with the bread of the firstfruits // for a wave offering before the Lord // with the two lambs // they shall be holy to the Lord for the priests And the priests shall wave them with the bread of the firstfruits,.... The two loaves called the two wave loaves, Lev 23:17; with which were waved the...

And the priests shall wave them with the bread of the firstfruits,.... The two loaves called the two wave loaves, Lev 23:17; with which were waved the two lambs of the peace offerings; and these alive, as Jarchi and Ben Gersom intimate. The Jewish doctors z dispute, whether, in waving, the lambs were put above the bread, or the bread above the lambs; which some reconcile by observing, that the bread was put by the side of the lambs:

for a wave offering before the Lord; being waved this way and that way, upwards and downwards, and towards the several quarters of the world, showing that the fruits of the earth were owing to the providential goodness of God everywhere:

with the two lambs; not that all the above sacrifices were waved, or any part of them, along with the lambs, but the wave loaves, and they were waved together, as one wave offering to the Lord:

they shall be holy to the Lord for the priests; both the loaves and the lambs, these were separated and devoted wholly to the Lord, and to be eaten by his priests; the peace offerings of a single person were light holy things, as Jarchi says; but the peace offerings of the congregation, as these were, are the most holy things, and so to be eaten only by the priests, and by the males only, in the court of the tabernacle.

Gill: Lev 23:21 - And ye shall proclaim on the selfsame day, that it may be an holy convocation unto you // ye shall do no servile work therein // it shall be a statute for ever all your dwellings throughout your generations And ye shall proclaim on the selfsame day, that it may be an holy convocation unto you,.... This proclamation was made by the priests with the sound ...

And ye shall proclaim on the selfsame day, that it may be an holy convocation unto you,.... This proclamation was made by the priests with the sound of a trumpet, that the people might observe that this fiftieth day, or day of Pentecost, was devoted to sacred service, and that they were called to holy exercises in it:

ye shall do no servile work therein; what was not necessary for food, as Ben Gersom observes, but what was necessary on that account, as kindling a fire, &c. might be done, see Lev 23:7; for this was to be kept in like manner as the first and seventh days of the feast of unleavened bread; the general design of which was to express thankfulness for the appointed weeks of the harvest, and to honour the Lord with the firstfruits of the increase of the earth: and the Jews say, as Ben Gersom observes, that this fiftieth day, being reckoned from the sixteenth of Nisan, fell upon the sixth of Sivan, on which day, they say, the law was given, which is another reason for the observance of it: and it is remarkable, that on this same day the Word of the Lord went out of Zion, and the law or doctrine of the Lord, even the everlasting Gospel, went out of Jerusalem, published by the apostles of Christ to the people of all nations, Act 2:14; when they were favoured with the firstfruits of the Spirit, after our Lord's ascension to heaven, and receiving gifts for men, which he now in an extraordinary manner bestowed on his disciples, Act 2:1; and which were the firstfruits of all others, after to be given forth in the course of time, and of the effusion of the Spirit in the latter day; and when there was a number of souls converted, as the firstfruits of after conversions among Jews and Gentiles, Act 2:41; and particularly of the conversion of the Jews in the latter day, and of the harvest of souls in the end of the world, Mat 13:30,

it shall be a statute for ever all your dwellings throughout your generations; so long as they dwelt in the land of Canaan, and had their harvest in it, even until the Messiah came, in whom all those types and figures had their accomplishment.

Gill: Lev 23:22 - And when ye reap the harvest of your land // thou shalt not make clean riddance of the corners of thy field when thou reapest, neither shalt thou gather any gleaning of thy harvest // thou shalt leave them unto the poor, and to the stranger: I am the Lord your God And when ye reap the harvest of your land,.... This law is repeated from Lev 19:9; and as Aben Ezra observes, the feast of weeks being the feast of th...

And when ye reap the harvest of your land,.... This law is repeated from Lev 19:9; and as Aben Ezra observes, the feast of weeks being the feast of the firstfruits of the wheat harvest, it is repeated, that they might not forget what God had commanded them to do at that time, namely, to leave somewhat for the poor; and the Jewish writers a observe, that this law, being put among the solemn feasts of the passover, pentecost, and tabernacles, and the beginning of the year, and the day of atonement, teaches, that he that observes it, and leaves the corner of the field and the gleanings to the poor, it is as if he built the sanctuary, and offered his sacrifices in the midst of it; but a much better reason may be given for it, which was, to teach them that when they expressed their thankfulness to God, they should exercise charity and liberality to the poor:

thou shalt not make clean riddance of the corners of thy field when thou reapest, neither shalt thou gather any gleaning of thy harvest: See Gill on Lev 19:9,

thou shalt leave them unto the poor, and to the stranger: I am the Lord your God; See Gill on Lev 19:10.

Gill: Lev 23:23 - And the Lord spake unto Moses // saying And the Lord spake unto Moses,.... At the same time, in a continued discourse, concerning some other days, which were to be observed in a sacred manne...

And the Lord spake unto Moses,.... At the same time, in a continued discourse, concerning some other days, which were to be observed in a sacred manner:

saying; as follows.

Gill: Lev 23:24 - Speak unto the children of Israel // in the seventh month // in the first day of the month shall ye have a sabbath // a memorial of blowing of trumpets // an holy convocation Speak unto the children of Israel,.... For all the people of Israel were concerned in the following precept, and obliged to observe it, even priests, ...

Speak unto the children of Israel,.... For all the people of Israel were concerned in the following precept, and obliged to observe it, even priests, Levites, Israelites, proselytes, and freed servants; though other servants, and women, and children, were not obliged to hear the sound of the trumpets b, and which were blown not in Jerusalem only, but in all cities and towns where the sanhedrim was c; and it was the hearing of them the people were bound unto, and not less than nine distinct soundings were they obliged to hear d; to which perhaps respect is had in Psa 89:15,

in the seventh month; the month Tisri, as the Targum of Jonathan, which was the seventh from the month Nisan or Abib; which was appointed the first month of the year, on account of the Israelites coming out of Egypt in it; otherwise, before, this month Tisri was the first, and so it still continued, for the fixing the years, and settling the sabbatical and jubilee years, and for the planting of trees and herbs e:

in the first day of the month shall ye have a sabbath; not entirely as the weekly sabbath, in which no manner of work at all was to be done, but in which no servile work was to be done; and was observed in like manner as the first and seventh days of unleavened bread, and the day of pentecost, Lev 23:7,

a memorial of blowing of trumpets; which, according to the Jewish writers, was continued from sun rising to sun setting f; but what this blowing of trumpets was a memorial of is not easy to say; some think it was in memory of the wars the people of Israel had with their enemies the Amalekites and Canaanites, and the victories they obtained over them, and particularly in remembrance of the walls of Jericho falling down at the sound of rams' horns; but then it must be by anticipation: it is more commonly received with the Jews g that it was on the account of the binding of Isaac on this day, being delivered through a ram being sacrificed in his stead; and on this account it is said, that the trumpets blown on this day were made of rams horns, and no other might be used h; yea, that ram's head was used to be eaten on this day, in remembrance of the ram of Isaac, and also to intimate that the Jews would be the head and not the tail i: the Jews also say, that this day, every year, was a sort of day of judgment, in which God sat and judged men, and also determined all events of the following year k; and this was attended with blowing of trumpets, to strike a terror into them, and put them in mind of the judgment of God, and to induce them to repent of their sins l: and it may be observed, that the resurrection of the dead, in order to the last general judgment, will be attended with the voice of the archangel and the trumpet of God, 1Co 15:52; whether this is so represented in reference to this notion, let it be considered: but as this was New Year's Day, as before observed, this ceremony seems to have been appointed to express joy for all the mercies and blessings of the last year; and the rather, at this time of the year all the fruits of the earth were gathered in, not only the barley and the wheat, but the oil and wine, and under such grateful acknowledgment, to expect the divine blessing to attend them the following year; and besides, at this time of the year, it was generally thought by the Jews m, and by others, that the world was created, and this blowing of trumpets might be in memory of that, and as an emblem of the shoutings of the sons of God, the angels, the morning stars, who sang for joy when the foundations of the earth were laid, Job 38:6; to which it may be added, this seventh month was very memorable for holy solemnities, as the day of atonement on the tenth, and the feast of tabernacles, which began on the fifteenth, and therefore was ushered in with blowing of trumpets to make it the more significant, and particularly to put the people in mind to prepare for the day of atonement near at hand; and so Gersom observes, that as the sound of a trumpet strikes men with fear, the design of this precept was, to fill the mind with fear, and to excite to repentance and brokenness of heart, and humiliation for sin, and to search their works and actions, and correct what was amiss, and so be ready for the day of atonement: hence Ainsworth thinks, that this was a figure of the ministry of John the Baptist preaching the baptism of repentance for the remission of sins; but rather it seems to be an emblem of the Gospel, and the ministry of it, in the acceptable year of the Lord, or the Gospel dispensation, which is sometimes signified by the blowing of the great trumpet, and by the ministers of it lifting up their voice like a trumpet, Isa 27:13; by which sinners are roused and awakened to a sense of their sin and danger, and to hear a joyful sound of love, grace, mercy, peace, pardon, righteousness, and salvation through Christ: the Jews say n, this blowing of trumpets was to disturb Satan, when he came to accuse the Israelites; it is certain there is nothing gives him more disturbance than the pure and powerful preaching of the Gospel, which he endeavours to obstruct as much as possible, and there is nothing like what that brings to silence his accusations, see 2Co 4:3,

an holy convocation; on which the people were called together to holy exercises; and so the Jews observe it to this day; for after they return home from attendance to the blowing of the trumpets in their synagogues, they sit down to meat, and spend the rest of the day in hearing sermons, and in other religious exercises o.

Gill: Lev 23:25 - Ye shall do no servile work therein // but ye shall offer an offering made by fire unto the Lord Ye shall do no servile work therein,.... Only such as was necessary for dressing food, but not any manual work, such as servants were employed in on ...

Ye shall do no servile work therein,.... Only such as was necessary for dressing food, but not any manual work, such as servants were employed in on other days, as agriculture or any mechanic business:

but ye shall offer an offering made by fire unto the Lord; a burnt offering, and what that was may be seen in Num 29:1.

Gill: Lev 23:26 - And the Lord spake unto Moses // saying And the Lord spake unto Moses,.... This phrase, which is a kind of preface to each precept, seems to be used to distinguish one from another, as the p...

And the Lord spake unto Moses,.... This phrase, which is a kind of preface to each precept, seems to be used to distinguish one from another, as the preceding one from the feast of Pentecost; and here, the day of atonement from that of the blowing of the trumpets; and afterwards, the feast of tabernacles from the day of atonement; the reason why it is not used before the feast of Pentecost seems to be, because, as Aben Ezra observes, that depended upon the wave sheaf, and was reckoned from it:

saying; as follows.

Gill: Lev 23:27 - Also on the tenth day of this seventh month // there shall be a day of atonement // it shall be an holy convocation unto you // and ye shall afflict your souls // and offer an offering made by fire unto the Lord Also on the tenth day of this seventh month,.... Tisri, the same as before, answering to part of our September, and part of October: there shall ...

Also on the tenth day of this seventh month,.... Tisri, the same as before, answering to part of our September, and part of October:

there shall be a day of atonement; for all the sins of the year past; see Lev 16:29,

it shall be an holy convocation unto you: when they should be called together for the exercise of holy duties:

and ye shall afflict your souls; their souls, by repentance, contrition, and humiliation for sin, and their bodies by fasting; and, as the Targum of Jonathan paraphrases it,"by abstaining from eating and drinking, and the advantage of bathing and wiping, and the use of the bed and sandals;''hence called the fast, Act 27:9; See Gill on Lev 16:29,

and offer an offering made by fire unto the Lord; a burnt offering, of which see Num 29:8.

Gill: Lev 23:28 - Ye shall do no work in that same day // for it is a day of atonement, to make atonement for you before the Lord your God Ye shall do no work in that same day,.... No more than on the weekly sabbath: for it is a day of atonement, to make atonement for you before the Lo...

Ye shall do no work in that same day,.... No more than on the weekly sabbath:

for it is a day of atonement, to make atonement for you before the Lord your God: See Gill on Lev 16:30; Aben Ezra's note is,"for you only,''that is, for the Israelites, and not the Gentiles; but the atonement of Christ, the antitype of this, was not for the sins of the Jews only, but for the sins of the whole world, of all his people in it, 1Jo 2:2.

Gill: Lev 23:29 - For whatsoever soul it be that shall not be afflicted in that same day // he shall be cut off from among his people For whatsoever soul it be that shall not be afflicted in that same day,.... That is, as the Targums of Jonathan and Jerusalem explain it, which can f...

For whatsoever soul it be that shall not be afflicted in that same day,.... That is, as the Targums of Jonathan and Jerusalem explain it, which can fast and does not fast; for a sick person, and a child under nine years of age, were not obliged to fast on this day p:

he shall be cut off from among his people; by an untimely death, by the hand of God; the Targum of Jonathan says, by the pestilence.

Gill: Lev 23:30 - And whatsoever soul it be that doeth any work in that same day // the same soul will I destroy from among his people And whatsoever soul it be that doeth any work in that same day,.... Any sort of work whatever; for, as before observed, it was to be kept as strictly...

And whatsoever soul it be that doeth any work in that same day,.... Any sort of work whatever; for, as before observed, it was to be kept as strictly as the weekly sabbath:

the same soul will I destroy from among his people; with the pestilence, as the above Targum; it seems to be but another phrase for cutting them off, and to signify the same thing.

Gill: Lev 23:31 - Ye shall do no manner of work // it shall be a statute for ever, throughout your generations, in all your dwellings Ye shall do no manner of work,.... Which is repeated, that it might be observed, and to show how strictly God required this day should be kept, and ho...

Ye shall do no manner of work,.... Which is repeated, that it might be observed, and to show how strictly God required this day should be kept, and how careful men should be of breaking the command in this respect, and how much he should resent it if they did:

it shall be a statute for ever, throughout your generations, in all your dwellings; unto the coming of the Messiah, who, by the atoning sacrifice of himself, would answer to this law, and put an end to it.

Gill: Lev 23:32 - It shall be unto you a sabbath of rest // and ye shall afflict your souls; in the ninth day of the month at even // from even unto even shall ye celebrate your sabbath It shall be unto you a sabbath of rest,.... See Gill on Lev 16:31; and this is thought by some q to be the sabbath spoken of in Isa 58:13, and ye ...

It shall be unto you a sabbath of rest,.... See Gill on Lev 16:31; and this is thought by some q to be the sabbath spoken of in Isa 58:13,

and ye shall afflict your souls; in the ninth day of the month at even; the fast was to begin at the close of the ninth day, and to continue to the end of the tenth; so Maimonides r: he begins to fast and afflict himself at the evening of the ninth next to the tenth; and so at the going out of it he continues in his affliction a little while of the night of the eleventh, next to the tenth, which is confirmed by what follows:

from even unto even shall ye celebrate your sabbath; which some understand of the sabbath in general; but it seems to have a particular respect to the sabbath of the day of atonement, which was to last from the evening of the ninth to the evening of the tenth day.

Gill: Lev 23:33 - And the Lord spake unto Moses // saying And the Lord spake unto Moses,.... Concerning the feast of tabernacles here repeated and enlarged upon: saying; as follows.

And the Lord spake unto Moses,.... Concerning the feast of tabernacles here repeated and enlarged upon:

saying; as follows.

Gill: Lev 23:34 - Speak unto the children of Israel, saying // the fifteenth day of this seventh month // shall be the feast of tabernacles for seven days unto the Lord Speak unto the children of Israel, saying,.... Giving them directions about keeping a feast, in which the whole body of them had a very special and pa...

Speak unto the children of Israel, saying,.... Giving them directions about keeping a feast, in which the whole body of them had a very special and particular concern:

the fifteenth day of this seventh month; the month Tisri or September:

shall be the feast of tabernacles for seven days unto the Lord; the design of which was, partly to give thanks for the fruits of the earth, now all gathered in, Lev 23:39; but chiefly to commemorate the dwelling of the children of Israel in tents and booths, during their forty years' abode in the wilderness, Lev 23:43; whereby their posterity in later times would be led to observe the difference between them and their forefathers, who lived in tents or booths, pitched sometimes in one place, and sometimes in another, in the open fields, in wastes, and deserts; whereas they dwelt in spacious cities, fortified towns, and magnificent houses; and were possessed of various kingdoms and nations, as was the land of Canaan: the reason, the Jews say s, why this feast was kept at this time of the year and not at the season when they went out of Egypt and first dwelt in booths, as at Succoth which had its name from thence, Exo 12:37, was this; because then the summer season began when men commonly used to build tabernacles to shelter them from the heat of the sun, wherefore, if the feast had been kept at that time, it would not have been known that it was kept at the command of God, and in remembrance of the above circumstance; but the month Tisri or September being usually a cold and rainy season in those parts, men were wont to leave their tabernacles and go into their houses; and so it was a plain case that the feast was observed not for convenience or through custom, but that it was at the command of God they went out of their houses into tabernacles at this season of the year, in commemoration of the miraculous benefit of dwelling in tents under the clouds of glory: and they also say, that for this reason it was ordered to begin on the fifteenth day, because it was on the fifteenth day of the month (though of another month) they went out of Egypt, and the clouds began to protect and accompany them; and this was enjoined them seven days, to teach them that the miraculous benefits of God are always and every day to be remembered: the Jews have a whole treatise in their Misnah, called "Succah", the "booth" or "tabernacle"; in which they give an account of the form and fabric and measure of their tabernacles, and of their dwelling and dining in them; and of the branches they carry in their hands, and of the manner of carrying and shaking them; and of the pouring out of water at this time, and of their piping and singing and other rites and ceremonies attending this feast; See Gill on Joh 7:2; besides, the uses of this feast before mentioned, it was typical of spiritual and evangelical things, and especially of the incarnation of Christ, whose human nature is the true tabernacle, in distinction from those typical ones, and in which he is expressly said to "tabernacle" among us, Joh 1:14; and it is highly probable that his incarnation or birth was at the time of this feast; at which time the temple of Solomon, a type of Christ's body, was also dedicated; and this season of the year suits better than that in which it is usually placed; and his baptism and the time of his death show it; see Luk 1:1; and as Christ, our passover, was sacrificed for us at the exact time of the passover, and the firstfruits of the Spirit were given on the very day of Pentecost, or feast of firstfruits; so it is most likely, that Christ was born, or first began to tabernacle in human nature at the feast of tabernacles, which we, in Gospel times, are to keep, by believing in the incarnate Saviour, and by attending to the Gospel ordinances he has appointed, to commemorate the benefits of his incarnation, sufferings, and death, Zec 14:16; moreover, the dwelling of the children of Israel in booths in the wilderness, and so at this feast in commemoration of it, may be an emblem of the tabernacles of the saints in their present wilderness state: this world, through which they are passing, is like a wilderness to them; their bodies are called tabernacles, which are pitched for a while; and their state and condition here is that of sojourners, pilgrims, and travellers; yea, these tents and tabernacles may be figures of the several particular churches of Christ, in the present state of things, which are set up for a while for the convenience, comfort, refreshment, and joy of the spiritual Israel of God; see Psa 46:4.

Gill: Lev 23:35 - On the first day shall be an holy convocation // ye shall do no servile work therein On the first day shall be an holy convocation,.... When they should be called together to holy exercises, to prayer, praising, and reading the law; a...

On the first day shall be an holy convocation,.... When they should be called together to holy exercises, to prayer, praising, and reading the law; and at this present time they observe this day, by rising early in the morning and going to the synagogue, where they sing and pray much; and everyone takes a bundle of branches of palm tree, olive, &c. in the right hand, and a pome citron in the left, and says, blessed be thou, O Lord our God, the Lord of the world, who has sanctified us by thy precepts, and hath commanded us to carry the palm tree bundle; then they shake it, and give a great shout, according to Psa 96:12; all which they frequently repeat on this day, as well as bring out the book of the law, attended with various ceremonies, and read some passages in it t:

ye shall do no servile work therein; as on the first and seventh days of unleavened bread, the day of Pentecost, and of the blowing of trumpets; but what was necessary for preparing and dressing food might be done.

Gill: Lev 23:36 - Seven days ye shall offer an offering made, by fire unto the Lord // on the eighth day shall be an holy convocation unto you // and ye shall offer an offering made by fire unto the Lord // it is a solemn assembly // ye shall do no servile work therein Seven days ye shall offer an offering made, by fire unto the Lord,.... A burnt offering; what this was, and how many were offered on each day, see at ...

Seven days ye shall offer an offering made, by fire unto the Lord,.... A burnt offering; what this was, and how many were offered on each day, see at large in Num 29:13,

on the eighth day shall be an holy convocation unto you; as on the first day; See Gill on Lev 23:35,

and ye shall offer an offering made by fire unto the Lord; which was different from that on all the other days, being one bullock only, &c. Num 29:35,

it is a solemn assembly; of all the people, when they were gathered together before the Lord. Some render the word used a "restraint" or "detention", and interpret it of restraining or detaining them from servile work, as in the next clause; so Aben Ezra and Gersom; but this sense seems to make that clause unnecessary and is never used elsewhere where that is:

ye shall do no servile work therein; as on the first day; See Gill on Lev 23:35.

Gill: Lev 23:37 - These are the feasts of the Lord // which ye shall proclaim to be holy convocations // to offer an offering made by fire unto the Lord // a burnt offering, and a meat offering // a sacrifice // and drink offerings // everything upon his day These are the feasts of the Lord,.... Besides the sabbath, as Gersom observes; even the passover, the seven days of unleavened bread the day of Pente...

These are the feasts of the Lord,.... Besides the sabbath, as Gersom observes; even the passover, the seven days of unleavened bread the day of Pentecost, the day of blowing the trumpets, the day of atonement, and the seven days of the feast of tabernacles:

which ye shall proclaim to be holy convocations: as they had been directed, Lev 23:2,

to offer an offering made by fire unto the Lord; which is explained by

a burnt offering, and a meat offering, which went along with it:

a sacrifice, which the Targums of Onkelos and Jonathan call the sacrifice of holy things; according to Gersom it was the sacrifice of the peace offerings; but rather it seems to be the sacrifice of the sin offering, which was ordered along with the rest in all those feasts:

and drink offerings; which also accompanied the meat offerings:

everything upon his day; there being different sacrifices on one day than on another, everyone was to be offered peculiar to the day as was ordered; of which see Num 28:29.

Gill: Lev 23:38 - Beside the sabbaths of the Lord // and beside your gifts // and beside all your vows, and beside all your freewill offerings, which ye give unto the Lord Beside the sabbaths of the Lord,.... The seventh day sabbaths, which were of his appointing, and sacred to his service and worship; on which, when any...

Beside the sabbaths of the Lord,.... The seventh day sabbaths, which were of his appointing, and sacred to his service and worship; on which, when any of the feasts fell, it did not hinder the observance of them, or the offering of the several sacrifices on them; nor were those of the sabbath to be omitted on the account of them:

and beside your gifts; either of the whole congregation, or of a private person, which they thought well to give of their own good will on these festivals, over and above the sacrifices enjoined:

and beside all your vows, and beside all your freewill offerings, which ye give unto the Lord; which seem to explain what is meant before by gifts.

Gill: Lev 23:39 - Also in the fifteenth day of the seventh month // when ye have gathered in the fruit of the land // on the first day shall be a sabbath, and on the eighth day shall be a sabbath Also in the fifteenth day of the seventh month,.... The month Tisri or September, the same month, and the same day of the month before observed; only ...

Also in the fifteenth day of the seventh month,.... The month Tisri or September, the same month, and the same day of the month before observed; only another end and use of this feast is remarked, which was to give thanks for the fruits of the earth gathered in, as follows:

when ye have gathered in the fruit of the land; the barley, wheat, oil and wine, and all others, this being now autumn, when the several fruits were ripe and gathered: ye shall keep a feast unto the Lord seven days; not different from that before mentioned, but the same, one design of which is here suggested, to give thanks for the fruits of the earth: hence this feast is sometimes called the feast of ingathering, Exo 23:16; as another use of it is after mentioned, to commemorate the children of Israel dwelling in booths in the wilderness:

on the first day shall be a sabbath, and on the eighth day shall be a sabbath; because on both there was a cessation from servile work, Lev 23:35.

Gill: Lev 23:40 - And ye shall take you the boughs of goodly trees // branches of palm trees // and the boughs of thick trees // and willows of the brook // and ye shall rejoice before the Lord your God seven days And ye shall take you the boughs of goodly trees,.... Which the three Targums interpret, of citrons; and so Jarchi and Aben Ezra; and the Jews are so ...

And ye shall take you the boughs of goodly trees,.... Which the three Targums interpret, of citrons; and so Jarchi and Aben Ezra; and the Jews are so tenacious of observing this, that in those countries where this fruit grows not, they will send for it from Spain, where there is plenty of it: the Targum of Jonathan, paraphrases it, "ye shall take of yours"; suggesting these boughs must be their own, or the bundle of them, with others they call the "lulab", must be their own property, and not another's; though it is said u, if it is a gift it will do, even though it is given on condition to be returned again:

branches of palm trees: which were very common in the land of Judea, and especially about Jericho; see Joh 12:13; the Targums of Jonathan and Jerusalem call them "lulabs", which is the name the Jews give to the whole bundle they carried in their hands on this day:

and the boughs of thick trees; which the Targums and Jewish writers in general understand of myrtles, being full of branches and leaves:

and willows of the brook; a sort of trees which delight to grow by brooks and rills of water: these, according to the Jewish writers, were not taken to make their booths of, though that seems to be the use of them, from Neh 8:15; but to tie up in bundles, and carry in hands; the citron in their left hand, and a bundle made of the other three sorts of boughs of trees in the right hand, which they called the "lulab":

and ye shall rejoice before the Lord your God seven days; because of the blessings of his goodness bestowed upon them in the plentiful harvest and vintage they had been favoured with, and in remembrance of past mercies, showed to their fathers in the wilderness, giving them food and drink, and guiding and protecting them with the pillar of cloud and fire; and at the same time, also, thankful for the different circumstances they were in, having cities, towns, and houses to dwell its, and fields and vineyards to possess, when their fathers lived in a wilderness for forty years together; and especially such of them expressed their joy before the Lord, who had any knowledge of this being a type of the Messiah tabernacling in human nature, they had the promise of, to be their spiritual Redeemer and Saviour: these seven days are kept by the Jews now, chiefly in carnal mirth, and so for ages past, as by carrying the above boughs in their hands, and going round about the altar with them, and, shaking them, and crying Hosanna, and by making use of all sorts of music, vocal and instrumental, piping, dancing, leaping, skipping, and various gestures, even by persons of the highest rank, and of the greatest character for sobriety w; and particularly by fetching water from Siloah, when in their own land, and pouring it with wine upon the altar, which was attended with such expressions of joy, that it is said, that he who never saw the rejoicing of drawing of water, never saw any rejoicing in his life x: the Jews give this reason of the ceremony, because at this feast was the time of the rains, see Targum of Jonathan on Lev 23:36; and therefore the holy blessed God said, pour water before me, that the rains of the year may be blessed unto you y; but others have thought there was something more mysterious in it, and that it had respect to the pouring out of the Holy Ghost; for, they say z, the place of drawing water was so called, because they drew the Holy Ghost, as it is said, "ye shall draw water with joy out of the wells of salvation", Isa 12:3; to this our Lord is thought to allude; see Gill on Joh 7:37, Joh 7:38, some of the ceremonies used at this feast have been imitated by the Heathens: Strabo a says, the carrying branches of trees, dances, and sacrifices, were common to the gods, and particularly to Bacchus; and there was such a likeness between these and the rites of Bacchus, that Plutarch b thought the Jews at this time kept two feasts to the honour of him; whereas, as Bishop Patrick observes, the profane Bacchanalia of the Gentiles were only a corruption of this festival.

Gill: Lev 23:41 - And ye shall keep it a feast unto the Lord seven days in the year // it shall be a statute for ever in your generations // ye shall celebrate it in the seventh month And ye shall keep it a feast unto the Lord seven days in the year,.... Every year it was to be kept for the space of seven days, beginning on the fift...

And ye shall keep it a feast unto the Lord seven days in the year,.... Every year it was to be kept for the space of seven days, beginning on the fifteenth and ending on the twenty second of the month Tisri or September:

it shall be a statute for ever in your generations; until the Messiah should come and tabernacle among men, the substance of this shadow, on whose coming it was to flee away:

ye shall celebrate it in the seventh month; which is repeated for the confirmation of it, and that no mistake might be made.

Gill: Lev 23:42 - Ye shall dwell in booths seven days // all that are Israelites born shall dwell in booths Ye shall dwell in booths seven days,.... So that it seems they were not obliged to dwell in them on the eighth day, which was an holy convocation, a s...

Ye shall dwell in booths seven days,.... So that it seems they were not obliged to dwell in them on the eighth day, which was an holy convocation, a sabbath in which no servile work was to be done as the first, Lev 23:36. The eighth day was a day by itself, a sort of an appendage to the feast of tabernacles, when they went into their houses again, and kept it as an holy day; and perhaps principally in giving thanks for the ingathering of the fruits of the earth, to which this seems to be appropriated from Lev 23:39. According to the Jewish writers, they did not go out of their booths until they had dined in them on this day; and as they went out used to say,"may it be the will of God that we may be worthy the next year to dwell in the booth of Leviathan c;''that is, to feast with the Messiah in the world to come. And to those days the Jews have added a ninth, which they call "the joy of the law", and which they keep for joy of having finished the reading of the law; which being divided into as many sections or lessons as weeks in the year, were so ordered to be read as to be finished at this time d:

all that are Israelites born shall dwell in booths; the Targum of Jonathan is,"all the males in Israel, and even the little ones, that do not need their mothers, sit in the shades blessing their Creator, when they enter there.''And, according to the Misnah e, women, servants, and little ones, are free from the booths (i.e. are not obliged to dwelt in one), but a little one, who hath no need of its mother, is obliged to dwell in the booths: and elsewhere it is said, that sick persons, and such as wait upon them, are not obliged, nor messengers upon any business, nor travellers and watchmen in cities, and keepers of gardens and orchards; if such travel, or keep watch in the day, they are obliged to be in them at night, and if in the night, then they are to dwell in them in the day f. Jarchi says, that everyone born in Israel comprehends proselytes, who were bound by this law.

Gill: Lev 23:43 - That your generations may know that I made the children of Israel to dwell in booths // when I brought them out of the land of Egypt // I am the Lord your God That your generations may know that I made the children of Israel to dwell in booths,.... Which by the providence of God the Israelites were obliged t...

That your generations may know that I made the children of Israel to dwell in booths,.... Which by the providence of God the Israelites were obliged to make for themselves to dwell in:

when I brought them out of the land of Egypt; for the very first place they came to, when they departed from thence, was called Succoth, from the booths they there built:

I am the Lord your God; who brought them out of Egypt, made them to dwell in booths in the wilderness, and enjoined them the observance of the feast of tabernacles in memory of it, in which he expected to be obeyed.

Gill: Lev 23:44 - And Moses declared unto the children of Israel the feasts of the Lord. And Moses declared unto the children of Israel the feasts of the Lord. The several feasts before recited, the order of them, the manner of observing t...

And Moses declared unto the children of Israel the feasts of the Lord. The several feasts before recited, the order of them, the manner of observing them, and the time.

buka semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki

NET Notes: Lev 23:2 The term מוֹעֵד (mo’ed, rendered “appointed time” here) can refer to either a time or place of m...

NET Notes: Lev 23:3 This is a superlative expression, emphasizing the full and all inclusive rest of the Sabbath and certain festival times throughout the chapter (see B....

NET Notes: Lev 23:5 See B. A. Levine, Leviticus (JPSTC), 156, for a full discussion of the issues raised in this verse. The rabbinic tradition places the slaughter of Pas...

NET Notes: Lev 23:6 Heb “to this month.”

NET Notes: Lev 23:7 Heb “work of service”; KJV “servile work”; NASB “laborious work”; TEV “daily work.”

NET Notes: Lev 23:10 Heb “the sheaf of the first of your harvest.”

NET Notes: Lev 23:11 See Lev 7:30 for a note on the “waving” of a “wave offering.”

NET Notes: Lev 23:12 Heb “a flawless lamb, a son of its year”; KJV “of the first year”; NLT “a year-old male lamb.”

NET Notes: Lev 23:13 Heb “wine, one fourth of the hin.” A pre-exilic hin is about 3.6 liters (= ca. 1 quart), so one fourth of a hin would be about one cup.

NET Notes: Lev 23:14 Heb “for your generations.”

NET Notes: Lev 23:15 Heb “seven Sabbaths, they shall be complete.” The disjunctive accent under “Sabbaths” precludes the translation “seven c...

NET Notes: Lev 23:16 Heb “and.” In the translation “then” is supplied to clarify the sequence.

NET Notes: Lev 23:17 Heb “with leaven.” The noun “leaven” is traditional in English versions (cf. KJV, ASV, NASB, NRSV), but “yeast” is...

NET Notes: Lev 23:18 See the note on Lev 1:9.

NET Notes: Lev 23:19 Heb “a he-goat of goats.”

NET Notes: Lev 23:20 Smr and LXX have the Hebrew article on “lambs.” The syntax of this verse is difficult. The object of the verb (two lambs) is far removed f...

NET Notes: Lev 23:21 Heb “for your generations.”

NET Notes: Lev 23:22 Compare Lev 19:9-10.

NET Notes: Lev 23:24 Heb “a memorial of loud blasts.” Although the term for “horn” does not occur here, allowing for the possibility that vocal ...

NET Notes: Lev 23:25 Heb “and.” The Hebrew conjunction ו (vav, “and”) can be considered to have adversative force here (cf. KJV, NASB, NIV).

NET Notes: Lev 23:27 Heb “you shall humble your souls.” See the note on Lev 16:29 above.

NET Notes: Lev 23:28 Heb “on you [plural]”; cf. NASB, NRSV “on your behalf.”

NET Notes: Lev 23:29 Heb “it [i.e., that person; literally “soul,” feminine] shall be cut off from its peoples [plural]”; NLT “from the commu...

NET Notes: Lev 23:30 Heb “its people” (“its” is feminine to agree with “person,” literally “soul,” which is feminine in Heb...

NET Notes: Lev 23:31 Heb “for your generations.”

NET Notes: Lev 23:32 Heb “you shall rest your Sabbath.”

NET Notes: Lev 23:34 The rendering “booths” (cf. NAB, NASB, NRSV) is probably better than the traditional “tabernacles” in light of the meaning of ...

NET Notes: Lev 23:35 Heb “work of service”; KJV “servile work”; NASB “laborious work”; TEV “daily work.”

NET Notes: Lev 23:36 The Hebrew term עֲצֶרֶת (’atseret) “solemn assembly [day]” derives from a root associated ...

NET Notes: Lev 23:37 Heb “a matter of a day in its day”; NAB “as prescribed for each day”; NRSV, NLT “each on its proper day.”

NET Notes: Lev 23:38 Heb “from to separation.” See BDB 94 s.v. בַּד 1.e for an explanation of this phrase. This phrase is repeated in f...

NET Notes: Lev 23:39 Heb “Surely on the fifteenth day.” The Hebrew adverbial particle אַךְ (’akh) is left untranslated by most re...

NET Notes: Lev 23:40 Heb “fruit of majestic trees,” but the following terms and verses define what is meant by this expression. For extensive remarks on the ce...

NET Notes: Lev 23:41 Heb “for your generations.”

NET Notes: Lev 23:42 Heb “in the huts” (again at the end of this verse and in v. 43), perhaps referring to temporary shelters (i.e., huts) made of the foliage ...

NET Notes: Lev 23:44 E. S. Gerstenberger (Leviticus [OTL], 352) takes v. 44 to be an introduction to another set of festival regulations, perhaps something like those foun...

Geneva Bible: Lev 23:4 These [are] the feasts of the LORD, [even] holy convocations, which ye shall proclaim in their ( a ) seasons. ( a ) For the sabbath was kept every we...

Geneva Bible: Lev 23:7 In the first day ye shall have an holy convocation: ye shall do no ( b ) servile work therein. ( b ) Or, bodily labour, save about that which one mus...

Geneva Bible: Lev 23:8 But ye shall offer an offering made by fire unto the LORD seven days: in the ( c ) seventh day [is] an holy convocation: ye shall do no servile work [...

Geneva Bible: Lev 23:11 And he shall wave the sheaf before the LORD, to be accepted for you: on the morrow after the ( d ) sabbath the priest shall wave it. ( d ) That is, t...

Geneva Bible: Lev 23:13 And the meat offering thereof [shall be] two ( e ) tenth deals of fine flour mingled with oil, an offering made by fire unto the LORD [for] a sweet sa...

Geneva Bible: Lev 23:15 And ye shall count unto you from the morrow after the ( g ) sabbath, from the day that ye brought the sheaf of the wave offering; seven sabbaths shall...

Geneva Bible: Lev 23:17 Ye shall bring out of your habitations two wave loaves of two tenth deals: they shall be of fine flour; they shall be baken with ( h ) leaven; [they a...

Geneva Bible: Lev 23:20 And the priest shall wave them with the bread of the firstfruits [for] a wave offering before the LORD, with the two lambs: they shall be holy to the ...

Geneva Bible: Lev 23:24 Speak unto the children of Israel, saying, In the ( k ) seventh month, in the first [day] of the month, shall ye ( l ) have a sabbath, a memorial of (...

Geneva Bible: Lev 23:27 Also on the tenth [day] of this seventh month [there shall be] a day of atonement: it shall be an holy convocation unto you; and ye shall ( n ) afflic...

Geneva Bible: Lev 23:32 It [shall be] unto you a sabbath of rest, and ye shall afflict your souls: in the ninth [day] of the month at even, from ( o ) even unto even, shall y...

Geneva Bible: Lev 23:36 Seven days ye shall offer an offering made by fire unto the LORD: on the eighth day shall be an holy convocation unto you; and ye shall offer an offer...

Geneva Bible: Lev 23:37 These [are] the feasts of the LORD, which ye shall proclaim [to be] holy convocations, to offer an offering made by fire unto the LORD, a burnt offeri...

Geneva Bible: Lev 23:39 Also in the fifteenth day of the seventh month, when ye have gathered in the fruit of the land, ye shall keep a feast unto the LORD seven days: on the...

Geneva Bible: Lev 23:43 That your generations may know that I made the children of Israel to dwell in ( s ) booths, when I brought them out of the land of Egypt: I [am] the L...

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Rentang Ayat

Maclaren: Lev 23:33-44 - VI. The Consecration Of Joy Lev. 23:33-44 And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, 34. Speak unto the children of Israel, saying, The fifteenth day of this seventh month shall be t...

MHCC: Lev 23:1-3 - --In this chapter we have the institution of holy times; many of which have been mentioned before. Though the yearly feasts were made more remarkable by...

MHCC: Lev 23:4-14 - --The feast of the Passover was to continue seven days; not idle days, spent in sport, as many that are called Christians spend their holy-days. Offerin...

MHCC: Lev 23:15-22 - --The feast of Weeks was held in remembrance of the giving of the law, fifty days after the departure from Egypt; and looked forward to the outpouring o...

MHCC: Lev 23:23-32 - --the blowing of trumpets represented the preaching of the gospel, by which men are called to repent of sin, and to accept the salvation of Christ, whic...

MHCC: Lev 23:33-44 - --In the feast of Tabernacles there was a remembrance of their dwelling in tents, or booths, in the wilderness, as well as their fathers dwelling in ten...

Matthew Henry: Lev 23:1-3 - -- Here is, I. A general account of the holy times which God appointed (Lev 23:2), and it is only his appointment that can make time holy; for he is th...

Matthew Henry: Lev 23:4-14 - -- Here again the feasts are called the feasts of the Lord, because he appointed them. Jeroboam's feast, which he devised of his own heart (1Ki 12:...

Matthew Henry: Lev 23:15-22 - -- Here is the institution of the feast of pentecost, or weeks, as it is called (Deu 16:9), because it was observed fifty days, or seven weeks, aft...

Matthew Henry: Lev 23:23-32 - -- Here is, I. The institution of the feast of trumpets, on the first day of the seventh month, Lev 23:24, Lev 23:25. That which was now the seventh mo...

Matthew Henry: Lev 23:33-44 - -- We have here, I. The institution of the feast of tabernacles, which was one of the three great feasts at which all the males were bound to attend, a...

Keil-Delitzsch: Lev 23:1-2 - -- This chapter does not contain a "calendar of feasts,"or a summary and completion of the directions previously given in a scattered form concerning t...

Keil-Delitzsch: Lev 23:3 - -- At the head of these moadim stood the Sabbath , as the day which God had already sanctified as a day of rest for His people, by His own rest on t...

Keil-Delitzsch: Lev 23:4-14 - -- Lev 23:4 contains the special heading for the yearly feasts. בּמועדם at their appointed time. Lev 23:5-14 The leading directions for the P...

Keil-Delitzsch: Lev 23:15-17 - -- The law for the special observance of the feast of Harvest (Exo 23:16) is added here without any fresh introductory formula, to show at the very ou...

Keil-Delitzsch: Lev 23:18-19 - -- In addition to the loaves, they were to offer seven yearling lambs, one young bullock, and two rams, as burnt-offerings, together with their (the ap...

Keil-Delitzsch: Lev 23:20 - -- " The priest shall wave them (the two lambs of the peace-offerings), together with the loaves of the first-fruits, as a wave-offering before Jehova...

Keil-Delitzsch: Lev 23:21-22 - -- On this day a holy meeting was to be held, and laborious work to be suspended, just as on the first and seventh days of Mazzoth . This was to be ma...

Keil-Delitzsch: Lev 23:23-25 - -- On the first day of the seventh month there was to be shabbathon , rest, i.e., a day of rest (see Exo 16:23), a memorial of blowing of trumpets ,...

Keil-Delitzsch: Lev 23:26-31 - -- On the tenth day of the seventh month the day of atonement was to be observed by a holy meeting, by fasting from the evening of the ninth till the ...

Keil-Delitzsch: Lev 23:32 - -- "Ye shall rest your rest,"i.e., observe the rest that is binding upon you from all laborious work.

Keil-Delitzsch: Lev 23:33-37 - -- On the fifteenth of the same month the feast of Tabernacles was to be kept to the Lord for seven days: on the first day with a holy meeting and res...

Keil-Delitzsch: Lev 23:38-43 - -- " Beside the Sabbaths: "i.e., the Sabbath sacrifices (see Num 28:9-10), and the gifts and offerings, which formed no integral part of the keeping of...

Keil-Delitzsch: Lev 23:44 - -- Communication of these laws to the people.

Constable: Lev 17:1--27:34 - --II. The private worship of the Israelites chs. 17--27 The second major division of Leviticus deals with how the ...

Constable: Lev 23:1-44 - --C. Sanctification of the Sabbath and the feasts of Yahweh ch. 23 God considered the Israelites (chs. 17-...

Constable: Lev 23:1-3 - --1. The Sabbath 23:1-3 The Sabbath (v. 3) was, of course, a weekly observance in contrast to the ...

Constable: Lev 23:4-8 - --2. The Passover and Feast of Unleavened Bread 23:4-8 Verse 4 introduces the seven annual festiva...

Constable: Lev 23:9-14 - --3. The Feast of Firstfruits 23:9-14 The Feast of Firstfruits included the presentation of firstf...

Constable: Lev 23:15-22 - --4. The Feast of Pentecost 23:15-22 This festival had several names: Harvest, Weeks, and Pentecos...

Constable: Lev 23:23-25 - --5. The Feast of Trumpets 23:23-25 During the seventh month of Israel's religious calendar three ...

Constable: Lev 23:26-32 - --6. The Day of Atonement 23:26-32 Moses described this day (Heb. Yom Kippur) in chapter 16 more f...

Constable: Lev 23:33-44 - --7. The Feast of Tabernacles 23:33-44 This feast (Heb. Sukkot) was another very joyous occasion f...

Guzik: Lev 23:1-44 - The Feasts of the LORD Leviticus 23 - The Feasts of the LORD A. Listing of the Feasts. 1. (1-3) The Sabbath. And the LORD spoke to Moses, saying, "Speak to the chil...

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Pendahuluan / Garis Besar

JFB: Leviticus (Pendahuluan Kitab) LEVITICUS. So called from its treating of the laws relating to the ritual, the services, and sacrifices of the Jewish religion, the superintendence of...

JFB: Leviticus (Garis Besar) BURNT OFFERINGS OF THE HERD. (Lev. 1:1-17) THE MEAT OFFERINGS. (Lev. 2:1-16) THE PEACE OFFERING OF THE HERD. (Lev. 3:1-17) SIN OFFERING OF IGNORANCE....

TSK: Leviticus (Pendahuluan Kitab) Leviticus is a most interesting and important book; a book containing a code of sacrificial, ceremonial, civil, and judicial laws, which, for the puri...

TSK: Leviticus 23 (Pendahuluan Pasal) Overview Lev 23:1, The feasts of the Lord; Lev 23:3, The sabbath; Lev 23:4, The passover; Lev 23:9, The sheaf of first-fruits; Lev 23:15, The feas...

Poole: Leviticus (Pendahuluan Kitab) THIRD BOOK OF MOSES CALLED LEVITICUS THE ARGUMENT This Book, containing the actions of about one month’ s space, acquainteth us with the Lev...

Poole: Leviticus 23 (Pendahuluan Pasal) CHAPTER 23 The feasts or, the Lord, Lev 23:1,2 . The sabbath, Lev 23:3 . The passover, Lev 23:4-8 . The sheaf of first-fruits, Lev 23:9-14 . The fe...

MHCC: Leviticus (Pendahuluan Kitab) God ordained divers kinds of oblations and sacrifices, to assure his people of the forgiveness of their offences, if they offered them in true faith a...

MHCC: Leviticus 23 (Pendahuluan Pasal) (Lev 23:1-3) The feasts of the Lord, The Sabbath. (Lev 23:4-14) The Passover, The offering of first-fruits. (Lev 23:15-22) The feast of Pentecost. ...

Matthew Henry: Leviticus (Pendahuluan Kitab) An Exposition, with Practical Observations, of The Third Book of Moses, Called Leviticus There is nothing historical in all this book of Leviticus exc...

Matthew Henry: Leviticus 23 (Pendahuluan Pasal) Hitherto the levitical law had been chiefly conversant about holy persons, holy things, and holy places; in this chapter we have the institution of...

Constable: Leviticus (Pendahuluan Kitab) Introduction Title The Hebrews derived the title of this book from the first word in i...

Constable: Leviticus (Garis Besar) Outline "At first sight the book of Leviticus might appear to be a haphazard, even repetitious arrangement of en...

Constable: Leviticus Leviticus Bibliography Aharoni, Yohanan, and Michael Avi-Yonah. The Macmillan Bible Atlas. Revised ed. New York...

Haydock: Leviticus (Pendahuluan Kitab) INTRODUCTION. The Book is called Leviticus : because it treats of the offices, ministries, rites and ceremonies of the Priests and Levites. The H...

Gill: Leviticus (Pendahuluan Kitab) INTRODUCTION TO LEVITICUS This book is commonly called by the Jews Vajikra, from the first word with which it begins, and sometimes תורת כהנ...

Gill: Leviticus 23 (Pendahuluan Pasal) INTRODUCTION TO LEVITICUS 23 In this chapter an account is given of the several holy days, times, and seasons, appointed by God, under the general ...

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