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Teks -- 1 Samuel 6:1-21 (NET)

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Konteks
The Philistines Return the Ark
6:1 When the ark of the Lord had been in the land of the Philistines for seven months, 6:2 the Philistines called the priests and the omen readers, saying, “What should we do with the ark of the Lord? Advise us as to how we should send it back to its place.” 6:3 They replied, “If you are going to send the ark of the God of Israel back, don’t send it away empty. Be sure to return it with a guilt offering. Then you will be healed, and you will understand why his hand is not removed from you.” 6:4 They inquired, “What is the guilt offering that we should send to him?” They replied, “The Philistine leaders number five. So send five gold sores and five gold mice, for it is the same plague that has afflicted both you and your leaders. 6:5 You should make images of the sores and images of the mice that are destroying the land. You should honor the God of Israel. Perhaps he will release his grip on you, your gods, and your land. 6:6 Why harden your hearts like the Egyptians and Pharaoh did? When God treated them harshly, didn’t the Egyptians send the Israelites on their way? 6:7 So now go and make a new cart. Get two cows that have calves and that have never had a yoke placed on them. Harness the cows to the cart and take their calves from them back to their stalls. 6:8 Then take the ark of the Lord and place it on the cart, and put in a chest beside it the gold objects you are sending to him as a guilt offering. You should then send it on its way. 6:9 But keep an eye on it. If it should go up by the way of its own border to Beth Shemesh, then he has brought this great calamity on us. But if that is not the case, then we will know that it was not his hand that struck us; rather, it just happened to us by accident.” 6:10 So the men did as instructed. They took two cows that had calves and harnessed them to a cart; they also removed their calves to their stalls. 6:11 They put the ark of the Lord on the cart, along with the chest, the gold mice, and the images of the sores. 6:12 Then the cows went directly on the road to Beth Shemesh. They went along, mooing as they went; they turned neither to the right nor to the left. The leaders of the Philistines were walking along behind them all the way to the border of Beth Shemesh. 6:13 Now the residents of Beth Shemesh were harvesting wheat in the valley. When they looked up and saw the ark, they were pleased at the sight. 6:14 The cart was coming to the field of Joshua, who was from Beth Shemesh. It paused there near a big stone. Then they cut up the wood of the cart and offered the cows as a burnt offering to the Lord. 6:15 The Levites took down the ark of the Lord and the chest that was with it, which contained the gold objects. They placed them near the big stone. At that time the people of Beth Shemesh offered burnt offerings and made sacrifices to the Lord. 6:16 The five leaders of the Philistines watched what was happening and then returned to Ekron on the same day. 6:17 These are the gold sores that the Philistines brought as a guilt offering to the Lord– one for each of the following cities: Ashdod, Gaza, Ashkelon, Gath, and Ekron. 6:18 The gold mice corresponded in number to all the Philistine cities of the five leaders, from the fortified cities to hamlet villages, to greater Abel, where they positioned the ark of the Lord until this very day in the field of Joshua who was from Beth Shemesh. 6:19 But the Lord struck down some of the people of Beth Shemesh because they had looked into the ark of the Lord; he struck down 50,070 of the men. The people grieved because the Lord had struck the people with a hard blow. 6:20 The residents of Beth Shemesh asked, “Who is able to stand before the Lord, this holy God? To whom will the ark go up from here?” 6:21 So they sent messengers to the residents of Kiriath Jearim, saying, “The Philistines have returned the ark of the Lord. Come down here and take it back home with you.”
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Ashdod a town on the western coast of the territory of Judah
 · Ashkelon a town of the Philistines between Ashdod and Gaza (OS)
 · Beth-Shemesh a town marking the northern boarder of Judah (YC),a town of Issachar in lower Galilee by the boarder of Naphtali,a town of Naphtali in upper Galilee perhaps 25 km west of Hazor
 · Beth-shemesh a town marking the northern boarder of Judah (YC),a town of Issachar in lower Galilee by the boarder of Naphtali,a town of Naphtali in upper Galilee perhaps 25 km west of Hazor
 · Egyptians descendants of Mizraim
 · Ekron a town in the western foothills of Judah,residents of the town of Ekron
 · Gath a town of the Anakim and Philistines in Judah 12 km south. of Ekron
 · Gaza a city A Philistine town 5 km east of the Mediterranean and 60 west of Hebron,a town on the western coast of the territory of Judah,a town and the region it controled
 · Israel a citizen of Israel.,a member of the nation of Israel
 · Joshua a son of Eliezer; the father of Er; an ancestor of Jesus,the son of Nun and successor of Moses,son of Nun of Ephraim; successor to Moses,a man: owner of the field where the ark stopped,governor of Jerusalem under King Josiah,son of Jehozadak; high priest in the time of Zerubbabel
 · Levites relating to Levi and the priesthood given to him,a tribal name describing people and ceremonies as sacred
 · Pharaoh the king who ruled Egypt when Moses was born,the title of the king who ruled Egypt in Abraham's time,the title of the king who ruled Egypt in Joseph's time,the title of the king who ruled Egypt when Moses was born,the title of the king who refused to let Israel leave Egypt,the title of the king of Egypt whose daughter Solomon married,the title of the king who ruled Egypt in the time of Isaiah,the title Egypt's ruler just before Moses' time
 · Philistines a sea people coming from Crete in 1200BC to the coast of Canaan


Topik/Tema Kamus: David | Kirjath-jearim | PALESTINE EXPLORATION, 2B | Ark | Philistines | Miracles | Cart | MOUSE; MICE | Beth-shemesh | Coffer | EMERODS | Haemorrhoids | Mouse | KINE | Ekron | Cow | HEIFER | Tumor | SACRIFICE, IN THE OLD TESTAMENT, 2 | PALESTINE, 2 | selebihnya
Daftar Isi

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Wesley , JFB , Clarke , Defender , TSK

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Poole , Haydock , Gill

Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki
NET Notes , Geneva Bible

Catatan Rentang Ayat
MHCC , Matthew Henry , Keil-Delitzsch , Constable , Guzik

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per frasa)

Wesley: 1Sa 6:1 - Seven months So long they kept it, as loath to lose so great a prize, and willing to try all ways to keep it.

So long they kept it, as loath to lose so great a prize, and willing to try all ways to keep it.

Wesley: 1Sa 6:3 - It shall be known You shall understand, what is hitherto doubtful, whether he was the author of these calamities, and why they continued so long upon you.

You shall understand, what is hitherto doubtful, whether he was the author of these calamities, and why they continued so long upon you.

Wesley: 1Sa 6:4 - Emerods Figures representing the disease. These they offered not in contempt of God, for they fought to gain his favour hereby; but in testimony of their humi...

Figures representing the disease. These they offered not in contempt of God, for they fought to gain his favour hereby; but in testimony of their humiliation, that by leaving this monument of their own shame and misery, they might obtain pity from God.

Wesley: 1Sa 6:4 - Mice Which marred their land by destroying the fruits thereof; as the other plague afflicted their Bodies.

Which marred their land by destroying the fruits thereof; as the other plague afflicted their Bodies.

Wesley: 1Sa 6:5 - Give glory The glory of his power in conquering you, who seemed to have conquered him; of his justice in punishing you, and of his goodness if he relieve you.

The glory of his power in conquering you, who seemed to have conquered him; of his justice in punishing you, and of his goodness if he relieve you.

Wesley: 1Sa 6:6 - Wherefore, &c. _They express themselves thus, either because some opposed the sending home the ark, though most had consented to it; or because they thought they wou...

_They express themselves thus, either because some opposed the sending home the ark, though most had consented to it; or because they thought they would hardly send it away in the manner prescribed, by giving glory to God, and taking shame to themselves.

Wesley: 1Sa 6:7 - Milch kine, &c. _In respect to the ark; and for the better discovery, because such untamed heifers are apt to wander, and keep no certain and constant paths, as oxen ...

_In respect to the ark; and for the better discovery, because such untamed heifers are apt to wander, and keep no certain and constant paths, as oxen accustomed to the yoke do, and therefore were most unlikely to keep the direct road to Israel's land.

Wesley: 1Sa 6:7 - From them Which would stir up natural affection in their dams, and cause them rather to return home, than to go to a strange country.

Which would stir up natural affection in their dams, and cause them rather to return home, than to go to a strange country.

Wesley: 1Sa 6:9 - His own coast Or Border, that is, the way that leadeth to his coast, or border, namely, the country to which it belongs.

Or Border, that is, the way that leadeth to his coast, or border, namely, the country to which it belongs.

Wesley: 1Sa 6:9 - Then he, &c. Which they might well conclude, if such heifers should against their common use, and natural instinct, go into a strange path, and regularly and const...

Which they might well conclude, if such heifers should against their common use, and natural instinct, go into a strange path, and regularly and constantly proceed in it, without any man's conduct.

Wesley: 1Sa 6:12 - Beth shemesh - A city of the priests, who were by office to take care of it.

shemesh - A city of the priests, who were by office to take care of it.

Wesley: 1Sa 6:12 - Loving Testifying at once both their natural and vehement inclination to their calves, and the supernatural power which over - ruled them to a contrary cours...

Testifying at once both their natural and vehement inclination to their calves, and the supernatural power which over - ruled them to a contrary course.

Wesley: 1Sa 6:12 - The lords went To prevent all imposture, and to get assurance of the truth of the event. All which circumstances tended to the greater illustration of God's glory.

To prevent all imposture, and to get assurance of the truth of the event. All which circumstances tended to the greater illustration of God's glory.

Wesley: 1Sa 6:14 - They Not the lords of the Philistines, but the Beth - shemites, the priest that dwelt there.

Not the lords of the Philistines, but the Beth - shemites, the priest that dwelt there.

Wesley: 1Sa 6:14 - Offered the kine There may seem to he a double error in this act. First, that they offered females for a burnt-offering, contrary to Lev 1:3. Secondly, that they did i...

There may seem to he a double error in this act.

First, that they offered females for a burnt-offering, contrary to

Lev 1:3.

Secondly, that they did it in a forbidden place, Deu 12:5-6. But this case being extraordinary, may in some sort excuse it, if they did not proceed by ordinary rules.

Wesley: 1Sa 6:18 - Villages This is added for explication of that foregoing phrase, all the cities; either to shew, that under the name of the five cities were comprehended all t...

This is added for explication of that foregoing phrase, all the cities; either to shew, that under the name of the five cities were comprehended all the villages and territories belonging to them, in whose name, and at whose charge these presents were made; or to express the difference between this and the former present, the emerods being only five, according to the five cities mentioned, 1Sa 6:17, because it may seem, the cities only, or principally, were pestered with that disease; and the mice being many more according to the number of all the cities, as is here expressed: the word city being taken generally so, as to include not only fenced cities, but also the country villages, and the fields belonging to them.

Wesley: 1Sa 6:18 - Abel This is mentioned as the utmost border of the Philistines territory, to which the plague of mice extended. And this place is here called Abel, by anti...

This is mentioned as the utmost border of the Philistines territory, to which the plague of mice extended. And this place is here called Abel, by anticipation from the great mourning mentioned in the following verse. It is desirable, to see the ark in its habitation, in all the circumstances of solemnity. But it is better to have it on a great stone, and in the fields of the wood, than to be without it. The intrinsic grandeur of divine ordinances ought not to be diminished in our eyes, by the meanness and poverty of the place, where they are administered.

Wesley: 1Sa 6:19 - Had looked Having now an opportunity which they never yet had, it is not strange they had a vehement curiosity to see the contents of the ark.

Having now an opportunity which they never yet had, it is not strange they had a vehement curiosity to see the contents of the ark.

Wesley: 1Sa 6:19 - Of the people In and near Beth - shemesh and coming from all parts on this occasion.

In and near Beth - shemesh and coming from all parts on this occasion.

Wesley: 1Sa 6:20 - Who is able, &c. _That is, to minister before the ark where the Lord is present. Since God is so severe to mark what is amiss in his servants, who is sufficient to ser...

_That is, to minister before the ark where the Lord is present. Since God is so severe to mark what is amiss in his servants, who is sufficient to serve him? It seems to be a complaint, or expostulation with God, concerning this great instance of his severity.

Wesley: 1Sa 6:20 - And to whom, &c. Who will dare to receive the ark with so much hazard to themselves. Thus when the word of God works with terror on men's consciences, instead of takin...

Who will dare to receive the ark with so much hazard to themselves. Thus when the word of God works with terror on men's consciences, instead of taking the blame to themselves, they frequently quarrel with the word, and endeavour to put it from them.

Wesley: 1Sa 6:21 - Kirjath jearim - Whither they sent, either because the place was not far off from them, and so it might soon be removed: or because it was a place of eminency...

jearim - Whither they sent, either because the place was not far off from them, and so it might soon be removed: or because it was a place of eminency and strength, and somewhat farther distant from the Philistines, where therefore it was likely to be better preserved from any new attempts of the Philistines, and to be better attended by the Israelites, who would more freely and frequently come to it at such a place, than in Beth - shemesh, which was upon the border of their enemies land.

JFB: 1Sa 6:1 - the ark . . . was in the country of the Philistines seven months Notwithstanding the calamities which its presence had brought on the country and the people, the Philistine lords were unwilling to relinquish such a ...

Notwithstanding the calamities which its presence had brought on the country and the people, the Philistine lords were unwilling to relinquish such a prize, and tried every means to retain it with peace and safety, but in vain.

JFB: 1Sa 6:2-3 - the Philistines called for the priests and the diviners The designed restoration of the ark was not, it seems, universally approved of, and many doubts were expressed whether the prevailing pestilence was r...

The designed restoration of the ark was not, it seems, universally approved of, and many doubts were expressed whether the prevailing pestilence was really a judgment of Heaven. The priests and diviners united all parties by recommending a course which would enable them easily to discriminate the true character of the calamities, and at the same time to propitiate the incensed Deity for any acts of disrespect which might have been shown to His ark.

JFB: 1Sa 6:4 - Five golden emerods Votive or thank offerings were commonly made by the heathen in prayer for, or gratitude after, deliverance from lingering or dangerous disorders, in t...

Votive or thank offerings were commonly made by the heathen in prayer for, or gratitude after, deliverance from lingering or dangerous disorders, in the form of metallic (generally silver) models or images of the diseased parts of the body. This is common still in Roman Catholic countries, as well as in the temples of the Hindus and other modern heathen.

JFB: 1Sa 6:4 - five golden mice This animal is supposed by some to be the jerboa or jumping mouse of Syria and Egypt [BOCHART]; by others, to be the short-tailed field mouse, which o...

This animal is supposed by some to be the jerboa or jumping mouse of Syria and Egypt [BOCHART]; by others, to be the short-tailed field mouse, which often swarms in prodigious numbers and commits great ravages in the cultivated fields of Palestine.

JFB: 1Sa 6:5 - give glory unto the God of Israel By these propitiatory presents, the Philistines would acknowledge His power and make reparation for the injury done to His ark.

By these propitiatory presents, the Philistines would acknowledge His power and make reparation for the injury done to His ark.

JFB: 1Sa 6:5 - lighten his hand . . . from off your gods Elohim for god.

Elohim for god.

JFB: 1Sa 6:6 - Wherefore then do ye harden your hearts, as the Egyptians and Pharaoh hardened their hearts? The memory of the appalling judgments that had been inflicted on Egypt was not yet obliterated. Whether preserved in written records, or in floating t...

The memory of the appalling judgments that had been inflicted on Egypt was not yet obliterated. Whether preserved in written records, or in floating tradition, they were still fresh in the minds of men, and being extensively spread, were doubtless the means of diffusing the knowledge and fear of the true God.

JFB: 1Sa 6:7 - make a new cart Their object in making a new one for the purpose seems to have been not only for cleanliness and neatness, but from an impression that there would hav...

Their object in making a new one for the purpose seems to have been not only for cleanliness and neatness, but from an impression that there would have been an impropriety in using one that had been applied to meaner or more common services. It appears to have been a covered wagon (see on 2Sa 6:3).

JFB: 1Sa 6:7 - two milch kine Such untrained heifers, wanton and vagrant, would pursue no certain and regular path, like those accustomed to the yoke, and therefore were most unlik...

Such untrained heifers, wanton and vagrant, would pursue no certain and regular path, like those accustomed to the yoke, and therefore were most unlikely of their own spontaneous motion to prosecute the direct road to the land of Israel.

JFB: 1Sa 6:7 - bring their calves home from them The strong natural affection of the dams might be supposed to stimulate their return homewards, rather than direct their steps in a foreign country.

The strong natural affection of the dams might be supposed to stimulate their return homewards, rather than direct their steps in a foreign country.

JFB: 1Sa 6:8 - take the ark of the Lord, and lay it upon the cart This mode of carrying the sacred symbol was forbidden; but the ignorance of the Philistines made the indignity excusable (see on 2Sa 6:6).

This mode of carrying the sacred symbol was forbidden; but the ignorance of the Philistines made the indignity excusable (see on 2Sa 6:6).

JFB: 1Sa 6:8 - put the jewels . . . in a coffer by the side thereof The way of securing treasure in the East is still in a chest, chained to the house wall or some solid part of the furniture.

The way of securing treasure in the East is still in a chest, chained to the house wall or some solid part of the furniture.

JFB: 1Sa 6:9-12 - Beth-shemesh That is, "house of the sun," now Ain Shems [ROBINSON], a city of priests in Judah, in the southeast border of Dan, lying in a beautiful and extensive ...

That is, "house of the sun," now Ain Shems [ROBINSON], a city of priests in Judah, in the southeast border of Dan, lying in a beautiful and extensive valley. JOSEPHUS says they were set a-going near a place where the road divided into two--the one leading back to Ekron, where were their calves, and the other to Beth-shemesh. Their frequent lowings attested their ardent longing for their young, and at the same time the supernatural influence that controlled their movements in a contrary direction.

JFB: 1Sa 6:12 - the lords of the Philistines went after them To give their tribute of homage, to prevent imposture, and to obtain the most reliable evidence of the truth. The result of this journey tended to the...

To give their tribute of homage, to prevent imposture, and to obtain the most reliable evidence of the truth. The result of this journey tended to their own deeper humiliation, and the greater illustration of God's glory.

JFB: 1Sa 6:14 - and they clave That is, the Beth-shemites, in an irrepressible outburst of joy.

That is, the Beth-shemites, in an irrepressible outburst of joy.

JFB: 1Sa 6:14 - offered the kine Though contrary to the requirements of the law (Lev 1:3; Lev 22:19), these animals might properly be offered, as consecrated by God Himself; and thoug...

Though contrary to the requirements of the law (Lev 1:3; Lev 22:19), these animals might properly be offered, as consecrated by God Himself; and though not beside the tabernacle, there were many instances of sacrifices offered by prophets and holy men on extraordinary occasions in other places.

JFB: 1Sa 6:17-18 - And these are the golden emerods . . . and the mice There were five representative images of the emerods, corresponding to the five principal cities of the Philistines. But the number of the golden mice...

There were five representative images of the emerods, corresponding to the five principal cities of the Philistines. But the number of the golden mice must have been greater, for they were sent from the walled towns as well as the country villages.

JFB: 1Sa 6:18 - unto the great stone of Abel Abel, or Aben, means "stone," so that without resorting to italics, the reading should be, "the great stone."

Abel, or Aben, means "stone," so that without resorting to italics, the reading should be, "the great stone."

JFB: 1Sa 6:19 - he smote the men of Beth-shemesh, because they had looked into the ark In the ecstasy of delight at seeing the return of the ark, the Beth-shemesh reapers pried into it beneath the wagon cover; and instead of covering it ...

In the ecstasy of delight at seeing the return of the ark, the Beth-shemesh reapers pried into it beneath the wagon cover; and instead of covering it up again, as a sacred utensil, they let it remain exposed to common inspection, wishing it to be seen, in order that all might enjoy the triumph of seeing the votive offerings presented to it, and gratify curiosity with the sight of the sacred shrine. This was the offense of those Israelites (Levites, as well as common people), who had treated the ark with less reverence than the Philistines themselves.

JFB: 1Sa 6:19 - he smote of the people fifty thousand and threescore and ten men Beth-shemesh being only a village, this translation must be erroneous, and should be, "he smote fifty out of a thousand," being only fourteen hundred ...

Beth-shemesh being only a village, this translation must be erroneous, and should be, "he smote fifty out of a thousand," being only fourteen hundred in all who indulged this curiosity. God, instead of decimating, according to an ancient usage, slew only a twentieth part; that is, according to JOSEPHUS, seventy out of fourteen hundred (see Num 4:18-22).

JFB: 1Sa 6:21 - Kirjath-jearim "the city of woods," also called Kirjath-baal (Jos 15:60; Jos 18:14; 1Ch 13:6-7). This was the nearest town to Beth-shemesh; and being a place of stre...

"the city of woods," also called Kirjath-baal (Jos 15:60; Jos 18:14; 1Ch 13:6-7). This was the nearest town to Beth-shemesh; and being a place of strength, it was a more fitting place for the residence of the ark. Beth-shemesh being in a low plain, and Kirjath-jearim on a hill, explains the message, "Come ye down, and fetch it up to you."

Clarke: 1Sa 6:2 - The diviners The diviners - קסמים kosemim , from קסם kasam , to presage or prognosticate. See Deu 18:10. In what their pretended art consisted, we know...

The diviners - קסמים kosemim , from קסם kasam , to presage or prognosticate. See Deu 18:10. In what their pretended art consisted, we know not.

Clarke: 1Sa 6:3 - Send it not empty Send it not empty - As it appears ye have trespassed against him, send him an offering for this trespass

Send it not empty - As it appears ye have trespassed against him, send him an offering for this trespass

Clarke: 1Sa 6:3 - Why his hand is not removed Why his hand is not removed - The sense is, If you send him a trespass-offering, and ye be cured, then ye shall know why his judgments have not been...

Why his hand is not removed - The sense is, If you send him a trespass-offering, and ye be cured, then ye shall know why his judgments have not been taken away from you previously to this offering

It is a common opinion, says Calmet, among all people, that although the Supreme Being needs nothing of his creatures, yet he requires that they should consecrate to him all that they have; for the same argument that proves his independence, infinitude, and self-sufficiency, proves our dependence, and the obligation we are under to acknowledge him by offering him due marks of our gratitude and submission. Such sentiments were common among all people; and God himself commands his people not to appear before him without an offering, Exo 23:15 : None shall appear before me empty.

Clarke: 1Sa 6:4 - Five golden emerods, and five golden mice Five golden emerods, and five golden mice - One for each satrapy. The emerods had afflicted their bodies; the mice had marred their land. Both, they...

Five golden emerods, and five golden mice - One for each satrapy. The emerods had afflicted their bodies; the mice had marred their land. Both, they considered, as sent by God; and, making an image of each, and sending them as a trespass-offering, they acknowledged this. See at the end.

Clarke: 1Sa 6:5 - He will lighten his hand from off you He will lighten his hand from off you - The whole land was afflicted; the ground was marred by the mice; the common people and the lords afflicted b...

He will lighten his hand from off you - The whole land was afflicted; the ground was marred by the mice; the common people and the lords afflicted by the haemorrhoids, and their gods broken in pieces.

Clarke: 1Sa 6:6 - Wherefore then do ye harden your hearts Wherefore then do ye harden your hearts - They had heard how God punished the Egyptians, and they are afraid of similar plagues. It appears that the...

Wherefore then do ye harden your hearts - They had heard how God punished the Egyptians, and they are afraid of similar plagues. It appears that they had kept the ark long enough

Clarke: 1Sa 6:6 - Did they not let the people go Did they not let the people go - And has he not wrought wonderfully among us? And should we not send back his ark?

Did they not let the people go - And has he not wrought wonderfully among us? And should we not send back his ark?

Clarke: 1Sa 6:7 - Make a new cart Make a new cart - It was indecent and improper to employ in any part of the worship of God any thing that had before served for a common purpose. Ev...

Make a new cart - It was indecent and improper to employ in any part of the worship of God any thing that had before served for a common purpose. Every thing in the worship of God is said to be sanctified: now the general meaning of that word is, to separate a thing from all earthly and common uses, and devote it solely to the service of God

When David removed the ark from the house of Abinadab, he put it on a new cart, 2Sa 6:3

Clarke: 1Sa 6:7 - Bring their calves home from them Bring their calves home from them - So it appears that their calves had been with them in the fields. This was a complete trial: unless they were su...

Bring their calves home from them - So it appears that their calves had been with them in the fields. This was a complete trial: unless they were supernaturally influenced, they would not leave their calves; unless supernaturally directed, they would not leave their home, and take a way unguided, which they had never gone before.

Clarke: 1Sa 6:8 - The jewels of gold The jewels of gold - The word קלי keley , which our translators so often render jewels, signifies vessels, implements, ornaments, etc. A jewel o...

The jewels of gold - The word קלי keley , which our translators so often render jewels, signifies vessels, implements, ornaments, etc. A jewel of gold has an odd sound to those who always attach the idea of a precious stone to the term.

Clarke: 1Sa 6:9 - A chance that happened to us A chance that happened to us - The word מקרה mikreh , from קרה karah , to meet or coalesce, signifies an event that naturally arises from s...

A chance that happened to us - The word מקרה mikreh , from קרה karah , to meet or coalesce, signifies an event that naturally arises from such concurring causes as, in the order and nature of things, must produce it

Thus a bad state of the atmosphere, putrid exhalations, bad diet, occasioned by any general scarcity, might have produced the disease in question; and to something of this kind they would attribute it, if the other evidences did not concur. This gives us the proper notion of chance; and shows us that it is a matter as dependent upon the Divine providence, as any thing can be: in short, that these occurrences are parts of the Divine government

The word chance, though often improperly used to signify such an occurrence as is not under the Divine government, is of itself, not only simple, but expressive; and has nearly the meaning of the Hebrew word: it comes from the French cheoir , or escheoir , to fall out, to occur, to fall to. Hence our law-term escheat, any lands that fall to the lord of the manor by forfeiture, or for want of heirs: i.e., these are the occurrences which naturally throw the lands into the hands of the lord.

Clarke: 1Sa 6:12 - Lowing as they went Lowing as they went - Calling for their calves

Lowing as they went - Calling for their calves

Clarke: 1Sa 6:12 - To the right hand or to the left To the right hand or to the left - Some think they were placed where two roads met; one going to Ekron, the other to Beth-shemesh. It is possible th...

To the right hand or to the left - Some think they were placed where two roads met; one going to Ekron, the other to Beth-shemesh. It is possible that they were put in such circumstances as these for the greater certainty of the affair: to have turned from their own homes, from their calves and known pasture, and to have taken the road to a strange country, must argue supernatural influence

Clarke: 1Sa 6:12 - The lords of the Philistines went after The lords of the Philistines went after - They were so jealous in this business that they would trust no eyes but their own. All this was wisely ord...

The lords of the Philistines went after - They were so jealous in this business that they would trust no eyes but their own. All this was wisely ordered, that there might be the fullest conviction of the being and interposition of God.

Clarke: 1Sa 6:14 - They clave the wood of the cart They clave the wood of the cart - Both the cart and the cattle having been thus employed, could no longer be devoted to any secular services; theref...

They clave the wood of the cart - Both the cart and the cattle having been thus employed, could no longer be devoted to any secular services; therefore the cattle were sacrificed, and the cart was broken up for fuel to consume the sacrifice.

Clarke: 1Sa 6:15 - The Levites took down The Levites took down - It appears there were some of the tribe of Levi among the people of Beth-shemesh: to them appertained the service of the tab...

The Levites took down - It appears there were some of the tribe of Levi among the people of Beth-shemesh: to them appertained the service of the tabernacle.

Clarke: 1Sa 6:17 - These are the golden emerods These are the golden emerods - Each of these cities, in what may be called its corporate capacity, sent a golden emerod.

These are the golden emerods - Each of these cities, in what may be called its corporate capacity, sent a golden emerod.

Clarke: 1Sa 6:18 - And the golden mice And the golden mice - The desolation that had been made through the land by these animals had excited a general concern; and it appears from the tex...

And the golden mice - The desolation that had been made through the land by these animals had excited a general concern; and it appears from the text, that all the cities of the Philistines, as well fended as without walls, sent a golden mouse as a trespass-offering

Clarke: 1Sa 6:18 - Remaineth unto this day Remaineth unto this day - Some think the ark is intended, which continued on the stone of Abel for some considerable time after it was placed there;...

Remaineth unto this day - Some think the ark is intended, which continued on the stone of Abel for some considerable time after it was placed there; and that the memoranda from which this book was afterwards compiled, were made before it was removed: but it is not likely that it remained any time exposed in the open field. Therefore it is most natural to suppose that it is the stone of Abel which is here intended; and so our translators have understood the place, and have used supplementary words to express this sentiment: "Which stone remaineth unto this day."

Clarke: 1Sa 6:19 - He smote of the people fifty thousand and threescore and ten men He smote of the people fifty thousand and threescore and ten men - The present Hebrew text of this most extraordinary reading stands thus: ויך ...

He smote of the people fifty thousand and threescore and ten men - The present Hebrew text of this most extraordinary reading stands thus: ויך באנשי בית־שמש - ויך בעם שבעים איש חמשים אלף איש vaiyach beanshey Beith -shemesh - vaiyach baam shibim ish , chamishshim eleph ish ; "And he smote among the men of Beth-shemesh, (because they looked into the ark of Jehovah), and he smote among the people Seventy men, Fifty Thousand men.

From the manner in which the text stands, and from the great improbability of the thing, it is most likely that there is a corruption in this text, or that some explanatory word is lost, or that the number fifty thousand has been added by ignorance or design; it being very improbable that such a small village as Beth-shemesh should contain or be capable of employing fifty thousand and seventy men in the fields at wheat harvest, much less that they could all peep into the ark on the stone of Abel, in the corn-field of Joshua

That the words are not naturally connected in the Hebrew text, is evident; and they do not stand better in the versions

1.    The Vulgate renders it thus: - Et percussit de populo Septuaginta viros; et Quinquaginta Milla plebis ; "And he smote of the (chief) people Seventy men, and Fifty Thousand of the (common) people."This distinction, I suppose, St. Jerome intended between plebis and populus ; which he might think was warranted by the אנשים anashim , and איש ish , of the Hebrew text

2.    The Targum of Jonathan is something similar to the Vulgate: - "And he smote בסבי עמא besabey amma , of the elders of the people Seventy men; ובקהלא ubekahala , and of the congregation Fifty Thousand men.

3.    The Septuagint follow the Hebrew text: Και επαταξεν εν αυτοις ἑβδομηκοντα ανδρας, και πεντηκοντα χιλιαδας ανδρων ; "And he smote of them Seventy men; and Fifty Thousand men." εκ του λαου, of the people, is added by some copies

4.    The Syriac has forty-five thousand less! It is as follows: wamacho Morio beamo chamesho alapin weshabein gabrin ; "And the Lord smote among the people Five thousand and Seventy men.

5.    The Arabic is nearly similar: "And the Lord smote among the people; and there died of them Five thousand and Seventy men."We have no other versions from which we can receive any farther light

6.    Josephus is different from all the rest, and has fifty thousand less, for he renders the place thus, Antiq. Jud. libe. vi., cap. i., sect. 4: Θργη δε και χολος του Θεου μετεισιν, ὡστε ἑβδομηκοντα των εκ της Βηθσαμης κωμησ-βαλων απεκτεινεν "But the displeasure and wrath of God pursued them so, that Seventy men of the village of Beth-shemesh, approaching the ark, which they were not worthy to touch, (not being priests), were struck with lightning."Here we find the whole fifty thousand is omitted

7.    Rabbi Solomon Jarchi, giving the opinion of other rabbins as well as his own, says, "Our rabbins say Seventy men, and each of them was worth fifty thousand men; or fifty thousand, every one of whom was worth the seventy of the Sanhedrin."This only shows embarrassment, but gives very little light

All these discordances, together with the utter improbability of the thing, lead us to suppose there must be a corruption in this place, either by adding or omitting

Dr. Kennicott has found three very reputable MSS. in which the words חמשים אלף איש chamishshim eleph ish , fifty thousand men, are wanting. The 1st, No. 84, a MS. from Holland; the 2d, No. 210, one of the Parisian MSS.; the 3d, No. 418, a MS. belonging to Milan; all three written about the beginning of the twelfth century, and numbered as above in Dr. K’ s Bible

Perhaps the omission in these MSS. was occasioned by a mistake of the transcriber, which might have easily happened, because of the word איש ish , which occurs both after שבעים shibim and after אלף eleph ; for, having written the first, and taking his eye off, when he recommenced he might have supposed he had written the latter, and so proceed, leaving the words in question out of his copy. Two, three, or more persons might have been thus deceived, and so produce the above MSS.; or the mistake once made, all the MSS. copied from that would show the same omission. The common reading may be defended, if we only suppose the omission of a single letter, the particle of comparison כ ke , like, as, or equal to, before the word חמשים chamishshim : thus כחמשים kechamishshim ; the passage would then read: "And he smote of the people Seventy men, equal to Fifty Thousand men;"that is, they were the elders or governors of the people

Some solve the difficulty by translating, "He slew Seventy men Out Of fifty thousand men."There are various other methods invented by learned men to remove this difficulty, which I shall not stop to examine; all, however, issue in this point, that only Seventy Men were slain; and this is, without doubt the most probable. The Fifty Thousand, therefore, must be an interpolation, or be understood in some such way as that mentioned above. But the omission of the particle of similitude solves every difficulty; and this would account for the reading in Josephus, who in his recital would naturally leave out such an explanation of the worth of the seventy men, as his Roman readers could not easily comprehend such comparisons

Clarke: 1Sa 6:19 - With a great slaughter With a great slaughter - Seventy men slain, out of an inconsiderable village in a harvest day, was certainly a great slaughter.

With a great slaughter - Seventy men slain, out of an inconsiderable village in a harvest day, was certainly a great slaughter.

Clarke: 1Sa 6:20 - Who is able to stand Who is able to stand - Why this exclamation? They knew that God had forbidden any to touch his ark but the priests and Levites; but they endeavored ...

Who is able to stand - Why this exclamation? They knew that God had forbidden any to touch his ark but the priests and Levites; but they endeavored to throw that blame on God, as a Being hard to be pleased, which belonged solely to themselves.

Clarke: 1Sa 6:21 - To the inhabitants of Kirjath-jearim To the inhabitants of Kirjath-jearim - They wished the ark away out of their village, but why they sent to this city instead of sending to Shiloh, d...

To the inhabitants of Kirjath-jearim - They wished the ark away out of their village, but why they sent to this city instead of sending to Shiloh, does not appear: probably Shiloh had been destroyed by the Philistines, after the late defeat of Israel. This is most likely, as the ark was never more taken back to that place

It was a very ancient usage, when a plague or other calamity infested a country, city, etc. for the magicians to form an image of the destroyer, or of the things on which the plague particularly rested, in gold, silver, ivory, wax, clay, etc., under certain configurations of the heavens; and to set this up in some proper place, that the evils thus represented might be driven away. These consecrated images were the same that are called talismans, or rather telesms, among the Asiatics. Mr. Locke calls the diviners talismans, but this is a mistake; the image, not the fabricator, was called by this name

I have seen several of these talismans, of different countries; and such images were probably the origin of all the forms of gods which, in after times, were the objects of religious worship. It is well known that Ireland is not infested with any venomous creature; no serpent of any kind is found in it: -

"No poison there infects, no scaly snak

Lurks in the grass, nor toads annoy the lake.

This has been attributed to a telesm, formed with certain rites under the sign Scorpio. Such opinions have been drawn from very ancient pagan sources: e.g.: A stone engraved with the figure of a scorpion, while the moon is in the sign Scorpio, is said to cure those who are stung by this animal. Apollonius Tyaneus is said to have prevented flies from infesting Antioch, and storks from appearing in Byzantium, by figures of those animals formed under certain constellations. A brazen scorpion, placed on a pillar in the city of Antioch, is said to have expelled all such animals from that country. And a crocodile of lead is also said to have preserved Cairo from the depredations of those monsters. See Calmet

Virgil refers to this custom, Eclogue viii., ver. 80, where he represents a person making two images or telesms, one of wax, another of clay, which were to represent an absent person, who was to be alternately softened or hardened, as the wax or clay image was exposed to the fire: -

Limus ut hic durescit, et haec ut cera liquesci

Uno et eodem igni: sic nostro Daphnis amore

"As this clay hardens, and this wax softens

by one and the same fire, so may Daphnis by my love.

This thought is borrowed from Theocritus, Idyl. ii., ver. 28

A beautiful marble figure of Osiris, about four inches and a quarter high, now stands before me, entirely covered with hieroglyphics; he is standing, and holds in each hand a scorpion and a snake by the tails, and with each foot he stands on the neck of a crocodile. This I have no doubt was a telesm, formed under some peculiar configuration of the heavens, intended to drive away both scorpions and crocodiles. This image is of the highest antiquity, and was formed probably long before the Christian era

Tavernier observes that something like what is mentioned in the text is practiced among the Indians; for when a pilgrim goes to one of the idol temples for a cure, he brings the figure of the member affected, made either of gold, silver, or copper, according to his circumstances, which he offers to his god. This custom was common among the heathens, and they consecrated to their gods the monuments of their deliverance. From heathenism it was adopted by corrupt Christianity; and Theodoret informs us that in his time there might be seen about the tombs of the martyrs figures of eyes, hands, feet, and other parts of the body, which represented those of the offerers which they supposed had been healed by the intercession of those holy persons! This degrading superstition is continued among the papists to the present day: I have seen at St. Winifred’ s well, in Holywell, Flintshire several staves, crutches, and handbarrows, hung up in different places, which were reported to be the votive offerings of the maimed, the halt, the withered, etc., who had received their cure by the virtue of the saint! It is true the crutches are such as no man or woman could ever walk with; and the barrows are such as most evidently never carried any human being. But they serve the purpose of superstition, and keep up an idolatrous reverence for the well and the legendary virgin

After all, I need not say that the system of judicial astrology is vain, unfounded, absurd, and wicked. It in effect presumes to take the government of the world out of the hand of an all-wise God, and to abandon it to the most fortuitous and unconnected occurrences of life; for the stars have their influences according to this pretended science, conformably to the occurrences here below: e.g., if a child be born but one hour sooner or later than a particular configuration of the heavens, his destiny will be widely different from what it otherwise would have been; and as an almost infinite number of casualties may accelerate or retard a birth, consequently the whole destiny of man is influenced and ruled by these casualties: to say nothing of the absurdity, that those omnipotent stars ever can affect the infant while invested with a thin covering of flesh in the womb of its parent. But the whole science is a tissue of absurdities.

Defender: 1Sa 6:19 - fifty thousand and threescore and ten men This number seems inordinately large, probably larger than the whole population of this town. This may well represent a transmissional error. The Jewi...

This number seems inordinately large, probably larger than the whole population of this town. This may well represent a transmissional error. The Jewish historian Josephus, as well as a few Hebrew copies of 1 Samuel, indicate the number may have originally been "seventy men.""

TSK: 1Sa 6:1 - the ark am 2864, bc 1140, An, Ex, Is, 351 the ark : 1Sa 5:1, 1Sa 5:3, 1Sa 5:10, 1Sa 5:11; Psa 78:61

am 2864, bc 1140, An, Ex, Is, 351

the ark : 1Sa 5:1, 1Sa 5:3, 1Sa 5:10, 1Sa 5:11; Psa 78:61

TSK: 1Sa 6:2 - called // wherewith called : Gen 41:8; Exo 7:11; Isa 47:12, Isa 47:13; Dan 2:2, Dan 5:7; Mat 2:4 wherewith : Mic 6:6-9

TSK: 1Sa 6:3 - empty // a trespass // known empty : Exo 23:15, Exo 34:20; Deu 16:16 a trespass : Lev 5:6, Lev 5:15-19, Lev 6:6, Lev 7:1-7 known : 1Sa 6:9, 1Sa 5:7, 1Sa 5:9, 1Sa 5:11; Job 10:2, J...

TSK: 1Sa 6:4 - Five golden // you all Five golden : 1Sa 6:5, 1Sa 6:17, 1Sa 6:18, 1Sa 5:6, 1Sa 5:9; Exo 12:35; Jos 13:3; Jdg 3:3 you all : Heb. them

Five golden : 1Sa 6:5, 1Sa 6:17, 1Sa 6:18, 1Sa 5:6, 1Sa 5:9; Exo 12:35; Jos 13:3; Jdg 3:3

you all : Heb. them

TSK: 1Sa 6:5 - mice // give glory // lighten // off your mice : Bochart has collected many curious accounts relative to the terrible devastations made by these mischievous animals. William, Archbishop of Tyr...

mice : Bochart has collected many curious accounts relative to the terrible devastations made by these mischievous animals. William, Archbishop of Tyre, records, that in the beginning of the twelfth century, a penitential council was held at Naplouse, where five and twenty canons were framed for the correction of the manners of the inhabitants of the Christian kingdom of Jerusalem, who they apprehended had provoked to bring upon them the calamities of earthquakes, war, and famine. This last he ascribes to locusts and devouring mice, which had for four years together so destroyed the fruits of the earth as to cause an almost total failure of their crops. It was customary for the ancient heathen to offer to their gods such monuments of their deliverance as represented the evils from which they had been rescued; and Tavernier informs us, that among the Indians, when a pilgrim goes to one of the pagodas for a cure, he brings the figure of the member affected, made of gold, silver, or copper, according to his circumstances, which he offers to his god. Exo 8:5, Exo 8:17, Exo 8:24, Exo 10:14, Exo 10:15; Joe 1:4-7, Joe 2:25

give glory : Jos 7:19; Psa 18:44, Psa 66:3 *marg. Isa 42:12; Jer 3:13, Jer 13:16; Mal 2:2; Joh 9:24; Rev 11:13, Rev 16:9

lighten : 1Sa 5:6, 1Sa 5:11; Psa 32:4, Psa 39:10

off your : 1Sa 5:3, 1Sa 5:4, 1Sa 5:7; Exo 12:12; Num 33:4; Isa 19:1

TSK: 1Sa 6:6 - harden // the Egyptians // wonderfully // did they not // the people harden : Job 9:4; Psa 95:8; Rom 2:5; Heb 3:13 the Egyptians : Exo 7:13, Exo 8:15, Exo 9:16, Exo 9:34, Exo 10:3, Exo 14:17, Exo 14:23, Exo 15:14-16 won...

harden : Job 9:4; Psa 95:8; Rom 2:5; Heb 3:13

the Egyptians : Exo 7:13, Exo 8:15, Exo 9:16, Exo 9:34, Exo 10:3, Exo 14:17, Exo 14:23, Exo 15:14-16

wonderfully : or, reproachfully

did they not : Exo 12:31-33

the people : Heb. them

TSK: 1Sa 6:7 - new cart // on which new cart : 2Sa 6:3; 1Ch 13:7 on which : Num 19:2

new cart : 2Sa 6:3; 1Ch 13:7

on which : Num 19:2

TSK: 1Sa 6:8 - jewels jewels : 1Sa 6:4, 1Sa 6:5

jewels : 1Sa 6:4, 1Sa 6:5

TSK: 1Sa 6:9 - Bethshemesh // he // we shall // not his hand // a chance Bethshemesh : Jos 15:10, Jos 21:16 he : or, it, Amo 3:6 we shall : 1Sa 6:3 not his hand : Isa 26:11 a chance : 2Sa 1:6; Ecc 9:11; Luk 10:31

Bethshemesh : Jos 15:10, Jos 21:16

he : or, it, Amo 3:6

we shall : 1Sa 6:3

not his hand : Isa 26:11

a chance : 2Sa 1:6; Ecc 9:11; Luk 10:31

TSK: 1Sa 6:11 - they laid they laid : 2Sa 6:3; 1Ch 13:7, 1Ch 15:13-15

they laid : 2Sa 6:3; 1Ch 13:7, 1Ch 15:13-15

TSK: 1Sa 6:14 - offered offered : 1Sa 7:9-17, 1Sa 11:5, 1Sa 20:29; Exo 20:24; Jdg 6:26, Jdg 21:4; 2Sa 24:18, 2Sa 24:22, 2Sa 24:25; 1Ki 18:30-38

TSK: 1Sa 6:16 - the five // they returned the five : 1Sa 6:4, 1Sa 6:12; Jos 13:3; Jdg 3:3, Jdg 16:5, Jdg 16:23-30 they returned : 1Sa 5:10

the five : 1Sa 6:4, 1Sa 6:12; Jos 13:3; Jdg 3:3, Jdg 16:5, Jdg 16:23-30

they returned : 1Sa 5:10

TSK: 1Sa 6:17 - these // Ashdod // Gaza // Askelon // Gath // Ekron these : 1Sa 6:4 Ashdod : 1Sa 5:1; 2Ch 26:6; Jer 25:20; Zec 9:6 Gaza : Jdg 16:1, Jdg 16:21; Amo 1:7, Amo 1:8 Askelon : Jdg 1:18; Zec 9:5 Gath : 1Sa 5:8...

TSK: 1Sa 6:18 - the five lords // great stone of the five lords : 1Sa 6:16; Jos 13:3 great stone of : or, great stone

the five lords : 1Sa 6:16; Jos 13:3

great stone of : or, great stone

TSK: 1Sa 6:19 - he smote // fifty thousand he smote : Exo 19:21; Lev 10:1-3; Num 4:4, Num 4:5, Num 4:15, Num 4:20; Deu 29:29; 2Sa 6:7; 1Ch 13:9, 1Ch 13:10; Col 2:18; 1Pe 4:17 fifty thousand : A...

he smote : Exo 19:21; Lev 10:1-3; Num 4:4, Num 4:5, Num 4:15, Num 4:20; Deu 29:29; 2Sa 6:7; 1Ch 13:9, 1Ch 13:10; Col 2:18; 1Pe 4:17

fifty thousand : As it is very improbable that the village of Beth-shemesh should contain, or be capable of employing, 50,070 men in the fields at wheat harvest, much less that they could all peep into the ark, and from the uncommon manner in which it is expressed in the original, it is generally allowed that there is some corruption in the text, or that some explanatory word is omitted. The Hebrew is shivim ish , chamishim aileph ish , literally, ""seventy men, fifty thousand men.""So LXX εβδομηκοντα ανδρας και πεντηκοντα χιλιαδας ανδρων . Vulgate, septuaginta viros , et quinquaginta millia plebis . ""70 (chief) men, and 50,000 common people.""Targum, besabey amma , ""of the elders of the people 70 men, ovekahala , and in the congregation 50,000 men.""But the Syriac, chamsho alphin weshivin gavrin , ""5,000 and 70 men;""with which the Arabic agrees; while Josephus has only εβδομηκοντα , seventy men; and three reputable manuscripts of Dr. Kennicott’ s also omit ""50,000 men.""Some learned men, however, would render, by supplying מ , mem , ""70 men; fifty out of a thousand;""which supposes about 1,400 present, and that a twentieth part were slain.

TSK: 1Sa 6:20 - -- 1Sa 5:8-12; Num 17:12, Num 17:13; 2Sa 6:7, 2Sa 6:9; 1Ch 13:11-13; Psa 76:7; Mal 3:2; Luk 5:8, Luk 8:37

TSK: 1Sa 6:21 - Kirjathjearim Kirjathjearim : Jos 18:14; Jdg 18:12; 1Ch 13:5, 1Ch 13:6; Psa 78:60; Jer 7:12, Jer 7:14

kecilkan semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per Ayat)

Poole: 1Sa 6:2 - The diviners // Wherewith The diviners whose art was in great esteem with heathen nations, and especially with the Philistines and their neighbours the Canaanites and Egyptian...

The diviners whose art was in great esteem with heathen nations, and especially with the Philistines and their neighbours the Canaanites and Egyptians.

Wherewith in what manner, and with what gifts; for to send it they had decreed before, 1Sa 5:11 .

Poole: 1Sa 6:3 - Empty // Return him a trespass-offering // It shall be known to you Empty i.e. without a present; which they judged necessary, from the common opinion and practice both of Jews and Gentiles. Return him a trespass-off...

Empty i.e. without a present; which they judged necessary, from the common opinion and practice both of Jews and Gentiles.

Return him a trespass-offering thereby to acknowledge our offence, and obtain his pardon.

It shall be known to you you shall understand what is hitherto doubtful, whether he was the author of these calamities, and why they continued so long upon you. Compare 1Sa 6:7-9 .

Poole: 1Sa 6:4 - What shall be the trespass-offering? // Golden emerods // Golden mice What shall be the trespass-offering? they desire particular information, because they were ignorant of the nature and manner of the worship of Israel...

What shall be the trespass-offering? they desire particular information, because they were ignorant of the nature and manner of the worship of Israel’ s God, and they might easily understand that there were some kinds of offerings which God would not accept.

Golden emerods i.e. figures of that part of the body which was the seat of the disease, which by its swelling, or some other way, represented also the disease itself; which they offered not in contempt of God, for they sought to gain his favour hereby; but in testimony of their humiliation, that by leaving this monument of their own shame and misery they might obtain pity from God, and freedom from their disease.

Golden mice which marred their land, (as it. is related, 1Sa 6:5 ) by destroying the fruits thereof; as the other plague afflicted their bodies.

Poole: 1Sa 6:5 - Glory unto the God of Israel // From off your gods Glory unto the God of Israel the glory of his power in conquering you, who seemed and pretended to have conquered him; of his justice in punishing yo...

Glory unto the God of Israel the glory of his power in conquering you, who seemed and pretended to have conquered him; of his justice in punishing you; and of his goodness if he shall relieve you.

From off your gods they so speak, either because not only Dagon, but their other gods also, were thrown down by the ark, though that be not related; or because the plural number in that case was commonly used for the singular.

Poole: 1Sa 6:6 - Do ye harden // As the Egyptians and Pharaoh Do ye harden or, should ye harden ; the future tense of the indicative mood being put potentially, as is not unusual. They express themselves thus, ...

Do ye harden or, should ye harden ; the future tense of the indicative mood being put potentially, as is not unusual. They express themselves thus, either because they perceived that some opposed the decree of sending home the ark, though the most had consented to it; or because they thought they would hardly send it away in the manner prescribed, by giving glory to God, and taking shame to themselves.

As the Egyptians and Pharaoh hardened their hearts; which they might easily learn, either by tradition from their ancestors, or by the reports of the Hebrews.

Poole: 1Sa 6:7 - Make a new cart // On which there hath come no yoke // Bring their calves home from them Make a new cart as David did for the same use, 2Sa 6:3 , in reverence to the ark. On which there hath come no yoke partly in respect to the ark, an...

Make a new cart as David did for the same use, 2Sa 6:3 , in reverence to the ark.

On which there hath come no yoke partly in respect to the ark, and partly for the better discovery, because such untamed heifers are wanton, and apt to wander, and keep no certain and constant paths, as oxen accustomed to the yoke do, and therefore were most unlikely to keep the direct road to Israel’ s land.

Bring their calves home from them which would stir up natural affection in their dams, and cause them rather to return home, than to go to a strange country.

Poole: 1Sa 6:8 - Lay it upon the cart // In a coffer by the side thereof Lay it upon the cart which God winked at in them, both because they were ignorant of God’ s law to the contrary, and because they had no Levites...

Lay it upon the cart which God winked at in them, both because they were ignorant of God’ s law to the contrary, and because they had no Levites to carry it upon their shoulders.

In a coffer by the side thereof for they durst not presume to open the ark, to put them within it.

Poole: 1Sa 6:9 - His own coast // Then he hath done us this great evil // It was a chance that happened to us His own coast or, border, i.e. the way that leadeth to his coast or border, viz. the country to which it belongs. Then he hath done us this great ev...

His own coast or, border, i.e. the way that leadeth to his coast or border, viz. the country to which it belongs.

Then he hath done us this great evil which they might well conclude, if such heifers should, against their common use and natural instinct, go into a strange path, and regularly and constantly proceed in it, without any man’ s conduct.

It was a chance that happened to us: this evil came to us from some influences of the stars, or other unknown causes; which was a weak and foolish inference, depending upon a mere contingency, it being uncertain whether God would please to give them this sign, and probable that he would deny it, both to punish their superstition, and to harden their hearts to their further and utter destruction. But wicked men will sooner believe the most uncertain and ridiculous things, than own the visible demonstrations of God’ s power and providence.

Poole: 1Sa 6:12 - To the way of Beth-shemesh // Lowing as they went // The lords of the Philistines To the way of Beth-shemesh i.e. leading to Beth-shemesh, a city of the priests, Jos 21:16 , who were by office to take care of it. Lowing as they we...

To the way of Beth-shemesh i.e. leading to Beth-shemesh, a city of the priests, Jos 21:16 , who were by office to take care of it.

Lowing as they went testifying at once both their natural and vehement inclination to their calves, and the supernatural and Divine power which overruled them to a contrary course.

The lords of the Philistines went after them, under pretence of an honourable dismission of it; but in truth, to prevent all imposture, and to get assurance of the truth of the event; all which circumstances tended to their greater confusion, and illustration of God’ s glory.

Poole: 1Sa 6:14 - They clave // A burnt-offering They clave not the lords of the Philistines, but the Beth-shemites, to wit, the priests that dwelt there. A burnt-offering to the Lord: there may s...

They clave not the lords of the Philistines, but the Beth-shemites, to wit, the priests that dwelt there.

A burnt-offering to the Lord: there may seem to be a double error in this act. First, That they offered females for a burnt-offering, contrary to Lev 1:3 22:19 . Secondly, That they did it in a forbidden place, Deu 12:5,6 , into which they might easily be led by excess of joy, and eager desire of returning to their long-interrupted course of offering sacrifices. And some think these irregularities were partial causes of the following punishment. But this case being very extraordinary, may in some sort excuse it, if they did not proceed by ordinary rules. As for the first, though they might not choose females for that use, yet when God himself had chosen, and in a manner consecrated them to his service, and employed them in so sacred and glorious a work, it may seem tolerable to offer them to the Lord, as being his peculiar, and improper for any other use. And for the latter, we have many instances of sacrifices offered to God by prophets and holy men in other places besides the tabernacle, upon extraordinary occasions, such as this certainly was; it being fit that the ark should at its first return be received with thanksgivings and sacrifice; and this place being sanctified by the presence of the ark, which was the very soul of the tabernacle, and that by which the tabernacle itself was sanctified, and for whose sake the sacrifices were offered at the door of the tabernacle.

Poole: 1Sa 6:15 - And the Levites took down And the Levites took down or, for the Levites had taken down ; for this, though mentioned after, was done before the sacrifices were offered.

And the Levites took down or, for the Levites had taken down ; for this, though mentioned after, was done before the sacrifices were offered.

Poole: 1Sa 6:16 - -- To wit, when they had seen that prodigious return of the ark to its own country, and the entertainment it found there.

To wit, when they had seen that prodigious return of the ark to its own country, and the entertainment it found there.

Poole: 1Sa 6:18 - Both of fenced cities, and of country villages // all the cities // the number of all the cities // The great stone of Abel // Abel Both of fenced cities, and of country villages: this is added for explication of that foregoing phrase, all the cities either to show that under th...

Both of fenced cities, and of country villages: this is added for explication of that foregoing phrase,

all the cities either to show that under the name of the five cities were comprehended all the villages and territories belonging to them, in whose name and at whose charge these presents were made; or to express the difference between this and the former present, the emerods being only five, according to thee five cities mentioned 1Sa 6:17 , because it may seem the cities only, or principally, were pestered with that disease; and the mice being many more, according to

the number of all the cities as is here expressed; the word city being taken generally so, as to include, not only fenced cities, but also the country villages, as is here added, and the fields belonging to them, these being the parts where the mice did most mischief.

The great stone of Abel which is mentioned as the utmost border of the Philistines’ territory to which the plague of mice did extend; the word stone being easily understood out of 1Sa 6:14 , where this great stone is expressly mentioned, as the place on which the ark was set which is also here repeated in the following words. And this place is here called

Abel by anticipation, from the great mourning mentioned in the following verse.

Poole: 1Sa 6:19 - They had looked into the ark of the Lord // Of the people // Fifty thousand and threescore and ten men They had looked into the ark of the Lord having now an opportunity which they never yet had, nor were ever like to have, it is not strange they had a...

They had looked into the ark of the Lord having now an opportunity which they never yet had, nor were ever like to have, it is not strange they had a vehement curiosity and desire to see the contents of the ark; or whether the Philistines had taken them away, and put other things in their place; and they thought they might now presume the more, because the ark had been polluted by the Philistines, and was now exposed to open view, and not yet put into that most holy place, which they were forbidden to approach.

Of the people i.e. of the people living in and near Beth-shemesh, or coming thither from all parts upon this great and glorious occasion. Heb. and , or also, he smote of the people , to wit, of or belonging to other places, though now here; so these are distinguished from the men of Beth-shemesh , of whom he speaks only in general and indefinitely, he smote the men , i.e. some or many of them, and then sets down the number of the persons smitten or slain, either excluding the Beth-shemites, or including them.

Fifty thousand and threescore and ten men: this may seem an incredible relation, both because that place could not afford so great a number, and because it seems an act of great rigour, that God should so severely punish those people who came with so much zeal and joy to congratulate the return of the ark, and that for so inconsiderable an error. For the latter branch of the objection, it may be said:

1. That God always used to be most severe in punishing his own people, as sinning against more knowledge and warning than others; especially for such sins as immediately concern his own worship and service.

2. That men are very incompetent judges of these matters, because they do not understand all the reasons and causes of God’ s judgments. For although God took this just occasion to punish them for that crime which was so severely forbidden even to the common Levites under pain of death; of which see Num 4:18-20 ; yet it is apparent that the people were at this time guilty of many other and greater miscarriages, for which God might justly inflict the present punishment upon them; and moreover, there are many secret sins which escape man’ s observation, but are seen by God, before whom many persons may be deeply guilty, whom men esteem innocent and virtuous. And therefore men should take heed of censuring the judgments of God, of which it is most truly said, that they are oft secret, but never unrighteous. And for the former branch of the objection, many things are or may be said:

1. That the land of Israel was strangely populous. See 2Sa 24:9 2Ch 13:3 .

2. That all these were not the settled inhabitants of this place, but most of them such as did, and in all probability would, resort thither in great numbers upon so illustrious an occasion.

3. That all these were not struck dead in the very fact, and upon the place, which would have terrified others from following their example; but were secretly struck with some disease or plague, which killed them in a little time.

4. That divers learned men translate and understand the place otherwise, and make the number much smaller. Josephus the Jew, and the Hebrew doctors, and many others, contend that only seventy persons were slain; which though it seem but a small number, yet might justly be called a great slaughter , either for the quality of the persons slain, or for the greatness and extraordinariness of the stroke; or because it was a great number, considering the smallness of the place, and the sadness of the occasion. The words in the Hebrew are these, and thus placed, he smote of or among the people seventy men, fifty thousand men ; whereas, say they, the words should have been otherwise placed, and the greater number put before the less, if this had been meant, that he smote fifty thousand and seventy men. And one very learned man renders the words thus, He smote of the people seventy men , even fifty of a thousand , the particle mem, of , being here understood, as it is very frequently. So the meaning is, that God smote every twentieth man of the transgressors, as the Romans used to cut off every tenth man in case of the general guilt of an army. Or the words may be rendered thus, He smote of or among the people seventy men out of fifty thousand men ; the particle mem, of , or out of , being understood before the word fifty , which Bochart puts before a thousand; and it may be thus expressed, to show that God did temper his severity with great clemency; and whereas there were many thousands of transgressors, (every one following his brother’ s example, as is usual in such cases,) God only singled out seventy of the principal offenders, who either sinned most against their light or office, or were the ringleaders or chief encouragers of the rest. To which may be added, that the ancient translators, the Syriac and Arabic, read the place five thousand and seventy men , being supposed to have read in their Hebrew copies chamesh, five , for chamishim, fifty , which is no great alteration in the word.

Poole: 1Sa 6:20 - To stand before this holy Lord God // To whom shall he go up from us? To stand before this holy Lord God i.e. to minister before the ark where the Lord is present. Since God is so severe to mark whatsoever is amiss in h...

To stand before this holy Lord God i.e. to minister before the ark where the Lord is present. Since God is so severe to mark whatsoever is amiss in his servants, who is sufficient and worthy to serve him? who dare presume to come into his presence? It seems to be a complaint, or expostulation with God, concerning this last and great instance of his severity.

To whom shall he go up from us? who will dare to receive the ark with so much hazard to themselves?

Poole: 1Sa 6:21 - -- They sent to Kirjath-jearim, either because the place was not far from them, and so it might soon be removed, which they mainly desired; or because ...

They sent to Kirjath-jearim, either because the place was not far from them, and so it might soon be removed, which they mainly desired; or because it was a place of eminency and strength, and somewhat further distant from the Philistines, where therefore it was likely to be better preserved from any new attempts of the Philistines, and to be better attended by the Israelites, who would more freely and frequently come to it at such a place, than in Beth-shemesh, which was upon the border of their enemies’ land; or because they thought they would gladly receive it, being a pious and zealous people; or because it was in the way to Shiloh, its ancient habitation, and whither they might suppose it was to be carried by degrees and several stages, whereof this was one.

Haydock: 1Sa 6:2 - Diviners Diviners. The priests generally pretended to a knowledge of magic, among the pagans. (Calmet)

Diviners. The priests generally pretended to a knowledge of magic, among the pagans. (Calmet)

Haydock: 1Sa 6:3 - If If, &c. The lords were already determined to send back the ark. But the priests knew that some still would not believe that it was the cause of the...

If, &c. The lords were already determined to send back the ark. But the priests knew that some still would not believe that it was the cause of their affliction. To convince all, they try an experiment, which would decide the matter; and in case the ark went back, some suitable presents must accompany it, as a propitiation (Haydock) for the sin which they would not (Menochius) then doubt had been incurred. (Haydock) ---

Though God stands in need of nothing, all must acknowledge their dependence on him. The pagans always made some present, when they appeared before their idols or monarchs, and God requires the like testimony of submission, Exodus xxiii. 15.

Haydock: 1Sa 6:5 - Provinces // Emerods // Israel // Gods Provinces. Hebrew seranim, "lords." --- Emerods. Theodoret observes, that the tombs of the martyrs were adorned with figures of eyes, &c., in g...

Provinces. Hebrew seranim, "lords." ---

Emerods. Theodoret observes, that the tombs of the martyrs were adorned with figures of eyes, &c., in gratitude for their having procured redress for the afflicted. ---

Israel, whose ark you have treated in an improper manner. (Calmet) ---

You shall thus confess that He chastises, and grants health. (Menochius) ---

Gods. Not only Dagon, but the other idols, were humbled, (Haydock) though the Hebrew word denotes also one god, or princes, &c.

Haydock: 1Sa 6:6 - Hearts Hearts. Even these confess that obduracy proceeds from men; (Worthington) though Calvin would make God the author of it. (Haydock)

Hearts. Even these confess that obduracy proceeds from men; (Worthington) though Calvin would make God the author of it. (Haydock)

Haydock: 1Sa 6:7 - New cart // Home New cart. It would have been deemed irreverent to use one that had been employed for other profane purposes, 2 Kings vi. 3. --- Home. All these c...

New cart. It would have been deemed irreverent to use one that had been employed for other profane purposes, 2 Kings vi. 3. ---

Home. All these circumstances tended to prevent the ark from being conveyed home, (Calmet) unless Providence interfered.

Haydock: 1Sa 6:8 - Box Box. Hebrew argaz, (which the Septuagint retain; Haydock) means also "a purse or basket." (Calmet) --- Josephus ([Antiquities?] vi. 1,) says, "t...

Box. Hebrew argaz, (which the Septuagint retain; Haydock) means also "a purse or basket." (Calmet) ---

Josephus ([Antiquities?] vi. 1,) says, "the box was placed upon the ark." (Haydock) ---

We do not read what became of these presents afterwards: but it is supposed that they were kept in the sanctuary till the time of the captivity. (Calmet)

Haydock: 1Sa 6:9 - Way Way. Josephus observes, that they stationed the kine at three lane ends; (Haydock) and, as we may infer from the Hebrew (ver. 12,) rather with their...

Way. Josephus observes, that they stationed the kine at three lane ends; (Haydock) and, as we may infer from the Hebrew (ver. 12,) rather with their heads turned from Bethsames. But, by this conduct, did they not tempt God? Some believe that He inspired them on this occasion, (Estius) that even his enemies might be convinced, (Haydock) the grace of prophecy being frequently granted to wicked men, like Balaam: others believe that He gave success to their plan, though it was dictated by superstition. Even the devil sometimes speaks the truth. (Mendoza) (Calmet) ---

People frequently use to pitch upon signs, to which God often assented, Proverbs xvi. 33., (Menochius) and Genesis xxiv. 14. (Haydock)

Haydock: 1Sa 6:13 - Wheat Wheat, about Pentecost, in May; so that the ark must have been taken in November. (Menochius)

Wheat, about Pentecost, in May; so that the ark must have been taken in November. (Menochius)

Haydock: 1Sa 6:14 - Bethsamite // Stone // Lord Bethsamite, not the renowned general. (Calmet) --- Stone, which served instead of an altar. (Menochius) --- Lord. Some pretend that the lords ...

Bethsamite, not the renowned general. (Calmet) ---

Stone, which served instead of an altar. (Menochius) ---

Lord. Some pretend that the lords of the Philistines followed so far, and offered this holocaust, as the cart belonged to them: but the Bethsamites might suppose that they had abandoned their property, as well as the golden figures; and, as the city belonged to the priests, it is most probable that they would perform this office. Males indeed were to be offered in the tabernacle. But this was an extraordinary case; so that, if there were no priests, the sacrifice might be lawful (Calmet) by dispensation, as we see Samuel and Elias did the like. (Haydock) ---

The kine and cart being consecrated to God, it was thought that they could not be turned to a more suitable purpose. (Calmet) ---

The ark was also present, on account of which, sacrifices were offered in the tabernacle. The arguments of Abulensis, (q. 19,) who accuses the Bethsamites of sin on this account, are not therefore satisfactory. (Menochius)

Haydock: 1Sa 6:15 - Vessels Vessels. Protestants less properly, "jewels of gold." (Haydock)

Vessels. Protestants less properly, "jewels of gold." (Haydock)

Haydock: 1Sa 6:16 - Day // Provinces Day. It was distant about 18 miles. (Calmet) --- Provinces. Hebrew, "lords." Some think that only five images of each sort were inclosed in the...

Day. It was distant about 18 miles. (Calmet) ---

Provinces. Hebrew, "lords." Some think that only five images of each sort were inclosed in the box: others suppose that the people of each village presented a golden mouse, to satisfy their own devotion, and that they might not be infested with such vermin. Clarius thinks they also sent an equal number of the other images of the anus, chap. v. (Haydock)

Haydock: 1Sa 6:18 - Abel // Which // Which Abel. A stone or rock, on which the Jews say Abraham had offered sacrifice; (St. Jerome, Trad. T.[Tirinus?]) Hebrew, "or mourning," was so called af...

Abel. A stone or rock, on which the Jews say Abraham had offered sacrifice; (St. Jerome, Trad. T.[Tirinus?]) Hebrew, "or mourning," was so called afterwards, on account of so many being slain; (Menochius) so the place, to which the Egyptians accompanied the remains of Jacob, was styled "Abol," the mourning of Egypt, Genesis l. 11. (Haydock) ---

The Septuagint read Abon, "the stone." All the towns belonging to the Philistines, as far as this place, sent each their golden images, or contributed towards those which were presented by the five lords. ---

Which, ark, according to the Vulgate, though some would explain it of the stone. The ark might remain here for some time, and would probably have continued longer, if the people had not been so much afflicted. In the mean time, this record may have been written, as it was afterwards inserted in this book. (Calmet) ---

Which, though of the feminine gender, is referred to stone, because Abol is of that description, (Menochius) and we find several such allusions to the Hebrew in our version. Protestants, "unto the great stone of Abel, whereon they set down the ark of the Lord, which stone remaineth unto this day," &c. (Haydock; Vatable, &c.) ---

Others think that the ark remained there till it was removed to Cariathiarim, chap. vii. 1. Malvenda says, the memory of the transaction was fresh till the author wrote; while others maintain, that the golden figures continued with the ark till that time. (Calmet) ---

The Roman Septuagint omits the words till this day; and reads, "where they placed upon it (the stone) the ark....upon the stone in the field," &c. Then with the Alexandrian copy, and Procopius, &c., it subjoins 19. "And the sons of Jechonias did not approve, among the men of Bethsames, that they saw the ark of the Lord, and he slew of them 70 men, and 50,000 of the people." Theodoret suspects that they were more impious than the rest. But we might as well say that they shewed more (Calmet) reverence, as we may explain slew them, to denote the two curious citizens, (Haydock) if any dependence could be had on this addition. (Calmet)

Haydock: 1Sa 6:19 - Seen // Men Seen; and curiously looked into. It is likely this plague reached to all the neighbouring country, as well as the city of Bethsames. (Challoner) --...

Seen; and curiously looked into. It is likely this plague reached to all the neighbouring country, as well as the city of Bethsames. (Challoner) ---

For we need not suppose that all these deaths took place in one day. The ark seems to have continued there for some time, ver. 18. Hebrew, "because they had looked into, or at the ark." (Haydock) ---

It was unlawful, even for the Levites, to touch or to look at the ark uncovered; (Tirinus; Numbers iv. 15, 20,) and the Hebrew expression into, is often taken in this sense, Proverbs vii. 15., and xi. 4. ---

Men of rank. (St. Gregory, &c.) "Ancients," Chaldean. Some would suppose that only these 70 perished, and were of as much value as 50,000 of the common people: for they will not allow that he latter number was slain. Out of that number, 70 were made victims of the divine justice. (Tirinus; Sa) ---

Bochart translates, "he slew 70 out of 50,000." The Syriac and Arabic read, "5070 men." Josephus only admits 70 who were slain, "because they dared to touch the ark with their profane hands, as they were not priests." Hebrew, "and he slew of the people 70 men, 50,000 men. (Calmet) ---

Kennicott seems to suspect that a cipher has been added in the Hebrew at the end. Protestants, "50,000, and threescore and ten men." (Haydock) ---

Some would insert aderant in the Vulgate, and 50,000 "were present." (Du Hamel) ---

The Chaldean, Septuagint, &c., constantly retain these numbers, and we must not judge of God severity by our feeble reason. (Calmet) ---

This decision is the most common. (Menochius) ---

The people had indulged their curiosity, to see whether the Philistines had taken the tables of the law out of the ark, &c. (Serarius) ---

As the ark was terrible to the infidels, so it was also to those true believers, who treated it with disrespect. (Worthington)

Haydock: 1Sa 6:20 - Us Us. These words may denote that they thought God too severe, or else, that they judged themselves unworthy of his presence. There is no proportion ...

Us. These words may denote that they thought God too severe, or else, that they judged themselves unworthy of his presence. There is no proportion between an offence of God, and what the creature can do to make him satisfaction. (Calmet)

Haydock: 1Sa 6:21 - Up Up. This is the import of the Hebrew. The Vulgate reducite, "bring it back," insinuates, that the Bethsamites desired the people of Cariathiarim ...

Up. This is the import of the Hebrew. The Vulgate reducite, "bring it back," insinuates, that the Bethsamites desired the people of Cariathiarim to convey the ark to their city, on the road to Silo, where they probably thought it ought to be placed, in the tabernacle. But it seems God ordered it otherwise, and the ark was never restored to its former splendid station, surrounded with all the vessels and ornaments of the tabernacle. David made something similar, and place an altar before it, while the Mosaic tabernacle and altar were removed from Silo to Nobe, (chap. xxi. 1.) and afterwards to Gabaon, 2 Paralipomenon i. 5. Salien (the year of the world 3030) doubts not but they were thence translated to Solomon's temple, during the octave of the dedication, along with those of David, from Mount Sion, 2 Paralipomenon v. 2., and viii. 3. Why the ark was not placed in this most magnificent abode, but removed from the stone of Abel to the houses of Abinadab, of Obededom, of David in Sion, till all the original ornaments, prescribed by God to Moses, with a still more splendid apparatus, met to adorn the temple of Solomon, we cannot easily explain. Perhaps it might be to render that event more glorious, and to represent the troubled state of the Jewish Synagogue, immediately preceding the appearance of the great Redeemer, who would establish a church without spot or wrinkle, shining brighter than the sun, and replenished with all heavenly graces. (Haydock) ---

Cariathiarim is the same place as Cariathbaal, and Baala, (Josue xv. 9, 60.) Baalim Juda, (2 Kings vi. 2.) and Sedeiarim, about ten miles from Jerusalem. Gabaa was "a hill," (Calmet) belonging to the same city, where the house of Abinadab stood; (Haydock) and Nobe was also in the vicinity, while Silo was much farther north. (Calmet) ---

The priests still remained, and offered sacrifice in the tabernacle, though occasionally some of them might come to offer extraordinary victims before the ark, in those private houses which were thus converted, as it were, into the holy of holies. Salien, the year of the world 2941, were he observes from St. Jerome, that the tabernacle was removed to Nobe about the same time as the ark was deposited at Cariathiarim; and no doubt both the translations were in consequence of the divine command, signified by the mouth of his prophet Samuel. (Haydock)

Gill: 1Sa 6:1 - And the ark of the Lord was in the country of the Philistines seven months. And the ark of the Lord was in the country of the Philistines seven months. Or "in the field" c of the Philistines; hence Procopius Gazaeus observes, ...

And the ark of the Lord was in the country of the Philistines seven months. Or "in the field" c of the Philistines; hence Procopius Gazaeus observes, that none of the cities daring to receive the ark, they left it without under the open air, so thinking they should be delivered from their calamity. But the word is often used for country, and is generally so understood here; the Targum is,"in the cities of the Philistines;''in one or other of them, first for a while in Ashdod, and then for some time in Gath, and last in Ekron, and in all seven months from the time of its being taken; and it being in wheat harvest when it was returned, 1Sa 6:13, these seven months will carry us back to the beginning of winter, or towards the end of autumn, when the battles between Israel and the Philistines were fought, and the ark was taken. Josephus d says it was with the Philistines four months only, contrary to the text.

Gill: 1Sa 6:2 - And the Philistines called for the priests and for the diviners // saying, what shall we do to the ark of the Lord // tell us wherewith we shall send it to its place And the Philistines called for the priests and for the diviners,.... The one were skilled in the rites and ceremonies of religion, not only of their o...

And the Philistines called for the priests and for the diviners,.... The one were skilled in the rites and ceremonies of religion, not only of their own, but of other nations, particularly of Israel; and that they were not strangers to the history and affairs of that people is plain from 1Sa 6:6 and the other were skilled in judicial astrology, and knowledge of future events, at least as they pretended to; and therefore were both thought fit persons to advise with on the occasion of the ark, and the circumstances they were in through that:

saying, what shall we do to the ark of the Lord? shall we send it back to its own land, or not? the Ekronites had moved it might be sent back, and the five lords sent for the priests and diviners to have their advice upon it, whether it was right or not, and what they should do to it, or with it; for if it was advisable to send it back, then another question follows:

tell us wherewith we shall send it to its place; whether on men's shoulders, or on horses or asses, or on a carriage; and whether just as it was taken, or with some presents with it.

Gill: 1Sa 6:3 - And they said, if ye send away the ark of the God of Israel, send it not empty // but in any wise return him a trespass offering // then ye shall be healed // and it shall be known to you why his hand is not removed from you And they said, if ye send away the ark of the God of Israel, send it not empty,.... As they perceived they had either resolved upon, or at least were ...

And they said, if ye send away the ark of the God of Israel, send it not empty,.... As they perceived they had either resolved upon, or at least were inclined to do; and which they also thought advisable and therefore would have them by no means send it away as it was, but with some presents along with it; for the meaning of this word "empty" is not that they should take care that all that were in it when taken should go with it, and nothing be taken out of it, or it be stripped of its contents; but that some gifts and offerings should be sent along with it: perhaps they might have some notion of, or respect unto a law in Israel, Exo 23:15 or might say this from a common principle received among Heathens, that deities were to be appeased by gifts e:

but in any wise return him a trespass offering; here again they seem to have some notion of the sorts and kinds of sacrifice among the Israelites; and advise to a trespass offering, to make satisfaction and atonement for the offence they had committed in taking away the ark; and that they should make restoration not only by returning the ark, but by sending an expiatory offering along with it:

then ye shall be healed; of the disease with which they were smitten; for it seems it still continued on them, at least on many:

and it shall be known to you why his hand is not removed from you; which was because the ark was detained by them; but when that should be sent home, and they be healed upon it, then it would be a plain case that the reason why the disease was inflicted and continued was because of that.

Gill: 1Sa 6:4 - Then said they, what shall be the trespass offering which we shall return to him // they answered, five golden emerods, and five golden mice // according to the number of the lords of the Philistines // for one plague was on you all, and on your lords Then said they, what shall be the trespass offering which we shall return to him?.... They paid a great deference to their priests and diviners, and w...

Then said they, what shall be the trespass offering which we shall return to him?.... They paid a great deference to their priests and diviners, and were willing to be directed in all things by them; being ignorant of what was most proper in this case, and might be acceptable to the God of Israel:

they answered, five golden emerods, and five golden mice; images of these made of gold, as appears from the next verse; the reason of the former is easy, from the above account of the disease they were afflicted with; but of the latter no hint is given before: indeed in the Vulgate Latin and Septuagint versions of 1Sa 5:6 is inserted a clause, that"mice sprung up in the midst of their country;''which is not in the Hebrew text, nor in the Chaldee paraphrase; yet appears to be a fact from the following verse, that at the same time their bodies were smitten with emerods, their fields were overrun with mice, which destroyed the increase of them; wherefore five golden mice were also ordered as a part of the trespass offering, and five of each were pitched upon:

according to the number of the lords of the Philistines; who were five, and so the principalities under them; see Jos 13:3.

for one plague was on you all, and on your lords; the lords and common people were equally smitten with the emerods, and the several principalities were alike distressed and destroyed with the mice; and therefore the trespass offering, which was a vicarious one for them, was to be according to the number of their princes and their principalities; five emerods for the five princes and their people smitten with emerods, and five mice on account of the five cities and fields adjacent being marred by mice.

Gill: 1Sa 6:5 - Wherefore ye shall make images of your emerods // and images of your mice that mar the land // and ye shall give glory to the God of Israel // peradventure he will lighten his hand from you // and from your gods Wherefore ye shall make images of your emerods,.... Which some take to be images of the five cities; others of a man at large with the disease in his ...

Wherefore ye shall make images of your emerods,.... Which some take to be images of the five cities; others of a man at large with the disease in his back parts; others of that part of the body of a man only, in a circular form, in which the disease was, and expressing that; but the text is plain for the disease only, as high large tumours: though Maimonides f says of these images, that the word is attributed to them, not because of their external form, but because of their spiritual virtue and influence; whereby the damage or disease of the emerods in the hinder parts were removed: he seems to take them to be a sort of talismans, which were images of a disease or noxious creature a country was infected with, made under some celestial influence to remove it; and Tavernier g relates, as Bishop Patrick observes, that it is a practice with the Indians to this day, that when any pilgrim goes to a pagoda for the cure of any disease, he brings the figure of the member affected, made either of gold, silver, or copper, according to his quality, which he offers to his god. There is a tradition among the Heathens, which seems to be borrowed from this history, and serves to establish the credit of it; the Athenians not receiving Bacchus and his rites with due honour, he was angry with them, and smote them with a disease in their private parts, which was incurable; on which they consulted the oracle, which advised them in order to be rid of the disease to receive the god with all honour and respect; which order the Athenians obeyed, and made images of the several parts, privately and publicly, and with these honoured the god in memory of the disease h: both the disease and cure are here plainly pointed at:

and images of your mice that mar the land; that devoured the fruits of it, as these creatures in many instances have been known to do; and particularly in Palestine, the country of the Philistines, where in some places their fields were sometimes almost deserted because of the abundance of them; and were it not for a sort of birds that devoured them, the inhabitants could not sow their seed i: the Boeotians sacrificed to Apollo Pornopion (which signifies a mouse), to save their country from them k; Aristotle l reports of field mice, that they sometimes increase to such incredible numbers, that scarce any of the corn of the field is left by them; and so soon consumed, that some husbandmen, having appointed their labourers to cut down their corn on one day, coming to it the next day, in order to cut it down, have found it all consumed; Pliny m speaks of field mice destroying the harvest; Aelianus n relates such an incursion of field mice into some parts of Italy, as obliged the inhabitants to leave the country, and which destroyed the corn fields and plants, as if they had been consumed by heat or cold, or any unseasonable weather; and not only seeds were gnawn, but roots cut up; so the Abderites o were obliged to leave their country because of mice and frogs:

and ye shall give glory to the God of Israel; by sending these images as monuments of their shameful and painful disease, and of the ruin of their fields; owning that it was the hand of the Lord that smote their bodies with emerods, and filled their fields with mice which devoured them; seeking and asking pardoning of him by the trespass offering they sent him:

peradventure he will lighten his hand from you: abate the violence of the disease, and at length entirely remove it:

and from your gods; not Dagon only, but others seem to have suffered, wherever the ark came: for the Philistines had other deities; besides Dagon at Ashdod, there were Baalzebub at Ekron, and Marnas at Gaza, and Derceto at Ashkelon; and perhaps another at Gath, though unknown; and besides the gods suffered, or however their priests, by the number of men that died, and by the fruits of the earth being destroyed; which must in course lessen their revenues: and from off your land; the fruits of which were destroyed by mice.

Gill: 1Sa 6:6 - Wherefore then do ye harden your hearts, as the Egyptians and Pharaoh hardened their hearts // when he had wrought wonderfully among them // did they not let the people go, and they departed Wherefore then do ye harden your hearts, as the Egyptians and Pharaoh hardened their hearts?.... And would not let Israel go, when their dismission wa...

Wherefore then do ye harden your hearts, as the Egyptians and Pharaoh hardened their hearts?.... And would not let Israel go, when their dismission was demanded by Moses and Aaron in the name of the Lord; but was refused from time to time, being given up to judicial blindness and hardness of heart: and it seems by this, that though it was proposed by some to send back the ark, and which the priests and diviners approved of; yet there were some that were against it, who, notwithstanding the plagues inflicted on them, like Pharaoh and the Egyptians hardened their hearts; which story these priests were acquainted with by the tradition of their ancestors, this being a fact then generally known in the world; or by the relation of the Israelites, over whom they had ruled many years, and were conversant with them:

when he had wrought wonderfully among them: that is, the God of Israel, though they mention not his name, who had wrought wonders in the land of Egypt; the ten plagues he inflicted on them are referred to:

did they not let the people go, and they departed? who were convinced by these plagues that they ought to let Israel go, and by them were prevailed upon to dismiss them, and the people did go out of their land; and therefore should not we let the ark go likewise, on whom plagues have been inflicted for detaining it? and may we not expect more and greater, should we refuse to dismiss it?

Gill: 1Sa 6:7 - Now therefore make a new cart // and take two milch kine, on which there hath come no yoke // and tie the kine to the cart // and bring their calves home from them Now therefore make a new cart,.... For there were no Levites, nor priests of the Lord to carry it upon their shoulders, as it was wont to be when carr...

Now therefore make a new cart,.... For there were no Levites, nor priests of the Lord to carry it upon their shoulders, as it was wont to be when carried, and therefore they ordered a cart to be made; and they might know the Levites were allowed wagons to carry some of their sacred things on, Num 7:1 and a new one for the honour of the ark, as David afterwards did, 2Sa 6:3.

and take two milch kine, on which there hath come no yoke; which also might be designed for the honour of the ark; but there was a further view in it, at least in the providence of God; since two such creatures, who had young, would be apt, if left to themselves, as these were, to return home to them, and not to proceed on a journey; and being unaccustomed to a yoke, would draw one way, and another another, in different ways; and not go on in a direct road, as such that are used to the yoke do:

and tie the kine to the cart; in order to draw it:

and bring their calves home from them; that they might not cry after them, which would cause them to turn back.

Gill: 1Sa 6:8 - And take the ark of the Lord, and lay it upon the cart // and put the jewels of gold // which ye return him for a trespass offering, in a coffer by the side thereof // and send it away, that it may go And take the ark of the Lord, and lay it upon the cart,.... Which was dispensed with in these uncircumcised Philistines, there being no other to do th...

And take the ark of the Lord, and lay it upon the cart,.... Which was dispensed with in these uncircumcised Philistines, there being no other to do this service:

and put the jewels of gold; or rather "vessels of gold" p; the five golden emerods, and the five golden mice:

which ye return him for a trespass offering, in a coffer by the side thereof; in a basket, as the Syriac version: in a scrip, as the Arabic; in a purse, or bag, as Josephus q; which latter is probable enough:

and send it away, that it may go; that is, set it a going, without any driver or guide; but leave it to take its course of itself to the land of Israel. Josephus r says it was set in a place where three ways met, that it might take which it might; and the taking of the right way must be a strong evidence of its being under the direction of God.

Gill: 1Sa 6:9 - And see if it goeth up by the way of its own coast to Bethshemesh // he hath done us this great evil // but if not, then we shall know that it is not his hand that hath smote us // it was a chance that happened to us And see if it goeth up by the way of its own coast to Bethshemesh,.... The nearest city to the land of the Philistines, which lay on their borders, an...

And see if it goeth up by the way of its own coast to Bethshemesh,.... The nearest city to the land of the Philistines, which lay on their borders, and the borders of the tribe of Judah; see Gill on Jos 15:10. Now the lords of the Philistines are directed by their priests to observe, whether these kine, that drew the cart on which the ark was, took the direct road to the borders of the land of Israel, and to Bethshemesh, the nearest city that lay on that coast: if so, they might conclude then,

he hath done us this great evil; that is, the God of Israel, whose ark this was; he had inflicted the disease of the emerods on them, and sent such numbers of mice into their fields, that had destroyed the increase of them:

but if not, then we shall know that it is not his hand that hath smote us; but that there is some other cause of it:

it was a chance that happened to us; and so might have been the case if the ark had never been taken or detained, and to be imputed to fate, or to the stars, or some secret causes they know not of.

Gill: 1Sa 6:10 - And the men did so // and took two milch kine, and tied them to the cart // and shut up their calves at home And the men did so,.... Made a new cart, not the lords of the Philistines, but workmen by their orders: and took two milch kine, and tied them to t...

And the men did so,.... Made a new cart, not the lords of the Philistines, but workmen by their orders:

and took two milch kine, and tied them to the cart; with the gear that horses, asses, or oxen, were usually fastened to a carriage they drew:

and shut up their calves at home; or, "in the house" s; the cow house or stable where they used to be put; this they did to restrain them from following the cows, which would disturb them in drawing the cart.

Gill: 1Sa 6:11 - And they laid the ark of the Lord upon the cart // and the coffer with the mice of gold, and the images of their emerods And they laid the ark of the Lord upon the cart,.... Perhaps the same men that made the cart; however they were the Philistines, yet were not punished...

And they laid the ark of the Lord upon the cart,.... Perhaps the same men that made the cart; however they were the Philistines, yet were not punished for touching it, as Uzzah was, though an Israelite, 2Sa 6:6.

and the coffer with the mice of gold, and the images of their emerods; which coffer was placed in a purse or bag hung at the side of the ark, with the golden mice and emerods in it.

Gill: 1Sa 6:12 - And the kine took the straight way to the way of Bethshemesh // and went along the highway // lowing // and turned not aside to the right or to the left // and the lords of the Philistines went after them unto the border of Bethshemesh And the kine took the straight way to the way of Bethshemesh,.... Though they had none to drive, lead, or guide them, yet they steered their course to...

And the kine took the straight way to the way of Bethshemesh,.... Though they had none to drive, lead, or guide them, yet they steered their course to the road that led to Bethshemesh, though there were other ways they might have taken; which shows they were under the direction of God himself:

and went along the highway; or, "in one highway", or "post" t; though they had never been used to a yoke, they drew together in one path; and did not draw one way, and another another, as oxen unaccustomed to a yoke do:

lowing as they went; on account of their calves, which showed their sense of them, and their natural affection for them; and yet went on, did not attempt to go back to them; by which it was plain they were under a supernatural influence:

and turned not aside to the right or to the left; when other ways presented, on the right hand or on the left; they kept going straight on in the road that led to the place they were destined for; all which can be reckoned nothing less than a miracle:

and the lords of the Philistines went after them unto the border of Bethshemesh; not before them to guide them, or on the side of the ark to take care of it, but behind: and not at all out of respect and reverence to it, but to see what would be the issue of things, whether it would turn out an imposture or not; and that they might be able to make a true judgment of what had befallen them, as their priests and diviners had directed them to; they followed it until it was out of their territories, and in the hands of the Israelites. This place Bethshemesh is thought by some, as R. Isaiah observes, to be the same with Timnathheres, where Joshua was buried, in Jdg 2:9, which signifies the figure of the sun, as this does the house of the sun; and where, perhaps, when inhabited by the Canaanites, was a temple of the sun; and it was, according to Bunting u, twelve miles from Ekron, from whence the ark came; and so far it was followed by the Philistines. This was a city given to the Levites, and so a proper place for the ark to come to be taken care of; hence mention is made of Levites that took it down from the cart, 1Sa 6:15; see Gill on Jos 21:16.

Gill: 1Sa 6:13 - And they of Bethshemesh were reaping their wheat harvest in the valley // and they lifted up their eyes, and saw the ark, and rejoiced to see it And they of Bethshemesh were reaping their wheat harvest in the valley,.... Which began at Pentecost, in the month Sivan, about our May; so that there...

And they of Bethshemesh were reaping their wheat harvest in the valley,.... Which began at Pentecost, in the month Sivan, about our May; so that there were many people in the fields, who were eyewitnesses of this wonderful event:

and they lifted up their eyes, and saw the ark, and rejoiced to see it; for though the ark while in the tabernacle was only seen by the high priest, when he went into the holy of holies; yet this having been brought out from thence, and exposed in the camp of Israel, some of this place very probably were there at that time, and had seen it, and knew it again by its form and splendour; and which gave them great pleasure to behold, which had been taken, and had been so long in the hand of the enemy, and the people of Israel deprived of it; which was the symbol of the divine Presence among them, and now restored to them again; and in this wonderful way, without seeking for it, without going to war on account of it, without paying a ransom for it; and was brought to them in a cart drawn by cattle without a driver, the lords of the Philistines with a large retinue following it. This is to be understood not of their looking "into" it, as they afterwards did, and were punished, as Kimchi; but of their looking "on" it.

Gill: 1Sa 6:14 - And the cart came into the field of Joshua, a Bethshemite // and stood there where there was a great stone // and they clave the wood of the cart, and offered the kine a burnt offering unto the Lord And the cart came into the field of Joshua, a Bethshemite,.... In that part of the valley where they were reaping wheat which belonged to him, whom we...

And the cart came into the field of Joshua, a Bethshemite,.... In that part of the valley where they were reaping wheat which belonged to him, whom we nowhere else read; whether a priest or Levite, which is not improbable, since this was a city of the Levites, or a common Israelite, is not certain:

and stood there where there was a great stone; afterwards called the great stone of Abel, 1Sa 6:18. By the providence of God it was so ordered, that the kine made a stop just at this place; and proceeded no further, as if sensible they were come to their journey's end, and had brought the ark into the hands of its friends, and to a proper place for them to express their thankfulness for it; for this stone seemed designed to be, as it was, the altar on which the burnt offering, by way of thanksgiving for the return of the ark, was to be offered; the Jews say w this stone was the altar built by Abraham:

and they clave the wood of the cart, and offered the kine a burnt offering unto the Lord; the cart they cut in pieces, and laid the wood of it in order upon the stone, and slew the two cows, and laid their pieces on the wood, and set fire to it, and burnt them with it, as expressive of joy and thankfulness that the ark was returned. This was done, not by the lords of the Philistines, as some of the ancient Jews thought, as Kimchi relates, in which they are followed by some Christian interpreters; but by the men of Bethshemesh, as Kimchi, by the priests there; for though this was not the proper and usual place for sacrifice, nor were cows offered in sacrifice; yet this being an extraordinary case, and thank offerings were necessary as soon as the ark was returned, these things were dispensed with; and the rather, since Shiloh, where the tabernacle was, was destroyed; and besides, the ark of the Lord was here present, which sanctified the place, as it did the tabernacle, and made it fit for such service; and as for these cows, they had been employed in sacred service, and the Lord had a right unto them, and claim upon them; and it seemed not fitting that they should be after employed to any other use and service than his own; nor were the men of Bethshemesh blamed or punished for this, though they afterwards were for looking into the ark.

Gill: 1Sa 6:15 - And the Levites took down the ark of the Lord // and the coffer that was with it, wherein the jewels of gold // and put them on the great stone // and the men of Bethshemesh offered burnt offerings, and sacrificed sacrifices, the same day unto the Lord And the Levites took down the ark of the Lord,.... Or, "had took it down" x; for this, though here related, was done as soon as the ark came into the ...

And the Levites took down the ark of the Lord,.... Or, "had took it down" x; for this, though here related, was done as soon as the ark came into the field, or quickly after, and before the burnt offering could be made, which was burnt with the wood of the cart; and though the persons that took it down are called Levites, they were priests, who were of the tribe of Levi; for it was the work of the priests to take it down, though the Levites then might carry it; and it is remarkable that Bethshemesh was given to the Kohathite Levites, whose business it was to carry the ark on their shoulders; see Jos 21:10.

and the coffer that was with it, wherein the jewels of gold were; the purse or bag in which were the five golden mice, and the five golden emerods:

and put them on the great stone; both the ark and the coffer, by which the cart stood, and on which the sacrifice of burnt offering was probably offered:

and the men of Bethshemesh offered burnt offerings, and sacrificed sacrifices, the same day unto the Lord; besides the burnt offering of the two cows, they offered others to testify their thankfulness for the return of the ark; and also peace offerings, on which they feasted with one another, to express their greater joy.

Gill: 1Sa 6:16 - And when the five lords of the Philistines had seen it // they returned to Ekron the same day And when the five lords of the Philistines had seen it,.... Observed all that was done, how the kine performed their journey, drew the cart in which t...

And when the five lords of the Philistines had seen it,.... Observed all that was done, how the kine performed their journey, drew the cart in which the ark was straight to Bethshemesh, stopped in a field near it, where it was received joyfully by the people, and sacrifices offered on account of it:

they returned to Ekron the same day; as they might very well, since it was but twelve miles from Bethshemesh.

Gill: 1Sa 6:17 - And these are the golden emerods, which the Philistines returned for a trespass offering unto the Lord // for Ashdod one, for Gaza one, for Ashkelon, one, for Gath one, for Ekron one And these are the golden emerods, which the Philistines returned for a trespass offering unto the Lord,.... Along with the ark: for Ashdod one, for...

And these are the golden emerods, which the Philistines returned for a trespass offering unto the Lord,.... Along with the ark:

for Ashdod one, for Gaza one, for Ashkelon, one, for Gath one, for Ekron one; which were the five principalities of the Philistines that belonged to the five lords before mentioned; and each of these were at the expense of a golden emerod, and sent it along with the ark to make atonement for the offence they had been guilty of in taking and detaining it.

Gill: 1Sa 6:18 - And the golden mice, according to the number of all the cities of the Philistines belonging to the five lords // both of fenced cities and of country villages // even unto the great stone of Abel // whereon they set down the ark of the Lord // which: stone remaineth unto this day in the field of Joshua the Bethshemite And the golden mice, according to the number of all the cities of the Philistines belonging to the five lords,.... That is, as many golden mice as the...

And the golden mice, according to the number of all the cities of the Philistines belonging to the five lords,.... That is, as many golden mice as there were cities under the jurisdiction of the five lords, which are the same before mentioned:

both of fenced cities and of country villages; walled and unwalled towns; it seems by this, as it was but reasonable it should be, that the several villages adjacent and belonging to the five principal cities contributed their part towards the expense of the five golden emerods, and five golden mice, since they were afflicted both in their persons, and especially in their fields, as well as those in the cities; though Kimchi and others think that the country villages sent each of them a golden emerod, and a golden mouse, fearing the presents of the five cities would not serve for them; and therefore, though the priests and diviners only ordered five of each, according to the number of the principal cities, yet they of themselves sent more: all the country villages that reached

even unto the great stone of Abel; the Targum is,"unto the great stone'';and so the Septuagint version, reading Eben instead of Ebal; or "lamed" is put for "nun", as "nun" for "lamed", Neh 13:7. The Vulgate Latin version is unto great Abel, taking it for a city, as does Procopius Gazaeus, who calls it the great city Abel, through which they carried the ark of the Lord; so Jerom y, who takes it to be the same with Bethshemesh, called Abel because of the mourning in it for the men of Bethshemesh after slain; or to distinguish it from another Abel is called "great", 2Sa 20:15 but it seems plainly to be the same with the great stone, 1Sa 6:14, here called Eben Gedolah, here Abel Gedolah, by the change of a letter, having its latter name by anticipation from the great mourning hereafter made, next mentioned:

whereon they set down the ark of the Lord; when it was taken out of the cart, as also the coffer in which were the presents, 1Sa 6:15,

which: stone remaineth unto this day in the field of Joshua the Bethshemite: the supplement, which stone remaineth, seems necessary, lest it should be thought the ark remained there unto the time of the writing this book, which was not true, for it was soon after this fetched to Kirjathjearim; but the stone remained, and might be seen; and posterity in following times were told that was the stone on which the ark was put when it returned to Israel.

Gill: 1Sa 6:19 - And he smote the men of Bethshemesh // because they had looked into the ark of the Lord // even he smote of the people fifty thousand and seventy men // and the people lamented, because the Lord had smitten many of the people with a great slaughter And he smote the men of Bethshemesh,.... That is, God smote them, though they had received the ark with such expressions of joy, and had offered sacri...

And he smote the men of Bethshemesh,.... That is, God smote them, though they had received the ark with such expressions of joy, and had offered sacrifices on account of it; yet sinning in one particular after mentioned, which was highly resented, they were smitten by him with a thunderbolt, as Josephus says z:

because they had looked into the ark of the Lord; which was forbidden the Levites, Num 4:20 out of curiosity these men opened the ark, to see whether the Philistines had taken anything out of it, or put anything into it; and this, when in the tabernacle, being only to be seen by the high priest; and supposing they should never have the like opportunity again, to look upon the tables of the law which were in it, took it; and the rather they might be emboldened to this action, since it had been in the hands of the uncircumcised Philistines, who had profaned it; and as yet not restored to its pristine purity, holiness, and place:

even he smote of the people fifty thousand and seventy men; but as Bethshemesh was but a small place, a village, as Josephus a calls it, and it seems not likely that there should be such a number of persons in it, and especially that should look into the ark; or that God, who is good and merciful, should destroy so large a number for this offence, however he might think fit to make an example of some, it is thought that the case was not as our version represents it. Some who think there were so many slain, yet distinguish them, seventy of the elders of the people, and 50,000 of the congregation, or common people, as the Targum; which accounts not for the difficulty at all: others think that only seventy of the men of Bethshemesh died, and that 50,000 were such as flocked out of the country on this occasion; but as this was on the same day the ark came into those parts, it can hardly be thought that so great a number should be got together so soon; and still less that they should all of them open the ark, and look into it. Abarbinel is of opinion that only seventy men of Bethshemesh were slain, and that the other 50,000 were the Philistines that died on account of the ark while it was among them; and reads the words, "with the men of Bethshemesh he smote--even he smote of the people seventy"; that is, of the men of Bethshemesh; 50,000, that is, of the Philistines, and so this gives the sum of all that died on account of the ark, both while it was in the hands of the Philistines, and when returned to Bethshemesh, which is not an improbable sense: but others, and perhaps more truly, think that only seventy persons were smitten with death; for the order in which this account is given is different from all others in the Hebrew text, the lesser number being put first with a considerable distinguishing accent upon it, whereas the greater number is always expressed first; it stands thus, "of the people seventy men; 50,000 men": 5000, according to the Syriac and Arabic versions. Josephus b is express for it that only seventy men were slain, and so some of the ancient Jews c; who say that these seventy were equal to 50,000, because of their superior excellency and dignity, as Ben Gersom observes, being the priests of the Lord, or the sanhedrim; but Bochart's d sense seems to be preferable to all others, that there is a defect of the particle מ, "out of"; and so to be read, either seventy men out of fifty thousand; that out of the 50,000 that flocked on this occasion from various parts, seventy were smitten for the reason before given; or rather seventy men, fifty out of 1000 men; that is, a twentieth part of the number of them, so that, out of 1400, seventy men were struck with death for their curiosity e. Something of this story seems to be retained by tradition among the Heathens; we are told f that when Troy was taken an ark was found, in which was the image of Bacchus; which being opened by Eurypylus, he was struck with madness as soon as he saw the image:

and the people lamented, because the Lord had smitten many of the people with a great slaughter; I see no occasion for the supplement "many"; it was a great slaughter, if we consider the awful manner in which it was made, by thunder and lightning, as may be supposed; however, by an immediate stroke from heaven; and the persons on whom it was made, men of a sacred character, priests and Levites; and a great number, considering it was but a small city. Hence the place was called Abel, which signifies weeping, mourning, lamentation, 1Sa 6:18.

Gill: 1Sa 6:20 - And the men of Bethshemesh said, who is able to stand before this holy Lord God // and to whom shall he go up from us And the men of Bethshemesh said, who is able to stand before this holy Lord God?.... The Targum is,"before the ark of this holy Lord God;''which is sa...

And the men of Bethshemesh said, who is able to stand before this holy Lord God?.... The Targum is,"before the ark of this holy Lord God;''which is said either by way of complaint of the severity of God, and the strictness of his justice; or in reverence of his holiness, acknowledging their imperfection, sin, and guilt, by reason of which they could not stand before him; nor can any, but on account of the mercy seat over the ark, or through Christ, his blood, righteousness, and sacrifice:

and to whom shall he go up from us? that is, the ark, the symbol of God's presence, which they seem to be desirous of parting with; being unworthy of it, and conscious of their impurity in comparison of God that dwelt in it; and of their weakness to give the honour and reverence that was due unto it; and yet they knew not who were fit for it, or would choose to receive it, because of the danger they were liable to through every inadvertency in them, and irreverence of that.

Gill: 1Sa 6:21 - And they sent messengers to the inhabitants of Kirjathjearim // saying, the Philistines have brought again the ark of the Lord // come ye down, and fetch it up to you And they sent messengers to the inhabitants of Kirjathjearim,.... Which was a city further on in the tribe of Judah, and lay among some woods, from wh...

And they sent messengers to the inhabitants of Kirjathjearim,.... Which was a city further on in the tribe of Judah, and lay among some woods, from whence it had its name, and was formerly called Kirjathbaal, from Baal's being worshipped there; of which see Jos 15:9, they might choose to send hither to fetch the ark from them, because it was at a greater distance from the Philistines, their city Bethshemesh being on the borders of them; and because it might be a place of greater eminence and strength, and besides lay in the way to Shiloh, whereby they might suppose it was intended to be had; unless Shiloh was before this time destroyed:

saying, the Philistines have brought again the ark of the Lord; which they doubted not would be good news to them:

come ye down, and fetch it up to you; but say not one word of the reason of this request, lest it should discourage them; but rather represent it as a favour to them, and an honour done them, as indeed it was. Kirjathjearim seems to have stood on an eminence in comparison of Bethshemesh, and therefore it is said to come down from the one, and go up to the other. That Bethshemesh was in a valley, see 1Sa 6:13 and this on a hill, 1Sa 7:1.

buka semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki

NET Notes: 1Sa 6:1 The LXX adds “and their land swarmed with mice.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 6:3 The LXX and a Qumran ms add “the covenant of the Lord.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 6:5 Heb “Perhaps he will lighten his hand from upon you and from upon your gods and from upon your land.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 6:6 Heb “and they sent them away and they went.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 6:10 Heb “and the men did so.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 6:18 A few Hebrew mss and the LXX read “villages; the large rock…[is witness] until this very day.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 6:19 The number 50,070 is surprisingly large, although it finds almost unanimous textual support in the MT and in the ancient versions. Only a few medieval...

NET Notes: 1Sa 6:20 Heb “he” or “it”; the referent here (the ark) has been specified in the translation for clarity (cf. also NIV, CEV, NLT). Othe...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 6:1 And the ark of the LORD was in the country of the Philistines ( a ) seven months. ( a ) They thought by continuance of time the plague would have cea...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 6:3 And they said, If ye send away the ark of the God of Israel, send it not empty; but in any wise return him ( b ) a trespass offering: then ye shall be...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 6:5 Wherefore ye shall make images of your emerods, and images of your mice that mar the land; and ye shall give glory unto the God of Israel: peradventur...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 6:8 And take the ark of the LORD, and lay it upon the cart; and put the ( d ) jewels of gold, which ye return him [for] a trespass offering, in a coffer b...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 6:9 And see, if it goeth up by the way of his own coast to Bethshemesh, [then] ( e ) he hath done us this great evil: but if not, then we shall know that ...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 6:12 And the kine took the straight way to the way of Bethshemesh, [and] went along the highway, lowing as they went, and turned not aside [to] the right h...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 6:14 And the cart came into the field of Joshua, a Bethshemite, and stood there, where [there was] a great stone: and ( h ) they clave the wood of the cart...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 6:17 And these [are] the golden emerods which the Philistines returned [for] a trespass offering unto the LORD; for ( i ) Ashdod one, for Gaza one, for Ask...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 6:19 And he smote the men of Bethshemesh, because they ( k ) had looked into the ark of the LORD, even he smote of the people fifty thousand and threescore...

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Rentang Ayat

MHCC: 1Sa 6:1-9 - --Seven months the Philistines were punished with the presence of the ark; so long it was a plague to them, because they would not send it home sooner. ...

MHCC: 1Sa 6:10-18 - --These two kine knew their owner, their great Owner, whom Hophni and Phinehas knew not. God's providence takes notice even of brute creatures, and serv...

MHCC: 1Sa 6:19-21 - --It is a great affront to God, for vain men to pry into, and meddle with the secret things which belong not to them, Deu 29:29; Col 2:18. Man was ruine...

Matthew Henry: 1Sa 6:1-9 - -- The first words of the chapter tell us how long the captivity of the ark continued - it was in the country of the Philistines seven months. In the ...

Matthew Henry: 1Sa 6:10-18 - -- We are here told, I. How the Philistines dismissed the ark, 1Sa 6:10, 1Sa 6:11. They were made as glad to part with it as ever they had been to take...

Matthew Henry: 1Sa 6:19-21 - -- Here is, 1. The sin of the men of Beth-shemesh: They looked into the ark of the Lord, 1Sa 6:19. Every Israelite had heard great talk of the ark, a...

Keil-Delitzsch: 1Sa 6:1-3 - -- The Ark of God Sent Back. - 1Sa 6:1-3. The ark of Jehovah was in the land( lit . the fields, as in Rth 1:2) of the Philistines for seven months, and...

Keil-Delitzsch: 1Sa 6:4-5 - -- The trespass-offering was to correspond to the number of the princes ofthe Philistines. מספּר is an accusative employed to determineeither meas...

Keil-Delitzsch: 1Sa 6:6 - -- "Wherefore," continued the priests, " will ye harden your heart, as theEgyptians and Pharaoh hardened their hearts? (Exo 7:13.) Was it not thecase,...

Keil-Delitzsch: 1Sa 6:7-9 - -- Accordingly they arranged the sending back in such a manner as tomanifest the reverence which ought to be shown to the God of Israel was apowerful d...

Keil-Delitzsch: 1Sa 6:10-12 - -- The God of Israel actually did what the idolatrous priests hardlyconsidered possible. When the Philistines, in accordance with the advicegiven them ...

Keil-Delitzsch: 1Sa 6:13-14 - -- The inhabitants of Bethshemesh were busy with the wheat-harvest in thevalley (in front of the town), when they unexpectedly saw the ark of thecovena...

Keil-Delitzsch: 1Sa 6:15-18 - -- 1Sa 6:15 contains a supplementary remark, therefore הורידוּ isto be translated as a pluperfect. After sacrificing the cart, with the cows,as...

Keil-Delitzsch: 1Sa 6:19-21 - -- Disposal of the Ark of God. - 1Sa 6:19. As the ark had brought evil upon thePhilistines, so the inhabitants of Bethshemesh were also to be taught th...

Constable: 1Sa 4:1--7:2 - --II. THE HISTORY OF THE ARK OF THE COVENANT 4:1b--7:1 Most serious students of 1 Samuel have noted the writer's e...

Constable: 1Sa 6:1--7:2 - --C. The Ark Returned to Israel by God 6:1-7:1 The writer added further evidence of the Philistines' rever...

Constable: 1Sa 6:1-9 - --1. The plan to terminate God's judgment 6:1-9 The Philistines acknowledged Yahweh's superiority ...

Constable: 1Sa 6:10-18 - --2. The return of the ark to Bethshemesh 6:10-18 Bethshemesh was the closest Israelite town to Ek...

Constable: 1Sa 6:19--7:2 - --3. The removal of the ark to Kiriath-jearim 6:19-7:1 Not all the people who later assembled to s...

Guzik: 1Sa 6:1-21 - The Ark of the Covenant Returned to Israel 1 Samuel 6 - The Ark of the Covenant Returned to Israel A. How will the Philistines get rid of the Ark of the Covenant? 1. (1-6) The priests of the ...

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Pendahuluan / Garis Besar

JFB: 1 Samuel (Pendahuluan Kitab) THE FIRST AND SECOND BOOKS OF SAMUEL. The two were, by the ancient Jews, conjoined so as to make one book, and in that form could be called the Book o...

JFB: 1 Samuel (Garis Besar) OF ELKANAH AND HIS TWO WIVES. (1Sa 1:1-8) HANNAH'S PRAYER. (1Sa 1:9-18) SAMUEL BORN. (1Sa 1:20) HANNAH'S SONG IN THANKFULNESS TO GOD. (1Sa 2:1-11) TH...

TSK: 1 Samuel (Pendahuluan Kitab) The First Book of SAMUEL, otherwise called " The First Book of the KINGS."

TSK: 1 Samuel 6 (Pendahuluan Pasal) Overview 1Sa 6:1, After seven months the Philistines take counsel how to send back the ark; 1Sa 6:10, They bring it on a new cart with an offering...

Poole: 1 Samuel (Pendahuluan Kitab) FIRST BOOK OF SAMUEL OTHERWISE CALLED THE FIRST BOOK OF THE KINGS. THE ARGUMENT. IT is not certainly known who was the penman of this Book, or whe...

Poole: 1 Samuel 6 (Pendahuluan Pasal) SAMUEL CHAPTER 6 The Philistines consult with the priests how they shall return the ark: they advise to send with it for a trespass-offering five g...

MHCC: 1 Samuel (Pendahuluan Kitab) In this book we have an account of Eli, and the wickedness of his sons; also of Samuel, his character and actions. Then of the advancement of Saul to ...

MHCC: 1 Samuel 6 (Pendahuluan Pasal) (1Sa 6:1-9) The Philistines consult how to send back the ark. (1Sa 6:10-18) They bring it to Bethshemesh. (1Sa 6:19-21) The people smitten for looki...

Matthew Henry: 1 Samuel (Pendahuluan Kitab) An Exposition, with Practical Observations, of The First Book of Samuel This book, and that which follows it, bear the name of Samuel in the title, ...

Matthew Henry: 1 Samuel 6 (Pendahuluan Pasal) In this chapter we have the return of the ark to the land of Israel, whither we are now gladly to attend it, and observe, I. How the Philistines d...

Constable: 1 Samuel (Pendahuluan Kitab) Introduction Title First and Second Samuel were originally one book called the Book of...

Constable: 1 Samuel (Garis Besar) Outline I. Eli and Samuel chs. 1-3 A. The change from barrenness to fertility 1:1-2:10 ...

Constable: 1 Samuel 1 Samuel Bibliography Ackroyd, Peter R. The First Book of Samuel. Cambridge Bible Commentary on the New English...

Haydock: 1 Samuel (Pendahuluan Kitab) THE FIRST BOOK OF SAMUEL; otherwise called, THE FIRST BOOK OF KINGS. INTRODUCTION. This and the following Book are called by the Hebrews, the...

Gill: 1 Samuel (Pendahuluan Kitab) INTRODUCTION TO 1 SAMUEL This book, in the Hebrew copies, is commonly called Samuel, or the Book of Samuel; in the Syriac version, the Book of Samu...

Gill: 1 Samuel 6 (Pendahuluan Pasal) INTRODUCTION TO FIRST SAMUEL 6 In this chapter we are told the Philistines advised with their priests what to do with the ark, and wherewith to sen...

Advanced Commentary (Kamus, Lagu-Lagu Himne, Gambar, Ilustrasi Khotbah, Pertanyaan-Pertanyaan, dll)


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