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Wahyu 19:1--21:27

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19:1 After these things I heard what sounded like the loud voice of a vast throng in heaven, saying,

“Hallelujah! Salvation and glory and power belong to our God,

19:2 because his judgments are true and just. 1 

For he has judged 2  the great prostitute

who corrupted the earth with her sexual immorality,

and has avenged the blood of his servants 3  poured out by her own hands!” 4 

19:3 Then 5  a second time the crowd shouted, “Hallelujah!” The smoke rises from her forever and ever. 6  19:4 The twenty-four elders and the four living creatures threw themselves to the ground 7  and worshiped God, who was seated on the throne, saying: “Amen! Hallelujah!”

19:5 Then 8  a voice came from the throne, saying:

“Praise our God

all you his servants,

and all you who fear Him,

both the small and the great!”

The Wedding Celebration of the Lamb

19:6 Then 9  I heard what sounded like the voice of a vast throng, like the roar of many waters and like loud crashes of thunder. They were shouting: 10 

“Hallelujah!

For the Lord our God, 11  the All-Powerful, 12  reigns!

19:7 Let us rejoice 13  and exult

and give him glory,

because the wedding celebration of the Lamb has come,

and his bride has made herself ready.

19:8 She was permitted to be dressed in bright, clean, fine linen” 14  (for the fine linen is the righteous deeds of the saints). 15 

19:9 Then 16  the angel 17  said to me, “Write the following: Blessed are those who are invited to the banquet at the wedding celebration of the Lamb!” He also said to me, “These are the true words of God.” 19:10 So 18  I threw myself down 19  at his feet to worship him, but 20  he said, “Do not do this! 21  I am only 22  a fellow servant 23  with you and your brothers 24  who hold to the testimony about 25  Jesus. Worship God, for the testimony about Jesus is the spirit of prophecy.”

The Son of God Goes to War

19:11 Then 26  I saw heaven opened and here came 27  a white horse! The 28  one riding it was called “Faithful” and “True,” and with justice 29  he judges and goes to war. 19:12 His eyes are like a fiery 30  flame and there are many diadem crowns 31  on his head. He has 32  a name written 33  that no one knows except himself. 19:13 He is dressed in clothing dipped 34  in blood, and he is called 35  the Word of God. 19:14 The 36  armies that are in heaven, dressed in white, clean, fine linen, 37  were following him on white horses. 19:15 From his mouth extends a sharp sword, so that with it he can strike the nations. 38  He 39  will rule 40  them with an iron rod, 41  and he stomps the winepress 42  of the furious 43  wrath of God, the All-Powerful. 44  19:16 He has a name written on his clothing and on his thigh: “King of kings and Lord of lords.”

19:17 Then 45  I saw one angel standing in 46  the sun, and he shouted in a loud voice to all the birds flying high in the sky: 47 

“Come, gather around for the great banquet 48  of God,

19:18 to eat 49  your fill 50  of the flesh of kings,

the flesh of generals, 51 

the flesh of powerful people,

the flesh of horses and those who ride them,

and the flesh of all people, both free and slave, 52 

and small and great!”

19:19 Then 53  I saw the beast and the kings of the earth and their armies assembled to do battle with the one who rode the horse and with his army. 19:20 Now 54  the beast was seized, and along with him the false prophet who had performed the signs on his behalf 55  – signs by which he deceived those who had received the mark of the beast and those who worshiped his image. Both of them were thrown alive into the lake of fire burning with sulfur. 56  19:21 The 57  others were killed by the sword that extended from the mouth of the one who rode the horse, and all the birds gorged 58  themselves with their flesh.

The Thousand Year Reign

20:1 Then 59  I saw an angel descending from heaven, holding 60  in his hand the key to the abyss and a huge chain. 20:2 He 61  seized the dragon – the ancient serpent, who is the devil and Satan – and tied him up for a thousand years. 20:3 The angel 62  then 63  threw him into the abyss and locked 64  and sealed it so that he could not deceive the nations until the one thousand years were finished. (After these things he must be released for a brief period of time.)

20:4 Then 65  I saw thrones and seated on them were those who had been given authority to judge. 66  I also saw the souls of those who had been beheaded because of the testimony about Jesus and because of the word of God. These 67  had not worshiped the beast or his image and had refused to receive his mark on their forehead or hand. They 68  came to life 69  and reigned with Christ for a thousand years. 20:5 (The rest of the dead did not come to life until the thousand years were finished.) 70  This is the first resurrection. 20:6 Blessed and holy is the one who takes part 71  in the first resurrection. The second death has no power over them, 72  but they will be priests of God and of Christ, and they will reign with him for a thousand years.

Satan’s Final Defeat

20:7 Now 73  when the thousand years are finished, Satan will be released from his prison 20:8 and will go out to deceive 74  the nations at the four corners of the earth, Gog and Magog, 75  to bring them together for the battle. They are as numerous as the grains of sand in the sea. 76  20:9 They 77  went up 78  on the broad plain of the earth 79  and encircled 80  the camp 81  of the saints and the beloved city, but 82  fire came down from heaven and devoured them completely. 83  20:10 And the devil who deceived 84  them was thrown into the lake of fire and sulfur, 85  where the beast and the false prophet are 86  too, and they will be tormented there day and night forever and ever.

The Great White Throne

20:11 Then 87  I saw a large 88  white throne and the one who was seated on it; the earth and the heaven 89  fled 90  from his presence, and no place was found for them. 20:12 And I saw the dead, the great and the small, standing before the throne. Then 91  books were opened, and another book was opened – the book of life. 92  So 93  the dead were judged by what was written in the books, according to their deeds. 94  20:13 The 95  sea gave up the dead that were in it, and Death 96  and Hades gave up the dead that were in them, and each one was judged according to his deeds. 20:14 Then 97  Death and Hades were thrown into the lake of fire. This is the second death – the lake of fire. 20:15 If 98  anyone’s name 99  was not found written in the book of life, that person 100  was thrown into the lake of fire.

A New Heaven and a New Earth

21:1 Then 101  I saw a new heaven and a new earth, for the first heaven and earth had ceased to exist, 102  and the sea existed no more. 21:2 And I saw the holy city – the new Jerusalem – descending out of heaven from God, made ready like a bride adorned for her husband. 21:3 And I heard a loud voice from the throne saying: “Look! The residence 103  of God is among human beings. 104  He 105  will live among them, and they will be his people, and God himself will be with them. 106  21:4 He 107  will wipe away every tear from their eyes, and death will not exist any more – or mourning, or crying, or pain, for the former things have ceased to exist.” 108 

21:5 And the one seated on the throne said: “Look! I am making all things new!” Then 109  he said to me, “Write it down, 110  because these words are reliable 111  and true.” 21:6 He also said to me, “It is done! 112  I am the Alpha and the Omega, the beginning and the end. To the one who is thirsty I will give water 113  free of charge 114  from the spring of the water of life. 21:7 The one who conquers 115  will inherit these things, and I will be his God and he will be my son. 21:8 But to the cowards, unbelievers, detestable persons, murderers, the sexually immoral, and those who practice magic spells, 116  idol worshipers, 117  and all those who lie, their place 118  will be in the lake that burns with fire and sulfur. 119  That 120  is the second death.”

The New Jerusalem Descends

21:9 Then 121  one of the seven angels who had the seven bowls full of the seven final plagues came and spoke to me, 122  saying, “Come, I will show you the bride, the wife of the Lamb!” 21:10 So 123  he took me away in the Spirit 124  to a huge, majestic mountain 125  and showed me the holy city, Jerusalem, descending out of heaven from God. 21:11 The city possesses 126  the glory of God; its brilliance is like a precious jewel, like a stone of crystal-clear jasper. 127  21:12 It has 128  a massive, high wall 129  with twelve gates, 130  with twelve angels at the gates, and the names of the twelve tribes of the nation of Israel 131  are written on the gates. 132  21:13 There are 133  three gates on the east side, three gates on the north side, three gates on the south side and three gates on the west side. 134  21:14 The 135  wall of the city has twelve foundations, and on them are the twelve names of the twelve apostles of the Lamb.

21:15 The angel 136  who spoke to me had a golden measuring rod with which to measure the city and its foundation stones and wall. 21:16 Now 137  the city is laid out as a square, 138  its length and width the same. He 139  measured the city with the measuring rod 140  at fourteen hundred miles 141  (its length and width and height are equal). 21:17 He also measured its wall, one hundred forty-four cubits 142  according to human measurement, which is also the angel’s. 143  21:18 The city’s 144  wall is made 145  of jasper and the city is pure gold, like transparent glass. 146  21:19 The foundations of the city’s wall are decorated 147  with every kind of precious stone. The first foundation is jasper, the second sapphire, the third agate, 148  the fourth emerald, 21:20 the fifth onyx, 149  the sixth carnelian, 150  the seventh chrysolite, 151  the eighth beryl, 152  the ninth topaz, the tenth chrysoprase, 153  the eleventh jacinth, 154  and the twelfth amethyst. 21:21 And the twelve gates are twelve pearls – each one of the gates is made from just one pearl! The 155  main street 156  of the city is pure gold, like transparent glass.

21:22 Now 157  I saw no temple in the city, because the Lord God – the All-Powerful 158  – and the Lamb are its temple. 21:23 The city does not need the sun or the moon to shine on it, because the glory of God lights it up, and its lamp is the Lamb. 21:24 The nations 159  will walk by its light and the kings of the earth will bring their grandeur 160  into it. 21:25 Its gates will never be closed during the day 161  (and 162  there will be no night there). 163  21:26 They will bring the grandeur and the wealth 164  of the nations 165  into it, 21:27 but 166  nothing ritually unclean 167  will ever enter into it, nor anyone who does what is detestable 168  or practices falsehood, 169  but only those whose names 170  are written in the Lamb’s book of life.

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[19:2]  1 tn Compare the similar phrase in Rev 16:7.

[19:2]  2 tn Or “has punished.” See BDAG 568 s.v. κρίνω 5.b.α, describing the OT background which involves both the vindication of the innocent and the punishment of the guilty.

[19:2]  3 tn See the note on the word “servants” in 1:1.

[19:2]  4 tn Grk “from her hand” (referring to her responsibility in causing the blood of God’s followers to be shed).

[19:3]  5 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

[19:3]  6 tn Or “her smoke ascends forever and ever.”

[19:4]  7 tn Grk “creatures fell down.” BDAG 815 s.v. πίπτω 1.b.α.ב. has “fall down, throw oneself to the ground as a sign of devotion or humility, before high-ranking persons or divine beings.”

[19:5]  8 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

[19:6]  9 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

[19:6]  10 tn Grk “like the voice of a large crowd…saying.” Because of the complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation by supplying the words “They were.”

[19:6]  11 tc Several mss (א2 P 1611 2053 2344 pc ÏK lat ) read “the Lord our God” (κύριος ὁ θεός ἡμῶν, kurio" Jo qeo" Jhmwn). Other important mss (A 1006 1841 pc), however, omit the “our” (ἡμῶν). Further, certain mss (051 ÏA) omit “Lord” (κύριος), while others (including א*) change the order of the statement to “God our Lord” (ὁ θεός ὁ κύριος ἡμῶν). The expression “the Lord God, the All-Powerful” occurs in 6 other places in Revelation (1:8; 4:8; 11:17; 15:3; 16:7; 21:22) and the pronoun “our” is never used. Scribes familiar with the expression in this book, and especially with the frequent κύριος ὁ θεὸς ὁ παντοκράτωρ (kurio" Jo qeo" Jo pantokratwr; “the Lord God, the All-Powerful”) in the OT Prophets (LXX; cf. Jer 39:19; Hos 12:6; Amos 3:13; 4:13; 5:8, 14, 15, 16, 27; 9:5, 6, 15; Nah 3:5; Zech 10:3), would naturally omit the pronoun. Its presence may have arisen due to liturgical motivations or to conform to the expression “our God” in 19:1, 5, but this seems much less likely than an aversion to using the pronoun here and only here in the Greek Bible in the fuller title κύριος ὁ θεὸς ὁ παντοκράτωρ.

[19:6]  12 tn On this word BDAG 755 s.v. παντοκράτωρ states, “the Almighty, All-Powerful, Omnipotent (One) only of God…() κύριος ὁ θεὸς ὁ π. …Rv 1:8; 4:8; 11:17; 15:3; 16:7; 21:22κύριος ὁ θεὸς ἡμῶν ὁ π. Rv 19:6.”

[19:7]  13 tn This verb and the next two verbs are hortatory subjunctives (giving exhortations).

[19:8]  14 tn On the term translated “fine linen,” BDAG 185 s.v. βύσσινος states, “made of fine linen, subst. τὸ β. fine linen, linen garmentRv 18:12…16; 19:8, 14.”

[19:8]  15 sn This phrase is treated as a parenthetical explanation by the author.

[19:9]  16 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

[19:9]  17 tn Grk “he”; the referent (the angel) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[19:10]  18 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the angel’s announcement.

[19:10]  19 tn Grk “I fell down at his feet.” BDAG 815 s.v. πίπτω 1.b.α.ב. has “fall down, throw oneself to the ground as a sign of devotion or humility, before high-ranking persons or divine beings.”

[19:10]  20 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.

[19:10]  21 tn On the elliptical expression ὅρα μή (Jora mh) BDAG 720 s.v. ὁράω B.2 states: “Elliptically…ὅρα μή (sc. ποιήσῃς) watch out! don’t do that! Rv 19:10; 22:9.”

[19:10]  22 tn The lowliness of a slave is emphasized in the Greek text with the emphatic position of σύνδουλος (sundoulo"). The use of “only” helps to bring this nuance out in English.

[19:10]  23 tn Grk “fellow slave.” See the note on the word “servants” in v. 2.

[19:10]  24 tn The Greek term “brother” literally refers to family relationships, but here it is used in a broader sense to connote familial relationships within the family of God (cf. BDAG 18 s.v. ἀδελφός 2.a).

[19:10]  25 tn The genitive ᾿Ιησοῦ (Ihsou) has been translated as an objective genitive here. A subjective genitive, also possible, would produce the meaning “who hold to what Jesus testifies.”

[19:11]  26 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

[19:11]  27 tn The phrase “and here came” expresses the sense of καὶ ἰδού (kai idou).

[19:11]  28 tn A new sentence was started in the translation at this point and καί (kai) was not translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

[19:11]  29 tn Or “in righteousness,” but since the context here involves the punishment of the wicked and the vindication of the saints, “justice” was preferred.

[19:12]  30 tn The genitive noun πυρός (puros) has been translated as an attributive genitive (see also Rev 1:14).

[19:12]  31 tn For the translation of διάδημα (diadhma) as “diadem crown” see L&N 6.196.

[19:12]  sn Diadem crowns were a type of crown used as a symbol of the highest ruling authority in a given area, and thus often associated with kingship.

[19:12]  32 tn Grk “head, having.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.

[19:12]  33 tn Although many translations supply a prepositional phrase to specify what the name was written on (“upon Him,” NASB; “on him,” NIV), there is no location for the name specified in the Greek text.

[19:13]  34 tc It appears that “dipped” (βεβαμμένον, bebammenon), supported by several uncials and other witnesses (A 051 Ï), is the original reading. Due to the lack of the preposition “in” (ἐν, en) after the verb (βεβαμμένον αἵματι, bebammenon {aimati), and also probably because of literary allusions to Isa 63:3, several mss and versions seem to have changed the text to “sprinkled” (either ῥεραντισμένον [rJerantismenon] in P 2329 al; ἐρραντισμένον [errantismenon] in 1006 1841; ἐρραμμένον [errammenon] in 2053 2062; or ῥεραμμένον [rJerammenon] in 1611; or in one case περιρεραμμένον [perirerammenon] in א[2]). The reading most likely to give rise to the others is “dipped.”

[19:13]  tn Or perhaps “soaked.”

[19:13]  35 tn Grk “the name of him is called.”

[19:14]  36 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

[19:14]  37 tn On the term translated “fine linen,” BDAG 185 s.v. βύσσινος states, “made of fine linen, subst. τὸ β. fine linen, linen garmentRv 18:12, 16; 19:8, 14.”

[19:15]  38 tn Or “the Gentiles” (the same Greek word may be translated “Gentiles” or “nations”).

[19:15]  39 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

[19:15]  40 tn Grk “will shepherd.”

[19:15]  41 tn Or “scepter.” The Greek term ῥάβδος (rJabdo") can mean either “rod” or “scepter.”

[19:15]  sn A quotation from Ps 2:9 (see also Rev 2:27, 12:5).

[19:15]  42 sn He stomps the winepress. See Isa 63:3, where Messiah does this alone (usually several individuals would join in the process), and Rev 14:20.

[19:15]  43 tn The genitive θυμοῦ (qumou) has been translated as an attributed genitive. Following BDAG 461 s.v. θυμός 2, the combination of the genitives of θυμός (qumos) and ὀργή (orgh) in Rev 16:19 and 19:15 are taken to be a strengthening of the thought as in the OT and Qumran literature (Exod 32:12; Jer 32:37; Lam 2:3; CD 10:9).

[19:15]  44 tn On this word BDAG 755 s.v. παντοκράτωρ states, “the Almighty, All-Powerful, Omnipotent (One) only of God…() κύριος ὁ θεὸς ὁ π. …Rv 1:8; 4:8; 11:17; 15:3; 16:7; 21:22.”

[19:17]  45 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

[19:17]  46 tn The precise significance of ἐν (en) here is difficult to determine.

[19:17]  47 tn On μεσουρανήματι (mesouranhmati) here see L&N 1.10: “high in the sky, midpoint in the sky, directly overhead, straight above in the sky.” The birds mentioned here are carrion birds like vultures, circling high overhead, and now being summoned to feast on the corpses.

[19:17]  48 tn This is the same Greek word (δεῖπνον, deipnon) used in 19:9.

[19:18]  49 tn The ἵνα (Jina) clause, insofar as it is related to the first imperative, has the force of an imperative.

[19:18]  50 tn The idea of eating “your fill” is evident in the context with the use of χορτάζω (cortazw) in v. 21.

[19:18]  51 tn Grk “chiliarchs”; normally a chiliarch was a military officer commanding a thousand soldiers, but here probably used of higher-ranking commanders like generals (see L&N 55.15; cf. Rev 6:15).

[19:18]  52 tn See the note on the word “servants” in 1:1.

[19:19]  53 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

[19:20]  54 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the introduction of an unexpected development in the account: The opposing armies do not come together in battle; rather the leader of one side is captured.

[19:20]  55 tn For this meaning see BDAG 342 s.v. ἐνώπιον 4.b, “by the authority of, on behalf of Rv 13:12, 14; 19:20.”

[19:20]  56 tn Traditionally, “brimstone.”

[19:21]  57 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

[19:21]  58 tn On the translation of ἐχορτάσθησαν (ecortasqhsan) BDAG 1087 s.v. χορτάζω 1.a states, “of animals, pass. in act. sense πάντα τὰ ὄρνεα ἐχορτάσθησαν ἐκ τῶν σαρκῶν αὐτῶν all the birds gorged themselves with their flesh Rv 19:21 (cp. TestJud. 21:8).”

[20:1]  59 tn Grk “And.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

[20:1]  60 tn The word “holding” is implied. The two clauses “having the key of the abyss” and “a huge chain in his hand” can be construed in two ways: (1) both are controlled by the participle ἔχοντα (econta) and both are modified by the phrase “in his hand” – “having in his hand the key to the abyss and a huge chain.” (2) The participle ἔχοντα refers only to the key, and the phrase “in his hand” refers only to the chain – “having the key of the abyss and holding a huge chain in his hand.” Because of the stylistic tendency in Rev to use the verb ἔχω (ecw) to mean “hold (something)” and the phrase “in his hand” forming a “bracket” along with the verb ἔχω around both the phrases in question, the first option is preferred.

[20:2]  61 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

[20:3]  62 tn Grk “he”; the referent (the angel introduced in v. 1) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[20:3]  63 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

[20:3]  64 tn Or “and shut.” While the lexical force of the term is closer to “shut,” it is acceptable to render the verb ἔκλεισεν (ekleisen) as “locked” here in view of the mention of the key in the previous verse.

[20:4]  65 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

[20:4]  66 tn Grk “I saw thrones, and those seated on them, and judgment was given to them.” BDAG 567 s.v. κρίμα 3 says, “judging, judgment, the κρίμα ἐδόθη αὐτοῖς authority to judge was given to them Rv 20:4.”

[20:4]  67 tn Grk “God, and who.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation by supplying the pronoun “these” as subject.

[20:4]  68 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

[20:4]  69 tn On the use of the aorist ἔζησαν (ezhsan) BDAG 425 s.v. ζάω 1.a.β says, “of dead persons who return to life become alive again: of humans in general (3 Km 17:23) Mt 9:18; Ac 9:41; 20:12; Rv 20:4, 5.”

[20:5]  70 sn This statement appears to be a parenthetical comment by the author.

[20:6]  71 tn Grk “who has a share.”

[20:6]  72 tn The shift from the singular pronoun (“the one”) to the plural (“them”) in the passage reflects the Greek text: The singular participle ὁ ἔχων (Jo ecwn) is followed by the plural pronoun τούτων (toutwn). In the interests of English style, this is obscured in most modern translations except the NASB.

[20:7]  73 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.

[20:8]  74 tn Or “mislead.”

[20:8]  75 sn The battle with Gog and Magog is described in the OT in Ezek 38:1-39:20.

[20:8]  76 tn Grk “of whom the number of them [is] like the sand of the sea” (an allusion to Isa 10:22).

[20:9]  77 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

[20:9]  78 tn The shift here to past tense reflects the Greek text.

[20:9]  79 tn On the phrase “broad plain of the earth” BDAG 823 s.v. πλάτος states, “τὸ πλάτος τῆς γῆς Rv 20:9 comes fr. the OT (Da 12:2 LXX. Cp. Hab 1:6; Sir 1:3), but the sense is not clear: breadth = the broad plain of the earth is perh. meant to provide room for the countless enemies of God vs. 8, but the ‘going up’ is better suited to Satan (vs. 7) who has recently been freed, and who comes up again fr. the abyss (vs. 3).” The referent here thus appears to be a plain large enough to accommodate the numberless hoards that have drawn up for battle against the Lord Christ and his saints.

[20:9]  80 tn Or “surrounded.”

[20:9]  81 tn On the term παρεμβολή (parembolh) BDAG 775 s.v. states, “Mostly used as a military t.t.…so always in our lit.…1. a (fortified) campἡ παρεμβολὴ τῶν ἁγίων Rv 20:9 is also to be understood fr. the OT use of the word.”

[20:9]  82 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.

[20:9]  83 tn See L&N 20.45 for the translation of κατεσθίω (katesqiw) as “to destroy utterly, to consume completely.”

[20:10]  84 tn Or “misled.”

[20:10]  85 tn Traditionally, “brimstone.”

[20:10]  86 tn The verb in this clause is elided. In keeping with the previous past tenses some translations supply a past tense verb here (“were”), but in view of the future tense that follows (“they will be tormented”), a present tense verb was used to provide a transition from the previous past tense to the future tense that follows.

[20:11]  87 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

[20:11]  88 tn Traditionally, “great,” but μέγας (megas) here refers to size rather than importance.

[20:11]  89 tn Or “and the sky.” The same Greek word means both “heaven” and “sky,” and context usually determines which is meant. In this apocalyptic scene, however, it is difficult to be sure what referent to assign the term.

[20:11]  90 tn Or “vanished.”

[20:11]  sn The phrase the earth and the heaven fled from his presence can be understood (1) as visual imagery representing the fear of corruptible matter in the presence of God, but (2) it can also be understood more literally as the dissolution of the universe as we know it in preparation for the appearance of the new heaven and new earth (Rev 21:1).

[20:12]  91 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

[20:12]  92 tn Grk “another book was opened, which is of life.”

[20:12]  93 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the books being opened.

[20:12]  94 tn Grk “from the things written in the books according to their works.”

[20:13]  95 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

[20:13]  96 sn Here Death is personified (cf. 1 Cor 15:55).

[20:14]  97 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

[20:15]  98 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

[20:15]  99 tn The word “name” is not in the Greek text, but is implied.

[20:15]  100 tn Grk “he”; the pronoun has been intensified by translating as “that person.”

[21:1]  101 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

[21:1]  102 tn For the translation of ἀπέρχομαι (apercomai; here ἀπῆλθαν [aphlqan]) L&N 13.93 has “to go out of existence – ‘to cease to exist, to pass away, to cease.’”

[21:3]  103 tn Or “dwelling place”; traditionally, “tabernacle”; literally “tent.”

[21:3]  104 tn Or “people”; Grk “men” (ἀνθρώπων, anqrwpwn), a generic use of the term. In the translation “human beings” was used here because “people” occurs later in the verse and translates a different Greek word (λαοί, laoi).

[21:3]  105 tn Grk “men, and he.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.

[21:3]  106 tc ‡ Most mss (א ÏK) do not add the words “[as] their God” (αὐτῶν θεός, autwn qeos) after “he will be with them.” The mss with these words include A 2030 2050 2329 al. The Andreas group (ÏA) also has the words, but in a different arrangement with the preceding (ἔσται μετ᾿ αὐτῶν θεὸς αὐτῶν, estai metautwn qeo" autwn). Not only do the words float, but scribes may have been motivated to make a connection here more directly with Isa 7:14; 8:8; Jer 24:7; 31:33; Zech 8:8. In light of sufficient external evidence as well as the possibility that the longer reading is theologically motivated, the shorter reading is preferred. NA27 places the words in brackets, indicating doubts as to their authenticity.

[21:4]  107 tn Grk “God, and he.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation. Here καί (kai) has not been translated.

[21:4]  108 tn For the translation of ἀπέρχομαι (apercomai; here ἀπῆλθαν [aphlqan]) L&N 13.93 has “to go out of existence – ‘to cease to exist, to pass away, to cease.’”

[21:5]  109 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

[21:5]  110 tn The words “it down” are not in the Greek text, but are implied. Direct objects were frequently omitted in Greek when clear from the context.

[21:5]  111 tn Grk “faithful.”

[21:6]  112 tn Or “It has happened.”

[21:6]  113 tn The word “water” is not in the Greek text, but is implied. Direct objects were frequently omitted in Greek when clear from the context.

[21:6]  114 tn Or “as a free gift” (see L&N 57.85).

[21:7]  115 tn Or “who is victorious”; traditionally, “who overcomes.”

[21:8]  116 tn On the term φαρμακεία (farmakeia, “magic spells”) see L&N 53.100: “the use of magic, often involving drugs and the casting of spells upon people – ‘to practice magic, to cast spells upon, to engage in sorcery, magic, sorcery.’ φαρμακεία: ἐν τῇ φαρμακείᾳ σου ἐπλανήθησαν πάντα τὰ ἔθνη ‘with your magic spells you deceived all the peoples (of the world)’ Re 18:23.”

[21:8]  117 tn Grk “idolaters.”

[21:8]  118 tn Grk “their share.”

[21:8]  119 tn Traditionally, “brimstone.”

[21:8]  120 tn Grk “sulfur, which is.” The relative pronoun has been translated as “that” to indicate its connection to the previous clause. The nearest logical antecedent is “the lake [that burns with fire and sulfur],” although “lake” (λίμνη, limnh) is feminine gender, while the pronoun “which” (, Jo) is neuter gender. This means that (1) the proper antecedent could be “their place” (Grk “their share,”) agreeing with the relative pronoun in number and gender, or (2) the neuter pronoun still has as its antecedent the feminine noun “lake,” since agreement in gender between pronoun and antecedent was not always maintained, with an explanatory phrase occurring with a neuter pronoun regardless of the case of the antecedent. In favor of the latter explanation is Rev 20:14, where the phrase “the lake of fire” is in apposition to the phrase “the second death.”

[21:9]  121 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

[21:9]  122 tn Grk “with me.” The translation “with me” implies that John was engaged in a dialogue with the one speaking to him (e.g., Jesus or an angel) when in reality it was a one-sided conversation, with John doing all the listening. For this reason, μετ᾿ ἐμοῦ (met emou, “with me”) was translated as “to me.” See also v. 15.

[21:10]  123 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the angel’s invitation.

[21:10]  124 tn Or “in the spirit.” “Spirit” could refer either to the Holy Spirit or the human spirit, but in either case John was in “a state of spiritual exaltation best described as a trance” (R. H. Mounce, Revelation [NICNT], 75).

[21:10]  125 tn Grk “to a mountain great and high.”

[21:11]  126 tn Grk “from God, having the glory of God.” Here a new sentence was started in the translation by supplying the words “the city” to refer back to the previous clause and translating the participle (“having”) as a finite verb.

[21:11]  127 tn On the term ἰάσπιδι (iaspidi) BDAG 465 s.v. ἴασπις states, “jasper, a precious stone found in various colors, mostly reddish, somet. green…brown, blue, yellow, and white. In antiquity the name was not limited to the variety of quartz now called jasper, but could designate any opaque precious stone. Rv 21:18f. W. λίθος 4:3 (TestSol C 11:8). λίθος ἴασπις κρυσταλλίζων a stone of crystal-clear jasper 21:11 (cp. Is 54:12); perh. the opal is meant here; acc. to some, the diamond.”

[21:12]  128 tn Grk “jasper, having.” Here a new sentence was started in the translation.

[21:12]  129 tn Grk “a (city) wall great and high.”

[21:12]  130 tn On this term BDAG 897 s.v. πυλών 1 states, “gate, esp. of the large, impressive gateways at the entrance of temples and palaces…of the entrances of the heavenly Jerusalem…οἱ πυλῶνες αὐτῆς οὐ μὴ κλεισθῶσιν its entrances shall never be shut Rv 21:25; cp. vss. 12ab, 13abcd, 15, 21ab; 22:14.”

[21:12]  131 tn Grk “of the sons of Israel.” The translation “nation of Israel” is given in L&N 11.58.

[21:12]  132 tn Grk “on them”; the referent (the gates) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[21:13]  133 tn The words “There are” have been supplied to make a complete English sentence. This is a continuation of the previous sentence, a lengthy and complicated one in Greek.

[21:13]  134 tn The word “side” has been supplied four times in this verse for clarity.

[21:14]  135 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

[21:15]  136 tn Grk “the one”; the referent (the angel of v. 9) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[21:16]  137 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the somewhat parenthetical nature of the description of the city.

[21:16]  138 tn Or “the city lies square.” On κεῖμαι (keimai) in this context, BDAG 537 s.v. 2 states, “lie, of things…ἡ πόλις τετράγωνος κεῖται is laid out as a square Rv 21:16.”

[21:16]  139 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

[21:16]  140 tn Grk “with the rod”; the word “measuring” is supplied from the description in v. 15.

[21:16]  141 tn Or “two thousand two hundred kilometers,” Grk “12,000 stades.” A stade was a measure of length about 607 ft (185 m).

[21:17]  142 tn Here the measurement was kept in cubits in the translation because of the possible symbolic significance of the number 144 (12 times 12). This is about 216 ft (65 m).

[21:17]  143 tn Here L&N 81.1 translate the phrase μέτρον ἀνθρώπου, ὅ ἐστιν ἀγγέλου (metron anqrwpou, {o estin angelou) “‘the unit of measurement used by a person, that is, by an angel’ Re 21:17.” It is more likely that μέτρον is an accusative of respect or reference.

[21:18]  144 tn Grk “and its wall”; the referent of the pronoun (the city) has been specified in the translation for clarity. Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

[21:18]  145 tn The phrase ἡ ἐνδώμησις τοῦ τείχους (Jh endwmhsi" tou teicou") is difficult to translate precisely. BDAG 334 s.v. ἐνδώμησις states, “primary mng. ‘interior structure’; in our lit. prob.=construction, hence material τοῦ τείχους Rv 21:18.” The phrase could then be translated, “the foundation of the city wall was jasper” or “the material used for the wall of the city was jasper.” The latter alternative has been used in the translation because the text goes on to discuss the foundation in 21:19 (using the term θεμέλιος [qemelios]), which is somewhat redundant if the foundation is mentioned here.

[21:18]  146 tn Or “transparent crystal.” See L&N 6.222, which notes the emphasis is on transparency here. The same Greek word, καθαρός (kaqaros), means both “pure” (referring to the gold) and “transparent” (referring to the glass).

[21:19]  147 tn The perfect participle here has been translated as an intensive (resultative) perfect.

[21:19]  148 sn Agate (also called chalcedony) is a semiprecious stone usually milky or gray in color (L&N 2.32).

[21:20]  149 sn Onyx (also called sardonyx) is a semiprecious stone that comes in various colors (L&N 2.35).

[21:20]  150 sn Carnelian is a semiprecious gemstone, usually red in color (L&N 2.36).

[21:20]  151 sn Chrysolite refers to either quartz or topaz, golden yellow in color (L&N 2.37).

[21:20]  152 sn Beryl is a semiprecious stone, usually blue-green or green in color (L&N 2.38).

[21:20]  153 sn Chrysoprase is a greenish type of quartz (L&N 2.40).

[21:20]  154 sn Jacinth is a semiprecious stone, probably blue in color (also called “hyacinth,” but that translation is not used here because of possible confusion with the flower of the same name). See L&N 2.41.

[21:21]  155 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

[21:21]  156 tn The Greek word πλατεῖα (plateia) refers to a major (broad) street (L&N 1.103).

[21:22]  157 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic. Every verse from here to the end of this chapter begins with καί in Greek, but due to differences between Greek and contemporary English style, these have not been translated.

[21:22]  158 tn On this word BDAG 755 s.v. παντοκράτωρ states, “the Almighty, All-Powerful, Omnipotent (One) only of God…() κύριος ὁ θεὸς ὁ π. …Rv 1:8; 4:8; 11:17; 15:3; 16:7; 21:22.”

[21:24]  159 tn Or “the Gentiles” (the same Greek word may be translated “Gentiles” or “nations”).

[21:24]  160 tn Or “splendor”; Grk “glory.”

[21:25]  161 tn On the translation “during the day” see BDAG 436 s.v. ἡμέρα 1.a, “But also, as in Thu. et al., of time within which someth. occurs, ἡμέρας during the day Rv 21:25.”

[21:25]  162 tn The Greek connective γάρ (gar) most often expresses some sort of causal connection. However, in this context there is no causal force to the second phrase; γάρ simply expresses continuation or connection. Because of this it has been translated as “and.” See BDAG 189-90 s.v. 2.

[21:25]  163 tn The clause has virtually the force of a parenthetical comment.

[21:26]  164 tn Grk “honor,” but BDAG 1005 s.v. τιμή 2.b states, “An outstanding feature of the use of τ., as already shown in several passages, is its combination w. δόξα…of earthly possessions τὴν δόξαν καὶ τὴν τιμὴν τῶν ἐθνῶν Rv 21:26 (τιμή concr.=an object of value: Ezk 22:25).”

[21:26]  165 tn Or “the Gentiles” (the same Greek word may be translated “Gentiles” or “nations”).

[21:27]  166 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.

[21:27]  167 tn Here BDAG 552 s.v. κοινός 2 states, “pert. to being of little value because of being common, common, ordinary, profane…b. specifically, of that which is ceremonially impure: Rv 21:27.”

[21:27]  168 tn Or “what is abhorrent”; Grk “who practices abominations.”

[21:27]  169 tn Grk “practicing abomination or falsehood.” Because of the way βδέλυγμα (bdelugma) has been translated (“does what is detestable”) it was necessary to repeat the idea from the participle ποιῶν (poiwn, “practices”) before the term “falsehood.” On this term, BDAG 1097 s.v. ψεῦδος states, “ποιεῖν ψεῦδος practice (the things that go with) falsehood Rv 21:27; 22:15.” Cf. Rev 3:9.

[21:27]  170 tn Grk “those who are written”; the word “names” is implied.



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