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Mazmur 68:30

Konteks

68:30 Sound your battle cry 1  against the wild beast of the reeds, 2 

and the nations that assemble like a herd of calves led by bulls! 3 

They humble themselves 4  and offer gold and silver as tribute. 5 

God 6  scatters 7  the nations that like to do battle.

Mazmur 87:4

Konteks

87:4 I mention Rahab 8  and Babylon to my followers. 9 

Here are 10  Philistia and Tyre, 11  along with Ethiopia. 12 

It is said of them, “This one was born there.” 13 

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[68:30]  1 tn The Hebrew verb גָּעַר (gaar) is often understood to mean “rebuke.” In some cases it is apparent that scolding or threatening is in view (see Gen 37:10; Ruth 2:16; Zech 3:2). However, in militaristic contexts such as Ps 68 this translation is inadequate, for the verb refers in this setting to the warrior’s battle cry, which terrifies and paralyzes the enemy. See A. Caquot, TDOT 3:53, and note the use of the verb in Ps 106:9 and Nah 1:4, as well as the related noun in Job 26:11; Pss 18:15; 76:6; 104:7; Isa 50:2; 51:20; 66:15.

[68:30]  2 sn The wild beast of the reeds probably refers to a hippopotamus, which in turn symbolizes the nation of Egypt.

[68:30]  3 tn Heb “an assembly of bulls, with calves of the nations.”

[68:30]  4 tn Heb “humbling himself.” The verb form is a Hitpael participle from the root רָפַס (rafas, “to trample”). The Hitpael of this verb appears only here and in Prov 6:3, where it seems to mean, “humble oneself,” a nuance that fits nicely in this context. The apparent subject is “wild beast” or “assembly,” though both of these nouns are grammatically feminine, while the participle is a masculine form. Perhaps one should emend the participial form to a masculine plural (מִתְרַפִּם, mitrapim) and understand “bulls” or “calves” as the subject.

[68:30]  5 tc Heb “with pieces [?] of silver.” The meaning of the Hebrew term רַצֵּי (ratsey) is unclear. It is probably best to emend the text to בֶּצֶר וְכָסֶף (betser vÿkhasef, “[with] gold and silver”).

[68:30]  6 tn Heb “he”; the referent (God) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[68:30]  7 tn The verb בָּזַר (bazar) is an alternative form of פָּזַר (pazar, “scatter”).

[87:4]  8 snRahab,” which means “proud one,” is used here as a title for Egypt (see Isa 30:7).

[87:4]  9 tn Heb “to those who know me” (see Ps 36:10). Apparently the Lord speaks here. The verbal construction (the Hiphil of זָכַר, zakhar, “remember” followed by the preposition -לְ [le] with a substantive) is rare, but the prepositional phrase is best understood as indicating the recipient of the announcement (see Jer 4:16). Some take the preposition in the sense of “among” and translate, “among those who know me” (cf. NEB, NIV, NRSV). In this case these foreigners are viewed as the Lord’s people and the psalm is interpreted as anticipating a time when all nations will worship the Lord (see Ps 86:9) and be considered citizens of Zion.

[87:4]  10 tn Heb “Look.”

[87:4]  11 map For location see Map1 A2; Map2 G2; Map4 A1; JP3 F3; JP4 F3.

[87:4]  12 tn Heb “Cush.”

[87:4]  13 tn Heb “and this one was born there.” The words “It is said of them” are not in the Hebrew text, but are supplied for clarification and stylistic purposes (see v. 5). Those advocating the universalistic interpretation understand “there” as referring to Zion, but it seems more likely that the adverb refers to the nations just mentioned. The foreigners are identified by their native lands.



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