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Teks -- Psalms 15:1-5 (NET)

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Konteks
Psalm 15
15:1 A psalm of David. Lord, who may be a guest in your home? Who may live on your holy hill? 15:2 Whoever lives a blameless life, does what is right, and speaks honestly. 15:3 He does not slander, or do harm to others, or insult his neighbor. 15:4 He despises a reprobate, but honors the Lord’s loyal followers. He makes firm commitments and does not renege on his promise. 15:5 He does not charge interest when he lends his money. He does not take bribes to testify against the innocent. The one who lives like this will never be upended.
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · David a son of Jesse of Judah; king of Israel,son of Jesse of Judah; king of Israel


Topik/Tema Kamus: Holiness | Integrity | PSALMS, BOOK OF | Righteous | David | GOD, 2 | Righteousness | Neighbor | Slander | Oath | Speaking | Backbiting | Usury | Gossip | Church | BACKBITE | LOAN | POETRY, HEBREW | Interest | Money | selebihnya
Daftar Isi

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Wesley , JFB , Clarke , Calvin , TSK

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Poole , Haydock , Gill

Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki
NET Notes , Geneva Bible

Catatan Rentang Ayat
MHCC , Matthew Henry , Keil-Delitzsch , Constable

Lainnya
Evidence

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per frasa)

Wesley: Psa 15:1 - Who Who shall so dwell in thy church here, as to dwell with thee for ever in heaven?

Who shall so dwell in thy church here, as to dwell with thee for ever in heaven?

Wesley: Psa 15:2 - Uprightly Loving, and serving God, and loving his neighbour not in word only, but in truth; and this constantly.

Loving, and serving God, and loving his neighbour not in word only, but in truth; and this constantly.

Wesley: Psa 15:2 - Worketh Makes it his business to do justly, to give to every one his due, first to God, and then to men.

Makes it his business to do justly, to give to every one his due, first to God, and then to men.

Wesley: Psa 15:2 - Speaketh His words and professions to God and men, agree with the thoughts and purposes of his heart.

His words and professions to God and men, agree with the thoughts and purposes of his heart.

Wesley: Psa 15:3 - He He that doth not speak evil of his neighbour.

He that doth not speak evil of his neighbour.

Wesley: Psa 15:3 - Neighbour That is, any man.

That is, any man.

Wesley: Psa 15:3 - Nor taketh Into his mouth, doth not raise it, neither spread or propagate it; or believe it without sufficient reason.

Into his mouth, doth not raise it, neither spread or propagate it; or believe it without sufficient reason.

Wesley: Psa 15:4 - Vile An ungodly man.

An ungodly man.

Wesley: Psa 15:4 - Honoureth He highly esteems and loves them, though they be mean as to their worldly condition, and though they may differ from him in some opinions or practices...

He highly esteems and loves them, though they be mean as to their worldly condition, and though they may differ from him in some opinions or practices of lesser moment.

Wesley: Psa 15:4 - Sweareth A promissory oath.

A promissory oath.

Wesley: Psa 15:4 - Hurt To his own damage. As if a man solemnly swear, that he will sell him such an estate at a price below the full worth; or that, he will give a poor man ...

To his own damage. As if a man solemnly swear, that he will sell him such an estate at a price below the full worth; or that, he will give a poor man such a sum of money, which afterwards he finds inconvenient to him.

Wesley: Psa 15:4 - Changeth not His purpose, but continues firm and resolved to perform his promise.

His purpose, but continues firm and resolved to perform his promise.

Wesley: Psa 15:5 - To usury In such a manner as is contrary to God's law: of which see otherwise, Exo 22:25; Lev 25:36-37, &c.

In such a manner as is contrary to God's law: of which see otherwise, Exo 22:25; Lev 25:36-37, &c.

Wesley: Psa 15:5 - Reward Or, a bribe for him who hath a bad cause.

Or, a bribe for him who hath a bad cause.

Wesley: Psa 15:5 - Moved He shall abide with God here, and when he dies be for ever with the Lord.

He shall abide with God here, and when he dies be for ever with the Lord.

JFB: Psa 15:1 - -- Those who are fit for communion with God may be known by a conformity to His law, which is illustrated in various important particulars. (Psa 15:1-5)

Those who are fit for communion with God may be known by a conformity to His law, which is illustrated in various important particulars. (Psa 15:1-5)

JFB: Psa 15:1 - abide Or, "sojourn" (compare Psa 5:4), where it means under God's protection here, as (Psa 23:6, Psa 27:4, Psa 27:6) communion.

Or, "sojourn" (compare Psa 5:4), where it means under God's protection here, as (Psa 23:6, Psa 27:4, Psa 27:6) communion.

JFB: Psa 15:1 - tabernacle Seat of the ark (2Sa 6:17), the symbol of God's presence.

Seat of the ark (2Sa 6:17), the symbol of God's presence.

JFB: Psa 15:1 - holy hill (Compare Psa 2:6).

(Compare Psa 2:6).

JFB: Psa 15:2 - walketh (Compare Psa 1:1).

(Compare Psa 1:1).

JFB: Psa 15:2 - uprightly In a complete manner, as to all parts of conduct (Gen 17:1), not as to degree.

In a complete manner, as to all parts of conduct (Gen 17:1), not as to degree.

JFB: Psa 15:2 - worketh Or, "does."

Or, "does."

JFB: Psa 15:2 - righteousness What is right.

What is right.

JFB: Psa 15:2 - in his heart Sincerely (Pro 23:7).

Sincerely (Pro 23:7).

JFB: Psa 15:3 - -- He neither slanders nor spreads slander.

He neither slanders nor spreads slander.

JFB: Psa 15:4 - -- Love and hate are regulated by a regard to God.

Love and hate are regulated by a regard to God.

JFB: Psa 15:4 - sweareth . . . hurt Or what so results (compare Lev 5:4).

Or what so results (compare Lev 5:4).

JFB: Psa 15:5 - -- (Compare Lev 25:37; Deu 23:19-20). usury is derived from a verb meaning "to bite." All gains made by the wrongful loss of others are forbidden.

(Compare Lev 25:37; Deu 23:19-20).

usury is derived from a verb meaning "to bite." All gains made by the wrongful loss of others are forbidden.

JFB: Psa 15:5 - taketh reward, &c. The innocent would not otherwise be condemned (compare Exo 23:8; Deu 16:19). Bribery of all sorts is denounced.

The innocent would not otherwise be condemned (compare Exo 23:8; Deu 16:19). Bribery of all sorts is denounced.

JFB: Psa 15:5 - doeth these, &c. Such persons admitted to God's presence and favor shall never be moved (Psa 10:6; Psa 13:5).

Such persons admitted to God's presence and favor shall never be moved (Psa 10:6; Psa 13:5).

Clarke: Psa 15:1 - Lord, who shall abide in thy tabernacle? Lord, who shall abide in thy tabernacle? - The literal translation of this verse is, "Lord, who shall sojourn in thy tabernacle? who shall dwell in ...

Lord, who shall abide in thy tabernacle? - The literal translation of this verse is, "Lord, who shall sojourn in thy tabernacle? who shall dwell in the mountain of thy holiness?"Fwor the proper understanding of this question we must note the following particulars: -

1.    The tabernacle, which was a kind of moveable temple, was a type of the Church militant, or the state of the people of God in this world

2.    Mount Zion, the holy mount, where the temple was built, was the type of the kingdom of heaven. There the ark became stationary, and was no longer carried about from place to place; and the whole was typical of the rest that remains for the people of God

3.    The Tabernacle was a temporary and frequently-removed building, carried about from place to place, and not long in any one place. Concerning this it is said: מי יגור mi yagur , "Who shall lodge, or sojourn,"there? It is not a residence, or dwelling-place, but a place to lodge in for a time

4.    The Temple was a fixed and permanent building; and here it is inquired, מי ישכן mi yiscon , "Who shall dwell, abide,"or have his permanent residence, there

5.    The tabernacle being a migratory temple, carried about on the shoulders of the priests and Levites, there was no dwelling there for any; they could but lodge or sojourn

6.    The temple being fined, the priests, Levites, etc., became permanent occupiers. There was no lodging or sojourning, but permanent residence for all connected with it

7.    The tabernacle is, therefore, a proper type of the Church militant, wandering up and down, tossed by various storms and tempests; the followers of God, having here no continuing city; sojourning only on earth to get a preparation for eternal glory

8.    The temple is also a proper type or emblem of the Church triumphant in heaven. "Here the wicked cease from troubling, and the weary are at rest."It is the dwelling-place the eternal residence, of all who are faithfui unto death, who are made pillars in that temple of God, to go no more out for ever

The questions therefore are

1.    Who can be considered a fit member of the Church of Christ here below? and

2.    Who shall be made partakers of an endless glory? In answer to these questions, the character of what we may term a true Israelite, or a good Christian, is given in the following particulars: -

Clarke: Psa 15:2 - He that walketh uprightly He that walketh uprightly - הולך תמים holech tamim 1. He walks perfectly. Who sets God before his eyes, takes his word for the rule of hi...

He that walketh uprightly - הולך תמים holech tamim

1. He walks perfectly. Who sets God before his eyes, takes his word for the rule of his conduct, considers himself a sojourner on earth, and is continually walking to the kingdom of God. He acts according to the perfections of God’ s law; he has respect to all its parts, and feels the weight and importance of all its injunctions

Clarke: Psa 15:2 - And worketh righteousness And worketh righteousness - 2. He is not satisfied with a contemplative life; he has duties to perform. The law of righteousness has placed him in c...

And worketh righteousness -

2. He is not satisfied with a contemplative life; he has duties to perform. The law of righteousness has placed him in certain relations, and each of these relations has its peculiar duties. פעל צדק poel tsedek , the words here used, signify to give just weight, to render to all their dues

1.    As he is the creature of God, he has duties to perform to him. He owes God his heart: May son, give me thy heart; and should love him with all his heart, soul, mind, and strength. This is giving God his due

2.    As a member of civil society, he has various duties to perform to his fellows, as they have to him. He is to love them as himself, and do unto all men as he would they should do unto him

3.    There are duties which he owes to himself. That his body may be in health, vigor, and activity, he should avoid every thing by which it might be injured, particularly all excesses in eating, drinking, sleeping, etc. That his soul may be saved, he should avoid all sin; all irregular and disorderly passions. He owes it to his soul to apply to God for that grace which produces repentance, faith, and holiness; and in order to get all these blessings, he should read, watch, pray, hear the word preached, and diligently use all the ordinances of God. He who acts not thus, defrauds both his body and soul: but the person in the text works righteousness - gives to all their due; and thus keeps a conscience void of oifence, both towards God and man

Clarke: Psa 15:2 - And speaketh the truth in his heart And speaketh the truth in his heart - 3. He is a true man; in him there is no false way. He is no man of pretenses; speaking one thing, and meaning ...

And speaketh the truth in his heart -

3. He is a true man; in him there is no false way. He is no man of pretenses; speaking one thing, and meaning another. He professes nothing but what he feels and intends; with him there are no hollow friendships, vain compliments, nor empty professions of esteem, love, regard, or friendship. His mouth speaks nothing but what his heart dictates. His heart, his tongue, and his hand, are all in unison. Hypocrisy, guile, and deceit, have no place in his soul.

Clarke: Psa 15:3 - He that backbiteth not with his tongue He that backbiteth not with his tongue - לא רגל על לשנו lo ragal al leshono , "he foots not upon his tongue. 4. He is one who treats his...

He that backbiteth not with his tongue - לא רגל על לשנו lo ragal al leshono , "he foots not upon his tongue.

4. He is one who treats his neighbor with respect. He says nothing that might injure him in his character, person, or property; he forgets no calumny, he is author of no slander, he insinuates nothing by which his neighbor may be injured. The tongue, because of its slanderous conversation, is represented in the nervous original as kicking about the character of an absent person; a very common vice, and as destructive as it is common: but the man who expects to see God abhors it, and backbites not with his tongue. The words backbite and backbiter come from the Anglo-Saxon bac , the back, and to bite. How it came to be used in the sense it has in our language, seems at first view unaccountable; but it was intended to convey the treble sense of knavishness, cowardice, and brutality. He is a knave, who would rob you of your good name; he is a coward, that would speak of you in your absence what he dared not to do in your presence; and only an ill-conditioned dog would fly at and bite your back when your face was turned. All these three ideas are included in the term; and they all meet in the detractor and calumniator. His tongue is the tongue of a knave, a coward, and a dog. Such a person, of course, has no right to the privileges of the Church militant, and none of his disposition can ever see God

Clarke: Psa 15:3 - Nor doeth evil to his neighbor Nor doeth evil to his neighbor - 5. He not only avoids evil speaking, but he avoids also evil acting towards his neighbor. He speaks no evil of him;...

Nor doeth evil to his neighbor -

5. He not only avoids evil speaking, but he avoids also evil acting towards his neighbor. He speaks no evil of him; he does no evil to him; he does him no harm; he occasions him no wrong. On the contrary, he gives him his due. See under the second particular

Clarke: Psa 15:3 - Nor taketh up a reproach against his neighbour Nor taketh up a reproach against his neighbour - 6. The word חרפה cherpah , which we here translate a reproach, comes from חרף charaph , to...

Nor taketh up a reproach against his neighbour -

6. The word חרפה cherpah , which we here translate a reproach, comes from חרף charaph , to strip, or make bare, to deprive one of his garments; hence חרף choreph , the winter, because it strips the fields of their clothing, and the trees of their foliage. By this, nature appears to be dishonored and disgraced. The application is easy: a man, for instance, of a good character is reported to have done something wrong: the tale is spread, and the slanderers and backbiters carry it about; and thus the man is stripped of his fair character, of his clothing of righteousness, truth, and honesty. All may be false; or the man, in an hour of the power of darkness, may have been tempted and overcoxne; may have been wounded in the cloudy and dark day, and deeply mourns his fall before God. Who that has not the heart of a devil would not strive rather to cover than make bare the fault? Those who feed, as the proverb says, like the flies, passing over all a man’ s whole parts to light upon his wounds, will take up the tale, and carry it about. Such, in the course of their diabolic work, carry the story of scandal to the righteous man; to him who loves his God and his neighbor. But what reception has the tale-bearer? The good man taketh it not up; לא נשא lo nasa , he will not bear it; it shall not be propagated from him. He cannot prevent the detractor from laying it down; but it is in his power not to take it up: and thus the progress of the slander may be arrested. He taketh not up a reproach against his neighbour; and the tale-bearer is probably discouraged from carrying it to another door. Reader, drive the slanderer of your neighbor far away from you: ever remembering that in the law of God, as well as in the law of the land, "the receiver is as bad as the thief."

Clarke: Psa 15:4 - In whose eves a vile person is contemned In whose eves a vile person is contemned - 7. This man judges of others by their conduct; he tries no man’ s heart. He knows men only by the fr...

In whose eves a vile person is contemned -

7. This man judges of others by their conduct; he tries no man’ s heart. He knows men only by the fruits they bear; and thus he gains knowledge of the principle from which they proceed. A vile person, נמאס nimas , the reprobate, one abandoned to sin; is despised, נבזה nibzeh , is loathsome, as if he were covered with the elephantiasis or leprosy, for so the word implies. He may be rich, he may be learned, he may be a great man and honorable with his master, in high offices in the state; but if he be a spiritual leper, an infidel, a profligate, the righteous man must despise him, and hold him, because he is an enemy to God and to man, in sovereign contempt. If he be in power, he will not treat him as if worthy of his dignity; while he respects the office he will detest the man. And this is quite right; for the popular odium should ever be pointed against vice

Aben Ezra gives a curious turn to this clause, which he translates thus: "He is mean and contemptible in his own eyes;"and it is certain that the original, נבזה בעיניו נמאס nibzeh beeynaiv nimas , will bear this translation. His paraphrase on it is beautiful: "A pious man, whatever good he may have done, and however concordant to the Divine law he may have walked, considers all this of no worth, compared with what it was his duty to do for the glory of his Creator."A sentiment very like that of our Lord, Luk 17:10 : "So likewise ye, when ye shall have done all those things which are commanded you, say, We are unprofitable servants; we have done that which was our duty to do.

Taken in this sense, the words intimate, that the man who is truly pious, who is a proper member of the Church militant, and is going straight to the Church triumphant, is truly humble; he knows he has nothing but what he has received, he has no merit, he trusts not in himself, but in the living God. He renounces his own righteousness, and trusts in the eternal mercy of God through the infinitely meritorious atonement made by Jesus Christ. The language of his heart is: -

"I loathe myself when God I see,
And into nothing fall

Content that thou exalted be,
And Christ be all in all.

Clarke: Psa 15:4 - He honoureth them that fear the Lord He honoureth them that fear the Lord - 8. This cause is a proof, however just the sentiment, that Aben Ezra has mistaken the meaning of the precedin...

He honoureth them that fear the Lord -

8. This cause is a proof, however just the sentiment, that Aben Ezra has mistaken the meaning of the preceding clause. The truly pious man, while he has in contempt the honorable and right honorable profligate, yet honors them that fear the Lord, though found in the most abject poverty; though, with Job, on the dunghill, or, with Lazarus, covered with sores at the rich man’ s gate. Character is the object of his attention; persons and circumstances are of minor importance

The fear of the Lord is often taken for the whole of religion; and sometimes for that reverence which a man feels for the ma jesty and holiness of God, that induces him to hate and depart from evil. Here it may signify the lowest degree of religion, repentance whereby we forsake sin

Clarke: Psa 15:4 - Sweareth to his own hurt, and changeth not Sweareth to his own hurt, and changeth not - 9. If at any time he have bound himself by a solemn engagement to do so and so, and he finds afterwards...

Sweareth to his own hurt, and changeth not -

9. If at any time he have bound himself by a solemn engagement to do so and so, and he finds afterwards that to keep his oath will be greatly to his damage; yet such reverence has he for God and for truth that he will not change, be the consequences what they may. He is faithful also to his promises; his bare word will bind him equally with an oath. He that will not be honest without an oath will not be honest with one

The Hebrew might be thus translated: "He sweareth to afflict himself, and does not change;"and thus the Chaldee has rendered this clause. He has promised to the Lord to keep his body under, and bring it into subjection; to deny himself that he may not pamper the flesh, and have the more to give to the poor.

Clarke: Psa 15:5 - Putteth not out his money to usury Putteth not out his money to usury - 10. As usury signifies unlawful interest, or that which is got by taking advantage of the necessity of a distre...

Putteth not out his money to usury -

10. As usury signifies unlawful interest, or that which is got by taking advantage of the necessity of a distressed neighbor, no man that fears God can be guilty of it. The word נשך neshech , which we translate usury, comes from nashach, to bite as a serpent; and here must signify that biting or devouring usury, which ruins the man who has it to pay. "The increase of usury is called נשך neshech , because it resembles the biting of a serpent. For as this is so small at first, as scarcely to be perceptible, but the venom soon spreads and diffuses itself till it reaches the vitals; so the increase of usury, which at first is not perceived nor felt, at length grows so much as by degrees to devour another’ s substance."Middoch’ s edition of Leigh’ s Critica Sacra, sub voce נשך

The Jews ever were, and are still, remarkable for usury and usurious contracts; and a Jew that is saved from it is in the fair way, charity would suppose, to the kingdom of heaven. The Roman laws condemned the usurer to the forfeiture of four times the sum. Cato de Rust., lib. i

Clarke: Psa 15:5 - Nor taketh reward against the innocent Nor taketh reward against the innocent - 11. He neither gives nor receives a bribe in order to pervert justice or injure an innocent man in his caus...

Nor taketh reward against the innocent -

11. He neither gives nor receives a bribe in order to pervert justice or injure an innocent man in his cause. The lawyer, who sees a poor man opposed by a rich man, who, though he is convinced in his conscience that the poor man has justice and right on his side, yet takes the larger fee from the rich man to plead against the poor man, has in fact taken a bribe against the innocent, and without the most signal interposition of the mercy of God, is as sure of hell as if he were already there

Clarke: Psa 15:5 - He that doeth these things He that doeth these things - He in whose character all these excellences meet, though still much more is necessary under the Christian dispensation,...

He that doeth these things - He in whose character all these excellences meet, though still much more is necessary under the Christian dispensation, shall never be moved - he shall stand fast for ever. He is an upright, honest man, and God will ever be his support

Now we have the important question answered, Who shall go to heaven? The man who to faith in Christ Jesus adds those eleven moral excellences which have been already enumerated. And only such a character is fit for a place in the Church of Christ

On this verse there is a singular reading in my old MS. Psalter, which I must notice. The clause, Qui pecuniam suam non dedit ad usuram, "who putteth not out his money to usury,"is thus translated: He that gat nout his catel til oker. Now this intimates that the author had either read pecudem, Cattle, for pecuniam, Money; or that catel was the only money current in his time and country. And indeed it has long been the case, that the Scottish peasantry paid their rents in kind; so many cows or sheep given to the laird for the usufruct of the ground. That this is no mistake in the translation is evident enough from the paraphrase, where he repeats the words, with his gloss upon them: He that gaf nout his Catel till oker bodyly als covaytus men dos gastly: that he seke naght for his gude dede, na mede of this werld, bot anely of heven

The very unusual word oker signifies produce of any kind, whether of cattle, land, money, or even the human offspring. It is found in the Anglo-Saxon, the Gothic, the German, and the Danish; in all which languages it signifies produce, fruit, offspring, usury, and the like. Dr. Jameson does not show the word in any of its forms, though it is evident that it existed in the ancient Scotttsh language

The word catel may be used here for chattels, substance of any kind, moveable or immoveable; but this word itself was originally derived from cattle, which were from the beginning the principal substance or riches of the inhabitants of the country. Indeed the word pecunia, money, was derived from pecus, cattle, which were no longer used as a medium of commerce when silver and gold came into use. There is a passage in Chaucer where cattel catching seems to be used for getting money

Speaking of the wicked priests of his time, he says: -

Some on her churches dwel

Apparailled poorely proud of porte

The seven Sacramentes thei doen sell

In Cattel catching is her comfort

Of each matter thei wollen mell

And doen hem wrong is her disport

To affraie the people thei been fel

And hold hem lower than doeth the Lorde

Plowmanne’ s Tale, 3d part

Calvin: Psa 15:1 - O Jehovah, who shall dwell in thy tabernacle? 1.O Jehovah, who shall dwell in thy tabernacle? As nothing is more common in the world than falsely to assume the name of God, or to pretend to be hi...

1.O Jehovah, who shall dwell in thy tabernacle? As nothing is more common in the world than falsely to assume the name of God, or to pretend to be his people, and as a great part of men allow themselves to do this without any apprehension of the danger it involves, David, without stopping to speak to men, addresses himself to God, which he considers the better course; and he intimates, that if men assume the title of the people of God, without being so in deed and in truth, they gain nothing by their self-delusion, for God continues always like himself, and as he is faithful himself, so will he have us to keep faith with him in return. No doubt, he adopted Abraham freely, but, at the same time, he stipulated with him that he should live a holy and an upright life, and this is the general rule of the covenant which God has, from the beginning, made with his Church. The sum is, that hypocrites, who occupy a place in the temple of God, in vain pretend to be his people, for he acknowledges none as such but those who follow after justice and uprightness during the whole course of their life. David saw the temple crowded with a great multitude of men who all made a profession of the same religion, and presented themselves before God as to the outward ceremony; and, therefore, assuming the person of one wondering at the spectacle, he directs his discourse to God, who, in such a confusion and medley of characters, could easily distinguish his own people from strangers.

There is a threefold use of this doctrine. In the first place, If we really wish to be reckoned among the number of the children of God, the Holy Ghost teaches us, that we must show ourselves to be such by a holy and an upright life; for it is not enough to serve God by outward ceremonies, unless we also live uprightly, and without doing wrong to our neighbors. In the second place, As we too often see the Church of God defaced by much impurity, to prevent us from stumbling at what appears so offensive, a distinction is made between those who are permanent citizens of the Church, and strangers who are mingled among them only for a time. This is undoubtedly a warning highly necessary, in order that when the temple of God happens to be tainted by many impurities, we may not contract such disgust and chagrin as will make us withdraw from it. By impurities I understand the vices of a corrupt and polluted life. Provided religion continue pure as to doctrine and worship, we must not be so much stumbled at the faults and sins which men commit, as on that account to rend the unity of the Church. Yet the experience of all ages teaches us how dangerous a temptation it is when we behold the Church of God, which ought to be free from all polluting stains, and to shine in uncorrupted purity, cherishing in her bosom many ungodly hypocrites, or wicked persons. From this the Catharists, Novatians, and Donatists, took occasion in former times to separate themselves from the fellowship of the godly. The Anabaptists, at the present day, renew the same schisms, because it does not seem to them that a church in which vices are tolerated can be a true church. But Christ, in Mat 25:32, justly claims it as his own peculiar office to separate the sheep from the goats; and thereby admonishes us, that we must bear with the evils which it is not in our power to correct, until all things become ripe, and the proper season of purging the Church arrive. At the same time, the faithful are here enjoined, each in his own sphere, to use their endeavors that the Church of God may be purified from the corruptions which still exist within her. And this is the third use which we should make of this doctrine. God’s sacred barn-floor will not be perfectly cleansed before the last day, when Christ at his coming will cast out the chaff; but he has already begun to do this by the doctrine of his gospel, which on this account he terms a fan. We must, therefore, by no means be indifferent about this matter; on the contrary, we ought rather to exert ourselves in good earnest, that all who profess themselves Christians may lead a holy and an unspotted life. But above all, what God here declares with respect to all the unrighteous should be deeply imprinted on our memory; namely, that he prohibits them from coming to his sanctuary, and condemns their impious presumption, in irreverently thrusting themselves into the society of the godly. David makes mention of the tabernacle, because the temple was not yet built. The meaning of his discourse, to express it in a few words, is this, that those only have access to God who are his genuine servants, and who live a holy life.

Calvin: Psa 15:2 - He that walketh in integrity 2.He that walketh in integrity Here we should mark, that in the words there is an implied contrast between the vain boasting of those who are only th...

2.He that walketh in integrity Here we should mark, that in the words there is an implied contrast between the vain boasting of those who are only the people of God in name, or who make only a bare profession of being so, which consists in outward observances, and this indubitable and genuine evidence of true godliness which David commends. But it might be asked, As the service of God takes precedence of the duties of charity towards our neighbors, why is there no mention here made of faith and prayer; for, certainly, these are the marks by which the genuine children of God ought to have been distinguished from hypocrites? The answer is easy: David does not intend to exclude faith and prayer, and other spiritual sacrifices; but as hypocrites, in order to promote their own interests, are not sparing in their attention to a multiplicity of external religious observances, while their ungodliness, notwithstanding, is manifested outwardly in the life, seeing they are fall of pride, cruelty, violence, and are given to deceitfulness and extortion, - the Psalmist, for the purpose of discovering and drawing forth into the light all who are of such a character, takes the marks and evidences of true and sincere faith from the second table of the law. According to the care which every man takes to practice righteousness and equity towards his neighbors, so does he actually show that he fears God. David, then, is not here to be understood as resting satisfied with political or social justice, as if it were enough to render to our fellow-men what is their own, while we may lawfully defraud God of his right; but he describes the approved servants of God, as distinguished and known by the fruits of righteousness which they produce. In the first place, he requires sincerity; in other words, that men should conduct themselves in all their affairs with singleness of heart, and without sinful craft or cunning. Secondly, he requires justice; that is to say, that they should study to do good to their neighbors, hurt nobody, and abstain from all wrong. Thirdly, he requires truth in their speech, so that they may speak nothing falsely or deceitfully. To speak in the heart is a strong figurative expression, but it expresses more forcibly David’s meaning than if he had said from the heart. It denotes such agreement and harmony between the heart and tongue, as that the speech is, as it were, a vivid representation of the hidden affection or feeling within.

Calvin: Psa 15:3 - NO PHRASE David, after having briefly set forth the virtues with which all who desire to have a place in the Church ought to be endued, now enumerates certain ...

David, after having briefly set forth the virtues with which all who desire to have a place in the Church ought to be endued, now enumerates certain vices from which they ought to be free. In the first place, he tells them that they must not be slanderers or detractors; secondly, that they must restrain themselves from doing any thing mischievous and injurious to their neighbors; and, thirdly, that they must not aid in giving currency to calumnies and false reports. Other vices, from which the righteous are free, we shall meet with as we proceed. David, then, sets down calumny and detraction as the first point of injustice by which our neighbors are injured. If a good name is a treasure, more precious than all the riches of the world, (Pro 22:1,) no greater injury can be inflicted upon men than to wound their reputation. It is not, however, every injurious word which is here condemned; but the disease and lust of detraction, which stirs up malicious persons to spread abroad calumnies. At the same time, it cannot be doubted that the design of the Holy Spirit is to condemn all false and wicked accusations. In the clause which immediately follows, the doctrine that the children of God ought to be far removed from all injustice, is stated more generally: Nor doeth evil to his companion. By the words companion and neighbor, the Psalmist means not only those with whom we enjoy familiar intercourse, and live on terms of intimate friendship, but all men, to whom we are bound by the ties of humanity and a common nature. He employs these terms to show more clearly the odiousness of what he condemns, and that the saints may have the greater abhorrence of all wrong dealing, since every man who hurts his neighbor violates the fundamental law of human society. With respect to the meaning of the last clause, interpreters are not agreed. Some take the phrase, to raise up a calumnious report, for to invent, because malicious persons raise up calumnies from nothing; and thus it would be a repetition of the statement contained in the first clause of the verse, namely, that good men should not allow themselves to indulge in detraction. But I think there is also here rebuked the vice of undue credulity, which, when any evil reports are spread against our neighbors, leads us either eagerly to listen to them, or at least to receive them without sufficient reason; whereas we ought rather to use all means to suppress and trample them under foot. 295 When any one is the bearer of invented falsehoods, those who reject them leave them, as it were, to fall to the ground; while, on the contrary, those who propagate and publish them from one person to another are, by an expressive form of speech, said to raise them up.

Calvin: Psa 15:4 - When he hath sworn to his own hurt The first part of this verse is explained in different ways. Some draw from it this meaning, that the true servants of God are contemptible and worth...

The first part of this verse is explained in different ways. Some draw from it this meaning, that the true servants of God are contemptible and worthless in their own estimation. If we adopt this interpretation, the copula and, which David does not express, must be supplied, making the reading thus, He is vile and despised in his own eyes. But besides the consideration, that, if this had been the sense, the words would probably have been joined together by the copula and, I have another reason which leads me to think that David had a different meaning, He compares together two opposite things, namely, to despise perverse and worthless characters, and to honor the righteous and those who fear God. In order that these two clauses may correspond with each other, the only sense in which I can understand what is here said about being despised is this, that the children of God despise the ungodly, and form that low and contemptuous estimate of them which their character deserves. The godly, it is true, although living a praiseworthy and virtuous life, are not inflated with presumption, but, on the contrary, are rather dissatisfied with themselves, because they feel how far short they are as yet of the perfection which is required. When, however, I consider what the scope of the passage demands, I do not think that we are here to view the Psalmist as commending humility or modesty, but rather a free and upright judgment of human character, by which the wicked, on the one hand, are not spared, while virtue, on the other, receives the honor which belongs to it; for flattery, which nourishes vices by covering them, is an evil not less pernicious than it is common. I indeed admit, that if the wicked are in authority, we ought not to carry our contempt of them the length of refusing to obey them in so far as a regard to our duty will permit; but, at the same time, we must beware of flattery and of accommodating ourselves to them, which would be to involve us in the same condemnation with them. He who not only seems to regard their wicked actions with indifference, but also honors them, shows that he approves of them as much as it is in his power. Paul therefore teaches us, (Eph 5:11,) that it is a species of fellowship with the unfruitful works of darkness when we do not reprove them. It is certainly a very perverse way of acting, when persons, for the sake of obtaining the favor of men, will indirectly mock God; and all are chargeable with doing this who make it their business to please the wicked. David, however, has a respect, not so much to persons as to wicked works. The man who sees the wicked honored, and by the applause of the world rendered more obstinate in their wickedness, and who willingly gives his consent or approbation to this, does he not, by so doing, exalt vice to authority, and invest it with sovereign power? “But woe,” says the prophet Isaiah, (Isa 5:20,) “unto them that call evil good, and good evil; that put darkness for light, and light for darkness.”

Nor ought it to be regarded as a rude or violent manner of speaking, when David calls base and wicked persons reprobates, although they may be placed in an exalted and honorable station. If (as Cicero affirms, in his book entitled The Responses of the Aruspices) the inspectors of the entrails of the sacrifices, and other heathen soothsayers, applied to worthless and abandoned characters the term rejected, although they excelled in dignity and riches, why should not a prophet of God be permitted to apply the name of degraded outcasts to all who are rejected by God? The meaning of the Psalmist, to express it in a few words, is, that the children of God freely judge of every man’s doings, and that for the purpose of obtaining the favor of men, they will not stoop to vile flattery, and thereby encourage the wicked in their wickedness.

What follows immediately after, namely, to honor the righteous and those who fear God, is no mean virtue. As they are often, as it were, the filth and the offscouring of all things in the estimation of the world, so it frequently happens that those who show them favor and sympathy, excite against themselves every where the hatred of the world. The greater part of mankind, therefore, refuse the friendship of good men, and leave them to be despised, which cannot be done without grievous and heinous injury to God. Let us learn then not to value men by their estate or their money, or their transitory honors, but to hold in estimation godliness, or the fear of God. And certainly no man will ever truly apply his mind to the study of godliness who does not, at the same time, reverence the servants of God; as, on the other hand, the love we bear to them incites us to imitate them in sanctity of life.

When he hath sworn to his own hurt The translation of the LXX. would agree very well with the scope of the passage, were it not that the points which are under the words in the Hebrew text will not bear such a sense. 297 It is, indeed, no proof of the inaccuracy of their rendering, that it does not agree with the points; for, although the Jews have always used the points in reading, it is probable that they did not always express them in writing. I, however, prefer following the commonly received reading. And the meaning is, that the faithful will rather submit to suffer loss than break their word. When a man keeps his promises, in as far as he sees it to be for his own advantage, there is in this no argument to prove his uprightness and faithfulness. But when men make a promise to each other, there is nothing more common than from some slight loss which the performance of it would occasion, to endeavor to find a pretext for breaking their engagements. Every one considers with himself what is for his own advantage, and if it puts him to inconvenience or trouble to stand to his promises, he is ingenious enough to imagine that he will incur a far greater loss than there is any reason to apprehend. It seems, indeed, a fair excuse when a man complains that, if he does not depart from his engagement, he will suffer great loss. Hence it is, that we generally see so much unfaithfulness among men, that they do not consider themselves bound to perform the promises which they have made, except in so far as it will promote their own personal interest. David, therefore, condemning this inconstancy, requires the children of God to exhibit the greatest steadfastness in the fulfillment of their promises. Here the question might be asked, If a man, having fallen into the hands of a highwayman, promise him a sum of money to save his life, and if, in consequence of this, he is let go, should he in that case keep his promise? Again, if a man has been basely deceived, in entering into a contract, is it lawful for him to break the oath which he shall have made in such an engagement? With respect to the highwayman, he who confers upon him money falls into another fault, for he supports at his own expense a common enemy of mankind to the detriment of the public welfare. David does not impose upon the faithful such an alternative as this, but only enjoins them to show a greater regard to their promises than to their own personal interests, and to do this especially when their promises have been confirmed by an oath. As to the other case, namely, when a person has sworn, from being deceived and imposed upon by wicked artifice he ought certainly to hold the holy name of God in such veneration, as rather patiently to submit to loss than violate his oath. Yet it is perfectly lawful for him to discover or reveal the fraud which has been practiced upon him, provided he is not led to do so by a regard to his own personal interest; and there is, besides, nothing to hinder him from peaceably endeavoring to compromise the matter with his adversary. Many of the Jewish expositors restrict this passage to vows, as if David exhorted the faithful to perform their vows when they have promised to humble and afflict themselves by fasting. But in this they are mistaken. Nothing is farther from his meaning than this, for he discourses here only of the second table of the law, and of the mutual rectitude which men should maintain in their dealings with one another.

Calvin: Psa 15:5 - He who doeth these things In this verse David enjoins the godly neither to oppress their neighbors by usury, nor to suffer themselves to be corrupted with bribes to favor unri...

In this verse David enjoins the godly neither to oppress their neighbors by usury, nor to suffer themselves to be corrupted with bribes to favor unrighteous causes. With respect to the first clause, as David seems to condemn all kinds of usury in general, and without exception, the very name has been every where held in detestation. But crafty men have invented specious names under which to conceal the vice; and thinking by this artifice to escape, they have plundered with greater excess than if they had lent on usury avowedly and openly. God, however, will not be dealt with and imposed upon by sophistry and false pretences. He looks upon the thing as it really is. There is no worse species of usury than an unjust way of making bargains, where equity is disregarded on both sides. Let us then remember that all bargains in which the one party unrighteously strives to make gain by the loss of the other party, whatever name may be given to them, are here condemned. It may be asked, Whether all kinds of usury are to be put into this denunciation, and regarded as alike unlawful? If we condemn all without distinction, there is a danger lest many, seeing themselves brought into such a strait, as to find that sin must be incurred, in whatever way they can turn themselves, may be rendered bolder by despair, and may rush headlong into all kinds of usury, without choice or discrimination. On the other hand, whenever we concede that something may be lawfully done this way, many will give themselves loose reins, thinking that a liberty to exercise usury, without control or moderation, has been granted them. In the first place, therefore, I would, above all things, counsel my readers to beware of ingeniously contriving deceitful pretexts, by which to take advantage of their fellow-men, and let them not imagine that any thing can be lawful to them which is grievous and hurtful to others.

With respect to usury, it is scarcely possible to find in the world a usurer who is not at the same time an extortioner, and addicted to unlawful and dishonorable gain. Accordingly, Cato 298 of old justly placed the practice of usury and the killing of men in the same rank of criminality, for the object of this class of people is to suck the blood of other men. It is also a very strange and shameful thing, that, while all other men obtain the means of their subsistence with much toil, while husbandmen fatigue themselves by their daily occupations, and artisans serve the community by the sweat of their brow, and merchants not only employ themselves in labors, but also expose themselves to many inconveniences and dangers, — that money-mongers should sit at their ease without doing any thing, and receive tribute from the labor of all other people. Besides, we know that generally it is not the rich who are exhausted by their usury, 299 but poor men, who ought rather to be relieved. It is not, therefore, without cause that God has, in Lev 25:35, forbidden usury, adding this reason, “And if thy brother be waxen poor and fallen in decay with thee, then thou shalt relieve him; take thou no usury of him or increase.” We see that the end for which the law was framed was, that men should not cruelly oppress the poor, who ought rather to receive sympathy and compassion. 300 This was, indeed, a part of the judicial law which God appointed for the Jews in particular; but it is a common principle of justice which extends to all nations and to all ages, that we should keep ourselves from plundering and devouring the poor who are in distress and want, Whence it follows, that the gain which he who lends his money upon interest acquires, without doing injury to any one, is not to be included under the head of unlawful usury. The Hebrew word נשך , neshek, which David employs, being derived from another word, which signifies to bite, sufficiently shows that usuries are condemned in so far as they involve in them or lead to a license of robbing and plundering our fellow-men. Ezekiel, indeed, Eze 18:17, and Eze 22:12, seems to condemn the taking of any interest whatever upon money lent; but he doubtless has an eye to the unjust and crafty arts of gaining, by which the rich devoured the poor people. In short, provided we had engraven on our hearts the rule of equity, which Christ prescribes in Mat 7:12,

“Therefore, all things whatsoever ye would that men should do to you, do ye even so to them,”

it would not be necessary to enter into lengthened disputes concerning usury.

What next follows in the text properly applies to judges who, being corrupted by presents and rewards, pervert all law and justice. It may, however, be extended farther, inasmuch as it often happens, that even private individuals are corrupted by bribes to favor and defend bad causes. David, therefore, comprehends, in general, all those corruptions by which we are led away from truth and uprightness. Some think that what is here intended is the rapacity of judges in extorting money from the innocent who are accused, as the price of their deliverance, when they ought rather to have protected and assisted them gratuitously. But it appears from the passages similar to this in Ezekiel, which we have quoted, that the sense is different.

He who doeth these things This conclusion warns us again, that all who thrust themselves into the sanctuary of God are not permanent citizens of “the holy Jerusalem which is above;” 301 but that hypocrites, and all who falsely assume the title of saints, shall at length be “cast out” with Ishmael whom they resemble. That which is ascribed in Psa 46:0, to the whole Church, David here applies to every one of the faithful: He shall not be moved for ever. The reason of this which is there expressed is, because God dwells in the midst of Jerusalem. On the contrary, we know that he is far from the perfidious and the wicked, who approach him only with the mouth, and with reigned lips.

TSK: Psa 15:1 - Lord // abide // holy Lord : Psa 1:1-4, Psa 23:6, Psa 21:3-5, Psa 27:4, Psa 61:4, Psa 84:4, Psa 92:13; Joh 3:3-5, Joh 14:3, Joh 17:24; Rev 7:14-17, Rev 21:3, Rev 21:4, Rev ...

TSK: Psa 15:2 - He // worketh // speaketh He : Psa 84:11; Pro 2:7, Pro 2:8, Pro 28:18; Isa 33:15; Mic 2:7; Luk 1:6; Gal 2:14; 1Jo 2:6 worketh : Act 10:35; Rom 2:10; Eph 2:10; Heb 11:33; 1Jo 2:...

TSK: Psa 15:3 - backbiteth // doeth // taketh up backbiteth : Psa 101:5-8; Exod. 23:1-33; Lev 19:16; Jer 9:4-9; Rom 1:30; Tit 3:2; Jam 4:11; 1Pe 2:1, 1Pe 2:2 doeth : 1Sa 24:11; Isa 56:2; Mat 7:12; Ro...

backbiteth : Psa 101:5-8; Exod. 23:1-33; Lev 19:16; Jer 9:4-9; Rom 1:30; Tit 3:2; Jam 4:11; 1Pe 2:1, 1Pe 2:2

doeth : 1Sa 24:11; Isa 56:2; Mat 7:12; Rom 12:17, Rom 13:10; 3Jo 1:11

taketh up : or, receiveth or, endureth, Pro 22:10, Pro 25:3

TSK: Psa 15:4 - a vile // but // sweareth a vile : Psa 101:4; 2Ki 3:13, 2Ki 3:14; Est 3:2; Job 32:21, Job 32:22; Isa 32:5, Isa 32:6; Dan 5:17-31; Act 24:2, Act 24:3, Act 24:25; Jam 2:1-9 but :...

TSK: Psa 15:5 - putteth // nor taketh // He that doeth putteth : Exo 22:25; Lev 25:35-37; Deu 23:19, Deu 23:20; Neh 5:2-5, Neh 5:7-13; Eze 18:8, Eze 18:17; Eze 22:12 nor taketh : Exo 23:7, Exo 23:8; Deu 16...

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Poole: Psa 15:2 - Uprightly // Worketh righteousness // Speaketh the truth in his heart Uprightly or perfectly , or sincerely , without guile or hypocrisy, loving, worshipping, and serving God, and loving his neighbour, not in word and...

Uprightly or perfectly , or sincerely , without guile or hypocrisy, loving, worshipping, and serving God, and loving his neighbour, not in word and show only, but in truth and reality; and this constantly, and in the whole course of his life, as walking implies.

Worketh righteousness maketh it his work and business to do justly, i.e. to give to every one his due, first to God, and then to men; for the words are general, and not restrained to either.

Speaketh the truth in his heart his words and professions to God and men agree with and proceed from the thoughts and purposes of his heart.

Poole: Psa 15:3 - nor doeth evil // Nor taketh up He doth not take away or diminish his neighbour’ s good name, either by denying him his due praises, or by laying any thing to his charge false...

He doth not take away or diminish his neighbour’ s good name, either by denying him his due praises, or by laying any thing to his charge falsely, or without sufficient cause and evidence;

nor doeth evil i.e. any hurt or injury, to his neighbour, i.e. to any man; as is evident,

1. From the nature of this precept, which reacheth to all, it being plain and certain that, both by laws of nature and of Moses, it was not. lawful to do evil to any man, except where God the Sovereign commanded it, as he did to the Canaanites and Amalekites.

2. From the Scripture usage of this word neighbour, which frequently signifies every man, though a stranger or a heathen, as appears from Gen 29:4 Exo 20:10,17 Le 18:20 19:15 , &c.; Pro 25:8,9 Lu 10:20 , &c.; Mat 5:43,44 . And he useth this word neighbour, because he who is strictly so is most within our reach, and most liable to the injuries which one man doth to another.

Nor taketh up to wit, into his lips or mouth , which is understood here, as also Exo 20:7 Job 4:2 , and fully expressed Psa 16:4 50:16 , i.e. doth not raise it, though that may seem to be included in the first clause, that backbiteth not ; or doth not spread and propagate it; which men are too prone and ready to do, and which makes that a public which before was but a private injury and mischief. Or, nor taketh or receiveth , i.e. entertaineth it cheerfully and greedily, as men usually do such things, and easily believeth it without sufficient reason. See Exo 23:1 Lev 19:16 . Or, nor beareth or endureth , as this phrase signifies, Psa 69:7 Eze 36:15 . He doth not suffer another to defame him without some rebuke or signification of his dislike, Pro 25:23 .

Poole: Psa 15:4 - In whose eyes // a vile person // is contemned // To his own hurt // Changeth not In whose eyes i.e. in whose judgment and estimation, a vile person i.e. one, that deserves contempt, an ungodly or wicked man, as appears from the ...

In whose eyes i.e. in whose judgment and estimation,

a vile person i.e. one, that deserves contempt, an ungodly or wicked man, as appears from the next clause, where he that feareth God is opposed to him,

is contemned or despised , notwithstanding all his wealth, and glory, and greatness. He doth not admire his person, nor envy his condition, nor court him with flatteries, nor value his company and conversation, nor approve of or comply with his courses; but he thinks meanly of him; he judgeth him a most miserable man, and a great object of pity; he abhors his wicked practices, and labours to make such ways contemptible and hateful to all men as far as it lies in his power. But this contempt of wicked men must be so managed as not to cause a contempt of just authority, which if it be lodged in a wicked hand, doth challenge not only obedience, but also honour and reverence; as is manifest from the precepts and examples of Christ and of his apostles, who charge this upon the Christians every where, although the magistrates of those times were unquestionably vile and wicked men. See Act 23:5 Ro 13 1Pe 5:13 , &c. He honoureth, i.e. he highly esteemeth and heartily loveth them, and showeth great respect and kindness to them, though they be mean and obscure as to their worldly condition, and though they may differ from him in some opinions or practices of lesser moment. He that sweareth, to wit, a promissory oath, engaging himself by solemn oath to do something which may be beneficial to his neighbour.

To his own hurt i.e. to his own damage or prejudice. As if a man solemnly swear by the name of the great God, that he will sell him such an estate at a price below the full worth, or that he will give a poor man such a sum of money, which when afterwards he comes to review and consider, he finds it very inconvenient and burdensome to him, where he is tempted to break his oath.

Changeth not to wit, his purpose or course, but continues firm and resolved to perform his promise, and sacrificeth his interest and profit to his conscience, and the reverence of God and of an oath. See Eze 17:18,19 .

Poole: Psa 15:5 - He that putteth not out his money to usury // Nor taketh reward, or a bribe // He that doth these things He that putteth not out his money to usury in such manner as is contrary to God’ s law; of which see in Exo 22:25 Lev 25:36,37 . Nor taketh rew...

He that putteth not out his money to usury in such manner as is contrary to God’ s law; of which see in Exo 22:25 Lev 25:36,37 .

Nor taketh reward, or a bribe from him who hath a bad cause; that he may either condemn the innocent, or acquit the guilty; both which God abhorreth.

He that doth these things here enumerated, and such things as naturally and necessarily flow from them, or are akin to them, and joined with them, he shall constantly persevere in God’ s church here; and though he may be shaken, and stagger and fall, yet he shall never wholly and finally be removed or fall away from it, nor from that happiness which was proposed and promised to him, but shall abide with God here, and go to him when he dies, and be for ever with the Lord.

Haydock: Psa 15:1 - Cup // It is Christ's future victory and triumph over the world and death. Cup. Eternal happiness consists in seeing (Worthington) and enjoying God, (Haydock) a...

Christ's future victory and triumph over the world and death.

Cup. Eternal happiness consists in seeing (Worthington) and enjoying God, (Haydock) and is promised to the patient. Though Christ was truly king of Israel and exercised jurisdiction, (John xii., and xviii. 37., and Matthew xxi., &c.; Worthington) yet it was not of a temporal nature; (Haydock) and his chief inheritance was the Lord, who would reward his merits. He has taught all clergymen to make this happy choice; as they declare when they become such. Man may call God his inheritance, as he was made for him; and though he may have fallen, if he rise again, his title will be restored, and he may obtain felicity, whether he live in the world or retire from it. (Worthington) ---

David alludes to the custom of allotting each his portion of wine and meat, which was greater in proportion to the person's dignity. He rejects with disdain all worldly and sensual joys. (Calmet) ---

God in not "a part," but the whole portion of a good man. ---

It is, &c. St. Jerome, "Thou are the possessor of my lot." I trust in thee for all. (Haydock) (1 Peter i. 4., and 2 Timothy i. 12.) In the ancient sacrifices a part was reserved for the offerer. But Jesus keeps nothing back.

Haydock: Psa 15:1 - The inscription of a title // Mictam // Preserve The inscription of a title. That is, a pillar or monument, Greek: stelographia: which is as much as to say, that this psalm is most worthy to be e...

The inscription of a title. That is, a pillar or monument, Greek: stelographia: which is as much as to say, that this psalm is most worthy to be engraved on an everlasting monument. (Challoner) ---

Mictam. Protestants, "Michtam." Marginal note, or "golden psalm of David," or most excellent. St. Jerome, &c., have divided the word into two: "of the humble and upright David." (Haydock) ---

It may signify "inscribed." (Calmet) ---

But there seems to be no reason for abandoning the Septuagint, who were well acquainted with the original. The psalm is in the form of a prayer, which David pronounces in the person of Christ, to whom the apostles apply several verses; and, as the rest seem to be of the same nature, we must understand all of the Messias, praying, in his sacred humanity, (Berthier) that his body may remain incorrupt. It may refer to Ezechias, to the captives, or rather to David, persecuted by Saul, and provoked to serve false gods, 1 Kings xxvi. 19. But then many expressions must be explained figuratively, (Calmet) and this would tend to weaken the prediction, (Berthier) which all the Fathers have understood of Christ suffering. (Calmet) ---

The thing most worthy to be noted, ( stilographia ) by the prophet David, is our Saviour's crucifixion; (Worthington) the memory of which must be perpetuated. Job (xix. 24.) wished that what he said about the resurrection, might thus be engraven on flint. (Haydock) ---

Preserve. David acknowledges his infirmity, and that all good comes from God. (Calmet) ---

Jesus was heard praying with tears, &c., Hebrews v. 7. In his humanity, He might use these expressions, (Haydock) as He was the head of a new people, whom he wished to sanctify and instruct. (Berthier) ---

He often prayed, as the gospel informs us. (Worthington)

Haydock: Psa 15:2 - I have // Goods I have. Hebrew, "Thou, my soul, hast said." But St. Jerome agrees with us. --- Goods. Hebrew, "my good is not above thee." I can desire nothi...

I have. Hebrew, "Thou, my soul, hast said." But St. Jerome agrees with us. ---

Goods. Hebrew, "my good is not above thee." I can desire nothing greater. (Berthier) ---

Aquila and Vatable seem to have the same idea as the Septuagint. We reap all the profit from our piety. (Calmet) ---

The redemption was entirely for man's benefit, (Worthington) though it gave the greatest glory to God. (Haydock) ---

Since God, therefore, wants nothing, I will shew my kindness (Bellarmine) to the poor. (Haydock)

Haydock: Psa 15:3 - Saints Saints. Hebrew, "the magnificent" priests, God himself, (Exodus xv. 11.; Calmet) and ceremonies of religion, (Haydock) for which David had a wonderf...

Saints. Hebrew, "the magnificent" priests, God himself, (Exodus xv. 11.; Calmet) and ceremonies of religion, (Haydock) for which David had a wonderful affection. (Calmet) ---

But Christ has displayed the greatest love towards all his converts, and they had need of it. (Berthier) ---

God here speaks, shewing that Christ should make known his wonderful charity to the apostles and other saints.

Haydock: Psa 15:4 - Haste // Blood Haste. Men who are convinced of their own infirmities, hasten to find a remedy. (Worthington) --- No sooner had fallen man been redeemed, that he ...

Haste. Men who are convinced of their own infirmities, hasten to find a remedy. (Worthington) ---

No sooner had fallen man been redeemed, that he strove to advance in the ways of perfection. (Berthier) ---

The sins, to which the saints sometimes yield, tend to make them more cautious (Calmet) and grateful to their deliverer, like St. Peter. Persecutions likewise cause them to cling closer to God, and fill them with interior joy, Acts v. 41. (Haydock) ---

If we explain it of the wicked, chastisement often makes them repent, Psalm lxxvii. 34. (Calmet) ---

"Their idols have been multiplied after their followers, I will not join in their libations of blood." (St. Jerome) ---

David was continually exposed to such temptations, among the idolaters; but out of contempt, he would not even pronounce the name of the idols. (Calmet) ---

Blood, or bloody. (Du Hamel) ---

The pagan (Worthington) and Mosaic sacrifices shall cease. Christ will unite us (Berthier) by a more excellent oblation of his own body and blood. (Haydock) ---

Christians shall be distinguished by a fresh appellation, being styled children of light and of God, in opposition to the sons of men, (St. Augustine, &c.; Calmet) and pagans.

Gill: Psa 15:1 - Lord, who shall abide in thy tabernacle // who shall dwell in thy holy hill Lord, who shall abide in thy tabernacle?.... This question, with the following, is put by the psalmist in a view of the sad corruption and degeneracy ...

Lord, who shall abide in thy tabernacle?.... This question, with the following, is put by the psalmist in a view of the sad corruption and degeneracy of mankind described in the preceding psalm, which renders the sons of men unfit for the presence of God, and communion with him; and it is put to the Lord himself, the founder of Zion, who has set his King over this holy hill of his; who has enacted laws for the good of it, and brings his people thither, making them meet for it, and so is most proper to give the qualifications of such as are admitted here; for by the tabernacle is meant not the human nature of Christ, as in Heb 8:2; as some interpret it, and apply all the characters in the following verses to Christ; nor heaven itself, of which the holy place made with hands in the tabernacle and temple were a figure, Heb 9:24; for to "sojourn" d or "lodge", as in an inn, as the word rendered abide signifies, will not suit with that state and place which is fixed and immovable; but the church of God on earth, called a "tabernacle", in allusion to the tabernacle of Moses, where God granted his presence, sacrifices were offered up with acceptance, and the holy vessels were put; and which was mean without, but rich and glorious within: so God affords his gracious presence in his church, accepts the spiritual sacrifices of prayer and praise offered to him there; and here are the vessels of mercy placed, which are sanctified and meet for the master's use; and though it is mean and despicable in its outward appearance, in the eyes of men, it is all glorious within; see Son 1:6; and this is the tabernacle of God, being of his building and preserving, and the place of his residence;

who shall dwell in thy holy hill? the same is here intended as in the preceding clause; the allusion is to Mount Zion, whither the ark of the Lord was brought in David's time, and on one part of which the temple was afterwards built: and the church may be compared to this hill, for its eminence and visibility in the world; for the holiness which God has put upon it, and for the immovableness of it; for though like, a tabernacle it may be carried from place to place, yet it is like an hill that can never be removed out of the world; it is built on a sure foundation, the Rock of ages. Now the purport of these questions is, who is a proper person to be an inhabitant of Zion? or to be a member of the church of God? the answer is in the following verses.

Gill: Psa 15:2 - He that walketh uprightly // and worketh righteousness // and speaketh the truth in his heart He that walketh uprightly,.... Or "perfectly" e; see Gen 17:1; not so as to be without sin entirely, but as not to be chargeable with any notorious cr...

He that walketh uprightly,.... Or "perfectly" e; see Gen 17:1; not so as to be without sin entirely, but as not to be chargeable with any notorious crime, and living in it; moreover, perfection and uprightness often signify sincerity, and the phrase here may design an Israelite indeed, in whom is no guile; whose faith is unfeigned, whose love is without dissimulation, whose hope is without hypocrisy, and his whole conduct without fraud and deceit; likewise such an one may be said to walk uprightly who walks according to the truth of the Gospel, and by faith on Christ and in Christ, as he has received him; and such an one is fit to be a member of a Gospel church;

and worketh righteousness; not in order to his justification before God; for not such an one, but he that trusts in the Lord for righteousness, shall inherit his holy mountain, Isa 57:12; but he that works the work of faith, and believes in the righteousness of Christ; who looks to it and receives it; that lays hold on it and pleads it as his justifying righteousness; he that does righteousness in this sense, is righteous as Christ is righteous, 1Jo 3:7; and such an one is a proper person to dwell in his house; and who also by faith does works of righteousness, and whose life is a series and course of righteousness, as a fruit of his faith, and in consequence of his having laid hold on the righteousness of Christ;

and speaketh the truth in his heart; receives Christ who is the truth, and the Gospel the word of truth into his heart, and makes an hearty profession of the same before men; and both speaks according to his light in the Scriptures of truth, whenever he speaks of divine things; and in common conversation speaks truth from his heart to his neighbour, and does not speak with a double heart, or say one thing with his mouth, and intend another in his heart; see Psa 12:2; or endeavour to deceive persons, and impose a falsehood on them, or tell them lies; for as such a person is not fit to dwell in a private house, or to be in a civil society, much less is he a proper person to be in the house of God.

Gill: Psa 15:3 - He that backbiteth not with his tongue // nor doeth evil to his neighbour // nor taketh up, a reproach against his neighbour He that backbiteth not with his tongue,.... Is not a slanderer, a defamer, a tale bearer; a backbiter is one who privately, secretly, behind a man's ...

He that backbiteth not with his tongue,.... Is not a slanderer, a defamer, a tale bearer; a backbiter is one who privately, secretly, behind a man's back speaks evil of him, devours and destroys his credit and reputation: the word here used comes from רגל, which signifies the "foot", and denotes such a person who goes about from house to house, speaking things he should not, 1Ti 5:13; and a word from this root signifies spies; and the phrase here may point at such persons who creep into houses, pry into the secrets of families, and divulge them, and oftentimes represent them in a false light. Such are ranked amongst the worst of men, and are very unfit to be in the society of the saints, or in a church of Christ; see Rom 1:30, 2Co 12:20;

nor doeth evil to his neighbour: to any man whatever, good or bad, friend or foe, whether in a natural, civil, or spiritual relation, either by words or deeds, to his person, property, or good name;

nor taketh up, a reproach against his neighbour; does not raise any scandalous report on him himself, nor will he bear to hear one from another, much less will he spread one; nor will he suffer one to lie upon his neighbour, but will do all he can to vindicate him, and clear his character.

Gill: Psa 15:4 - In whose eyes a vile person is contemned // but he honoureth them that fear the Lord // he that sweareth to his own hurt, and changeth not In whose eyes a vile person is contemned,.... A "vile" man is a very wicked, profligate, and abandoned creature, one that is to every good work reprob...

In whose eyes a vile person is contemned,.... A "vile" man is a very wicked, profligate, and abandoned creature, one that is to every good work reprobate; and such sometimes are in high places, Psa 12:8; and are greatly caressed and esteemed by the men of the world; but then, as they are an abomination to God, they should be despised by his people, let them be what they will as to their riches, honours, and wisdom among men; as Haman was by Mordecai, Est 3:2; and Ahab by Elisha, 2Ki 3:14; and such who keep company with, and express a delight and pleasure in such sort of persons, ought by no means to have a place in the house of God. Some understand this of a good man being "despised in his own eyes", as it may be rendered f; on account of his vileness, and the imperfection of his obedience, and as expressive of his great humility, esteeming others better than himself; and who renounces himself, and is rejected by himself, having a very mean opinion of himself; which is the sense of the Targum, Aben Ezra, and Kimchi; and which is no bad sense, though the former is countenanced by what follows;

but he honoureth them that fear the Lord; who have the covenant grace of fear wrought in their hearts, and serve the Lord with reverence and godly fear; that is, who are truly religious and godly persons; these such who are fit members of the church of Christ love heartily, esteem of highly, and honour them by thinking and speaking well of them, and behaving with great respect and decency to them; see Rom 12:10;

he that sweareth to his own hurt, and changeth not; having taken a solemn oath, so sacred is it with him, and such a regard has he to the name of God, by whom he swears, that though it is to his civil loss and detriment, yet he will not break it and depart from it, but punctually observe it: some render it, "he that swears to his neighbour, and changeth not" g; he that is just to his word, faithful to his promises, that exactly fulfils all the obligations he lays himself under unto others; he that is honest and upright in all his dealings. The Jewish writers interpret this clause of a man's vowing and swearing to afflict himself by fasting, which, though it is to the emaciating of his body, yet he strictly observes his vow or oath; but this is foreign from the scope of the place: it might be rendered, "he that swears to do evil, and does not recompense or perform" h, it being better to break through such an oath than to keep it; see Lev 5:4.

Gill: Psa 15:5 - He that putteth not out his money to usury // nor taketh reward against the innocent // he that doeth these things shall never be moved He that putteth not out his money to usury,.... To the poor, in an extravagant and exorbitant way, by which he bites, devours, and destroys his littl...

He that putteth not out his money to usury,.... To the poor, in an extravagant and exorbitant way, by which he bites, devours, and destroys his little substance, and sadly afflicts and distresses him; see Exo 22:25; otherwise, to lend money on moderate interest, and according to the laws, customs, and usages of nations, and to take interest for it, is no more unlawful than to take interest for houses and land; yea, it is according to the law of common justice and equity, that if one man lends money to another to trade with, and gain by, that he should have a proportionate share in the gain of such a trade; but the design of this passage, and the law on which it is founded, is, to forbid all exactions and oppressions of the poor, and all avaricious practices, and to encourage liberality and beneficence; and such who are covetous, and bite and oppress the poor, are not fit for church communion; see 1Co 5:11;

nor taketh reward against the innocent; either to swear falsely against him, or to pass a wrong sentence on him; see 1Sa 12:3;

he that doeth these things shall never be moved; from the tabernacle of God, and his holy hill; he is fit to be a member of the church of God, and an inhabitant of Zion; and he shall dwell and abide there, he shall be a pillar which shall never go out, Rev 3:12; he shall finally persevere, through the grace of God; he shall hold on and out unto the end: and though he may fall through infirmity and temptation into sin, and that many times, yet he shall not finally and totally fall, 2Pe 1:10; but shall be as Mount Zion which can never be removed, Psa 125:1; The words should be rendered, since the accent "athnach" is on אלה, "these things", thus; "he that doeth these things", not only what is mentioned in this verse, but in the foregoing, "he", I say, "shall never be moved".

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki

NET Notes: Psa 15:1 In this context the Lord’s holy hill probably refers to Zion/Jerusalem. See Isa 66:20; Joel 2:1; 3:17; Zech 8:3; Pss 2:6; 43:3; 48:1; 87:1; Dan ...

NET Notes: Psa 15:2 Heb “one who speaks truth in his heart”; or “one who speaks truth [that is] in his heart.” This apparently refers to formulati...

NET Notes: Psa 15:3 Heb “and he does not lift up an insult against one who is near to him.”

NET Notes: Psa 15:4 Heb “he takes an oath to do harm and does not change.” The phrase “to do harm” cannot mean “do harm to others,” fo...

NET Notes: Psa 15:5 Heb “does these things.”

Geneva Bible: Psa 15:2 He that ( a ) walketh uprightly, and worketh righteousness, and speaketh the truth in his heart. ( a ) He shows that we cannot call on God unless we ...

Geneva Bible: Psa 15:4 ( b ) In whose eyes a vile person is contemned; but he honoureth them that fear the LORD. [He that] sweareth to [his own] hurt, and changeth not. ( b...

Geneva Bible: Psa 15:5 [He that] ( c ) putteth not out his money to usury, nor taketh reward against the innocent. He that doeth these [things] ( d ) shall never be moved. ...

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MHCC: Psa 15:1-5 - --Here is a very serious question concerning the character of a citizen of Zion. It is the happiness of glorified saints, that they dwell in the holy hi...

Matthew Henry: Psa 15:1-5 - -- Here is, I. A very serious and weighty question concerning the characters of a citizen of Zion (Psa 15:1): " Lord, who shall abide in thy tabernacle...

Keil-Delitzsch: Psa 15:1-2 - -- That which is expanded in the tristichic portion of the Psalm, is all contained in this distichic portion in nuce . The address to God is not merel...

Keil-Delitzsch: Psa 15:3-5 - -- The distich which contains the question and that containing the general answer are now followed by three tristichs, which work the answer out in det...

Constable: Psa 15:1-5 - --Psalm 15 In this psalm David reflected on the importance of a pure character for those who would worship...

Constable: Psa 15:1 - --1. David's question 15:1 In prayer the psalmist asked Yahweh who could have fellowship with Him....

Constable: Psa 15:2-5 - --2. David's answer 15:2-5 15:2a-b In this section the psalmist summarized what was necessary to have an intimate relationship with the Lord. First, he ...

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Evidence: Psa 15:1-5 This is the standard by which the Christian should live. We must walk in righteousness, speak the truth, keep our heart free from sin, keep our word, ...

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Pendahuluan / Garis Besar

JFB: Psalms (Pendahuluan Kitab) The Hebrew title of this book is Tehilim ("praises" or "hymns"), for a leading feature in its contents is praise, though the word occurs in the title ...

JFB: Psalms (Garis Besar) ALEPH. (Psa 119:1-8). This celebrated Psalm has several peculiarities. It is divided into twenty-two parts or stanzas, denoted by the twenty-two let...

TSK: Psalms (Pendahuluan Kitab) The Psalms have been the general song of the universal Church; and in their praise, all the Fathers have been unanimously eloquent. Men of all nation...

TSK: Psalms 15 (Pendahuluan Pasal) Overview Psa 15:1, David describes a citizen of Zion.

Poole: Psalms (Pendahuluan Kitab) OF PSALMS THE ARGUMENT The divine authority of this Book of PSALMS is so certain and evident, that it was never questioned in the church; which b...

Poole: Psalms 15 (Pendahuluan Pasal) THE ARGUMENT The occasion and time of composing this Psalm is uncertain; but the scope of it is plain, which is to give the character of a holy and...

MHCC: Psalms (Pendahuluan Kitab) David was the penman of most of the psalms, but some evidently were composed by other writers, and the writers of some are doubtful. But all were writ...

MHCC: Psalms 15 (Pendahuluan Pasal) The way to heaven, if we would be happy, we must be holy. We are encouraged to walk in that way.

Matthew Henry: Psalms (Pendahuluan Kitab) An Exposition, with Practical Observations, of The Book of Psalms We have now before us one of the choicest and most excellent parts of all the Old Te...

Matthew Henry: Psalms 15 (Pendahuluan Pasal) The scope of this short but excellent psalm is to show us the way to heaven, and to convince us that, if we would be happy, we must be holy and hon...

Constable: Psalms (Pendahuluan Kitab) Introduction Title The title of this book in the Hebrew Bible is Tehillim, which means...

Constable: Psalms (Garis Besar) Outline I. Book 1: chs. 1-41 II. Book 2: chs. 42-72 III. Book 3: chs. 73...

Constable: Psalms Psalms Bibliography Allen, Ronald B. "Evidence from Psalm 89." In A Case for Premillennialism: A New Consensus,...

Haydock: Psalms (Pendahuluan Kitab) THE BOOK OF PSALMS. INTRODUCTION. The Psalms are called by the Hebrew, Tehillim; that is, hymns of praise. The author, of a great part of ...

Gill: Psalms (Pendahuluan Kitab) INTRODUCTION TO PSALMS The title of this book may be rendered "the Book of Praises", or "Hymns"; the psalm which our Lord sung at the passover is c...

Gill: Psalms 15 (Pendahuluan Pasal) INTRODUCTION TO PSALM 15 A Psalm of David. As in the preceding psalm, according to Theodoret, the salvation of the inhabitants of Jerusalem is fore...

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TIP #26: Perkuat kehidupan spiritual harian Anda dengan Bacaan Alkitab Harian. [SEMUA]
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