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Teks -- Joshua 5:1-15 (NET)

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Konteks
5:1 When all the Amorite kings on the west side of the Jordan and all the Canaanite kings along the seacoast heard how the Lord had dried up the water of the Jordan before the Israelites while they crossed, they lost their courage and could not even breathe for fear of the Israelites.
A New Generation is Circumcised
5:2 At that time the Lord told Joshua, “Make flint knives and circumcise the Israelites once again.” 5:3 So Joshua made flint knives and circumcised the Israelites on the Hill of the Foreskins. 5:4 This is why Joshua had to circumcise them: All the men old enough to fight when they left Egypt died on the journey through the desert after they left Egypt. 5:5 Now all the men who left were circumcised, but all the sons born on the journey through the desert after they left Egypt were uncircumcised. 5:6 Indeed, for forty years the Israelites traveled through the desert until all the men old enough to fight when they left Egypt, the ones who had disobeyed the Lord, died off. For the Lord had sworn a solemn oath to them that he would not let them see the land he had sworn on oath to give them, a land rich in milk and honey. 5:7 He replaced them with their sons, whom Joshua circumcised. They were uncircumcised; their fathers had not circumcised them along the way. 5:8 When all the men had been circumcised, they stayed there in the camp until they had healed. 5:9 The Lord said to Joshua, “Today I have taken away the disgrace of Egypt from you.” So that place is called Gilgal even to this day. 5:10 So the Israelites camped in Gilgal and celebrated the Passover in the evening of the fourteenth day of the month on the plains of Jericho. 5:11 They ate some of the produce of the land the day after the Passover, including unleavened bread and roasted grain. 5:12 The manna stopped appearing the day they ate some of the produce of the land; the Israelites never ate manna again.
Israel Conquers Jericho
5:13 When Joshua was near Jericho, he looked up and saw a man standing in front of him holding a drawn sword. Joshua approached him and asked him, “Are you on our side or allied with our enemies?” 5:14 He answered, “Truly I am the commander of the Lord’s army. Now I have arrived!” Joshua bowed down with his face to the ground and asked, “What does my master want to say to his servant?” 5:15 The commander of the Lord’s army answered Joshua, “Remove your sandals from your feet, because the place where you stand is holy.” Joshua did so.
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Amorites members of a pre-Israel Semitic tribe from Mesopotamia
 · Canaan the region ofeast Mediterranean coastal land from Arvad (modern Lebanon) south to Gaza,the coast land from Mt. Carmel north to the Orontes River
 · Canaanites the region ofeast Mediterranean coastal land from Arvad (modern Lebanon) south to Gaza,the coast land from Mt. Carmel north to the Orontes River
 · Egypt descendants of Mizraim
 · Gibeath-haaraloth the place of Israel's first encampment west of the Jordan River
 · Gibeath-Haaraloth the place of Israel's first encampment west of the Jordan River
 · Gilgal a place where Israel encamped between Jericho and the Jordan,a town between Dor and Tirza in the territory of Ephraim (YC),a town just north of Joppa, originally a military base (YC),a place 12 miles south of Shechem now called Jiljiliah (YC)
 · Israel a citizen of Israel.,a member of the nation of Israel
 · Jericho a town five miles west of the Jordan and 15 miles northeast of Jerusalem,a town of Benjamin 11 km NW of the mouth of the Jordan River
 · Jordan the river that flows from Lake Galilee to the Dead Sea,a river that begins at Mt. Hermon, flows south through Lake Galilee and on to its end at the Dead Sea 175 km away (by air)
 · Joshua a son of Eliezer; the father of Er; an ancestor of Jesus,the son of Nun and successor of Moses,son of Nun of Ephraim; successor to Moses,a man: owner of the field where the ark stopped,governor of Jerusalem under King Josiah,son of Jehozadak; high priest in the time of Zerubbabel
 · sea the Dead Sea, at the southern end of the Jordan River,the Mediterranean Sea,the Persian Gulf south east of Babylon,the Red Sea


Topik/Tema Kamus: Gilgal | Circumcision | Joshua | Israel | Revivals | Angel | MANNA | KNIFE | Passover | Captain | Jericho | Vision | Grain | TABERNACLE | ANGELS | SACRIFICE, IN THE OLD TESTAMENT, 2 | FORESKIN | Jesus, The Christ | MILK | BEYOND | selebihnya
Daftar Isi

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Wesley , JFB , Clarke , Calvin , Defender , TSK

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Poole , Haydock , Gill

Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki
NET Notes , Geneva Bible

Catatan Rentang Ayat
Maclaren , MHCC , Matthew Henry , Keil-Delitzsch , Constable , Guzik

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per frasa)

Wesley: Jos 5:1 - Amorites These and the Canaanites are mentioned for all the rest, as being the chief of them for number, and power, and courage.

These and the Canaanites are mentioned for all the rest, as being the chief of them for number, and power, and courage.

Wesley: Jos 5:1 - Westward This is added to distinguish them from the other Amorites, eastward from Jordan, whom Moses had subdued.

This is added to distinguish them from the other Amorites, eastward from Jordan, whom Moses had subdued.

Wesley: Jos 5:1 - Canaanites So the proper place of this nation was on both sides of Jordan.

So the proper place of this nation was on both sides of Jordan.

Wesley: Jos 5:1 - The sea The midland sea, all along the coast of it, which was the chief seat of that people, though divers colonies of them were come into, and settled in oth...

The midland sea, all along the coast of it, which was the chief seat of that people, though divers colonies of them were come into, and settled in other places.

Wesley: Jos 5:1 - Jordan Which was their bulwark on the east - side, where the Israelites were; for it is very probable they had taken away all bridges near those parts; and t...

Which was their bulwark on the east - side, where the Israelites were; for it is very probable they had taken away all bridges near those parts; and the Israelites having been so long in that neighbouring country, and yet not making any attempt upon them, they were grown secure; especially now, when Jordan swelled beyond its ordinary bounds; and therefore they did not endeavour to hinder their passage.

Wesley: Jos 5:1 - Melted They lost all their courage, and durst attempt nothing upon the Israelites; not without God's special providence, that the Israelites might quietly pa...

They lost all their courage, and durst attempt nothing upon the Israelites; not without God's special providence, that the Israelites might quietly participate of the two great sacraments of their church, circumcision and the passover, and thereby be prepared for their high and hard work, and for the possession of the holy and promised land; which would have been defiled by an uncircumcised people.

Wesley: Jos 5:2 - At that time As soon as ever they were come to Gilgal, which was on the tenth day; and so this might be executed the eleventh day, and that in the morning: on the ...

As soon as ever they were come to Gilgal, which was on the tenth day; and so this might be executed the eleventh day, and that in the morning: on the thirteenth day they were sore of their wounds, and on the fourteenth day they recovered, and at the even of that day kept the passover.

Wesley: Jos 5:2 - Make Or, prepare, or make ready, as this word sometimes used. As it was not necessary for those who had such knives already to make others for that use; so...

Or, prepare, or make ready, as this word sometimes used. As it was not necessary for those who had such knives already to make others for that use; so it is not probable that such were commanded to do so, but only to make them sharp and fit for that work.

Wesley: Jos 5:2 - The second time He calleth this a second circumcision, not as if these same persons had been circumcised before, but with respect to the body of the people, where of ...

He calleth this a second circumcision, not as if these same persons had been circumcised before, but with respect to the body of the people, where of one part had been circumcised before, and the other at this time, which is called a second time, in relation to some former time wherein they were circumcised, either, in Egypt, when many of the people, who possibly for fear or favour of the Egyptians, had neglected this duty, were by the command of Moses circumcised. Or at Sinai, when they received the passover, Num 9:5, which no uncircumcised person might do.

Wesley: Jos 5:3 - And circumcised That is, he caused this to be done; and, because it was to be done speedily, the passover approaching, it was necessary to use many hands in it.

That is, he caused this to be done; and, because it was to be done speedily, the passover approaching, it was necessary to use many hands in it.

Wesley: Jos 5:3 - Children of Israel That is, such of them as were uncircumcised. And, though it be not mentioned, it is more than probable, that the Israelites beyond Jordan were circumc...

That is, such of them as were uncircumcised. And, though it be not mentioned, it is more than probable, that the Israelites beyond Jordan were circumcised at the same time.

Wesley: Jos 5:4 - Out of Egypt This is to be restrained to such as were then above twenty years old, and such as were guilty of that rebellion, Num. 14:1-25, as it is expressed belo...

This is to be restrained to such as were then above twenty years old, and such as were guilty of that rebellion, Num. 14:1-25, as it is expressed below, Jos 5:6.

Wesley: Jos 5:5 - Them Either their parents, or the rulers of Israel, by Divine permission and indulgence; because they were now on a journey, in which case the passover als...

Either their parents, or the rulers of Israel, by Divine permission and indulgence; because they were now on a journey, in which case the passover also might be neglected, Num 9:10, Num 9:13. Rather, it was a continued token of God's displeasure against them, for their unbelief and murmuring: a token that they should never have the benefit of that promise, whereof circumcision was the seal.

Wesley: Jos 5:6 - The people The Hebrew word commonly signifies the Gentiles; so he calls them, to note that they were unworthy the name of Israelites.

The Hebrew word commonly signifies the Gentiles; so he calls them, to note that they were unworthy the name of Israelites.

Wesley: Jos 5:6 - Shew them That is, not give them so much as a sight of it, which he granted to Moses, much less the possession.

That is, not give them so much as a sight of it, which he granted to Moses, much less the possession.

Wesley: Jos 5:7 - Circumcised Which God would have done, As a testimony of God's reconciliation to the people, and that he would not farther impute their parents rebellion to them....

Which God would have done, As a testimony of God's reconciliation to the people, and that he would not farther impute their parents rebellion to them. Because the great impediment of circumcision was now removed, their continued travels, and frequent and uncertain removal. To prepare them for the approaching passover. To distinguish them from the Canaanites, into whose land they were now come. To ratify the covenant between God and them, whereof circumcision was a sign and seal, to assure them that God would now make good his covenant, in giving them this land; and to oblige them to perform all the duties to which that covenant bound them, as soon as they came into Canaan, Exo 12:25; Lev 23:10; Num 15:2.

Wesley: Jos 5:8 - Whole Free from that pain and soreness which circumcision caused, it was indeed an act of great faith, to expose themselves to so much pain and danger too, ...

Free from that pain and soreness which circumcision caused, it was indeed an act of great faith, to expose themselves to so much pain and danger too, in this place where they were hemmed in by Jordan and their enemies.

Wesley: Jos 5:9 - The reproach of Egypt That is, uncircumcision, was both in truth, and in the opinion of the Jews, a matter of great reproach, and although this was a reproach common to mos...

That is, uncircumcision, was both in truth, and in the opinion of the Jews, a matter of great reproach, and although this was a reproach common to most nations of the world, yet it is particularly called the reproach of Egypt, either, because the other neighbouring nations, being the children of Abraham by the concubines, are supposed to have been circumcised, which the Egyptians at this time were not, as may be gathered from Exo 2:6, where they knew the child to be an Hebrew by this mark. Or because they came out of Egypt, and were esteemed to be a sort of Egyptians, Num 22:5, which they justly thought a great reproach; but by their circumcision they were now distinguished from them, and manifested to be another people. Or because many of them lay under this reproach in Egypt, having wickedly neglected this duty there for worldly reasons; and others of them continued in the same shameful condition for many years in the wilderness.

Wesley: Jos 5:9 - Gilgal That is, rolling.

That is, rolling.

Wesley: Jos 5:10 - The passover Which was their third passover: the first was in Egypt, Exo 12:11-24, the second at mount Sinai, Num 9:1-5, the third here; for in their wilderness tr...

Which was their third passover: the first was in Egypt, Exo 12:11-24, the second at mount Sinai, Num 9:1-5, the third here; for in their wilderness travels, these and all other sacrifices were neglected, Amo 5:25. While they were in the wilderness, they were denied the comfort of this ordinance, as a farther token of God's displeasure. But now God comforted them again, after the time that he had afflicted them.

Wesley: Jos 5:11 - Old corn The corn of the last year, which the inhabitants of those parts had left in their barns, being fled into their strong cities, or other remoter parts.

The corn of the last year, which the inhabitants of those parts had left in their barns, being fled into their strong cities, or other remoter parts.

Wesley: Jos 5:11 - The morrow That is, on the sixteenth day; for the passover was killed between the two evenings of the fourteenth day, and was eaten in that evening or night, whi...

That is, on the sixteenth day; for the passover was killed between the two evenings of the fourteenth day, and was eaten in that evening or night, which, according to the Jewish computation, whereby they begin their days at the evening, was a part of the fifteenth day, all which was the feast of the passover; and so the morrow of the sixteenth day, was the morrow after the passover, when they were obliged to offer unto God the first sheaf, and then were allowed to eat of the rest.

Wesley: Jos 5:11 - Parched corn Of that year's corn. which was most proper for that use.

Of that year's corn. which was most proper for that use.

Wesley: Jos 5:11 - Self same day - Having an eager desire to enjoy the fruits of the land. And this corn came very seasonably; for after the passover, they were to keep the f...

same day - Having an eager desire to enjoy the fruits of the land. And this corn came very seasonably; for after the passover, they were to keep the feast of unleavened bread, which they could not do, when they had nothing but manna to live upon.

Wesley: Jos 5:12 - The manna ceased Which God now withheld, to shew that Manna was not an ordinary production of nature, but an extraordinary and special gift of God to supply their nece...

Which God now withheld, to shew that Manna was not an ordinary production of nature, but an extraordinary and special gift of God to supply their necessity. And because God would not be prodigal of his favours, by working miracles where ordinary means were sufficient.

Wesley: Jos 5:12 - The morrow That is, on the seventeenth day.

That is, on the seventeenth day.

Wesley: Jos 5:13 - By Jericho Heb. In Jericho, that is, in the territory adjoining to it; whither he went to view those parts, and discern the fittest places for his attempt upon J...

Heb. In Jericho, that is, in the territory adjoining to it; whither he went to view those parts, and discern the fittest places for his attempt upon Jericho.

Wesley: Jos 5:13 - A man One in the appearance of a man.

One in the appearance of a man.

Wesley: Jos 5:13 - Drawn In readiness to fight, not, as Joshua thought, against him, but for him and his people.

In readiness to fight, not, as Joshua thought, against him, but for him and his people.

Wesley: Jos 5:14 - As captain I am the chief captain of this people, and will conduct and assist thee and them in this great undertaking. Now this person is not a created angel, bu...

I am the chief captain of this people, and will conduct and assist thee and them in this great undertaking. Now this person is not a created angel, but the son of God, who went along with the Israelites in this expedition, as their chief and captain. And this appears, By his acceptance of adoration here, which a created angel durst not admit of, Rev 22:8-9. Because the place was made holy by his presence, Jos 5:15, which was God's prerogative, Exo 3:5. Because he is called the Lord, Heb. Jehovah, Jos 6:2.

Wesley: Jos 5:14 - My Lord I acknowledge thee for my Lord and captain, and therefore wait for thy commands, which I am ready to obey.

I acknowledge thee for my Lord and captain, and therefore wait for thy commands, which I am ready to obey.

Wesley: Jos 5:15 - From thy foot In token of reverence and subjection.

In token of reverence and subjection.

Wesley: Jos 5:15 - Holy Consecrated by my presence. The very same orders which God gave to Moses at the bush, when he was sending him to bring Israel out of Egypt, he here gi...

Consecrated by my presence. The very same orders which God gave to Moses at the bush, when he was sending him to bring Israel out of Egypt, he here gives to Joshua, for the confirming his faith, that as he had been with Moses, so he would be with him.

JFB: Jos 5:1 - the kings of the Amorites, which were on the side of Jordan westward, and all the kings of the Canaanites, which were by the sea Under the former designation were included the people who inhabited the mountainous region, and under the latter those who were on the seacoast of Pal...

Under the former designation were included the people who inhabited the mountainous region, and under the latter those who were on the seacoast of Palestine.

JFB: Jos 5:1 - heard that the Lord had dried up the waters of Jordan . . . that their heart melted They had probably reckoned on the swollen river interposing for a time a sure barrier of defense. But seeing it had been completely dried up, they wer...

They had probably reckoned on the swollen river interposing for a time a sure barrier of defense. But seeing it had been completely dried up, they were completely paralyzed by so incontestable a proof that God was on the side of the invaders. In fact, the conquest had already begun in the total prostration of spirit among the native chiefs. "Their heart melted," but unhappily not into faith and penitent submission.

JFB: Jos 5:2 - At that time On the encampment being made after the passage.

On the encampment being made after the passage.

JFB: Jos 5:2 - the Lord said unto Joshua, Make thee sharp knives Stone knives, collect and make them ready. Flints have been used in the early times of all people; and although the use of iron was known to the Hebre...

Stone knives, collect and make them ready. Flints have been used in the early times of all people; and although the use of iron was known to the Hebrews in the days of Joshua, probably the want of a sufficient number of metallic implements dictated the employment of flints on this occasion (compare Exo 4:25).

JFB: Jos 5:2 - circumcise again the children of Israel the second time Literally, "return and circumcise." The command did not require him to repeat the operation on those who had undergone it, but to resume the observanc...

Literally, "return and circumcise." The command did not require him to repeat the operation on those who had undergone it, but to resume the observance of the rite, which had been long discontinued. The language, however, evidently points to a general circumcising on some previous occasion, which, though unrecorded, must have been made before the celebration of the passover at Sinai (compare Exo 12:48; Num 9:5), as a mixed multitude accompanied the camp. "The second time" of general circumcising was at the entrance into Canaan.

JFB: Jos 5:3 - at the hill Probably one of the argillaceous hills that form the highest terrace of the Jordan, on a rising ground at the palm forest.

Probably one of the argillaceous hills that form the highest terrace of the Jordan, on a rising ground at the palm forest.

JFB: Jos 5:4-7 - this is the cause why Joshua did circumcise The omission to circumcise the children born in the wilderness might have been owing to the incessant movements of the people; but it is most generall...

The omission to circumcise the children born in the wilderness might have been owing to the incessant movements of the people; but it is most generally thought that the true cause was a temporary suspension of the covenant with the unbelieving race who, being rejected of the Lord, were doomed to perish in the wilderness, and whose children had to bear the iniquity of their fathers (Num 14:33), though, as the latter were to be brought into the promised land, the covenant would be renewed with them.

JFB: Jos 5:8 - when they had done circumcising all the people As the number of those born in the wilderness and uncircumcised must have been immense, a difficulty is apt to be felt how the rite could have been pe...

As the number of those born in the wilderness and uncircumcised must have been immense, a difficulty is apt to be felt how the rite could have been performed on such a multitude in so short a time. But it has been calculated that the proportion between those already circumcised (under twenty when the doom was pronounced) and those to be circumcised, was one to four, and consequently the whole ceremony could easily have been performed in a day. Circumcision being the sign and seal of the covenant, its performance was virtually an investment in the promised land, and its being delayed till their actual entrance into the country was a wise and gracious act on the part of God, who postponed this trying duty till the hearts of the people, animated by the recent astonishing miracle, were prepared to obey the divine will.

JFB: Jos 5:8 - they abode in their places . . . till they were whole It is calculated that, of those who did not need to be circumcised, more than fifty thousand were left to defend the camp if an attack had been then m...

It is calculated that, of those who did not need to be circumcised, more than fifty thousand were left to defend the camp if an attack had been then made upon it.

JFB: Jos 5:9 - the Lord said unto Joshua, This day have I rolled away the reproach of Egypt The taunts industriously cast by that people upon Israel as nationally rejected by God by the cessation of circumcision and the renewal of that rite w...

The taunts industriously cast by that people upon Israel as nationally rejected by God by the cessation of circumcision and the renewal of that rite was a practical announcement of the restoration of the covenant [KEIL].

JFB: Jos 5:9 - Gilgal No trace either of the name or site is now to be found; but it was about two miles from Jericho [JOSEPHUS], and well suited for an encampment by the a...

No trace either of the name or site is now to be found; but it was about two miles from Jericho [JOSEPHUS], and well suited for an encampment by the advantages of shade and water. It was the first place pronounced "holy" in the Holy Land (Jos 5:15).

JFB: Jos 5:10 - kept the passover on the fourteenth day of the month at even The time fixed by the law (see on Exo 12:17; Lev 23:5; Num 28:16). Thus the national existence was commenced by a solemn act of religious dedication.

The time fixed by the law (see on Exo 12:17; Lev 23:5; Num 28:16). Thus the national existence was commenced by a solemn act of religious dedication.

JFB: Jos 5:11-12 - And they did eat of the old corn of the land Found in storehouses of the inhabitants who had fled into Jericho.

Found in storehouses of the inhabitants who had fled into Jericho.

JFB: Jos 5:11-12 - parched corn New grain (see on Lev 23:10), probably lying in the fields. Roasted--a simple and primitive preparation, much liked in the East. This abundance of foo...

New grain (see on Lev 23:10), probably lying in the fields. Roasted--a simple and primitive preparation, much liked in the East. This abundance of food led to the discontinuance of the manna; and the fact of its then ceasing, viewed in connection with its seasonable appearance in the barren wilderness, is a striking proof of its miraculous origin.

JFB: Jos 5:13 - when Joshua was by Jericho In the immediate vicinity of that city, probably engaged in surveying the fortifications, and in meditating the best plan of a siege.

In the immediate vicinity of that city, probably engaged in surveying the fortifications, and in meditating the best plan of a siege.

JFB: Jos 5:13 - there stood a man over against him with his sword drawn It is evident from the strain of the context that this was not a mere vision, but an actual appearance; the suddenness of which surprised, but did not...

It is evident from the strain of the context that this was not a mere vision, but an actual appearance; the suddenness of which surprised, but did not daunt, the intrepid leader.

JFB: Jos 5:14 - the host of the Lord Either the Israelitish people (Exo 7:4; Exo 12:41; Isa 55:4), or the angels (Psa 148:2), or both included, and the Captain of it was the angel of the ...

Either the Israelitish people (Exo 7:4; Exo 12:41; Isa 55:4), or the angels (Psa 148:2), or both included, and the Captain of it was the angel of the covenant, whose visible manifestations were varied according to the occasion. His attitude of equipment betokened his approval of, and interest in, the war of invasion.

JFB: Jos 5:14 - Joshua fell on his face . . ., and did worship The adoption by Joshua of this absolute form of prostration demonstrates the sentiments of profound reverence with which the language and majestic bea...

The adoption by Joshua of this absolute form of prostration demonstrates the sentiments of profound reverence with which the language and majestic bearing of the stranger inspired him. The real character of this personage was disclosed by His accepting the homage of worship (compare Act 10:25-26; Rev 19:10), and still further in the command, "Loose thy shoe from off thy foot" (Exo 3:5).

Clarke: Jos 5:1 - The Amorites which were on the side of Jordan westward The Amorites which were on the side of Jordan westward - It has already been remarked that the term Amorite is applied sometimes to signify all the ...

The Amorites which were on the side of Jordan westward - It has already been remarked that the term Amorite is applied sometimes to signify all the nations or tribes of Canaan. It appears from this verse that there were people thus denominated that dwelt on both sides of the Jordan. Those on the east side had already been destroyed in the war which the Israelites had with Sihon and Og; with those on the west side Joshua had not yet waged war. It is possible however that the Amorites of whom we read in this verse, were the remains of those who dwelt on the east side of the Jordan, and who had taken refuge here on the defeat of Og and Sihon.

Clarke: Jos 5:2 - Make thee sharp knives Make thee sharp knives - חרבות צרים charboth tsurim , knives of rock, stone, or flint. Before the use of iron was common, all the nations ...

Make thee sharp knives - חרבות צרים charboth tsurim , knives of rock, stone, or flint. Before the use of iron was common, all the nations of the earth had their edge-tools made of stones, flints, etc. In the lately discovered islands this is found to be a common case. Our ancestors in these countries made their arrow and spear-heads of flint: these I have often seen turned up by the plough. But we cannot suppose that at the time here referred to the Israelites were destitute of iron, and were therefore obliged to use knives made of stone or flint, their different manufactures in the wilderness prove that they must have had both iron and steel. Why then use knives made of stone? Probably it was unlawful to use metal of any kind in this religious rite; and indeed this seems likely from the circumstance of Zipporah (Exo 4:25) taking a sharp stone and circumcising her son; and we find, from the most ancient and authentic accounts, that the Egyptians considered it unlawful or profane to use any kind of metal to make incisions in the human body, when preparing it for embalming; see the note on Gen 50:2, and on Exo 4:25. That it was deemed improper to use any other kind of instrument in circumcision we have a proof in the tribe Alnajab, in Ethiopia, who follow the Mosaic institution, and perform the rite of circumcision, according to Ludolf, cultris lapidibus , with knives made of stone. - Hist. Aethiop., lib. iii., c. 1. And as God commanded the people to make him an altar of unhewn stones, on which no tool of iron had been lifted up, because this would pollute it, (see Exo 20:25, and Deu 27:5), he might require that no instrument of iron should be used in a rite by which the body and soul of the person were in the most solemn and sacred manner dedicated to him to be his house and temple, the heart itself being the altar on which continual sacrifices to God must be offered. A physical reason has been given for preferring knives of stone in this operation, "the wound suffers less through inflammation, and is sooner healed."For this a reason may be given. It is almost impossible to get an edge made so even and firm as not to leave particles of the metal in the incisions made even in the most delicate flesh; these particles would soon become oxidized by the action of the air, and extra inflammation in the part would be the consequence. The great aptitude of iron to be oxidized, i.e., to be converted to rust, is well known; but how far this reasoning, thus applied, may be supported by fact, I cannot pretend to determine: it is sufficiently evident that it was a common custom to use knives of stone in circumcision, and in all operations on those parts of the human body. I shall give a few examples. Pliny says, when they amputate certain parts they do it with a sharp stone, because nothing else could be employed without danger. Samia testa virilitatem amputabant: nec aliter citra perniciem . Ovid, Fast. lib. iv., ver. 237, relates a circumstance where the saxum acutum , or sharp stone, was used about those parts: -

Ille etiam Saxo corpus laniavit Acuto

Longaque in immundo pulvere tracta coma est

Voxque fuit, Merui; meritas dem sanguine poenas

Ah! pereant partes quae nocuere mihi

Ah! pereant; dicebat adhuc, onus inguinis aufert

Nullaque sunt subito signa relicta viri

This quotation is produced in order to prove that a knife made of a sharp stone was used in making incisions and amputations of certain parts of the body, even when the use of iron was well known; but a translation of the verse is not necessary, and would be improper. Th

Mollia qui Rapta secuit Genitalia Testa

of Juvenal (Sat. vi., ver. 513) is a farther proof of this. Many other proofs might be produced but those who wish for more may consult Calmet and Scheuchzer

Clarke: Jos 5:2 - Circumcise again the children of Israel the second time Circumcise again the children of Israel the second time - This certainly does not mean that they should repeat circumcision on those who had already...

Circumcise again the children of Israel the second time - This certainly does not mean that they should repeat circumcision on those who had already received it. This would have been as absurd as impracticable. But the command implies that they were to renew the observance of a rite which had been neglected in their travels in the desert: this is sufficiently evident from the following verses.

Clarke: Jos 5:4 - This is the cause why Joshua did circumcise This is the cause why Joshua did circumcise - The text here explains itself. Before the Israelites left Egypt all the males were circumcised; and so...

This is the cause why Joshua did circumcise - The text here explains itself. Before the Israelites left Egypt all the males were circumcised; and some learned men think that all those who were born during their encampment at Sinai were circumcised also, because there they celebrated the passover; but after that time, during the whole of their stay in the wilderness, there were none circumcised till they entered into the promised land. Owing to their unsettled state, God appears to have dispensed, for the time being, with this rite; but as they were about to celebrate another passover, it was necessary that all the males should be circumcised; for without this they could not be considered within the covenant, and could not keep the passover, which was the seal of that covenant. As baptism is generally understood to have succeeded to circumcision, and the holy eucharist to the passover, hence, in the Church of England, and probably in most others, no person is permitted to receive the sacrament of the Lord’ s Supper till he has been baptized.

Clarke: Jos 5:8 - They abode - in the camp, till they were whole They abode - in the camp, till they were whole - This required several days; see the notes on Gen 34:24, Gen 34:25. Sir J. Chardin informs us that w...

They abode - in the camp, till they were whole - This required several days; see the notes on Gen 34:24, Gen 34:25. Sir J. Chardin informs us that when adults were circumcised they were obliged to keep their beds for about three weeks, or at least during that time they are not able to walk about but with great difficulty. The account he had from several renegadoes, who had received circumcision among the Mohammedans. Is it not strange that during this time they were not attacked by the inhabitants of the land, and utterly destroyed, which might have been easily effected? See the case of the poor Shechemites, as related in Gen 34:24-31, with the notes there. Joshua, as an able general, would at once perceive that this very measure must expose his whole host to the danger of being totally annihilated; but he knew that God could not err, and that it was his duty to obey; therefore in the very teeth of his enemies he reduced the major part of his army to a state of total helplessness, simply trusting for protection in the arm of Jehovah! The sequel shows that his confidence was not misplaced; during the whole time God did not permit any of their enemies to disturb them. The path of duty is the path of safety; and it is impossible for any soul to be injured while walking in the path of obedience. But why did not God order them to be circumcised while they were on the east side of Jordan in a state of great security? Because he chose to bring them into straits and difficulties where no counsel or might but his own could infallibly direct and save them; and this he did that they might see that the excellence of the power was of God, and not of man. For the same reason he caused them to pass the Jordan at the time that it overflowed its banks, and not at the time when it was low and easily fordable, that he might have the better opportunity to show them that they were under his immediate care and protection; and convince them of his almighty power, that they might trust in him for ever, and not fear the force of any adversaries. In both cases how apparent are the wisdom, power, and goodness of God!

Clarke: Jos 5:9 - The reproach of Egypt The reproach of Egypt - Their being uncircumcised made them like the uncircumcised Egyptians; and the Hebrews ever considered all those who were unc...

The reproach of Egypt - Their being uncircumcised made them like the uncircumcised Egyptians; and the Hebrews ever considered all those who were uncircumcised as being in a state of the grossest impurity. Being now circumcised, the reproach of uncircumcision was rolled away. This is another proof that the Israelites did not receive circumcision from the Egyptians; for they could not have considered those in a state of abomination, from whom they received that rite by which they conceived themselves to be made pure. The Israelites had this rite from Abraham; and Abraham had it from the express order of God himself. See Gen 17:10 (note), and the note there

Clarke: Jos 5:9 - The place is called Gilgal The place is called Gilgal - A rolling away or rolling off. See the note on Jos 4:19, where the word is largely explained.

The place is called Gilgal - A rolling away or rolling off. See the note on Jos 4:19, where the word is largely explained.

Clarke: Jos 5:10 - Kept the passover on the fourteenth day of the month Kept the passover on the fourteenth day of the month - If the ceremony of circumcision was performed on the eleventh day of the month, as many think...

Kept the passover on the fourteenth day of the month - If the ceremony of circumcision was performed on the eleventh day of the month, as many think; and if the sore was at the worst on the thirteenth, and the passover was celebrated on the fourteenth, the people being then quite recovered; it must have been rather a miraculous than a natural healing. We have already seen from the account of Sir J. Chardin, that it required about three weeks to restore to soundness adults who had submitted to circumcision: if any thing like this took place in the case of the Israelites at Gilgal, they could not have celebrated the passover on the third or fourth day after their circumcision. The apparent impossibility of this led Mr. Harmer to suppose that they kept the passover on the fourteenth day of the second month, the preceding time having been employed in the business of the circumcision. See his Observations, vol. iv., p. 427, etc.

Clarke: Jos 5:11 - They did eat of the old corn of the land They did eat of the old corn of the land - The Hebrew word עבור abur , which we translate old corn, occurs only in this place in such a sense, ...

They did eat of the old corn of the land - The Hebrew word עבור abur , which we translate old corn, occurs only in this place in such a sense, if that sense be legitimate. The noun, though of doubtful signification, is evidently derived from עבר abar , to pass over, to go beyond; and here it may be translated simply the produce, that which passes from the land into the hands of the cultivator; or according to Cocceius, what passes from person to person in the way of traffic; hence bought corn, what they purchased from the inhabitants of the land

Clarke: Jos 5:11 - On the morrow after the passover On the morrow after the passover - That is, on the fifteenth day; for then the feast of unleavened bread began. But they could neither eat bread, no...

On the morrow after the passover - That is, on the fifteenth day; for then the feast of unleavened bread began. But they could neither eat bread, nor parched corn, nor green ears, till the first-fruits of the harvest had been waved at the tabernacle; (see Lev 23:9, etc.); and therefore in this case we may suppose that the Israelites had offered a sheaf of the barley-harvest, the only grain that was then ripe, before they ate of the unleavened cakes and parched corn.

Clarke: Jos 5:12 - And the manna ceased - after they had eaten of the old corn And the manna ceased - after they had eaten of the old corn - This miraculous supply continued with them as long as they needed it. While they were ...

And the manna ceased - after they had eaten of the old corn - This miraculous supply continued with them as long as they needed it. While they were in the wilderness they required such a provision; nor could such a multitude, in such a place, be supported without a miracle. Now they are got into the promised land, the anathematized inhabitants of which either fall or flee before them, they find an old stock, and they are brought in just at the commencement of the harvest; hence, as there is an ample provision made in the ordinary way of Providence, there is no longer any need of a miraculous supply; therefore the manna ceased which they had enjoyed for forty years. The circumstances in which it was first given, its continuance with them through all their peregrinations in the wilderness, its accompanying them over Jordan, and ceasing as soon as they got a supply in the ordinary way of Providence, all prove that it was a preternatural gift. "On the fourteenth of Nisan they sacrificed the paschal lamb: on the fifteenth, i.e., according to our calculation, the same day after sunset, they disposed themselves for eating it, and actually did eat it. On the morrow, the sixteenth, after having offered to God the homer, they began eating the corn of the country; and the seventeenth, the manna ceased to fall from heaven. What supports this calculation is, that the homer or sheaf was offered the sixteenth of Nisan, in broad daylight, though pretty late. Now the manna did not fall till night, or very early in the morning; so that it cannot be said to have ceased falling the same day that the Israelites began to eat of the produce of the country."- Dodd.

Clarke: Jos 5:13 - When Joshua was by Jericho When Joshua was by Jericho - The sixth chapter should have commenced here, as this is an entirely new relation; or these two chapters should have ma...

When Joshua was by Jericho - The sixth chapter should have commenced here, as this is an entirely new relation; or these two chapters should have made but one, as the present division has most unnaturally divided the communication which Joshua had from the angel of the Lord, and which is continued to Jos 6:5. It is very likely that Joshua had gone out privately to reconnoitre the city of Jericho when he had this vision; and while contemplating the strength of the place, and probably reflecting on the extreme difficulty of reducing it, God, to encourage him, granted him this vision, and instructed him in the means by which the city should be taken

Clarke: Jos 5:13 - There stood a man over against him There stood a man over against him - It has been a very general opinion, both among the ancients and moderns, that the person mentioned here was no ...

There stood a man over against him - It has been a very general opinion, both among the ancients and moderns, that the person mentioned here was no other than the Lord Jesus in that form which, in the fullness of time, he was actually to assume for the redemption of man. That the appearance was supernatural is agreed on all hands; and as the name Jehovah is given him, (Jos 6:2), and he received from Joshua Divine adoration, we may presume that no created angel is intended

Clarke: Jos 5:13 - And Joshua went unto him And Joshua went unto him - This is a very natural relation, and carries with it all the appearances and characteristics of a simple relation of fact...

And Joshua went unto him - This is a very natural relation, and carries with it all the appearances and characteristics of a simple relation of fact. The whole history of Joshua shows him to have been a man of the most undaunted mind and intrepid courage - a genuine Hero. An ordinary person, seeing this man armed, with a drawn sword in his hand, would have endeavored to have regained the camp, and sought safety in flight; but Joshua, undismayed though probably slightly armed, walks up to this terrible person and immediately questions him, Art thou for us or for our adversaries? probably at first supposing that he might be the Canaanitish general coming to reconnoitre the Israelitish camp, as himself was come out to examine the city of Jericho.

Clarke: Jos 5:14 - But as captain of the host of the Lord am I now come But as captain of the host of the Lord am I now come - By this saying Joshua was both encouraged and instructed. As if he had said, "Fear not; Jehov...

But as captain of the host of the Lord am I now come - By this saying Joshua was both encouraged and instructed. As if he had said, "Fear not; Jehovah hath sent from heaven to save thee and thy people from the reproach of them that would swallow thee up. Israel is the Lord’ s host; and the Lord of hosts is Israel’ s Captain. Thou thyself shalt only be captain under me, and I am now about to instruct thee relative to thy conduct in this war.

Clarke: Jos 5:14 - And Joshua - did worship And Joshua - did worship - Nor was he reprehended for offering Divine worship to this person, which he would not have received had he been a created...

And Joshua - did worship - Nor was he reprehended for offering Divine worship to this person, which he would not have received had he been a created angel. See Rev 22:8, Rev 22:9.

Clarke: Jos 5:15 - Loose thy shoe from off thy foot, etc. Loose thy shoe from off thy foot, etc. - These were the same words which the angel, on Mount Sinai, spoke to Moses; (see Exo 3:5-8); and from this i...

Loose thy shoe from off thy foot, etc. - These were the same words which the angel, on Mount Sinai, spoke to Moses; (see Exo 3:5-8); and from this it seems likely that it was the same person that appeared in both places: in the first, to encourage Moses to deliver the oppressed Israelites, and bring them to the promised land; in the second, to encourage Joshua in his arduous labor in expelling the ancient inhabitants, and establishing the people in the inheritance promised to their fathers. There is scarcely a more unfortunate division of chapters in the whole Bible than that here. Through this very circumstance many persons have been puzzled to know what was intended by this extraordinary appearance, because they supposed that the whole business ends with the chapter, whereas, it is continued in the succeeding one, the first verse of which is a mere parenthesis, simply relating the state of Jericho at the time that Joshua was favored by this encouraging vision. We may draw two useful reflections from the subjects of this chapter: -

1.    As the manna had now failed, the people always greatly addicted to incredulity, might have been led to imagine that God had now given them up, and would be no longer in their armies, had he not given them this strong assurance, that the Angel of his presence should be with them as the guide and protector of the whole camp; for Joshua undoubtedly informed them of the encouragement he had received from the captain of the Lord’ s host

2.    By this vision he showed them that their help came from himself, and that it was not by human might or power, but by the Lord of hosts, they were to have the victory over all their adversaries; and he gave them the most convincing proof of this in the miraculous destruction of Jericho. By this means he continued to keep them dependent on his arm alone, without which dependence the spirit of religion could not have been preserved among them.

Calvin: Jos 5:1 - And it came to pass when, 1.And it came to pass when, etc The recognition of the fearful power of God had such an effect upon them that they were astonished and fainted with t...

1.And it came to pass when, etc The recognition of the fearful power of God had such an effect upon them that they were astonished and fainted with terror, but it did not incline their minds to seek a remedy for the evil. Their heart was melted inasmuch as destitute of counsel and strength they did not bestir themselves, but in regard to contumacy they remained as hard-hearted as before. We have already seen elsewhere how unbelievers, when smitten with fear, cease not to wrestle with God, and even when they fall, continue fiercely to assail heaven. Hence the dread which ought to have urged them to caution had no other effect than to hurry them on headlong. They were, however, terrified from above for the sake of the people, that victory might be more easily obtained, and the Israelites might be emboldened when they saw they had to do with an enemy already broken and stricken with dismay. Thus God spared their weakness, as if he had opened up the way by removing obstacles, because they had already proved themselves to be otherwise more sluggish and cowardly than was meet. The substance then is, that before the conflict commenced, the enemy were already routed by the terror which the fame of the miracle had inspired.

Calvin: Jos 5:2 - At that time the Lord said, 2.At that time the Lord said, etc It seems very strange and almost monstrous, that circumcision had so long been laid aside, especially as it became ...

2.At that time the Lord said, etc It seems very strange and almost monstrous, that circumcision had so long been laid aside, especially as it became those who were receiving daily admonitions to be more than usually careful to cultivate the exercises of piety. It was the symbol of the adoption to which they owed their freedom. And it is certain that when they were reduced to extremity and groaning under tyranny, they always circumcised their children. We know also how sternly God threatened to be an avenger against any one who should allow the eighth day to pass. Had the observance been neglected in Egypt their carelessness might have admitted of excuse, as at that time the covenant of God appeared to have become in a manner obsolete. But now when the divine faithfulness in establishing the covenant is once more refulgent, what excuse could there be for not testifying on their part that they are the people of God

The apology which commentators offer is altogether frivolous. I admit that they were constantly under arms, and always uncertain when they would require to move. But I hold it erroneous to infer from this that they had not a day’s leisure, and that it would have been cruel to circumcise tender infants when the camp must shortly after have been moved. Nothing ought to have weighed so much with them as to produce a contemptuous disregard of what had been said to Abraham, (Gen 17:14) The soul that is not circumcised shall be cut off from the people. But if there was risk of life in the circumcision, the best and only method was to trust to the paternal providence of God, who certainly would not have allowed his own precept to become fatal to infants. In short, the omission from a fear of danger, could not originate in any other cause than distrust. But even had it been certain that infants would be brought into danger, God ought nevertheless to have been obeyed, inasmuch as the seal of the covenant by which they were received into the Church was more precious than a hundred lives. Nor would Moses have suffered such cowardly procedure had he not been influenced by some different motive. Moreover, though the point is doubtful, I presume that they did not desist from circumcising their children, the very first day after their departure, but only after they had been obliged to retrace their steps through their own perverseness. And in this way both the defection and the punishment are accurately expressed, For it is not said that circumcision was resumed, because the constant change of place during their wanderings made it previously impossible, but because forty years behooved to elapse until those wicked apostates who had cut themselves off from the promised inheritance were consumed.

Attention should be paid to the reason here given, namely, that the children of Israel wandered through the desert till the whole of the generation which had refused to follow God was extinct; from this we may, in my opinion, infer, that the use of circumcision ceased during the whole of that period as a sign of malediction or rejection. It is true, indeed, that the penalty was inflicted on the innocent, but it was expedient that the fathers should be chastised in their person, as if God were repudiating them for the time to come. When they saw that their offspring differed in no respect from profane persons and strangers, they had a plain demonstration of what they themselves deserved.

Here, however, an inconsistency seems to arise in respect, first, that while they were condemned, their offspring were immediately received into favor; and secondly, that to themselves also was left a hope of pardon; and more especially, that they were not deprived of the other sacraments of which they could not be partakers, except on the ground of their being separated from profane nations.

The Lord, I admit, in rejecting them, declares at the same time that he will be propitious to their children, but to behold in their offspring a sign of repudiation till they themselves all perished, was salutary chastisement. For God withdrew the pledge of his favor only for a time, and kept it, as it were, locked up until their death. This punishment, therefore, was not properly inflicted on the children who were afterwards born, but had the same effect as a suspension, just as if God were making it manifest that he had put off circumcision for a time lest it should be profaned, but was waiting for an opportunity of renewing it.

Should any one object that it was absurd to celebrate the Passover in uncircumcision, I admit that it was so according to the usual order. For none were admitted to the Passover and the sacrifices save those who were initiated into the worship of God; just as in the present day the ordinance of the Supper is common only to those who have been admitted into the Church by baptism. But the Lord might choose for a time to alter the ordinary rule, and allow those from whom he had taken away circumcision to be partakers of other sacred rites. Thus the people were excommunicated in one matter, and yet, in the meanwhile, furnished with fit aids to prevent them from falling into despair; just as if a father, offended with his son, were to raise his fist, apparently to drive him away, and were at the same time to detain him by his other hand, — were to frighten him by threats and blows, and yet be unwilling to part with him. This seems to me to have been the reason why God, while depriving the people of the special pledge of adoption, was, however, unwilling to deprive them of other ordinances.

Should it be objected that there is a distinct assertion that none were circumcised on the way after they had set out, I answer, that, with a view to brevity, all things are not stated exactly, and yet that it may be gathered from the context that none remained uncircumcised but those who were born after the sedition. For it is said that their sons, whom God substituted for them, were circumcised by Joshua. From this it appears that a new people were then created to supply the place of perverse rebels. It was, moreover, a sad and severe trial that God did not choose to have the people circumcised till they were hemmed in by enemies on every side. It would, certainly, have been safer and more convenient to perform the rite before crossing the Jordan, in the land of Bashan, which had been reduced to peace by the overthrow of the inhabitants. The Lord waits till they are shut up in the midst of enemies, and exposed to their lust and violence, as if he were purposely exposing them to death; since all weakened by their wound must have given way at once, and been slaughtered almost without resistance. For if in similar circumstances (Gen 34:0) two sons of Jacob, were able to force their way into the town of Sichem and plunder it, after slaying its citizens, how much more easy would it have been for the neighboring nations to attack the Israelites while thus wounded, and make a general massacre of them.

This was, therefore, as I have said, a very harsh trial, and hence the readiness with which it was submitted to is deserving of the greater praise. The place itself, however, appears to have been purposely selected by the divine wisdom, that they might be more disposed to obey. Had the same command been given on the other side of the Jordan, there was reason to fear that they might be cast into despondency, and from the delay thus interposed might again decline to enter the land. But now, when they had been brought into possession under happy auspices, as if by the hand of God, and conceived from the removal of this one obstacle a sure hope of warring with success, it is not wonderful if they obey more willingly than they might have done if they had not been so singularly strengthened. The very sight of the promised land must have furnished additional incentives, when they understood that they were again consecrated to God, in order that their uncircumcision might not pollute the holy land.

Calvin: Jos 5:9 - And the Lord said unto Joshua, 9.And the Lord said unto Joshua, etc The disgrace of Egypt is expounded by some as meaning that the want of circumcision rendered them similar to the...

9.And the Lord said unto Joshua, etc The disgrace of Egypt is expounded by some as meaning that the want of circumcision rendered them similar to the Egyptians, in other words, profane and marked with a stigma; as if it had been said that they were again made the peculiar property of God when they were anew stamped with this mark, to distinguish them from the nations that were unclean. Others understand it actively, as meaning that they would no longer be scorned by the Egyptians, as if God had deceived them. This I have no hesitation in rejecting as too far fetched. Others understand that they would no longer lie under the false imputation of worshipping the gods of that nation. I rather understand the meaning to be, that they were freed from an invidious charge, by which they were otherwise overborne. It was disreputable to have shaken off the yoke and revolted from the king under whose government they lived. Moreover, as they gave out that God was the avenger of unjust tyranny, it was easy to upbraid them with using the name of God as a mere color for their conduct. They might, therefore, have been regarded as deserters, had not the disgrace been wiped off by the appeal to circumcision, by which the divine election was sealed in their flesh before they went down into Egypt. It was accordingly made plain by the renewal of the ancient covenant that they were not rebels against legitimate authority, nor had rashly gone off at their own hand, but that their liberty was restored by God, who had long ago taken them under his special protection.

From the removal of disgrace the place obtained its name. For those who think that the prepuce cut off was called Gilgal, because it was a kind of circle, abandon the literal meaning, and have recourse to a very unnecessary fiction; while it is perfectly obvious that the place was called Rolling Off, because God there rolled off from his people the disgrace which unjustly attached to them. The interpretation of liberty, adopted by Josephus, is vain and ridiculous, and makes it apparent that he was as ignorant of the Hebrew tongue as of jurisprudence.

Calvin: Jos 5:10 - And the children of Israel. kept the Passover, 10.And the children of Israel. kept the Passover, etc Here it is stated that the Passover was celebrated on the regular day, although there are some ...

10.And the children of Israel. kept the Passover, etc Here it is stated that the Passover was celebrated on the regular day, although there are some who think that the words used imply that the practice was unusual. They hence infer that, like circumcision, it had been interrupted for a period of forty years, as it would have been absurd for persons uncircumcised to take part in a sacred feast. To confirm this view, they observe that we do not read of the Passover having been observed after the beginning of the second year. But it is not probable that that which God had lately ordered to be perpetual, (Exo 12:42) was suddenly cast aside. For it had been said to them, It is a night to be observed by the children of Israel in all their generations. How inconsistent, then, would it have been had this practice, which was to be observed throughout all ages, become obsolete in the course of two years! And again, how heartless it would have been to bury the memory of a recent favor within so short a period!

But it is said that the want of circumcision must have kept back a large proportion, that the mystery might not be profaned; for at its institution it had been declared, No uncircumcised person shall eat of it. To this I have already answered, that it was an extraordinary privilege; as the children of Israel were freed from the law. 54 For it is certain that they continued to use sacrifices, and to observe the other parts of legal worship, although this was unlawful, unless something of the form prescribed by the law had been remitted by divine authority. It is certain that unclean persons were prohibited from entering the court of the tabernacle, and yet the children of Israel, while uncircumcised, offered sacrifices there, thus doing what was equivalent to the slaying of the Passover. They were therefore permitted, by sufferance, to do that which it was not lawful to do according to the rule of the law.

The mention made by Moses of the second celebration of the Passover (Num 9:0) is for a different purpose, namely, for the purpose of indirectly censuring the carelessness and sluggishness of the people, who would not have observed the sacred anniversary at the end of the first year if they had not been reminded of it. For although God had proclaimed that they should through all ages annually renew the memory of their deliverance, yet they had grown so oblivious before the end of the year, that they had become remiss in the discharge of the duty. It is not without cause they are urged by a new intimation, as they were not sufficiently attentive of their own accord. That passage, therefore, does not prove that the use of the Passover was afterwards interrupted; on the contrary, it may, with some probability, be inferred from it that it was annually observed; as the Lord, towards the end of the year, anticipates the observance, telling them to make careful provision for it in future, and never deviate from the command which had been given them. 55

Calvin: Jos 5:11 - And they did eat of the old corn, 11.And they did eat of the old corn, etc Whether they then began first to eat wheaten bread is not very clear. For they had dwelt in a country that w...

11.And they did eat of the old corn, etc Whether they then began first to eat wheaten bread is not very clear. For they had dwelt in a country that was not uncultivated, and was tolerably fertile. At least in the territories of the two kings there was enough of corn to supply the inhabitants. It does not seem reasonable to suppose that the children of Israel allowed the corn which they found there to rot and perish by mere waste. And I have no doubt that they ate the flesh which remained over of the sacrifices. It is quite possible, therefore, that they did not wholly abstain from wheaten bread, and yet did not abandon their accustomed food. For a country which was assigned to a tenth part could not have furnished food sufficient for the whole multitude, as there cannot be a doubt that a just estimate was made when Moses settled in it only two tribes and a half tribe. As yet, therefore, the twelve tribes had not found sufficient food, more especially as the country had been devastated by war, and the Israelites, who were not in safety to leave the camp, could not devote their attention to agriculture. The manna was thus necessary to feed them until a more abundant supply was obtained. This took place in the land of Canaan, and then, accordingly, they returned to common food. But why they deferred it till that day is not known, unless it be that after their wound was cured, some days behooved to be spent in collecting corn, while religion did not permit them to bake bread lest they should break the Sabbath. But although that rest was sacred, we gather from the circumstances that they made haste, as the flour must have been previously prepared, seeing they could not grind it and bake it in a single day.

Be this as it may, the Lord furnished them with provision as long as their want required to be supplied. The failure of the manna on a sudden, and at the very moment, must have furnished an additional attestation to the kindness of God, inasmuch as it was thence apparent that the manna was a temporary resource, which had descended not so much from the clouds as from a paternal providence. It is moreover plain, that this is to be understood of the produce of the former year, and it is needless to raise any question in regard to it; for it would have implied too much precipitation to rush upon the produce of the present year when not yet properly matured, and a whole month would scarcely have sufficed to collect enough for the supply of so great a multitude. I cannot see why expounders should give themselves so much trouble with so clear a matter.

Calvin: Jos 5:13 - And it came to pass when Joshua, etc 13.And it came to pass when Joshua, etc Here we have the narrative of a remarkable vision, by which Joshua was greatly encouraged and emboldened. For...

13.And it came to pass when Joshua, etc Here we have the narrative of a remarkable vision, by which Joshua was greatly encouraged and emboldened. For though he was strenuously discharging his office, the application of an additional stimulus was not without its use. The angel, however, did not appear solely on his private account, but for the confirmation of the whole people: nay, the Lord looked further forward, that he might furnish posterity with stronger proofs of a kindness which was never duly considered. For although they boasted in lofty terms of having been planted by the hand of God in a holy land, they were scarcely induced by all the miracles to acknowledge in good earnest that they were placed there as God’s vassals. This vision, therefore, must have been beneficial to all ages, by leaving no doubt as to the divine kindness bestowed. Its being said that he lifted his eyes, tends to confirm the certainty of the vision, lest any one might suppose that his eyesight had merely been dazzled by some evanescent phantom.

The spectacle, when first presented, must have inspired fear; for it is probable that Joshua was then alone, whether he had withdrawn from public view to engage in prayer, or for the purpose of reconnoitering the city. I am rather inclined to think it was the latter, and that he had gone aside to examine where the city ought to be attacked, lest the difficulty might deter others. It appears certain that he was without attendants, as he alone perceives the vision; and there can be no doubt that he was prepared to fight had he fallen in with an enemy. But he puts his question as if addressing a man, because it is only from the answer he learns that it is an angel. This doubt gives more credibility to the vision, while he is gradually led from the view of the man whom he addresses to the recognition of an angel. The words, at the same time, imply that it was not an ordinary angel, but one of special excellence. For he calls himself captain of the Lord’s host, a term which may be understood to comprehend not merely his chosen people, but angels also.

The former view, however, is the more correct, as God does not produce anything of an unwonted nature, but constitutes that which we previously read that he performed to Moses. And we know that Moses himself preferred this favor to all others; and justly, for God there manifested his own glory in an open and familiar manner. Accordingly, he is indiscriminately called an angel, and distinguished by the title of the eternal God. Of this fact Paul is a competent witness, who distinctly declares that it was Christ. (1Co 10:4.) And Moses himself embraced God as present in the person of the Mediator. For when God declares, after the making of the calf, (Exo 33:2 56) that he would no longer be the Leader of the people, he at the same time promises that he will give one of his angels, but only one, as it were taken out of the general body of the angelic host. 57 This Moses earnestly deprecates, obviously because he could have no hope that God would be propitious if the Mediator were removed. It was thus a special pledge of the divine favor that the Captain and Head of the Church, to whom Moses had been accustomed, was now present to assist. And indeed the divine adoption could not be ratified in any other way than in the hand of the Mediator.

Calvin: Jos 5:14 - And he said, Nay; but as captain, 14.And he said, Nay; but as captain, etc Although the denial applies equally to both parts of the question, namely, that he was neither an Israelite ...

14.And he said, Nay; but as captain, etc Although the denial applies equally to both parts of the question, namely, that he was neither an Israelite nor a Canaanite, and was thus equivalent to a denial of his being a mortal man, yet it seems to be more properly applicable to the second, or to that part of the question in which Joshua asked if he were one of the enemy. This, however, is a matter of little moment; the essential thing is to understand that he had come to preside over the chosen people whom he honorably styles the Lord’s host. In his representing himself as different from God, a personal distinction is denoted, but unity of essence is not destroyed.

We have said that in the books of Moses the name of Jehovah 58 is often attributed to the presiding Angel, who was undoubtedly the only-begotten Son of God. He is indeed very God, and yet in the person of Mediator by dispensation, he is inferior to God. I willingly receive what ancient writers teach on this subject, — that when Christ anciently appeared in human form, it was a prelude to the mystery which was afterwards exhibited when God was manifested in the flesh. We must beware, however, of imagining that Christ at that time became incarnate, since, first, we nowhere read that God sent his Son in the flesh before the fullness of the times; and, secondly, Christ, in so far as he was a man, behooved to be the Son of David. But as is said in Ezekiel, (Eze 1:0) it was only a likeness of man. Whether it was a substantial body or an outward form, it is needless to discuss, as it seems wrong to insist on any particular view of the subject. 59

The only remaining question is, how the Captain of the Lord’s host can speak of having now come, seeing he had not deserted the people committed to his trust, and had lately given a matchless display of his presence in the passage of the Jordan. But according to the common usage of Scripture, God is said to come to us when we are actually made sensible of his assistance, which seems remote when not manifested by experience. It is therefore just as if he were offering his assistance in the combats which were about to be waged, and promising by his arrival that the war would have a happy issue. It cannot be inferred with certainty from the worship which he offered, whether Joshua paid divine honor to Christ distinctly recognized as such; but by asking, What command does my Lord give to his servant? he attributes to him a power and authority which belong to God alone.

Calvin: Jos 5:15 - Loose thy shoe from off thy foot, 15.Loose thy shoe from off thy foot, etc To give additional sanctity to the vision, the great Angel requires as a sign of reverence and fear that Jos...

15.Loose thy shoe from off thy foot, etc To give additional sanctity to the vision, the great Angel requires as a sign of reverence and fear that Joshua put off his shoes. Moses relates, (Exo 3:5) that the same command was given to him on Mount Sinai, and for no other reason than that the Lord there manifested his glory. For one place cannot have a greater sanctity than another, except God deigns specially to make it so. Thus Jacob exclaims, (Gen 28:17 60) that the place where he had known God more nearly is the house of God, a dreadful place, and the gate of heaven. Here, therefore, when God orders his holy servant to take off his shoes, he by this ceremony attests the reality of his presence, and adds more weight to the vision; not that nakedness of feet is of itself of any value in the worship of God, but because the weakness of men requires to be aided by helps of this kind, that they may the better excite and prepare themselves for veneration. Moreover, as God by his presence sanctifies the places in which he appears, I think it probable that the expression, holy ground, is in part commendatory of the excellence of the land of Canaan, which God had chosen for his own habitation and the seat of his pure worship. Hence in various passages it is called “his rest.” (Psa 95:11, and Psa 132:14 61) In the end of the verse Joshua is praised for his obedience, that posterity might learn by his example to cultivate pure piety in that land. There seems thus to be a kind of tacit comparison or antithesis, by which the land of Canaan is extolled above all other countries. 62

Defender: Jos 5:12 - the manna ceased The "bread from heaven" (Joh 6:31, Joh 6:32) ceased as suddenly and miraculously as it had begun (Exo 16:4, Exo 16:15). God does not dispense miracles...

The "bread from heaven" (Joh 6:31, Joh 6:32) ceased as suddenly and miraculously as it had begun (Exo 16:4, Exo 16:15). God does not dispense miracles capriciously, but with a redemptive purpose. The manna was essential for the survival of His people during their sojourn in the wilderness, but not afterwards. God's laws by which natural processes are ordered are good laws, so miraculous intervention therein is only rarely necessary."

Defender: Jos 5:15 - the Lord'S host Unseen by the Israelites, a host of angels accompanied them as they prepared to fight the Canaanites. (Note similar references to God's hosts in Gen 3...

Unseen by the Israelites, a host of angels accompanied them as they prepared to fight the Canaanites. (Note similar references to God's hosts in Gen 32:1, Gen 32:2; 2Ki 6:16, 2Ki 6:17; 2Ki 7:6)."

TSK: Jos 5:1 - all the kings // Canaanites // which were by // heard // neither was all the kings : Josh. 12:9-24, Jos 24:15; Gen 10:15-19, Gen 15:18-21, Gen 48:22; Jdg 11:23; 2Sa 21:2; Eze 16:3; Amo 2:9 Canaanites : Jos 17:12, Jos 17...

TSK: Jos 5:2 - sharp knives // circumcise sharp knives : or, knives of flints, Before the use of iron was common, all the nations of the earth had their edge tools made of stones, flints, etc....

sharp knives : or, knives of flints, Before the use of iron was common, all the nations of the earth had their edge tools made of stones, flints, etc. Our ancestors had their arrows and spearheads made of flint; which are frequently turned up by the plough. And even when iron became more common, stone knives seem to have been preferred for making incisions in the human body. The Egyptians used such to open the bodies for embalming; and the tribe of Alnajab in Ethiopia, who follow the Mosaic institution, perform the rite of circumcision, according to Ludolf, cultris lapidibus , with knives made of stone.

circumcise : Gen 17:10-14; Deu 10:16, Deu 30:6; Rom 2:29, Rom 4:11; Col 2:11

TSK: Jos 5:3 - Joshua // the hill of the foreskins Joshua : Gen 17:23-27; Mat 16:24 the hill of the foreskins : or, Gibeah haaraloth

Joshua : Gen 17:23-27; Mat 16:24

the hill of the foreskins : or, Gibeah haaraloth

TSK: Jos 5:4 - All the All the : Num 14:22, Num 26:64, Num 26:65; Deu 2:16; 1Co 10:5; Heb 3:17-19

TSK: Jos 5:5 - they had not they had not : Deu 12:8, Deu 12:9; Hos 6:6, Hos 6:7; Mat 12:7; Rom 2:26; 1Co 7:19; Gal 5:6, Gal 6:15

TSK: Jos 5:6 - walked // sware that // a land walked : Num 14:32-34; Deu 1:3, Deu 2:7, Deu 2:14, Deu 8:4; Psa 95:10, Psa 95:11; Jer 2:2 sware that : Num 14:23; Heb 3:11 a land : Exo 3:8, Exo 3:17;...

TSK: Jos 5:7 - their children their children : Num 14:31; Deu 1:39

their children : Num 14:31; Deu 1:39

TSK: Jos 5:8 - when they // till they were whole when they : etc. Heb. when the people had made an end to be circumcised till they were whole : Gen 34:25

when they : etc. Heb. when the people had made an end to be circumcised

till they were whole : Gen 34:25

TSK: Jos 5:9 - I rolled away // Gilgal I rolled away : Jos 24:14; Gen 34:14; Lev 24:14; 1Sa 14:6, 1Sa 17:26, 1Sa 17:36; Psa 119:39; Jer 9:25; Eze 20:7, Eze 20:8, Eze 23:3, Eze 23:8; Eph 2:1...

TSK: Jos 5:10 - kept the passover kept the passover : Eze 12:3, Eze 12:6, Eze 12:7-16; Num 9:1-5

kept the passover : Eze 12:3, Eze 12:6, Eze 12:7-16; Num 9:1-5

TSK: Jos 5:11 - old corn // unleavened cakes old corn : The people would find abundance of old corn in the deserted granaries of the affrighted inhabitants, and the barley harvest being ripe, aft...

old corn : The people would find abundance of old corn in the deserted granaries of the affrighted inhabitants, and the barley harvest being ripe, after offering the sheaf of first-fruits, they ate also new parched corn; and thus the manna being no longer necessary, ceased, after having been sent them regularly for almost forty years. To Christians the manna for their souls shall never fail, till they arrive at the Canaan above, to feast on its rich and inexhaustible provisions.

unleavened cakes : Exo 12:18-20, Exo 13:6, Exo 13:7; Lev 23:6, Lev 23:14

TSK: Jos 5:12 - the manna // but they did eat the manna : Exo 16:35; Neh 9:20, Neh 9:21; Rev 7:16, Rev 7:17 but they did eat : Deu 6:10, Deu 6:11; Pro 13:22; Isa 65:13, Isa 65:14; Joh 4:38

TSK: Jos 5:13 - he lifted // a man // his sword // Art thou for us he lifted : Gen 33:1, Gen 33:5; Dan 8:3, Dan 10:5 a man : Jos 6:2; Gen 18:2, Gen 32:24-30; Exo 23:23; Jdg 13:8, Jdg 13:9, Jdg 13:11, Jdg 13:22; Dan 10...

TSK: Jos 5:14 - but as captain // fell on his // What saith // my lord but as captain : or, Prince, Exo 23:20-22; Isa 55:4; Dan 10:13, Dan 10:21, Dan 12:1; Heb 2:10; Rev 12:7; Rev 19:11-14 fell on his : Gen 17:3, Gen 17:1...

TSK: Jos 5:15 - Loose // And Joshua Loose : Exo 3:5; Act 7:32, Act 7:33; 2Pe 1:18 And Joshua : Many persons have been puzzled to know what was intended by this extraordinary appearance o...

Loose : Exo 3:5; Act 7:32, Act 7:33; 2Pe 1:18

And Joshua : Many persons have been puzzled to know what was intended by this extraordinary appearance of the angel to Joshua, because they supposed that the whole business ends with the chapter; whereas it is continued in the succeeding one, the first verse of which is a mere parenthesis, simply relating to the state of Jericho at the time when Joshua was favoured with this encouraging vision; by which he was shewn that their help came from God alone, and that it was not by human might or power, but by the Lord of hosts they were to obtain the victory.

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Poole: Jos 5:1 - The Amorites // Westward // All the kings of the Canaanites // By the sea // Jordan // Their heart melted The Amorites and the Canaanites are mentioned for all the rest, as being the chief of them for number, and power, and courage. Westward: this is a...

The Amorites and the Canaanites are mentioned for all the rest, as being the chief of them for number, and power, and courage.

Westward: this is added to distinguish them from the other Amorites, eastward from Jordan, whom Moses had subdued.

All the kings of the Canaanites so the proper place of this nation was on both sides of Jordan.

By the sea the midland sea, all along the coast of it, which was the chief seat of that people, though divers colonies of them were come into and settled in other places.

Jordan was their bulwark on the east side, where the Israelites were; for it is very probable they had taken away all bridges near those parts; and the Israelites having been so long in that neighbouring country, and yet not making any attempt upon them, they were grown secure; especially now, when Jordan swelled beyond its ordinary bounds; and therefore they did not endeavour to hinder their passage.

Their heart melted they lost all their courage, and durst attempt nothing upon the Israelites; not without God’ s special providence, that the Israelites might quietly participate of the two great sacraments of their church, circumcision and the passover, and thereby be prepared for their high and hard work, and for the possession of the holy and promised land, which would have been defiled by an uncircumcised people.

Poole: Jos 5:2 - At that time // Make thee sharp knives // Circumcise again // Object // Answ At that time as soon as ever they were come to Gilgal, which was on the tenth day; and so this might be executed the next, or the eleventh day, and t...

At that time as soon as ever they were come to Gilgal, which was on the tenth day; and so this might be executed the next, or the eleventh day, and that in the morning: on the thirteenth day they were sore of their wounds, and on the fourteenth day they recovered, and at the even of that day kept the passover.

Make thee sharp knives ; or, prepare, or make ready, as this word is sometimes used. As it was not necessary for those who had such knives already to make others for that use; so it is not probable that such were commanded to do so, but only to make them sharp and fit for that work. They are called in Hebrew knives of flints , not as if they were all necessarily to be made of flints, but because such were commonly used, especially in those parts, where there was but little iron; and because such knives were oft used in this work, as the Jewish doctors note, and in such like works, as the heathen writers relate. Thus we call that an ink-horn which is made of silver, because those utensils are commonly made of horn.

Circumcise again ; he calleth this a second circumcision, not as if these same persons had been circumcised once before, either by Joshua, or by any other, for the contrary is affirmed below, Jos 5:7 ; but with respect unto the body of the people, whereof one part had been circumcised before, and the other at this time, which is called a

second time in relation to some former time wherein they were circumcised; either,

1. In Egypt, when many of the people, who possibly for fear or favour of the Egyptians had neglected this duty, were by the command of Moses (who had been awakened by the remembrance of his own neglect and danger thereupon) circumcised; which during the ten plagues, and the grievous confusion and consternation of the Egyptians, they might easily find opportunity to do. Or,

2. At Sinai, when they received the passover, Num 9:5 , which no uncircumcised person might do, Exo 12:48 ; and therefore it may not seem improbable, that all the children born in that first year after their coming out of Egypt, and all they who peradventure might come out of Egypt in their uncircumcision, were now circumcised.

Object . 1. All that came out of Egypt were circumcised, Jos 5:5 .

Answ . 1. This may be true, but he doth not say when and where they were circumcised; nor doth he deny that this was done to some of them, either in time of the plagues in Egypt, or at Sinai.

2. All is very oft used of the greatest part , as is confessed.

Object . 2. All the people that were born in the wilderness were not circumcised, Jos 5:5 .

Answ . 1. Understand this also of the greatest part.

2. This is limited to them that were born by the way, as it is said there, and emphatically repeated, Jos 5:7 , i.e. in their journeys and travellings; which insinuates the reason why they were not circumcised, because they were always uncertain of their stay in any place, and were constantly to be in a readiness for a removal when God took up the cloud: but this reason ceased at Sinai, where they knew they were to abide for a considerable time; and seeing they took that opportunity for the celebration of the passover, it is likely they would improve it also to the circumcision of their children or others, which they ought to prize highly, and to embrace all occasions offered for it; which though the people might, it is not likely that biases would neglect.

Object . 3. They are said to have remained uncircumcised forty whole years in the wilderness , Jos 5:6 .

Answ . i.e. For almost forty years; as the same phrase is used Num 14:33,34 32:13 , when there was above one year of that number past and gone. Or,

3. In Abraham ; and so the sense may be, The first circumcision conferred upon Abraham, and continued in his posterity, hath been for many years neglected or omitted; and so that great and solemn pledge of my covenant with you is in a manner wholly lost, and therefore it is but fit and necessary to have this long-interrupted practice of circumcision revived, and to have Abraham’ s posterity circumcised a second time for the renewing of the covenant between them and me again.

Poole: Jos 5:3 - The children of Israel i.e. He caused this to be done; and because it was to be done speedily, the passover approaching, it was necessary to use many hands in it, either p...

i.e. He caused this to be done; and because it was to be done speedily, the passover approaching, it was necessary to use many hands in it, either priests and Levites, or other circumcised persons, who, at least in those circumstances, were permitted to do it.

The children of Israel i.e. such of them as were uncircumcised. And though it be not mentioned, it is more than probable, that the Israelites beyond Jordan were circumcised at the same time.

Poole: Jos 5:4 - -- This is to be restrained to such as were then above twenty years old, and such as were guilty of that rebellion, Nu 14 , as it is expressed below, J...

This is to be restrained to such as were then above twenty years old, and such as were guilty of that rebellion, Nu 14 , as it is expressed below, Jos 5:6 .

Poole: Jos 5:5 - They They either their parents, or the rulers of Israel, whose omission hereof was not through neglect; for then God, who had ordered the neglecter of cir...

They either their parents, or the rulers of Israel, whose omission hereof was not through neglect; for then God, who had ordered the neglecter of circumcision to be cut off, Gen 17:14 , would not have left so gross a fault unpunished; but by Divine permission and indulgence; partly because they were now in a journey, in which case the passover also might be neglected, Num 9:10,13 , and in that journey the passover was but once observed; and partly because there was not so great a necessity of this note of circumcision to distinguish them from other nations, whilst they dwelt alone and unmixed in the wilderness, as there was afterwards.

Poole: Jos 5:6 - All the people // He would not show them All the people the Hebrew word commonly signifies the Gentiles; so he calls them, to note that they were unworthy of the name and privileges of Israe...

All the people the Hebrew word commonly signifies the Gentiles; so he calls them, to note that they were unworthy of the name and privileges of Israelites.

He would not show them i.e. not give them so much as a sight of it, which he granted to Moses, much less the possession and enjoyment of it. Or showing is put for giving , as it is Psa 4:6 60:3 Ecc 2:24 .

Poole: Jos 5:7 - Them Joshua circumcised Them Joshua circumcised which God would have now done, 1. As a testimony of God’ s reconciliation to the people, of which circumcision was a si...

Them Joshua circumcised which God would have now done,

1. As a testimony of God’ s reconciliation to the people, of which circumcision was a sign, and that God would not further impute their parents’ rebellions to them.

2. Because the great impediment of circumcision was now removed, to wit, their continued travels, and frequent and uncertain removal.

3. To prepare them for the approaching passover.

4. To distinguish them from the Canaanites, into whose land they were now come.

5. To ratify the covenant between God and them, where of circumcision was a sign and seal, to assure them that God would now make good his covenant, in giving them this land; and to oblige them to perform all the duties and services to which that covenant bound them, of which circumcision was the beginning and foundation, all which they were expressly joined to do, as soon as ever they came into Canaan, Exo 12:25 Lev 23:10 Num 15:2 .

Poole: Jos 5:8 - -- Free from that pain and sore which circumcision caused, Gen 34:25 . It was indeed an act of great faith to expose themselves to so much pain and dan...

Free from that pain and sore which circumcision caused, Gen 34:25 . It was indeed an act of great faith to expose themselves to so much pain and danger too in this place, where they were hemmed in by Jordan and their enemies; but they had many considerations to support their faith, and suppress their fears: the fresh experience of God’ s power and readiness to work miracles for their preservation; the great consternation of all their enemies, which they might observe and rationally presume; the considerable number of the people who were above forty years old, and therefore circumcised before this time, their great general being one of this number; the time it would require for their enemies to bring together a force sufficient to oppose them.

Poole: Jos 5:9 - The reproach of Egypt The reproach of Egypt i.e. uncircumcision, which was both in truth, and in the opinion of the Jews, a matter of great reproach, Gen 34:14 1Sa 14:6 17...

The reproach of Egypt i.e. uncircumcision, which was both in truth, and in the opinion of the Jews, a matter of great reproach, Gen 34:14 1Sa 14:6 17:26 . And although this was a reproach common to most nations of the world, yet it is particularly called the reproach of Egypt; either,

1. Because the other neighbouring nations, being the children of Abraham by the concubines, are supposed to have been circumcised, which the Egyptians at this time were not, as may be gathered from Exo 2:6 , where they knew the child to be an Hebrew by this mark. Or,

2. Because they came out of Egypt, and were esteemed to be a sort of Egyptians, Num 22:5 , which they justly thought a great reproach; but by their circumcision they were now distinguished from them, and manifested to be another kind of people. Or,

3. Because many of them lay under this reproach in Egypt, having wickedly neglected this duty there for worldly reasons; and others of them continued in the same shameful condition for many years in the wilderness.

Poole: Jos 5:10 - -- This was their third passover: the first was in Egypt, Ex 12 ; the second at Mount Sinai, Nu 9 ; the third here; for in their wilderness travels the...

This was their third passover: the first was in Egypt, Ex 12 ; the second at Mount Sinai, Nu 9 ; the third here; for in their wilderness travels these and all other sacrifices were neglected, Amo 5:25 .

Poole: Jos 5:11 - The old corn // On the morrow after the passover // the morrow after the passover // Parched corn // In the selfsame day The old corn the corn of the last year, which the inhabitants of those parts had left in their barns, being doubtless fled for fear of the Israelites...

The old corn the corn of the last year, which the inhabitants of those parts had left in their barns, being doubtless fled for fear of the Israelites into their strong cities, or other remoter and safer parts.

On the morrow after the passover i.e. on the sixteenth day; for the passover was killed between the two evenings of the fourteenth day, and was eaten in that evening or night, which, according to the Jewish computation, whereby they begin their days at the evening, was a part of the fifteenth day, all which was the feast of the passover; and so the morrow of the sixteenth day was

the morrow after the passover when they were obliged to offer unto God the first sheaf, and then were allowed to eat of the rest.

Parched corn of that year’ s corn, which was most proper and customary for that use.

In the selfsame day having an eager desire to enjoy the fruits of the land.

Poole: Jos 5:12 - the manna // On the morrow after they had eaten of the old corn God now withheld the manna 1. To show that it was not an ordinary production of nature, as by the long and constant enjoyment of it they might be...

God now withheld

the manna

1. To show that it was not an ordinary production of nature, as by the long and constant enjoyment of it they might be prone to think; but an extraordinary and special gift of God to supply their necessity.

2. because God would not be prodigal of his favours, nor expose them to contempt by giving them superfluously, or by working miracles where ordinary means were sufficient.

On the morrow after they had eaten of the old corn i.e. on the seventeenth day.

Poole: Jos 5:13 - By Jericho // A man // With his sword drawn By Jericho Heb. in Jericho , i.e. in the country or territory adjoining to Jericho, whither he went to view those parts, and discern the fittest pla...

By Jericho Heb. in Jericho , i.e. in the country or territory adjoining to Jericho, whither he went to view those parts, and discern the fittest places for his attempt upon Jericho, as generals usually do.

A man one in the appearance of man.

With his sword drawn in readiness to fight, not, as Joshua thought, against him, but for him and his people.

Poole: Jos 5:14 - He said, Nay // Captain of the host of the Lord He said, Nay I am neither Israelite nor Canaanite. Captain of the host of the Lord either, 1. Of all creatures in heaven and earth, which are God&...

He said, Nay I am neither Israelite nor Canaanite.

Captain of the host of the Lord either,

1. Of all creatures in heaven and earth, which are God’ s hosts. Or,

2. Of the angels, who are called the host of heaven,

1Ki 22:19 2Ch 18:18 Luk 2:13 . Or,

3. Of the host or people of Israel, which are called the Lord’ s host , Exo 12:41 . The sense is, I am the chief Captain of this people, and will conduct and assist thee and them in this great undertaking. Now this person is none other than Michael the Prince , Dan 10:21 12:1 ; not a created angel, but the Son of God, who went along with the Israelites in this expedition, 1Co 10:4 ; not surely as an underling, but as their Chief and Captain. And this appears,

1. By his acceptance of adoration here, which a created angel durst not admit of, Rev 22:8,9 .

2. Because the place was made holy by his presence, Exo 3:15 , which was God’ s prerogative, Exo 3:5 .

3. Because he is called the Lord , Heb. Jehovah , Jos 6:2 . What saith my lord unto his servant? I acknowledge thee for my Lord and Captain, and therefore wait for thy commands, which I am ready to obey.

Poole: Jos 5:15 - Loose thy shoe from off thy foot Loose thy shoe from off thy foot in token of reverence and subjection: see on Exo 3:5 . The place is holy, consecrated by my presence; which when it ...

Loose thy shoe from off thy foot in token of reverence and subjection: see on Exo 3:5 . The place is holy, consecrated by my presence; which when it was withdrawn, it was no more holy than any other place, the reason of its holiness being removed.

Haydock: Jos 5:1 - Till they Ver 1. Chanaan. These occupied the countries situated on the Mediterranean sea, as far as Egypt: the Amorrhites dwelt nearer to the lake of Sod...

Ver 1. Chanaan. These occupied the countries situated on the Mediterranean sea, as far as Egypt: the Amorrhites dwelt nearer to the lake of Sodom. The whole country is divided between these two nations, including that territory which the Philistines had seized, and which belonged also to Israel. Almost every city had its respective king, according to the ancient custom in the east, intra suam cuique patriam regna finiebantur. (Justin. i.) Strabo (xvi.) says this was particularly verified in the cities of Phœnicia. (Calmet) ---

Till they. Hebrew, "we...their heart melted, neither was there spirit in them any more, because of the children of Israel." They fainted as it were through fear, and could not take their breath, or according to the Septuagint adopt any thing rational; "they had no prudence," phronesis. (Haydock)

Haydock: Jos 5:2 - Time // Of stone // Time Time. While the enemy was rendered incapable of attacking the Israelites by excessive fear (Calmet) and consternation, Josue was commanded to renew ...

Time. While the enemy was rendered incapable of attacking the Israelites by excessive fear (Calmet) and consternation, Josue was commanded to renew the sign of the covenant, by which they were to take possession of the land, and it is supposed that he complied the day after he arrived at Galgal; (Haydock) so that the wound would be healing, when the feast of the Passover commenced four days later. On the third day it is most painful. (Genesis xxxiv. 25.) ---

Of stone. Hebrew tsurim, which some translate, "sharp;" but the Septuagint and the best interpreters agree, that the word indicates a stone. Such a knife was used by Sephora. (Exodus iv. 25.) It was supposed that sharp stones would cause less inflammation or danger. Samia testa....amputabant, nec aliter citra perniciem. (Pliny, [Natural History?] xxv. 12.) Herodotus (ii. 86,) observes, that the Egyptian embalmers opened the body of the deceased with a "sharp Ethiopian stone." The people of Africa, and of America, have frequently used stone to cut wood, &c. Some of the Fathers assert, that Christ was circumcised with a knife of stone. But any other sharp instrument might be used for the purpose. Any person might perform the operation. Izates, king of the Adiabenians, received circumcision from the hand of a surgeon. (Josephus, [Antiquities?] xx. 2.) (Calmet) ---

Time. Not that such as had been circumcised before were to be circumcised again: but that they were not to renew, and take up again the practice of circumcision; which had been omitted during their 40 years' sojourning in the wilderness; by reason of their being always uncertain whey they should be obliged to march. (Challoner) ---

St. Augustine (q. 6,) seems to think that the Israelites despised this ceremony in the desert. Theodoret (q. 2,) supposes it was disused because it was not then necessary, to distinguish the Israelites from other nations. Masius is of opinion that God would not allow them to employ it, after their revolt at Cades-barne, when they would not take possession of the land of Chanaan; and hence they could not resume that privilege, till God had authorized them again, ver 7., and Numbers xiv. 33. The covenant with God, of which circumcision was the seal, had been, in the mean time, suspended. But as the Israelites are no where blamed, in Scripture, on account of this omission, it seems that God dispensed with them during the 38 years after they left Sinai, that the children might not be exposed to the evident danger of perishing, as the people knew not how soon the cloud would give notice for an immediate departure. (Calmet) ---

Since they were now in te midst of the nations of Chanaan, this distinctive mark (Menochius) was to be henceforth diligently observed. (Haydock)

Haydock: Jos 5:3 - Hill Hill, at Galgal. Josue took care to have this ceremony performed. (Calmet) --- Perhaps he circumcised some himself, as Abraham did those of his ow...

Hill, at Galgal. Josue took care to have this ceremony performed. (Calmet) ---

Perhaps he circumcised some himself, as Abraham did those of his own house, Genesis xvii. 23. (Menochius)

Haydock: Jos 5:4 - Second Second. Hebrew, "this is the thing, (the cause why) Josue gave circumcision."

Second. Hebrew, "this is the thing, (the cause why) Josue gave circumcision."

Haydock: Jos 5:5 - Desert Desert. After the departure from Sinai, where the Passover was celebrated, and where, of course, the people must have been circumcised. (Calmet)

Desert. After the departure from Sinai, where the Passover was celebrated, and where, of course, the people must have been circumcised. (Calmet)

Haydock: Jos 5:6 - Forty Forty. Some copies of the Septuagint add, "two," as if the 40 years' wandering in the desert, were to be dated from the time that the spies discoura...

Forty. Some copies of the Septuagint add, "two," as if the 40 years' wandering in the desert, were to be dated from the time that the spies discouraged the people, in the second year of their departure from Egypt. But the Hebrew and the best chronologers allow only 40 years in the whole. (Calmet) ---

Hebrew, "For the children of Israel walked 40 years in the wilderness, till all the men fit for war, who came out of Egypt, were consumed, because they obeyed not the voice of the Lord, unto whom the Lord swore that he would not shew them the land, which the Lord swore unto their fathers that he would give us, a land flowing with milk and honey; ( 7 ) and their children he raised up in their stead, them Josue circumcised." (Haydock) ---

The Septuagint is also rather fuller than the Vulgate but gives the same sense. These children who receive, what their rebellious fathers had been refused, are a sensible figure of the Christian Church; as that second circumcision under Josue, represents the spiritual cleansing of the heart, which Jesus Christ has enjoined, Romans ii. 28., and 1 Corinthians vii. 19.

Haydock: Jos 5:8 - Healed Healed. The Passover lasted eight days: after which they proceeded to attack Jericho. Yet the people, unfit for war, remained at Galgal; where the ...

Healed. The Passover lasted eight days: after which they proceeded to attack Jericho. Yet the people, unfit for war, remained at Galgal; where the camp continued a long time afterwards.

Haydock: Jos 5:9 - Egypt // Galgal Egypt. The people of that country adopted circumcision only after this period, (Calmet) and it never became general among them. They were therefore...

Egypt. The people of that country adopted circumcision only after this period, (Calmet) and it never became general among them. They were therefore held in abhorrence, like the rest of the uncircumcised nations, among the Jews, Genesis xxxiv. 14., and 1 Kings xiv. 6. Theodoret (q. 4,) looks upon circumcision as a symbol of the liberation from the servitude of Egypt, where, he says, history informs us, that many of the Hebrews had neglected this rite. ---

Galgal is interpreted liberty, by Josephus; but moderns render it "a rolling away," (Calmet) or revolution. Hebrew, "I have rolled away the reproach of Egypt from off you." (Haydock) ---

Those Israelites who remained at the other side of the river, were ordered to be circumcised at the same time with their brethren. But they could not partake in the solemnity of the Passover, as they were at a distance from the ark. (Salien)

Haydock: Jos 5:10 - Phase Phase. This was the third. The first was celebrated in Egypt, Exodus xii. The second at Sinai, Numbers ix. (Menochius) --- Afterwards it was disu...

Phase. This was the third. The first was celebrated in Egypt, Exodus xii. The second at Sinai, Numbers ix. (Menochius) ---

Afterwards it was disused till the Israelites took possession of Chanaan, as it was chiefly designed for that country, Exodus xii. 25.

Haydock: Jos 5:11 - Corn // Frumenty Corn. Some pretend that the Hebrew means "old corn." But the ancient interpreters take no notice of this restriction. The offering of corn was pro...

Corn. Some pretend that the Hebrew means "old corn." But the ancient interpreters take no notice of this restriction. The offering of corn was probably omitted on this occasion, as the Israelites had not cultivated the land. ---

Frumenty. Septuagint, "new corn." Hebrew, "parched, on that same day." These last words are taken by the Septuagint as a part of the next sentence.

Haydock: Jos 5:12 - Land Land. The Septuagint intimate on the 15th. The Hebrew seems to say the 16th, Nisan, "on the morrow after they had eaten of the (old) corn." (Calme...

Land. The Septuagint intimate on the 15th. The Hebrew seems to say the 16th, Nisan, "on the morrow after they had eaten of the (old) corn." (Calmet) ---

Grabe's Septuagint agrees with the Vulgate and Hebrew, and specifies that the Israelites "eat of the corn of the country on the day after the Passover, unleavened and new. On that day, the morrow, manna ceased." All depends on the determination of the first day of the festival. If we date from the eating of the paschal lamb on the 14th, or from the solemn day, which was the 15th, manna must have been withdrawn either on the 15th or 16th of the month; though Salien thinks that it ceased as soon as the Israelites had begun to eat of the fruit of the country, on the eastern side of the Jordan. This miraculous food was withholden as soon as the Israelites entered the land of promise; and so the blessed Eucharist, of which it was a figure, and all the sacraments, will cease, when the Christian people shall have taken possession of their heavenly country. (Haydock)

Haydock: Jos 5:13 - Adversaries? Adversaries? Dost thou bear arms for or against us? (Calmet)

Adversaries? Dost thou bear arms for or against us? (Calmet)

Haydock: Jos 5:14 - Prince of the host of the Lord Prince of the host of the Lord, &c. St. Michael, who is called prince of the people of Israel, Daniel x. 21. (Challoner) --- Some of the Fathers e...

Prince of the host of the Lord, &c. St. Michael, who is called prince of the people of Israel, Daniel x. 21. (Challoner) ---

Some of the Fathers explain it of the son of God. (Origen, hom. 6.) But St. Augustine, City of God xi. 13., St. Jerome in Galatians iii., and interpreters in general agree, that the person who here appeared to Josue, was the archangel Michael. He came, in the name of God, to assure Josue of success, as the angel had appeared to Moses in the burning bush, as if to denote the distress of the Hebrews, and to encourage Moses to undertake their liberation. (Calmet) ---

Chaldean, "I am the angel sent by God." In that character he is called the Lord. (Haydock)

Haydock: Jos 5:15 - Worshipping Worshipping. Not with divine honour, but with a religious veneration of an inferior kind, suitable to the dignity of his person. (Challoner) --- H...

Worshipping. Not with divine honour, but with a religious veneration of an inferior kind, suitable to the dignity of his person. (Challoner) ---

He styles the angel Adonai, which is a title frequently given to men; and hence he does not seem to have designed to give him supreme worship. (Calmet) ---

If he did, (Haydock) it was referred to God. (Calmet) (Exodus xx.)

Gill: Jos 5:1 - And it came to pass, when all the kings of the Amorites, which were on the side of Jordan westward // and all the kings of the Canaanites which were by the sea // heard that the Lord had dried up the waters of Jordan from before the children of Israel, until we were passed over, that their heart melted // neither was there spirit in them any more, because of the children of Israel And it came to pass, when all the kings of the Amorites, which were on the side of Jordan westward,.... On the side the Israelites were now on; and t...

And it came to pass, when all the kings of the Amorites, which were on the side of Jordan westward,.... On the side the Israelites were now on; and this is observed, to distinguish them from the other kings of the Amorites beyond Jordan, on the eastern side, who were already conquered by the Israelites, Sihon and Og, who seem to be a colony that went over from the Amorites in Canaan, and possessed themselves of that part of the land of Moab. These seem to be put for several others of the nations of the land not mentioned, who doubtless were as much dispirited as they; and they are the rather mentioned, because they were a principal nation, and a very powerful and warlike one, see Amo 2:9.

and all the kings of the Canaanites which were by the sea; the Mediterranean sea; the Septuagint version calls them the kings of Phoenicia; and that which was strictly and property so lay on that coast, in which were the cities of Tyre and Sidon, though the whole land of Canaan was sometimes so called; unless this is to be understood, either of the dead sea, or of the sea of Galilee; of which Canaanites, see Num 13:29; however, be they the one or the other, or both, as most likely, when they

heard that the Lord had dried up the waters of Jordan from before the children of Israel, until we were passed over, that their heart melted,

neither was there spirit in them any more, because of the children of Israel; they lost all their courage, and never recovered it any more; concluding it was all over with them, since such wonderful things were done for them by the Lord: the word "we" shows that the writer of this history was one that passed over Jordan, and who can be supposed but Joshua himself? this circumstance, I think, strongly corroborates that opinion.

Gill: Jos 5:2 - At that time the Lord said unto Joshua // make them sharp knives // and circumcise again the children of Israel the second time At that time the Lord said unto Joshua,.... When the people had passed over Jordan, and had pitched in Gilgal, and Joshua had set up the stones there;...

At that time the Lord said unto Joshua,.... When the people had passed over Jordan, and had pitched in Gilgal, and Joshua had set up the stones there; and particularly when the dread of them had seized the inhabitants of Canaan, and deprived them of all their courage; and so was a fit time for the execution of what is next ordered, and seems designed in the providence of God among other things particularly for that:

make them sharp knives; not that Joshua was to make them himself, but to order them to be made; for a considerable number would be wanted for the use to be made of them: the Targum calls them sharp razors; and Ben Gersom says they were made of brass, more likely of iron or steel, which perhaps he means; but the Hebrew text is, "knives of rocks", "flints" or "stones"; and so Maimonides p interprets the words, and as they are rendered in various versions q; with such an instrument Zipporah circumcised her son; and like them were the "samia testa" r, with which the priests of the mother of the gods were castrated; and the "saxum acutum" of Ovid s; and such the Americans used in slaying beasts, and the Egyptians t in the dissecting of their dead bodies; and which the Talmudists allow of as lawful; and in the east the Jews to this day use knives of stone in circumcision u; See Gill on Exo 4:25.

and circumcise again the children of Israel the second time; not that circumcision was to be repeated on them that had been circumcised already, who had found out ways and means to draw over the foreskin again, as some in later times did; or who had been imperfectly circumcised according to the rite enjoined by Abraham, which some Jewish writers say was not perfect; neither of which was the case. Kimchi, and so Ben Melech, interpret the word, "oftentimes", frequently, one time after another; as if the sense was, Joshua was to circumcise them, or take care they were circumcised, some at one time, and some at another, until the whole was finished; but this is not what is meant, it refers to a former general circumcision; not to the circumcision, as first administered in Abraham's time, for there had been a multitude of instances of it since that time; but to the circumcision of the Israelites at, about, or quickly after their coming out of Egypt; either before their eating of their first passover, the night they went out of Egypt, as Jarchi w; or rather some time in the three days' darkness of the Egyptians, as Dr. Lightfoot x thinks; or else when they were about Sinai, just before the celebration of the passover there, Num 9:1; from which time it had been neglected; not cause unnecessary, while they were in the wilderness, to distinguish them from others, which was not the principal, at least not the only use of it; nor because forbidden the Israelites for their disobedience, murmurings, and rebellion, it not being probable that God should prohibit the observance of a command of his on that account; nor so much through criminal neglect, at least contempt of it, as because of their frequent journeying, and the inconvenience of performing it, being always uncertain, when they had pitched their tents, how long they should stay, and when they should remove, since this depended upon the taking up of the cloud; wherefore, unless they could have been sure of a continuance for a proper time, it was not safe to administer it; and now it was enjoined, partly because they were about to celebrate the passover, which required circumcision in all that partook of it, Exo 12:43; and partly because they had now entered into the land of Canaan, which was given them in the covenant of circumcision, Gen 17:8; wherefore it became them now to observe it, and as typical of spiritual circumcision, necessary to the heavenly Canaan, as well as to distinguish them from the uncircumcised Canaanites they were coming among; and they did not think themselves under obligation to observe it till they came to settle in that land, as some think, who hereby account for their long neglect of it.

Gill: Jos 5:3 - And Joshua made him sharp knives, and circumcised the children of Israel // at the hill of the foreskins And Joshua made him sharp knives, and circumcised the children of Israel,.... Not that Joshua circumcised them himself, any more than he made the kniv...

And Joshua made him sharp knives, and circumcised the children of Israel,.... Not that Joshua circumcised them himself, any more than he made the knives himself, but he ordered both to be done, and took care that they were done. And as any that had skill might make the knives, so might any circumcise; circumcision was not restrained to any order of men, not to the priests and Levites, but any might perform it; so that though the number to be circumcised was great, it might soon be finished: and this was done

at the hill of the foreskins; as the place was afterward called from hence; these being heaped up one upon another, made a hill of them, as the Jews say y, being covered with dust. This circumcision performed by Joshua, or his orders, was typical of the spiritual circumcision without hands, which those that believe in Jesus, the antitype of Joshua, partake of.

Gill: Jos 5:4 - And this is the cause why Joshua did circumcise // all the people that came out of Egypt that were males, even all the men of war // died in the wilderness, by the way, after they came out of Egypt And this is the cause why Joshua did circumcise,.... Or the reason of the command given him to circumcise the children of Israel at this time, namely...

And this is the cause why Joshua did circumcise,.... Or the reason of the command given him to circumcise the children of Israel at this time, namely, what follows:

all the people that came out of Egypt that were males, even all the men of war; meaning such that were twenty years old, and upwards:

died in the wilderness, by the way, after they came out of Egypt; not directly, but in a course of forty years, as they journeyed through the wilderness; this is to be understood with an exception of Joshua, Caleb, Eleazar, &c. but then there was a large number who were under twenty years of age, that came out of Egypt, and were now living.

Gill: Jos 5:5 - Now all the people that came out were circumcised // but all the people that were born in the wilderness by the way, as they came forth out of Egypt, them they had not circumcised Now all the people that came out were circumcised,.... All that came out of Egypt, and males, were circumcised, whether under or above twenty years of...

Now all the people that came out were circumcised,.... All that came out of Egypt, and males, were circumcised, whether under or above twenty years of age; for though it is possible all were circumcised before they came out of Egypt, which favours the opinion of Dr. Lightfoot, that they might be circumcised during the three nights' darkness of the Egyptians, when they could take no advantage of it, as Levi and Simeon did of the Shechemites; and which seems more probable than that it should be on the night they came out of Egypt, when many must have been unfit for travelling, and seems preferable to that of their being circumcised at Mount Sinai, which was a year after their coming out of Egypt:

but all the people that were born in the wilderness by the way, as they came forth out of Egypt, them they had not circumcised; the reasons of which neglect; See Gill on Jos 5:2. The phrase, "by the way", seems to point at the true reason of it, at least to countenance the reason there given, which was on account of their journey; that is, their stay at any place being uncertain and precarious; so the Jews say z, because of the affliction or trouble of journeying, the Israelites did not circumcise their children. This is to be understood of all males only born in the wilderness, they only being the subjects of circumcision.

Gill: Jos 5:6 - For the children of Israel walked forty years in the wilderness // till all the people that were men of war, which came out of Egypt // were consumed // because they obeyed not the voice of the Lord // unto whom the Lord sware, that he would not show them the land which the Lord sware unto their fathers that he would give us, a land that floweth with milk and honey For the children of Israel walked forty years in the wilderness,.... Wanting a few days, the round number is given: not forty two, as the Septuagint v...

For the children of Israel walked forty years in the wilderness,.... Wanting a few days, the round number is given: not forty two, as the Septuagint version:

till all the people that were men of war, which came out of Egypt,

were consumed; all that were above twenty years of age, excepting Joshua and Caleb:

because they obeyed not the voice of the Lord; but murmured against him, and against his servants, and particularly against Aaron, being the high priest; and chiefly because of the report of the spies, and their murmurs then, which so incensed the Lord against them, that he threatened them with an entire consumption of their carcasses, and which accordingly was fulfilled, to which the following clause refers:

unto whom the Lord sware, that he would not show them the land which the Lord sware unto their fathers that he would give us, a land that floweth with milk and honey; see Num 14:23.

Gill: Jos 5:7 - And the children whom he raised up in their stead, them Joshua circumcised // for they were circumcised, because they had not circumcised them by the way And the children whom he raised up in their stead, them Joshua circumcised,.... Who were born to them in the wilderness, and succeeded them, some of ...

And the children whom he raised up in their stead, them Joshua circumcised,.... Who were born to them in the wilderness, and succeeded them, some of which might be near forty years of age; as for those that were born before, of which there might be many now living, they had been circumcised already, but others, were not:

for they were circumcised, because they had not circumcised them by the way; or while journeying the forty years in the wilderness; which, as before observed, seems to be the true reason of the omission of circumcision.

Gill: Jos 5:8 - And it came to pass, when they had done circumcising all the people // that they abode in their places in the camp till they were whole And it came to pass, when they had done circumcising all the people,.... Which seems as if it was done in one day, even on the same day they passed ov...

And it came to pass, when they had done circumcising all the people,.... Which seems as if it was done in one day, even on the same day they passed over Jordan, and came to Gilgal; though Bishop Usher a thinks it was the day following; and so the Jews b say it was on the eleventh of Nisan:

that they abode in their places in the camp till they were whole: till the wound made by circumcision was healed; now as it was on the tenth day they passed over Jordan, and came to Gilgal, where they were circumcised, there were three entire days between that and the fourteenth, when they kept the passover; during which time they kept within their tents in the camp, being unfit to move from thence, for on the third day of circumcision they were usually sore, Gen 34:25; but being well on the fourth, were able to attend the passover. As the providence of God greatly appeared in favour of Israel, by causing a dread to fall on their enemies, that they durst not sally out of the city and attack them; so it showed great faith in Joshua, and the Israelites, to administer circumcision at this time, just as they were landed in an enemy's country; and when the waters of Jordan were returned, and there was no going back, and if they could, as they were not in a condition to fight, so not to flee.

Gill: Jos 5:9 - And the Lord said unto Joshua // this day have I rolled away the reproach of Egypt from off you // wherefore the name of the place is called Gilgal unto this day And the Lord said unto Joshua,.... Out of the tabernacle: this day have I rolled away the reproach of Egypt from off you; either the reproach of be...

And the Lord said unto Joshua,.... Out of the tabernacle:

this day have I rolled away the reproach of Egypt from off you; either the reproach of being reckoned office same religion with the Egyptians, they now having observed the command of the Lord, and thereby declared themselves to be his servants and worshippers, which sense Ben Gersom mentions; or else the reproach with which the Egyptians reproached them, that they were brought out from them into the wilderness for evil, to be destroyed there, they now being safely arrived in the land of Canaan; which tense he seems to approve of, and so Abarbinel: or rather by it is meant the reproach of being bondmen, and slaves, as they were in Egypt, having now entered upon their inheritance, they as free men, the sons of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, were heirs unto; and perhaps it was this sense of the phrase led Josephus c to give a wrong interpretation of the word "Gilgal", which he says signifies "liberty": and adds,"for, having passed the river, they knew they were free from the Egyptians, and from troubles in the wilderness;''though the more commonly received sense is, that this reproach is to be understood of uncircumcision, which was the reproach of the Egyptians, they at this time not using circumcision they afterwards did, when some of the nations thereabout used it, who descended, from Abraham, as the Midianites, Ishmaelites, Arabians, and Edomites:

wherefore the name of the place is called Gilgal unto this day; which signifies "rolling" d; so that when it is met with before, it is so called by anticipation.

Gill: Jos 5:10 - And the children of Israel encamped in Gilgal // and kept the passover on the fourteenth day of the month at even // in the plains of Jericho And the children of Israel encamped in Gilgal,.... Not after their circumcision, but before, and where they continued encamped during that, and until ...

And the children of Israel encamped in Gilgal,.... Not after their circumcision, but before, and where they continued encamped during that, and until the passover had been kept by them; this was little more than a mile from Jericho; see Gill on Jos 4:19,

and kept the passover on the fourteenth day of the month at even; exactly as it was ordered to be observed, and was observed when first kept, Exo 12:6,

in the plains of Jericho: a proper place both for their encampment, and the celebration of the passover, and where very likely they met with lambs enough for their purpose, which belonged to the inhabitants of Jericho; or however being now got into the good land, they needed not, and were under no temptation of sparing their own: historians agree, as Strabo e, Josephus f, and others, that Jericho was seated in a plain.

Gill: Jos 5:11 - And they did eat the old corn of the land // on the morrow after the passover // unleavened bread, and parched corn in the selfsame day And they did eat the old corn of the land,.... That of the last year, as some versions g, which agree with ours; in which they seem to follow the Jewi...

And they did eat the old corn of the land,.... That of the last year, as some versions g, which agree with ours; in which they seem to follow the Jewish writers, who, as particularly Kimchi, Gersom, and Ben Melech, interpret it of the old corn, for this reason, because they might not eat of the new until the wave sheaf was offered up, Lev 23:10; of which old corn they suppose the unleavened cakes were made, and was also parched corn, though that word the Septuagint version translates "new"; and indeed were it not for the above law, there does not seem to be any reason for rendering it old corn, only corn of the land, as the Septuagint does; and there is some difficulty how they should get at the old corn, which it may be supposed was laid up in the granaries, when Jericho was close shut up, and none went in or out; unless they met with it in some of the villages near at hand, or it was brought them by the traders in corn, of whom they bought it, or found it in some houses and barns without the city:

on the morrow after the passover; which Kimchi and Ben Gersom say was on the fifteenth of Nisan, the passover being on the fourteenth; but if the morrow after the passover is the same with the morrow after the Sabbath, Lev 23:11; that was the sixteenth of Nisan; and so Jarchi here says, this is the day of waving the sheaf, which was always done on the sixteenth: it is difficult to say which day is meant; if it was the sixteenth, then it may refer to what they ate on that day, after the sheaf was offered h; if it was the fifteenth, it seems necessary to understand it of the old corn; and such they must have to make their unleavened cakes of, both for the passover on the fourteenth, and the Chagigah, or feast of unleavened bread, which began the fifteenth, as it follows:

unleavened bread, and parched corn in the selfsame day; unleavened bread, for the uses before mentioned, they were obliged to, and parched corn for their pleasure; but new corn, as the Septuagint render it, was expressly forbidden before the waving of the sheaf, Lev 23:14; and therefore old corn seems to be meant; this was just forty years to a day from their coming out of Egypt.

Gill: Jos 5:12 - And the manna ceased on the morrow after they had eaten of the old corn of the land // neither had the children of Israel manna any more // but they did eat of the fruit of the land of Canaan that year And the manna ceased on the morrow after they had eaten of the old corn of the land,.... There being now no further need of it; miracles are not wroug...

And the manna ceased on the morrow after they had eaten of the old corn of the land,.... There being now no further need of it; miracles are not wrought or continued when unnecessary; for the ceasing of the manna shows, that it was not a common but an extraordinary provision. The ceasing of the manna, which was a type of Christ, may signify the cessation of Gospel ordinances, in which Christ is held forth as food for his people. These are to continue till all the spiritual Israel of God have passed over the river Jordan, or death, even until the end of the world, and then to cease, Mat 28:19; the eating of the old corn may signify the glories of the future state, the joys and happiness of the heavenly Canaan, prepared for those that love the Lord from the foundation of the world; it may denote those ancient things the saints will feed and live upon to all eternity; the eternal love of the three divine Persons, electing grace, the ancient settlements of grace, the everlasting covenant of grace, and the blessings of it; the glorious Mediator of it, that was set up from everlasting, and the grace given to them in him before the world began:

neither had the children of Israel manna any more; having no more need of it, as the saints in heaven will stand in no more need of Gospel ordinances:

but they did eat of the fruit of the land of Canaan that year; the increase of the land, not only of the fields, but of the vineyards and oliveyards, which they had neither sown nor planted, see Deu 6:10; which may denote the plenty and variety of the joys of heaven, and glories of the future state; the various fruits which grow on Christ, the tree of life, brought forth every month, or continually; all which will be enjoyed through the free grace of God, without the works or merits of men.

Gill: Jos 5:13 - And it came to pass, when Joshua was by Jericho // that he lifted up his eyes, and looked // and, behold, there stood a man over against him // with his sword drawn in his hand // and Joshua went unto him // and said unto him, art thou for us, or for our adversaries And it came to pass, when Joshua was by Jericho,.... Or "in Jericho" i; not in the city itself, but in the border of it, as Kimchi and Ben Melech; or ...

And it came to pass, when Joshua was by Jericho,.... Or "in Jericho" i; not in the city itself, but in the border of it, as Kimchi and Ben Melech; or on the side of it, as Jarchi; on one side of which he was reconnoitring by himself, very probably seeking for a proper place where to make his first attack; or if he could find out some avenue to the city, whereby he could enter more easily; or it may be he was meditating a scheme how to subdue the city; and it is very likely praying to God that he would direct him, and succeed him. Ben Gersom interprets it, his thoughts were in Jericho; and both he, and Abarbinel, suppose, that what follows was in a vision of prophecy, that it seemed to him that he was in Jericho, and saw a person, as after described, and was only a dream or night vision; but, no doubt, whether this was in the day or in the night, which is not certain, it was a real sight that Joshua had, or one really appeared to him as a man, as after related:

that he lifted up his eyes, and looked; his eyes before looked downwards, as the eyes of a person in deep study and meditation usually do:

and, behold, there stood a man over against him; not a mere man, nor a created angel in an human form, but a divine Person in such a form, even the Son of God, who frequently appeared in this manner to the patriarchs; as is clear from the worship paid unto him by Joshua, by his calling him Lord, and owning himself to be his servant; and by the ground on which he stood, being holy through his presence, as well as by his title, the Captain of the Lord's host. Jarchi says, this is Michael, which, if understood of Michael the uncreated angel, the head of all principality and power, is right, who is always meant by Michael, whenever he is spoken of in Scripture; and so this is interpreted by the ancient Jews k of the Angel the Redeemer:

with his sword drawn in his hand; who sometimes is said to have a twoedged one come out of his mouth, and sometimes one girt on his thigh, and here with one drawn out of the scabbard, to justify the war with the Canaanites, and to encourage Joshua to proceed in it. His sword has been drawn against his enemies, and those of his people from the beginning, ever since the fall of man, when enmity commenced between him and the seed of the serpent; it appeared drawn when here on earth combating with all our spiritual enemies, and will never be put up until all enemies are put under his feet:

and Joshua went unto him; which showed great courage, presence of mind, and magnanimity:

and said unto him, art thou for us, or for our adversaries? by his appearing in this warlike posture, he concluded it was to take on one side or the other, either on the side of Israel, or of the Canaanites; and he seemed to suspect that it was on the side of the latter, and that he was one that was come to defy the armies of Israel, as Goliath afterwards did, 1Sa 17:8; and to engage in a single combat with Joshua their general, and so decide the war; in which, had this been the case, Joshua was ready to fight with him.

Gill: Jos 5:14 - And he said, nay // but as Captain of the host of the Lord am I now come // and Joshua fell on his face to the earth // and did worship // and said unto him, what saith my Lord unto his servant And he said, nay,.... Not for or on the side of their adversaries was he come, as Joshua suspected at the first sight of him; the Septuagint version i...

And he said, nay,.... Not for or on the side of their adversaries was he come, as Joshua suspected at the first sight of him; the Septuagint version is, "he said unto him", taking לא for לו, as it sometimes is:

but as Captain of the host of the Lord am I now come; of the host of the Lord both in heaven and in earth, angels and men, and particularly of the people of Israel, called the armies and host of the Lord, Exo 7:4; so that though Joshua was general, Christ was Generalissimo; and so Joshua understood him, and therefore showed a readiness to do whatsoever he should command him; the spiritual Israel of God, the church, is in a militant state, and has many enemies to combat with, sin, Satan, the world, and false teachers; Christ is their Leader and Commander, the Captain of their salvation, and has all necessary qualifications or wisdom, courage, and might, for such an office; see Isa 55:4,

and Joshua fell on his face to the earth; in reverence of this divine and illustrious Person, whom he perceived to be what he was:

and did worship; gave him religious worship and adoration, which had he been a created angel he would not have given to him, nor would such an one have received it, Rev 19:10,

and said unto him, what saith my Lord unto his servant? that is, what commands had he to lay upon him, and he was ready to execute them? he was heartily willing to be subject to him as the chief general of the Israelitish forces, and to consider himself, and behave, as an officer under him, and to obey all orders that should be given.

Gill: Jos 5:15 - And the Captain of the Lord's host said unto Joshua // loose thy shoe from off thy foot // for the place whereon thou standest is holy // and Joshua did so And the Captain of the Lord's host said unto Joshua,.... As a trial and proof of his obedience to him: loose thy shoe from off thy foot; which is t...

And the Captain of the Lord's host said unto Joshua,.... As a trial and proof of his obedience to him:

loose thy shoe from off thy foot; which is to be understood literally, as when the like was commanded Moses at Horeb, Exo 3:5; though some interpret it figuratively; as Abarbinel,"remove from thee such thoughts that thou shall take this city by strength:"

for the place whereon thou standest is holy; because of the presence of this Person, and as long as he was there, though afterwards was as another place; the Jewish commentator, last mentioned, thinks this intimates that the city, and all in it (and all round about it), should be "cherem", devoted, and so be holy to the Lord:

and Joshua did so; loosed his shoe from his foot, in obedience to the Captain of the Lord's host, thereby giving proof of his readiness, willingness, and alacrity to serve under him.

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki

NET Notes: Jos 5:1 Heb “their heart[s] melted and there was no longer in them breathe because of the sons of Israel.”

NET Notes: Jos 5:2 Heb “return, circumcise the sons of Israel a second time.” The Hebrew term שׁוּב (shuv, “return”...

NET Notes: Jos 5:3 The name given to the place, Hill of the Foreskins was an obvious reminder of this important event.

NET Notes: Jos 5:4 Heb “All the people who went out from Egypt, the males, all the men of war, died in the desert in the way when they went out from Egypt.”

NET Notes: Jos 5:5 Heb “all the people.”

NET Notes: Jos 5:6 The word picture a land rich in milk and honey depicts the land as containing many grazing areas (which would produce milk) and flowering plants (whic...

NET Notes: Jos 5:7 Heb “their sons he raised up in their place.”

NET Notes: Jos 5:8 Heb “nation.”

NET Notes: Jos 5:9 The name Gilgal sounds like the Hebrew verb “roll away” (גַּלַל, galal).

NET Notes: Jos 5:10 For location see Map5 B2; Map6 E1; Map7 E1; Map8 E3; Map10 A2; Map11 A1.

NET Notes: Jos 5:11 The Hebrew text adds, “on this same day.” This is somewhat redundant in English and has not been translated.

NET Notes: Jos 5:12 Heb “and the sons of Israel had no more manna.”

NET Notes: Jos 5:13 Heb “Are you for us or for our enemies?”

NET Notes: Jos 5:14 Heb “Joshua fell on his face to the ground and bowed down.”

Geneva Bible: Jos 5:1 And it came to pass, when all the kings of the ( a ) Amorites, which [were] on the side of Jordan westward, and all the kings of the Canaanites, which...

Geneva Bible: Jos 5:2 At that time the LORD said unto Joshua, Make thee sharp knives, ( b ) and circumcise again the children of Israel the second time. ( b ) For now they...

Geneva Bible: Jos 5:3 And Joshua made him sharp knives, and circumcised the children of Israel at ( c ) the hill of the foreskins. ( c ) Gilgal was so called, because they...

Geneva Bible: Jos 5:5 Now all the people that came out were circumcised: but all the people [that were] born in the wilderness by the way as they came forth out of Egypt, [...

Geneva Bible: Jos 5:8 And it came to pass, when they had done circumcising all the people, that they abode in their places in the camp, till they ( e ) were whole. ( e ) F...

Geneva Bible: Jos 5:9 And the LORD said unto Joshua, This day have I rolled away the ( f ) reproach of Egypt from off you. Wherefore the name of the place is called Gilgal ...

Geneva Bible: Jos 5:14 And he said, Nay; but [as] captain of the host of the LORD am I now come. And Joshua fell on his face to the earth, and ( g ) did worship, and said un...

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Rentang Ayat

Maclaren: Jos 5:14 - The Captain Of The Lord's Host Joshua 5:14 The army of Israel was just beginning a hard conflict under an untried leader. Behind them the Jordan barred their retreat, in front of th...

MHCC: Jos 5:1-9 - --How dreadful is their case, who see the wrath of God advancing towards them, without being able to turn it aside, or escape it! Such will be the horri...

MHCC: Jos 5:10-12 - --A solemn passover was kept, at the time appointed by the law, in the plains of Jericho, in defiance of the Canaanites round about them. It was a perfo...

MHCC: Jos 5:13-15 - --We read not of any appearance of God's glory to Joshua till now. There appeared to him one as a man to be noticed. This Man was the Son of God, the et...

Matthew Henry: Jos 5:1-9 - -- A vast show, no doubt, the numerous camp of Israel made in the plains of Jericho, where now they had pitched their tents. Who can count the dust of...

Matthew Henry: Jos 5:10-12 - -- We may well imagine that the people of Canaan were astonished, and that when they observed the motions of the enemy they could not but think them ve...

Matthew Henry: Jos 5:13-15 - -- We have hitherto found God often speaking to Joshua, but we read not till now of any appearance of God's glory to him; now that his difficulties inc...

Keil-Delitzsch: Jos 5:1-9 - -- Circumcision of the People. - Jos 5:1. Whilst, on the one hand, the approach of the passover rendered it desirable that the circumcision of those wh...

Keil-Delitzsch: Jos 5:10-12 - -- The Passover at Gilgal. - When the whole nation had been received again into covenant with the Lord by circumcision, they kept the passover, which h...

Keil-Delitzsch: Jos 5:13-15 - -- Appearance and Message of the Angel of the Lord. - Jos 5:13-15. When Joshua was by Jericho, בּיריחו , lit., in Jericho ( בּ expressing imm...

Constable: Jos 5:1-12 - --2. Circumcision and celebration of the Passover 5:1-12 "This chapter [five] records four experiences which God brought to Joshua and the people, each ...

Constable: Jos 5:13--13:1 - --C. Possession of the land 5:13-12:24 Before Israel entered the land of Canaan, God had been preparing fo...

Constable: Jos 5:13--7:1 - --1. The conquest of Jericho 5:13-6:27 5:13-15 "Despite Joshua's long military experience he had never led an attack on a fortified city that was prepar...

Guzik: Jos 5:1-15 - Circumcision and Passover at Gilgal Joshua 5 - Circumcision and Passover at Gilgal A. The second work at Gilgal: A radical obedience. 1. (1) The fear of Israel's enemies at the faith ...

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Pendahuluan / Garis Besar

JFB: Joshua (Pendahuluan Kitab) JOSHUA. The title of this book is derived from the pious and valiant leader whose achievements it relates and who is commonly supposed to have been it...

JFB: Joshua (Garis Besar) THE LORD APPOINTS JOSHUA TO SUCCEED MOSES. (Jos. 1:1-18) RAHAB RECEIVES AND CONCEALS THE TWO SPIES. (Jos 2:1-7) THE COVENANT BETWEEN HER AND THEM. (J...

TSK: Joshua (Pendahuluan Kitab) The Book of Joshua is one of the most important documents in the Old Testament. The rapid conquest of the Promised Land, and the actual settlement of...

TSK: Joshua 5 (Pendahuluan Pasal) Overview Jos 5:1, The Canaanites are afraid; Jos 5:2, Joshua renews circumcision; Jos 5:10, The passover is kept at Gilgal Jos 5:12, They eat the ...

Poole: Joshua (Pendahuluan Kitab) BOOK OF JOSHUA THE ARGUMENT IT is not material to know who was the penman of this book, whether Joshua, as seems most probable from Jos 24:26 , o...

Poole: Joshua 5 (Pendahuluan Pasal) CHAPTER 5 The Amorites and Canaanites hear of this, and are afraid, Jos 5:1 . The males born in the wilderness are circumcised, Jos 5:2-9 . The pas...

MHCC: Joshua (Pendahuluan Kitab) Here is the history of Israel's passing into the land of Canaan, conquering and dividing it, under the command of Joshua, and their history until his ...

MHCC: Joshua 5 (Pendahuluan Pasal) (Jos 5:1-9) The Canaanites are afraid, Circumcision renewed. (Jos 5:10-12) The passover at Gilgal The manna ceases. (Jos 5:13-15) The Captain of the...

Matthew Henry: Joshua (Pendahuluan Kitab) An Exposition, with Practical Observations, of The Book of Joshua I. We have now before us the history of the Jewish nation in this book and those tha...

Matthew Henry: Joshua 5 (Pendahuluan Pasal) Israel have now got over Jordan, and the waters which had opened before them, to favour their march forward, are closed again behind them, to forbi...

Constable: Joshua (Pendahuluan Kitab) Introduction Title The name of this book in Hebrew, Greek, and English comes from the ...

Constable: Joshua (Garis Besar) Outline I. The conquest of the land chs. 1-12 A. Preparations for entering Canaan chs. 1-2 ...

Constable: Joshua Joshua Bibliography Aharoni, Yohanan. "The Province-List of Judah." Vetus Testamentum 9 (1959):225-46. ...

Haydock: Joshua (Pendahuluan Kitab) INTRODUCTION. THE BOOK OF JOSUE. This book is called Josue , because it contains the history of what passed under him, and, according to the comm...

Gill: Joshua (Pendahuluan Kitab) INTRODUCTION TO JOSHUA The Jews distinguish the prophets into former and latter; the first of the former prophets is Joshua, or Sepher Joshua, the ...

Gill: Joshua 5 (Pendahuluan Pasal) INTRODUCTION TO JOSHUA 5 The Canaanites being dispirited on the passage of the children of Israel through Jordan, Jos 5:1; Joshua is ordered to cir...

Advanced Commentary (Kamus, Lagu-Lagu Himne, Gambar, Ilustrasi Khotbah, Pertanyaan-Pertanyaan, dll)


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