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Teks -- John 8:1-59 (NET)

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Konteks
8:1 But Jesus went to the Mount of Olives. 8:2 Early in the morning he came to the temple courts again. All the people came to him, and he sat down and began to teach them. 8:3 The experts in the law and the Pharisees brought a woman who had been caught committing adultery. They made her stand in front of them 8:4 and said to Jesus, “Teacher, this woman was caught in the very act of adultery. 8:5 In the law Moses commanded us to stone to death such women. What then do you say?” 8:6 (Now they were asking this in an attempt to trap him, so that they could bring charges against him.) Jesus bent down and wrote on the ground with his finger. 8:7 When they persisted in asking him, he stood up straight and replied, “Whoever among you is guiltless may be the first to throw a stone at her.” 8:8 Then he bent over again and wrote on the ground. 8:9 Now when they heard this, they began to drift away one at a time, starting with the older ones, until Jesus was left alone with the woman standing before him. 8:10 Jesus stood up straight and said to her, “Woman, where are they? Did no one condemn you?” 8:11 She replied, “No one, Lord.” And Jesus said, “I do not condemn you either. Go, and from now on do not sin any more.”
Jesus as the Light of the World
8:12 Then Jesus spoke out again, “I am the light of the world. The one who follows me will never walk in darkness, but will have the light of life.” 8:13 So the Pharisees objected, “You testify about yourself; your testimony is not true!” 8:14 Jesus answered, “Even if I testify about myself, my testimony is true, because I know where I came from and where I am going. But you people do not know where I came from or where I am going. 8:15 You people judge by outward appearances; I do not judge anyone. 8:16 But if I judge, my evaluation is accurate, because I am not alone when I judge, but I and the Father who sent me do so together. 8:17 It is written in your law that the testimony of two men is true. 8:18 I testify about myself and the Father who sent me testifies about me.” 8:19 Then they began asking him, “Who is your father?” Jesus answered, “You do not know either me or my Father. If you knew me you would know my Father too.” 8:20 (Jesus spoke these words near the offering box while he was teaching in the temple courts. No one seized him because his time had not yet come.)
Where Jesus Came From and Where He is Going
8:21 Then Jesus said to them again, “I am going away, and you will look for me but will die in your sin. Where I am going you cannot come.” 8:22 So the Jewish leaders began to say, “Perhaps he is going to kill himself, because he says, ‘Where I am going you cannot come.’” 8:23 Jesus replied, “You people are from below; I am from above. You people are from this world; I am not from this world. 8:24 Thus I told you that you will die in your sins. For unless you believe that I am he, you will die in your sins.” 8:25 So they said to him, “Who are you?” Jesus replied, “What I have told you from the beginning. 8:26 I have many things to say and to judge about you, but the Father who sent me is truthful, and the things I have heard from him I speak to the world.” 8:27 (They did not understand that he was telling them about his Father.) 8:28 Then Jesus said, “When you lift up the Son of Man, then you will know that I am he, and I do nothing on my own initiative, but I speak just what the Father taught me. 8:29 And the one who sent me is with me. He has not left me alone, because I always do those things that please him.” 8:30 While he was saying these things, many people believed in him.
Abraham’s Children and the Devil’s Children
8:31 Then Jesus said to those Judeans who had believed him, “If you continue to follow my teaching, you are really my disciples 8:32 and you will know the truth, and the truth will set you free.” 8:33 “We are descendants of Abraham,” they replied, “and have never been anyone’s slaves! How can you say, ‘You will become free’?” 8:34 Jesus answered them, “I tell you the solemn truth, everyone who practices sin is a slave of sin. 8:35 The slave does not remain in the family forever, but the son remains forever. 8:36 So if the son sets you free, you will be really free. 8:37 I know that you are Abraham’s descendants. But you want to kill me, because my teaching makes no progress among you. 8:38 I am telling you the things I have seen while with the Father; as for you, practice the things you have heard from the Father!” 8:39 They answered him, “Abraham is our father!” Jesus replied, “If you are Abraham’s children, you would be doing the deeds of Abraham. 8:40 But now you are trying to kill me, a man who has told you the truth I heard from God. Abraham did not do this! 8:41 You people are doing the deeds of your father.” Then they said to Jesus, “We were not born as a result of immorality! We have only one Father, God himself.” 8:42 Jesus replied, “If God were your Father, you would love me, for I have come from God and am now here. I have not come on my own initiative, but he sent me. 8:43 Why don’t you understand what I am saying? It is because you cannot cannot accept my teaching. 8:44 You people are from your father the devil, and you want to do what your father desires. He was a murderer from the beginning, and does not uphold the truth, because there is no truth in him. Whenever he lies, he speaks according to his own nature, because he is a liar and the father of lies. 8:45 But because I am telling you the truth, you do not believe me. 8:46 Who among you can prove me guilty of any sin? If I am telling you the truth, why don’t you believe me? 8:47 The one who belongs to God listens and responds to God’s words. You don’t listen and respond, because you don’t belong to God.” 8:48 The Judeans replied, “Aren’t we correct in saying that you are a Samaritan and are possessed by a demon?” 8:49 Jesus answered, “I am not possessed by a demon, but I honor my Father– and yet you dishonor me. 8:50 I am not trying to get praise for myself. There is one who demands it, and he also judges. 8:51 I tell you the solemn truth, if anyone obeys my teaching, he will never see death.” 8:52 Then the Judeans responded, “Now we know you’re possessed by a demon! Both Abraham and the prophets died, and yet you say, ‘If anyone obeys my teaching, he will never experience death.’ 8:53 You aren’t greater than our father Abraham who died, are you? And the prophets died too! Who do you claim to be?” 8:54 Jesus replied, “If I glorify myself, my glory is worthless. The one who glorifies me is my Father, about whom you people say, ‘He is our God.’ 8:55 Yet you do not know him, but I know him. If I were to say that I do not know him, I would be a liar like you. But I do know him, and I obey his teaching. 8:56 Your father Abraham was overjoyed to see my day, and he saw it and was glad.” 8:57 Then the Judeans replied, “You are not yet fifty years old! Have you seen Abraham?” 8:58 Jesus said to them, “I tell you the solemn truth, before Abraham came into existence, I am!” 8:59 Then they picked up stones to throw at him, but Jesus hid himself and went out from the temple area.
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Abraham a son of Terah; the father of Isaac; ancestor of the Jewish nation.,the son of Terah of Shem
 · Jews the people descended from Israel
 · Moses a son of Amram; the Levite who led Israel out of Egypt and gave them The Law of Moses,a Levite who led Israel out of Egypt and gave them the law
 · Mount of Olives a ridge east of Jerusalem across the Kidron Valley and rising about 200 feet above the city (NIV note)
 · Pharisee a religious group or sect of the Jews
 · Samaritan inhabitant(s) of Samaria


Topik/Tema Kamus: Jesus, The Christ | Temple | Self-righteousness | JESUS CHRIST, 4C2 | Adultery | Abraham | REDEEMER; REDEMPTION | HEREDITY | Blindness | Women | PURITY | God | Righteous | Satan | Persecution | Unbelief | Hypocrisy | Servant | Liberty | GOD, 3 | selebihnya
Daftar Isi

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Robertson , Vincent , Wesley , JFB , Clarke , Calvin , Defender , TSK

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Poole , Lightfoot , PBC , Haydock , Gill

Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki
NET Notes , Geneva Bible

Catatan Rentang Ayat
Maclaren , MHCC , Matthew Henry , Barclay , Constable , College , McGarvey , Lapide

Lainnya
Evidence

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per frasa)

Robertson: Joh 8:1 - But Jesus went But Jesus went ( Iēsous de eporeuthē ). Same deponent use of poreuomai as in Joh 7:53 and in contrast to the Sanhedrin’ s conduct, though ...

But Jesus went ( Iēsous de eporeuthē ).

Same deponent use of poreuomai as in Joh 7:53 and in contrast to the Sanhedrin’ s conduct, though it seems "pointless"(Dods). Apparently Jesus was lodging in the home of Mary, Martha, and Lazarus.

Robertson: Joh 8:2 - Early in the morning Early in the morning ( orthrou ). Genitive of time, orthros meaning daybreak, old word, not in John, though in Luk 24:1; Act 5:21. John uses prōi...

Early in the morning ( orthrou ).

Genitive of time, orthros meaning daybreak, old word, not in John, though in Luk 24:1; Act 5:21. John uses prōi (Joh 18:28; Joh 20:1; Joh 21:4).

Robertson: Joh 8:2 - He came again into the temple He came again into the temple ( palin paregeneto eis to hieron ). If the paragraph is genuine, the time is the next day after the eighth and last day...

He came again into the temple ( palin paregeneto eis to hieron ).

If the paragraph is genuine, the time is the next day after the eighth and last day of the feast. If not genuine, there is no way of telling the time of this apparently true incident.

Robertson: Joh 8:2 - And all the people came unto him And all the people came unto him ( kai pās ho laos ērcheto pros auton ). Imperfect middle of erchomai picturing the enthusiasm of the whole (pa...

And all the people came unto him ( kai pās ho laos ērcheto pros auton ).

Imperfect middle of erchomai picturing the enthusiasm of the whole (pas ) crowd now as opposed to the divisions in chapter 7.

Robertson: Joh 8:2 - Taught Taught ( edidasken ). Imperfect active of didaskō . He took his seat (kathisas , ingressive active participle of kathizō ) as was customary for ...

Taught ( edidasken ).

Imperfect active of didaskō . He took his seat (kathisas , ingressive active participle of kathizō ) as was customary for Jesus and began to teach (inchoative imperfect). So the picture.

Robertson: Joh 8:3 - The scribes and the Pharisees The scribes and the Pharisees ( hoi grammateis kai hoi Pharisaioi ). John does not mention "scribes,"though this combination (note two articles) is c...

The scribes and the Pharisees ( hoi grammateis kai hoi Pharisaioi ).

John does not mention "scribes,"though this combination (note two articles) is common enough in the Synoptics (Luk 5:30; Luk 6:7, etc.).

Robertson: Joh 8:3 - Bring Bring ( agousin ). Vivid dramatic present active indicative of agō . Dods calls this "in itself an unlawful thing to do"since they had a court for ...

Bring ( agousin ).

Vivid dramatic present active indicative of agō . Dods calls this "in itself an unlawful thing to do"since they had a court for the trial of such a case. Their purpose is to entrap Jesus.

Robertson: Joh 8:3 - Taken in adultery Taken in adultery ( epi moicheiāi kateilemmenēn ). Perfect passive participle of katalambanō , old compound to seize (Mar 9:18), to catch, to o...

Taken in adultery ( epi moicheiāi kateilemmenēn ).

Perfect passive participle of katalambanō , old compound to seize (Mar 9:18), to catch, to overtake (Joh 12:35), to overcome (or overtake) in Joh 1:5.

Robertson: Joh 8:3 - Having let her in the midst Having let her in the midst ( stēsantes autēn en mesōi ). First aorist active (transitive) participle of histēmi . Here all could see her and...

Having let her in the midst ( stēsantes autēn en mesōi ).

First aorist active (transitive) participle of histēmi . Here all could see her and what Jesus did with such a case. They knew his proneness to forgive sinners.

Robertson: Joh 8:4 - Hath been taken Hath been taken ( kateilēptai ). Perfect passive indicative of katalambanō (see Joh 8:3), caught and still guilty.

Hath been taken ( kateilēptai ).

Perfect passive indicative of katalambanō (see Joh 8:3), caught and still guilty.

Robertson: Joh 8:4 - In adultery In adultery ( moicheuomenē ). Present passive participle of moicheuō , "herself suffering adultery"(Mat 5:32). Used of married people. Not in Joh...

In adultery ( moicheuomenē ).

Present passive participle of moicheuō , "herself suffering adultery"(Mat 5:32). Used of married people. Not in John.

Robertson: Joh 8:4 - In the very act In the very act ( ep' autophōrōi ). Old adjective (autophōros ,autos , self, and phōr , thief) caught in the act of theft, then extended to ...

In the very act ( ep' autophōrōi ).

Old adjective (autophōros ,autos , self, and phōr , thief) caught in the act of theft, then extended to any crime in which one is caught. Old idiom, but not elsewhere in the Greek Bible. One example in a Berlin papyrus.

Robertson: Joh 8:5 - Commanded Commanded ( eneteilato ). First aorist middle indicative of entellō , old verb to enjoin (Mat 4:6).

Commanded ( eneteilato ).

First aorist middle indicative of entellō , old verb to enjoin (Mat 4:6).

Robertson: Joh 8:5 - To stone such To stone such ( tas toiautas lithazein ). Present active infinitive of lithazō (from lithos ), from Aristotle on. Stoning was specified for the ...

To stone such ( tas toiautas lithazein ).

Present active infinitive of lithazō (from lithos ), from Aristotle on. Stoning was specified for the case of a betrothed woman guilty of adultery (Deu 22:23.) and for a priest’ s daughter if guilty. In other cases just death was commanded (Lev 20:10; Deu 22:22). The Talmud prescribes strangulation. This case may have strictly come within the regulation as a betrothed virgin.

Robertson: Joh 8:5 - What then sayest thou of her? What then sayest thou of her? ( su oun ti legeis ). "Thou then, what dost thou say?"This was the whole point, to catch Jesus, not to punish the woman...

What then sayest thou of her? ( su oun ti legeis ).

"Thou then, what dost thou say?"This was the whole point, to catch Jesus, not to punish the woman.

Robertson: Joh 8:6 - Tempting him Tempting him ( peirazontes auton ). Evil sense of this present active participle of peirazō , as so often (Mar 8:11; Mar 10:2, etc.).

Tempting him ( peirazontes auton ).

Evil sense of this present active participle of peirazō , as so often (Mar 8:11; Mar 10:2, etc.).

Robertson: Joh 8:6 - That they might have whereof to accuse him That they might have whereof to accuse him ( hina echōsin katēgorein autou ). Purpose clause with hina and present active subjunctive of echō...

That they might have whereof to accuse him ( hina echōsin katēgorein autou ).

Purpose clause with hina and present active subjunctive of echō . This laying of traps for Jesus was a common practice of his enemies (Luk 11:16, etc.). Note present active infinitive of katēgoreō (see Mat 12:10 for the verb) to go on accusing (with genitive autou ). It was now a habit with these rabbis.

Robertson: Joh 8:6 - Stooped down Stooped down ( katō kupsas ). First aorist active participle of kuptō , old verb to bow the head, to bend forward, in N.T. only here and Joh 8:8;...

Stooped down ( katō kupsas ).

First aorist active participle of kuptō , old verb to bow the head, to bend forward, in N.T. only here and Joh 8:8; Mar 1:7. The use of katō (down) gives a vivid touch to the picture.

Robertson: Joh 8:6 - With his finger With his finger ( tōi daktulōi ). Instrumental case of daktulos for which see Mat 23:4.

With his finger ( tōi daktulōi ).

Instrumental case of daktulos for which see Mat 23:4.

Robertson: Joh 8:6 - Wrote on the ground Wrote on the ground ( kategraphen eis tēn gēn ). Imperfect active of katagraphō , old compound, here only in N.T., to draw, to delineate, to wr...

Wrote on the ground ( kategraphen eis tēn gēn ).

Imperfect active of katagraphō , old compound, here only in N.T., to draw, to delineate, to write down, apparently inchoative, began to write on the sand as every one has done sometimes. The only mention of writing by Jesus and the use of katagraphō leaves it uncertain whether he was writing words or drawing pictures or making signs. If we only knew what he wrote! Certainly Jesus knew how to write. And yet more books have been written about this one who wrote nothing that is preserved than any other person or subject in human history. There is a tradition that Jesus wrote down the names and sins of these accusers. That is not likely. They were written on their hearts. Jesus alone on this occasion showed embarrassment over this woman’ s sin.

Robertson: Joh 8:7 - When they continued asking When they continued asking ( hōs epemenon erōtōntes ). Imperfect active indicative of epimenō (waiting in addition or still, epi , old verb...

When they continued asking ( hōs epemenon erōtōntes ).

Imperfect active indicative of epimenō (waiting in addition or still, epi , old verb) with supplementary active participle of erōtaō , to question. See same construction in Act 12:16 The verb epimenō does not occur in John. They saw that Jesus seemed embarrassed, but did not know that it was as much because of "the brazen hardness of the prosecutors"as because of the shame of the deed.

Robertson: Joh 8:7 - He lifted himself up He lifted himself up ( anekupsen ). First aorist active indicative of anakuptō , the opposite of katakuptō , to bend down (Joh 8:8) or of katō ...

He lifted himself up ( anekupsen ).

First aorist active indicative of anakuptō , the opposite of katakuptō , to bend down (Joh 8:8) or of katō kuptō (Joh 8:6).

Robertson: Joh 8:7 - He that is without sin He that is without sin ( ho anamartētos ). Verbal adjective (an privative and hamartētos from hamartanō ), old word, either one who has no...

He that is without sin ( ho anamartētos ).

Verbal adjective (an privative and hamartētos from hamartanō ), old word, either one who has not sinned as here and Deu 29:19 or one who cannot sin, not in the N.T.

Robertson: Joh 8:7 - Among you Among you ( humōn ). Objective genitive.

Among you ( humōn ).

Objective genitive.

Robertson: Joh 8:7 - First cast First cast ( prōtos baletō ). The nominative prōtos means first before others, be the first to cast, not cast before he does something else. ...

First cast ( prōtos baletō ).

The nominative prōtos means first before others, be the first to cast, not cast before he does something else. See Joh 20:4. The verb is second aorist imperative of ballō , old verb to fling or cast. Jesus thus picks out the executioner in the case.

Robertson: Joh 8:8 - Again he stooped down Again he stooped down ( palin katakupsas ). First aorist active participle of katakuptō , old and rare verb (in Epictetus II, 16. 22) instead of ...

Again he stooped down ( palin katakupsas ).

First aorist active participle of katakuptō , old and rare verb (in Epictetus II, 16. 22) instead of katō kupsas in Joh 8:6.

Robertson: Joh 8:8 - With his finger With his finger ( tōi daktulōi ). Not genuine, only in D and Western class.

With his finger ( tōi daktulōi ).

Not genuine, only in D and Western class.

Robertson: Joh 8:8 - Wrote on the ground Wrote on the ground ( egraphen eis tēn gēn ). Imperfect active of the simplex graphō , not katagraphō . The second picture of Jesus writing o...

Wrote on the ground ( egraphen eis tēn gēn ).

Imperfect active of the simplex graphō , not katagraphō . The second picture of Jesus writing on the ground.

Robertson: Joh 8:9 - Went out Went out ( exērchonto ). Inchoative imperfect. Graphic picture.

Went out ( exērchonto ).

Inchoative imperfect. Graphic picture.

Robertson: Joh 8:9 - One by one One by one ( heis kath' heis ). Not a Johannine phrase, but in Mar 14:19 where also the second nominative is retained as if kath' (kata ) is regar...

One by one ( heis kath' heis ).

Not a Johannine phrase, but in Mar 14:19 where also the second nominative is retained as if kath' (kata ) is regarded as a mere adverb and not as a preposition.

Robertson: Joh 8:9 - Beginning from the eldest Beginning from the eldest ( arxamenoi apo tōn presbuterōn ). "From the elder (comparative form, common in Koiné as superlative) men,"as was na...

Beginning from the eldest ( arxamenoi apo tōn presbuterōn ).

"From the elder (comparative form, common in Koiné as superlative) men,"as was natural for they had more sins of this sort which they recalled. "They are summoned to judge themselves rather than the woman"(Dods).

Robertson: Joh 8:9 - Was left alone Was left alone ( kateleiphthē monos ). First aorist effective passive indicative of kataleipō , to leave behind, with predicate nominative monos ...

Was left alone ( kateleiphthē monos ).

First aorist effective passive indicative of kataleipō , to leave behind, with predicate nominative monos . "Jesus was left behind alone."

Robertson: Joh 8:9 - And the woman, where she was, in the midst And the woman, where she was, in the midst ( kai hē gunē en mesōi ousa ). The woman was left behind also "being in the midst"as they had placed...

And the woman, where she was, in the midst ( kai hē gunē en mesōi ousa ).

The woman was left behind also "being in the midst"as they had placed her (Joh 8:3) before they were conscience stricken and left.

Robertson: Joh 8:10 - Lifted up himself Lifted up himself ( anakupsas ). First aorist active participle of anakuptō as in Joh 8:7.

Lifted up himself ( anakupsas ).

First aorist active participle of anakuptō as in Joh 8:7.

Robertson: Joh 8:10 - Where are they? Where are they? ( Pou eisin ). Jesus had kept on writing on the ground as the accusers had slipped away one by one.

Where are they? ( Pou eisin ).

Jesus had kept on writing on the ground as the accusers had slipped away one by one.

Robertson: Joh 8:10 - Did no man condemn thee? Did no man condemn thee? ( oudeis se katekrinen ). First aorist active indicative of katakrinō , old and common verb to give judgment against (down...

Did no man condemn thee? ( oudeis se katekrinen ).

First aorist active indicative of katakrinō , old and common verb to give judgment against (down on) one, but not in John. No one dared to cast a stone at the woman on Christ’ s terms.

Robertson: Joh 8:11 - No man, Lord No man, Lord ( Oudeis ,Kurie ). "No one, Sir."She makes no excuse for her sin. Does she recognize Jesus as "Lord"?

No man, Lord ( Oudeis ,Kurie ).

"No one, Sir."She makes no excuse for her sin. Does she recognize Jesus as "Lord"?

Robertson: Joh 8:11 - Neither do I condemn thee Neither do I condemn thee ( Oude egō se katakrinō ). Jesus does not condone her sin. See Joh 8:15 for "I do not judge (condemn) any one."But he d...

Neither do I condemn thee ( Oude egō se katakrinō ).

Jesus does not condone her sin. See Joh 8:15 for "I do not judge (condemn) any one."But he does give the poor woman another chance.

Robertson: Joh 8:11 - Henceforth sin no more Henceforth sin no more ( apo tou nun mēketi hamartane ). See also Joh 5:14 where this same language is used to the impotent man. It literally means...

Henceforth sin no more ( apo tou nun mēketi hamartane ).

See also Joh 5:14 where this same language is used to the impotent man. It literally means (prohibition with present active imperative): "Henceforth no longer go on sinning."One can only hope that the woman was really changed in heart and life. Jesus clearly felt that even a wicked woman can be saved.

Robertson: Joh 8:12 - Again therefore Again therefore ( palin oun ). This language fits in better with Joh 7:52 than with Joh 8:11. Just suppose Jesus is in the temple on the following da...

Again therefore ( palin oun ).

This language fits in better with Joh 7:52 than with Joh 8:11. Just suppose Jesus is in the temple on the following day.

Robertson: Joh 8:12 - Unto them Unto them ( autois ). The Pharisees and crowds in the temple after the feast was past.

Unto them ( autois ).

The Pharisees and crowds in the temple after the feast was past.

Robertson: Joh 8:12 - I am the light of the world I am the light of the world ( egō eimi to phōs tou kosmou ). Jesus had called his followers "the light of the world"(Mat 5:14), but that was ligh...

I am the light of the world ( egō eimi to phōs tou kosmou ).

Jesus had called his followers "the light of the world"(Mat 5:14), but that was light reflected from him. Already Jesus (the Logos) had been called the true light of men (Joh 1:9; Joh 3:19). The Psalmist calls God his Light (Psa 27:1). So Isa 60:19. At the feast of tabernacles in the Court of the Women where Jesus was on this day (Joh 8:20) there were brilliant candelabra and there was the memory of the pillar of cloud by day and of fire by night. But with all this background this supreme and exclusive claim of Jesus (repeated in Joh 9:5) to being the light of the whole world (of Gentiles as well as of Jews) startled the Pharisees and challenged their opposition.

Robertson: Joh 8:12 - Shall have the light of life Shall have the light of life ( hexei to phōs tēs zōēs ). The light which springs from and issues in life (Westcott). Cf. Joh 6:33, Joh 6:51 a...

Shall have the light of life ( hexei to phōs tēs zōēs ).

The light which springs from and issues in life (Westcott). Cf. Joh 6:33, Joh 6:51 about Jesus being the Bread of Life. In this sublime claim we come to a decisive place. It will not do to praise Jesus and deny his deity. Only as the Son of God can we justify and accept this language which otherwise is mere conceit and froth.

Robertson: Joh 8:13 - Of thyself Of thyself ( peri seautou ). This technical objection was according to the rules of evidence among the rabbis. "No man can give witness for himself"(...

Of thyself ( peri seautou ).

This technical objection was according to the rules of evidence among the rabbis. "No man can give witness for himself"( Mishnah, Ketub. 11. 9). Hence, they say, "not true"(ouk alēthes ), not pertinent. "They were still in the region of pedantic rules and external tests."In Joh 5:31 Jesus acknowledged this technical need of further witness outside of his own claims (Joh 5:19-30) and proceeded to give it (John 5:32-47) in the testimony of the Baptist, of the Father, of his works, of the Scriptures, and of Moses in particular.

Robertson: Joh 8:14 - Even if Even if ( kan ). That is kai ean , a condition of the third class with the present active subjunctive marturō . Jesus means that his own witness co...

Even if ( kan ).

That is kai ean , a condition of the third class with the present active subjunctive marturō . Jesus means that his own witness concerning himself is true (alēthes ) even if it contravenes their technical rules of evidence. He can and does tell the truth all by himself concerning himself.

Robertson: Joh 8:14 - For I know whence I came and whither I go For I know whence I came and whither I go ( hoti oida pothen ēlthon kai pou hupagō ). In this terse sentence with two indirect questions Jesus al...

For I know whence I came and whither I go ( hoti oida pothen ēlthon kai pou hupagō ).

In this terse sentence with two indirect questions Jesus alludes to his pre-existence with the Father before his Incarnation as in Joh 17:5 and to the return to the Father after the death and resurrection as in Joh 13:3; Joh 14:2. He again puts both ideas together in one crisp clause in Joh 16:28 for the apostles who profess to understand him then. But here these Pharisees are blind to the words of Jesus. "But ye know not whence I come nor whither I go"(humeis de ouk oidate pothen erchomai ē pou hupagō ). He had spoken of his heavenly destiny (Joh 7:33). Jesus alone knew his personal consciousness of his coming from, fellowship with, and return to the Father. Stier ( Words of the Lord Jesus ) argues that one might as well say to the sun, if claiming to be the sun, that it was night, because it bore witness of itself. The answer is the shining of the sun.

Robertson: Joh 8:15 - After the flesh After the flesh ( kata tēn sarka ). According to the standards of the flesh (2Co 5:16). The Baptist had said: "There stands one among you whom ye k...

After the flesh ( kata tēn sarka ).

According to the standards of the flesh (2Co 5:16). The Baptist had said: "There stands one among you whom ye know not"(Joh 1:26). The Light of the World had come, but they loved darkness rather than light (Joh 3:19), because the god of this age had blinded their thoughts so that they could not see the illumination of the gospel of the glory of Christ who is the image of God (2Co 4:4).

Robertson: Joh 8:16 - Yea and if I judge Yea and if I judge ( kai ean krinō de egō ). "And even if I pass judgment."Condition of third class again.

Yea and if I judge ( kai ean krinō de egō ).

"And even if I pass judgment."Condition of third class again.

Robertson: Joh 8:16 - True True ( ale4thine4). See Joh 1:9 for alēthinos , genuine, soundly based (cf. dikaia in Joh 5:30), "satisfying our perfect conception"(Westcott), no...

True ( ale4thine4).

See Joh 1:9 for alēthinos , genuine, soundly based (cf. dikaia in Joh 5:30), "satisfying our perfect conception"(Westcott), not merely true (alēthes ) in the particular facts (Joh 8:14).

Robertson: Joh 8:16 - For I am not alone For I am not alone ( hoti monos ouk eimi ). Jesus now takes up the technical criticism in Joh 8:13 after justifying his right to speak concerning him...

For I am not alone ( hoti monos ouk eimi ).

Jesus now takes up the technical criticism in Joh 8:13 after justifying his right to speak concerning himself.

Robertson: Joh 8:16 - But I and the Father that sent me But I and the Father that sent me ( all egō kai ho pempsas me patēr ). See Joh 16:32 for a like statement about the Father being with Christ. It ...

But I and the Father that sent me ( all egō kai ho pempsas me patēr ).

See Joh 16:32 for a like statement about the Father being with Christ. It is not certain that patēr is genuine here (omitted by Aleph D, but in B L W), but the Father is clearly meant as in Joh 7:18, Joh 7:33. Jesus gives the Father as the second witness.

Robertson: Joh 8:17 - Yea and in your law Yea and in your law ( kai en tōi nomōi de tōi humeterōi ). Same use of kai -de as in Joh 8:16. They claimed possession of the law (Joh 7:4...

Yea and in your law ( kai en tōi nomōi de tōi humeterōi ).

Same use of kai -de as in Joh 8:16. They claimed possession of the law (Joh 7:49) and so Jesus takes this turn in answer to the charge of single witness in Joh 8:13. He will use similar language (your law) in Joh 10:34 in an argumentum ad hominem as here in controversy with the Jews. In Joh 15:24 to the apostles Jesus even says "in their law"in speaking of the hostile Jews plotting his death. He does not mean in either case to separate himself wholly from the Jews and the law, though in Matthew 5 he does show the superiority of his teaching to that of the law. For the Mosaic regulation about two witnesses see Deu 17:6; Deu 19:15. This combined witness of two is not true just because they agree, unless true in fact separately. But if they disagree, the testimony falls to the ground. In this case the Father confirms the witness of the Son as Jesus had already shown (Joh 5:37).

Robertson: Joh 8:18 - The Father The Father ( ho patēr ). Clearly genuine here. So these are the two witnesses that Jesus presents to the Pharisees in defense of his claim to be th...

The Father ( ho patēr ).

Clearly genuine here. So these are the two witnesses that Jesus presents to the Pharisees in defense of his claim to be the Light of the World (Joh 8:12).

Robertson: Joh 8:19 - Where is thy Father? Where is thy Father? ( pou estin ho patēr sou ). "The testimony of an unseen and unheard witness would not satisfy them"(Vincent). Bernard understa...

Where is thy Father? ( pou estin ho patēr sou ).

"The testimony of an unseen and unheard witness would not satisfy them"(Vincent). Bernard understands the Pharisees to see that Jesus claims God the Father as his second witness and so ask "where,"not "who"he is. Augustine has it: Patrem Christi carnaliter acceperunt , Christ’ s human father, as if the Pharisees were "misled perhaps by the Lord’ s use of anthrōpon (Joh 8:17)"(Dods). Cyril even took it to be a coarse allusion to the birth of Jesus as a bastard according to the Talmud. Perhaps the Pharisees used the question with double entendre , even with all three ideas dancing in their hostile minds.

Robertson: Joh 8:19 - Ye would know my Father also Ye would know my Father also ( kai ton patera mou an ēideite ). Conclusion of second-class condition determined as unfulfilled with an and second...

Ye would know my Father also ( kai ton patera mou an ēideite ).

Conclusion of second-class condition determined as unfulfilled with an and second perfect active of oida used as imperfect in both condition and conclusion. See this same point made to Philip in Joh 14:9. In Joh 14:7 Jesus will use ginōskō in the condition and oida in the conclusion. The ignorance of the Pharisees about Jesus proves it and is due to their ignorance of the Father. See this point more fully stated in Joh 5:36-38 when Jesus had his previous controversy in Jerusalem. In Joh 7:28 Jesus said that they knew his home in Nazareth, but he denied then that they knew the Father who sent him. Jesus will again on this occasion (Joh 8:55) deny their knowledge of the Father. Later he will deny their knowledge of the Father and of the Son (Joh 16:3). The Pharisees are silenced for the moment.

Robertson: Joh 8:20 - In the treasury In the treasury ( en tōi gazophulakiōi ). See note on Mar 12:41 and note on Luk 21:1 for this word for the treasure-chambers of the temple. "It a...

In the treasury ( en tōi gazophulakiōi ).

See note on Mar 12:41 and note on Luk 21:1 for this word for the treasure-chambers of the temple. "It abutted on the Court of the Women, and against its walls were placed chests, trumpet-like in form, as receptacles for the offerings of the worshippers"(Bernard). The Persian word gaza (treasure) occurs only once in the N.T. (Act 8:27) and the compound (phulakē , guard) only here in John. Jesus hardly taught within a treasure-chamber. It probably means "at the treasury in the temple."This court was probably the most public part of the temple (Vincent).

Robertson: Joh 8:20 - And And ( kai ) = "and yet"as in Joh 1:10, etc.

And ( kai )

= "and yet"as in Joh 1:10, etc.

Robertson: Joh 8:20 - Because his hour was not yet come Because his hour was not yet come ( hoti oupō elēluthei hē hōra autou ).

Because his hour was not yet come ( hoti oupō elēluthei hē hōra autou ).

Robertson: Joh 8:20 - Reason Reason ( hoti ) given why no one seized (epiasen , cf. Joh 7:30) him. Elēluthei is past perfect active of erchomai , "had not yet come."This very...

Reason ( hoti )

given why no one seized (epiasen , cf. Joh 7:30) him. Elēluthei is past perfect active of erchomai , "had not yet come."This very use of hōra appears in Joh 2:4 and the very clause in Joh 7:30 which see.

Robertson: Joh 8:21 - Again Again ( palin ). Probably palin (again) in Joh 8:12 refers to a day after the feast is over since the last day is mentioned in Joh 7:37. So then he...

Again ( palin ).

Probably palin (again) in Joh 8:12 refers to a day after the feast is over since the last day is mentioned in Joh 7:37. So then here again we probably move on to another day still beyond that in Joh 8:12.

Robertson: Joh 8:21 - And ye shall seek me And ye shall seek me ( kai zētēsete me ). As in Joh 7:34, "the search of despair"(Bernard), seeking for the Messiah when it is too late, the trag...

And ye shall seek me ( kai zētēsete me ).

As in Joh 7:34, "the search of despair"(Bernard), seeking for the Messiah when it is too late, the tragedy of Judaism today (Joh 1:11).

Robertson: Joh 8:21 - And ye shall die in your sin And ye shall die in your sin ( kai en tēi hamartiāi humōn apothaneisthe ). Future middle indicative of apothnēskō which is the emphatic w...

And ye shall die in your sin ( kai en tēi hamartiāi humōn apothaneisthe ).

Future middle indicative of apothnēskō which is the emphatic word here (cf. Eze 3:18; Eze 18:18; Pro 24:9). Note singular hamartiāi (sin) here, but plural hamartiais (sins) when the phrase is repeated in Joh 8:24 (sin in its essence, sin in its acts).

Robertson: Joh 8:21 - Ye cannot come Ye cannot come ( humeis ou dunasthe elthein ). Precise language of Joh 7:34 to the Jews and to the apostles in Joh 13:33.

Ye cannot come ( humeis ou dunasthe elthein ).

Precise language of Joh 7:34 to the Jews and to the apostles in Joh 13:33.

Robertson: Joh 8:22 - Will he kill himself? Will he kill himself? ( mēti apoktenei heauton ). Negative answer formally expected, but there is a manifest sneer in the query. "The mockery in th...

Will he kill himself? ( mēti apoktenei heauton ).

Negative answer formally expected, but there is a manifest sneer in the query. "The mockery in these words is alike subtle and bitter"(Vincent). It was a different group of Jews in Joh 7:31 who cynically suggested that he was going to work among the Greeks in the Dispersion. Here they infer that Jesus refers to the next world. They suggest the depths of Gehenna for him as the abode of suicides (Josephus, War III. viii. 5). Of course the rabbis could not join Jesus there! Edersheim argues against this view.

Robertson: Joh 8:23 - Ye are from beneath Ye are from beneath ( humeis ek tōn katō ). This language, peculiar to John, could take up the idea in Josephus that these rabbis came from Gehen...

Ye are from beneath ( humeis ek tōn katō ).

This language, peculiar to John, could take up the idea in Josephus that these rabbis came from Gehenna whence they will go as children of the devil (Joh 8:44), but the use of ek tou kosmou toutou ("of this world"in origin) as parallel to what we have here seems to prove that the contrast between katō and anō here is between the earthly (sensual) and the heavenly as in Jam 3:15-17. See also Col 3:1. This is the only use of katō in John (except Joh 8:6). These proud rabbis had their origin in this world of darkness (Joh 1:9) with all its limitations.

Robertson: Joh 8:23 - I am from above I am from above ( egō ek tōn anō eimi ). The contrast is complete in origin and character, already stated in Joh 3:31, and calculated to intens...

I am from above ( egō ek tōn anō eimi ).

The contrast is complete in origin and character, already stated in Joh 3:31, and calculated to intensify their anger.

Robertson: Joh 8:24 - For except ye believe For except ye believe ( ean gar mē pisteusēte ). Negative condition of third class with ean mē and ingressive aorist active subjunctive of pi...

For except ye believe ( ean gar mē pisteusēte ).

Negative condition of third class with ean mē and ingressive aorist active subjunctive of pisteuō , "For unless ye come to believe."

Robertson: Joh 8:24 - That I am he That I am he ( hoti egō eimi ). Indirect discourse, but with no word in the predicate after the copula eimi . Jesus can mean either "that I am from...

That I am he ( hoti egō eimi ).

Indirect discourse, but with no word in the predicate after the copula eimi . Jesus can mean either "that I am from above"(Joh 8:23), "that I am the one sent from the Father or the Messiah"(Joh 7:18, Joh 7:28), "that I am the Light of the World"(Joh 8:12), "that I am the Deliverer from the bondage of sin"(Joh 8:28, Joh 8:31., and Joh 8:36), "that I am"without supplying a predicate in the absolute sense as the Jews (Deu 32:39) used the language of Jehovah (cf. Isa 43:10 where the very words occur hina pisteusēte -hoti egō eimi ). The phrase egō eimi occurs three times here (Joh 8:24, Joh 8:28, Joh 8:58) and also in Joh 13:19. Jesus seems to claim absolute divine being as in Joh 8:58.

Robertson: Joh 8:25 - Who art thou? Who art thou? ( Su tis ei ). Proleptic use of su before tis , "Thou, who art thou?"Cf. Joh 1:19. He had virtually claimed to be the Messiah and on ...

Who art thou? ( Su tis ei ).

Proleptic use of su before tis , "Thou, who art thou?"Cf. Joh 1:19. He had virtually claimed to be the Messiah and on a par with God as in Joh 5:15. They wish to pin him down and to charge him with blasphemy.

Robertson: Joh 8:25 - Even that which I have also spoken unto you from the beginning Even that which I have also spoken unto you from the beginning ( tēn archēn hoti kai lalō humin ). A difficult sentence. It is not clear whethe...

Even that which I have also spoken unto you from the beginning ( tēn archēn hoti kai lalō humin ).

A difficult sentence. It is not clear whether it is an affirmation or a question. The Latin and Syriac versions treat it as affirmative. Westcott and Hort follow Meyer and take it as interrogative. The Greek fathers take it as an exclamation. It seems clear that the adverbial accusative tēn archēn cannot mean "from the beginning"like ap' archēs (Joh 15:27) or ex archēs (Joh 16:4). The lxx has tēn archēn for "at the beginning"or "at the first"(Gen 43:20). There are examples in Greek, chiefly negative, where tēn archēn means "at all,""essentially,""primarily."Vincent and Bernard so take it here, "Primarily what I am telling you."Jesus avoids the term Messiah with its political connotations. He stands by his high claims already made.

Robertson: Joh 8:26 - I have many things to speak and to judge concerning you I have many things to speak and to judge concerning you ( polla echō peri humōn lalein kai krinein ). Instead of further talk about his own claim...

I have many things to speak and to judge concerning you ( polla echō peri humōn lalein kai krinein ).

Instead of further talk about his own claims (already plain enough) Jesus turns to speak and to judge concerning them and their attitude towards him (cf. Joh 8:16). Whatever they think of Jesus the Father who sent him is true (alēthēs ). They cannot evade responsibility for the message heard. So Jesus goes on speaking it from the Father.

Robertson: Joh 8:27 - They perceived not They perceived not ( ouk egnōsan ). Second aorist active indicative of ginōskō . "Preoccupied as they were with thoughts of an earthly delivere...

They perceived not ( ouk egnōsan ).

Second aorist active indicative of ginōskō . "Preoccupied as they were with thoughts of an earthly deliverer"(Westcott) and prejudiced against recognizing Jesus as the one sent from God.

Robertson: Joh 8:27 - That he spake to them of the Father That he spake to them of the Father ( hoti ton patera autois elegen ). Indirect assertion, but with the present indicative (legei ) changed to the i...

That he spake to them of the Father ( hoti ton patera autois elegen ).

Indirect assertion, but with the present indicative (legei ) changed to the imperfect (elegen ) as was sometimes done (Joh 2:25) after a secondary tense.

Robertson: Joh 8:28 - When ye have lifted up the Son of man When ye have lifted up the Son of man ( hotan hupsōsēte ton huion tou anthrōpou ). Indefinite temporal clause with hotan (hote +an ) and t...

When ye have lifted up the Son of man ( hotan hupsōsēte ton huion tou anthrōpou ).

Indefinite temporal clause with hotan (hote +an ) and the first aorist active subjunctive of hupsoō , to lift up ( Koiné verb from hupsos , height), used several times in John of the Cross of Christ (Joh 3:14; Joh 8:28; Joh 12:32, Joh 12:34). It is unnecessary to render the aorist subjunctive as if a future perfect, simply "whenever ye lift up"(actually lift up, ingressive aorist). In Act 2:33 the verb is used of the Ascension.

Robertson: Joh 8:28 - Shall ye know Shall ye know ( gnōsesthe ). Future (ingressive aoristic) middle of ginōskō . Cognoscetis ex re quod nunc ex verbo non creditis (Bengel). Bu...

Shall ye know ( gnōsesthe ).

Future (ingressive aoristic) middle of ginōskō . Cognoscetis ex re quod nunc ex verbo non creditis (Bengel). But the knowledge from the facts like the fall of Jerusalem will come too late and will not bring a change of heart. The Holy Spirit will convict them concerning judgment (Joh 16:8). For

Robertson: Joh 8:28 - I am I am ( egō eimi ) see note on Joh 8:24.

I am ( egō eimi )

see note on Joh 8:24.

Robertson: Joh 8:28 - As the Father taught me As the Father taught me ( Kathōs edidasken me ho patēr ). This claim Jesus repeats (see Joh 8:26) and clearly makes on his arrival at the feast (...

As the Father taught me ( Kathōs edidasken me ho patēr ).

This claim Jesus repeats (see Joh 8:26) and clearly makes on his arrival at the feast (Joh 7:16.). This fact marks Jesus off from the rabbis.

Robertson: Joh 8:29 - Is with me Is with me ( met' emou estin ). The Incarnation brought separation from the Father in one sense, but in essence there is complete harmony and fellows...

Is with me ( met' emou estin ).

The Incarnation brought separation from the Father in one sense, but in essence there is complete harmony and fellowship as he had already said (Joh 8:16) and will expand in Joh 17:21-26.

Robertson: Joh 8:29 - He hath not left me alone He hath not left me alone ( ouk aphēken me monon ). First aorist active indicative of aphiēmi . "He did not leave me alone."However much the crow...

He hath not left me alone ( ouk aphēken me monon ).

First aorist active indicative of aphiēmi . "He did not leave me alone."However much the crowds and the disciples misunderstood or left Jesus, the Father always comforted and understood him (Mar 6:46; Mat 14:23; Joh 6:15).

Robertson: Joh 8:29 - That are pleasing to him That are pleasing to him ( ta aresta autōi ). This old verbal adjective, from areskō , to please, in N.T. only here, Act 6:4; Act 12:3; 1Jo 3:22....

That are pleasing to him ( ta aresta autōi ).

This old verbal adjective, from areskō , to please, in N.T. only here, Act 6:4; Act 12:3; 1Jo 3:22. The joy of Jesus was in doing the will of the Father who sent him (Joh 4:34).

Robertson: Joh 8:30 - Many believed on him Many believed on him ( polloi episteusan eis auton ). Ingressive aorist active indicative, came to believe, nominally at any rate, as in Joh 2:23. Bu...

Many believed on him ( polloi episteusan eis auton ).

Ingressive aorist active indicative, came to believe, nominally at any rate, as in Joh 2:23. But the tension was keen and Jesus proceeded to test the faith of these new believers from among the Pharisees.

Robertson: Joh 8:31 - Which had believed him Which had believed him ( tous pepisteukotas autōi ). Articular perfect active participle of pisteuō with dative autōi (trusted him) rather ...

Which had believed him ( tous pepisteukotas autōi ).

Articular perfect active participle of pisteuō with dative autōi (trusted him) rather than eis auton (on him) in Joh 8:30. They believed him (cf. Joh 6:30) as to his claims to being the Messiah with their own interpretation (Joh 6:15), but they did not commit themselves to him and may represent only one element of those in Joh 8:30, but see Joh 2:23 for pisteuō eis there.

Robertson: Joh 8:31 - If ye abide in my word If ye abide in my word ( ean humeis meinēte en tōi logōi tōi emōi ). Third-class condition with ean and first aorist (constative) active ...

If ye abide in my word ( ean humeis meinēte en tōi logōi tōi emōi ).

Third-class condition with ean and first aorist (constative) active subjunctive.

Robertson: Joh 8:31 - Are ye truly my disciples Are ye truly my disciples ( alēthōs mathētai mou este ). Your future loyalty to my teaching will prove the reality of your present profession. ...

Are ye truly my disciples ( alēthōs mathētai mou este ).

Your future loyalty to my teaching will prove the reality of your present profession. So the conclusion of this future condition is put in the present tense. As then, so now. We accept church members on profession of trust in Christ. Continuance in the word (teaching) proves the sincerity or insincerity of the profession. It is the acid test of life.

Robertson: Joh 8:32 - And ye shall know the truth And ye shall know the truth ( kai gnōsesthe tēn alētheian ). Truth is one of the marks of Christ (Joh 1:14) and Jesus will claim to Thomas to b...

And ye shall know the truth ( kai gnōsesthe tēn alētheian ).

Truth is one of the marks of Christ (Joh 1:14) and Jesus will claim to Thomas to be the personification of truth (Joh 14:6). But it will be for them knowledge to be learned by doing God’ s will (Joh 7:17). The word is from alēthēs (a privative and lēthō , to conceal, unsealed, open). See also Joh 8:40, Joh 8:44, Joh 8:45.

Robertson: Joh 8:32 - And the truth shall make you free And the truth shall make you free ( kai hē alētheia eleutherōsei humas ). Future active indicative of eleutheroō , old verb from eleutheros ...

And the truth shall make you free ( kai hē alētheia eleutherōsei humas ).

Future active indicative of eleutheroō , old verb from eleutheros (from erchomai , to go where one wishes and so free). One of Paul’ s great words for freedom from the bondage of the law (Rom 6:18; Gal 5:1). The freedom of which Jesus here speaks is freedom from the slavery of sin as Paul in Rom 8:2. See Joh 8:36. This freedom is won alone by Christ (Joh 8:36) and we are sanctified in truth (Joh 17:19). In Joh 1:17 truth is mentioned with grace as one of the marks of the gospel through Christ. Freedom (intellectual, moral, spiritual) is only attainable when we are set free from darkness, sin, ignorance, superstition and let the Light of the World shine on us and in us.

Robertson: Joh 8:33 - We be Abraham’ s seed We be Abraham’ s seed ( Sperma Abraam esmen ). "We are Abraham’ s seed,"the proudest boast of the Jews, of Sarah the freewoman and not of H...

We be Abraham’ s seed ( Sperma Abraam esmen ).

"We are Abraham’ s seed,"the proudest boast of the Jews, of Sarah the freewoman and not of Hagar the bondwoman (Gal 4:22.). Yes, but the Jews came to rely solely on mere physical descent (Mat 3:9) and so God made Gentiles the spiritual children of Abraham by faith (Mat 3:7; Rom 9:6.).

Robertson: Joh 8:33 - And have never yet been in bondage to any man And have never yet been in bondage to any man ( kai oudeni dedouleukamen pōpote ). Perfect active indicative of douleuō , to be slaves. This was ...

And have never yet been in bondage to any man ( kai oudeni dedouleukamen pōpote ).

Perfect active indicative of douleuō , to be slaves. This was a palpable untruth uttered in the heat of controversy. At that very moment the Jews wore the Roman yoke as they had worn that of Assyria, Babylon, Persia, Alexander, the Ptolemies, the Syrian (Seleucid) kings. They had liberty for a while under the Maccabees. "These poor believers soon come to the end of their faith"(Stier). But even so they had completely missed the point in the words of Jesus about freedom by truth.

Robertson: Joh 8:34 - Every one that committeth sin is the bondservant of sin Every one that committeth sin is the bondservant of sin ( pas ho poiōn tēn hamartian doulos estin ̣tēs hamartiaš ). The Western class omits ...

Every one that committeth sin is the bondservant of sin ( pas ho poiōn tēn hamartian doulos estin ̣tēs hamartiaš ).

The Western class omits tēs hamartias (sin), but that is the idea anyhow. Note the use of poiōn (present active participle, continuous habit or practice), not poiēsas (aorist active participle for single act), precisely as in 1Jo 3:4-8. Note also Joh 3:21 for ho poiōn tēn alētheian (the one who practises the truth). Sin, like the worst narcotic, is habit forming. Hence the problem today for criminologists for paroled or pardoned criminals nearly always go back to crime, sink again into sin, the slaves of sin. Xenophon has this notion of the slavery of sin ( Memor. IV. 5. 3). So Paul clearly in Rom 6:17, Rom 6:20 "slaves of sin"(douloi tēs hamartias ).

Robertson: Joh 8:35 - The bondservant The bondservant ( ho doulos ) ... the son (ho huios ). There is a change in the metaphor by this contrast between the positions of the son and the...

The bondservant ( ho doulos )

... the son (ho huios ). There is a change in the metaphor by this contrast between the positions of the son and the slave in the house. The slave has no footing or tenure and may be cast out at any moment while the son is the heir and has a permanent place. Cf. Ishmael and Isaac (Gen 21:10) and Paul’ s use of it in Gal 4:30. We do not know that there is any reference here to Hagar and Ishmael. See also Heb 3:5 (Num 12:7) for a like contrast between Moses as servant (therapōn ) in God’ s house and Christ as Son (huios ) over God’ s house.

Robertson: Joh 8:36 - If therefore the son shall make you free If therefore the son shall make you free ( ean oun ho huios humas eleutherōsēi ). Condition of third class with ean and first aorist (ingressiv...

If therefore the son shall make you free ( ean oun ho huios humas eleutherōsēi ).

Condition of third class with ean and first aorist (ingressive) active subjunctive. "If therefore the Son set you free,"as he has the power to do.

Robertson: Joh 8:36 - Ye shall be free indeed Ye shall be free indeed ( ontōs eleutheroi esesthe ). Old and common adverb from participle ontōn , actually, really (cf. Luk 24:34). But this sp...

Ye shall be free indeed ( ontōs eleutheroi esesthe ).

Old and common adverb from participle ontōn , actually, really (cf. Luk 24:34). But this spiritual freedom was beyond the concept or wish of these Jews.

Robertson: Joh 8:37 - Yet ye seek to kill me Yet ye seek to kill me ( alla zēteite me apokteinai ). As at the recent feast (Joh 7:20, Joh 7:25, Joh 7:30, Joh 7:32; Joh 8:20). Some of these ver...

Yet ye seek to kill me ( alla zēteite me apokteinai ).

As at the recent feast (Joh 7:20, Joh 7:25, Joh 7:30, Joh 7:32; Joh 8:20). Some of these very professed believers were even now glowering with murderous vengeance.

Robertson: Joh 8:37 - Hath not free course in you Hath not free course in you ( ou chōrei en humin ). Intransitive use of chōreō , old verb from chōros (space, place), to have space or room...

Hath not free course in you ( ou chōrei en humin ).

Intransitive use of chōreō , old verb from chōros (space, place), to have space or room for. They would not abide in Christ’ s word (Joh 8:31). They had no longer room for his word when once they understood the spiritual aspect of his message. Jerusalem was now just like Galilee once before (Joh 6:60-66).

Robertson: Joh 8:38 - With my Father With my Father ( para tōi patri ). Locative case of patēr and article used as possessive (common idiom), "by the side of my Father,"picture of ...

With my Father ( para tōi patri ).

Locative case of patēr and article used as possessive (common idiom), "by the side of my Father,"picture of intimate fellowship like pros ton theon (face to face with God) in Joh 1:1.

Robertson: Joh 8:38 - From your father From your father ( para tou patros ). Ablative case with para (from the side of) and same possessive use of tou in each instance, though "the"wil...

From your father ( para tou patros ).

Ablative case with para (from the side of) and same possessive use of tou in each instance, though "the"will really answer both times. But ho patēr does not mean the same person. Christ’ s Father by contrast is not their father.

Robertson: Joh 8:39 - Our father is Abraham Our father is Abraham ( ho patēr hēmōn Abraam estin ). They saw the implication and tried to counter it by repeating their claim in Joh 8:33 wh...

Our father is Abraham ( ho patēr hēmōn Abraam estin ).

They saw the implication and tried to counter it by repeating their claim in Joh 8:33 which was true so far as physical descent went as Jesus had admitted (Joh 8:37).

Robertson: Joh 8:39 - If ye were If ye were ( ei este ). Strictly, "if ye are"as ye claim, a condition of the first class assumed to be true.

If ye were ( ei este ).

Strictly, "if ye are"as ye claim, a condition of the first class assumed to be true.

Robertson: Joh 8:39 - Ye would do Ye would do ( epoieite an ). Read by C L N and a corrector of Aleph while W omits an . This makes a mixed condition (protasis of the first class, apo...

Ye would do ( epoieite an ).

Read by C L N and a corrector of Aleph while W omits an . This makes a mixed condition (protasis of the first class, apodosis of the second. See Robertson, Grammar , p. 1022). But B reads poieite like the Sin. Syriac which has to be treated as imperative (so Westcott and Hort).

Robertson: Joh 8:40 - But now But now ( nun de ). Clear statement that they are not doing "the works of Abraham"in seeking to kill him. See this use of nun de after a condition ...

But now ( nun de ).

Clear statement that they are not doing "the works of Abraham"in seeking to kill him. See this use of nun de after a condition of second class without an in Joh 16:22, Joh 16:24.

Robertson: Joh 8:40 - This did not Abraham This did not Abraham ( touto Abraam ouk epoiēsen ). Blunt and pointed of their unlikeness to Abraham.

This did not Abraham ( touto Abraam ouk epoiēsen ).

Blunt and pointed of their unlikeness to Abraham.

Robertson: Joh 8:40 - A man that hath told you the truth A man that hath told you the truth ( anthrōpon hos ten alētheian humin lelalēka ). Anthrōpon (here = person, one) is accusative case in app...

A man that hath told you the truth ( anthrōpon hos ten alētheian humin lelalēka ).

Anthrōpon (here = person, one) is accusative case in apposition with me (me ) just before. The perfect active indicative lelalēka from laleō is in the first person singular because the relative hos has the person of me , an idiom not retained in the English that hath (that have or who have) though it is retained in the English of 1Co 15:9 "that am"for hos eimi .

Robertson: Joh 8:40 - Which I heard from God Which I heard from God ( hēn ēkousa para tou theou ). Here we have "I"in the English. "God"here is equal to "My Father"in Joh 8:38. The only crim...

Which I heard from God ( hēn ēkousa para tou theou ).

Here we have "I"in the English. "God"here is equal to "My Father"in Joh 8:38. The only crime of Jesus is telling the truth directly from God.

Robertson: Joh 8:41 - Ye do the works of your father Ye do the works of your father ( humeis poieite ta erga tou patros humōn ). Who is not Abraham and not God as Jesus plainly indicates.

Ye do the works of your father ( humeis poieite ta erga tou patros humōn ).

Who is not Abraham and not God as Jesus plainly indicates.

Robertson: Joh 8:41 - We were not born of fornication We were not born of fornication ( hēmeis ek porneias egennēthēmen ). First aorist passive indicative of gennaō . This they said as a proud bo...

We were not born of fornication ( hēmeis ek porneias egennēthēmen ).

First aorist passive indicative of gennaō . This they said as a proud boast. Jesus had admitted that they were physical (Deu 23:2) descendants of Abraham (Joh 8:37), but now denies that they are spiritual children of Abraham (like Paul in Rom 9:7). Porneia is from pornos (harlot) and that from pernēmi , to sell, a woman who sells her body for sexual uses. It is vaguely possible that in this stern denial the Pharisees may have an indirect fling at Jesus as the bastard son of Mary (so Talmud).

Robertson: Joh 8:41 - We have one Father, even God We have one Father, even God ( hena patera echomen ton theon ). No "even"in the Greek, "One Father we have, God."This in direct reply to the implicat...

We have one Father, even God ( hena patera echomen ton theon ).

No "even"in the Greek, "One Father we have, God."This in direct reply to the implication of Jesus (Joh 8:38) that God was not their spiritual Father.

Robertson: Joh 8:42 - Ye would love me Ye would love me ( ēgapate an eme ). Conclusion of second-class condition with distinct implication that their failure to love Jesus is proof that ...

Ye would love me ( ēgapate an eme ).

Conclusion of second-class condition with distinct implication that their failure to love Jesus is proof that God is not their Father (protasis).

Robertson: Joh 8:42 - For I came forth from God For I came forth from God ( egō gar ek tou theou exēlthon ). Second aorist active indicative of exerchomai , definite historical event (the Incar...

For I came forth from God ( egō gar ek tou theou exēlthon ).

Second aorist active indicative of exerchomai , definite historical event (the Incarnation). See Joh 4:30 for exēlthon ek . In Joh 13:3; Joh 16:30 Jesus is said to have come from (apo ) God. The distinction is not to be pressed. Note the definite consciousness of pre-existence with God as in Joh 17:5.

Robertson: Joh 8:42 - And am come And am come ( kai hēkō ). Present active indicative with perfect sense in the verb stem (state of completion) before rise of the tense and here r...

And am come ( kai hēkō ).

Present active indicative with perfect sense in the verb stem (state of completion) before rise of the tense and here retained. "I am here,"Jesus means.

Robertson: Joh 8:42 - Of myself Of myself ( ap' emautou ). His coming was not self-initiated nor independent of the Father. "But he (ekeinos , emphatic demonstrative pronoun) sent m...

Of myself ( ap' emautou ).

His coming was not self-initiated nor independent of the Father. "But he (ekeinos , emphatic demonstrative pronoun) sent me"and here I am.

Robertson: Joh 8:43 - My speech My speech ( tēn lalian tēn emēn ) and my word (ton logon ton emon ). Perhaps lalia , old word from lalos (talk), means here more manner of...

My speech ( tēn lalian tēn emēn )

and my word (ton logon ton emon ). Perhaps lalia , old word from lalos (talk), means here more manner of speech than just story (Joh 4:42), while logos refers rather to the subject matter. They will not listen (ou dunasthe akouein ) to the substance of Christ’ s teaching and hence they are impatient with the way that he talks. How often that is true.

Robertson: Joh 8:44 - Ye are of your father the devil Ye are of your father the devil ( humeis ek tou patros tou diabolou ). Certainly they can "understand"(ginōskete in Joh 8:43) this "talk"(lalian ...

Ye are of your father the devil ( humeis ek tou patros tou diabolou ).

Certainly they can "understand"(ginōskete in Joh 8:43) this "talk"(lalian ) though they will be greatly angered. But they had to hear it (akouein in Joh 8:43). It was like a bombshell in spite of the preliminary preparation.

Robertson: Joh 8:44 - Your will to do Your will to do ( thelete poiein ). Present active indicative of thelō and present active infinitive, "Ye wish to go on doing."This same idea Jes...

Your will to do ( thelete poiein ).

Present active indicative of thelō and present active infinitive, "Ye wish to go on doing."This same idea Jesus presents in Mat 13:38 (the sons of the evil one, the devil) and Mat 23:15 (twofold more a son of Gehenna than you). See also 1Jo 3:8 for "of the devil"(ek tou diabolou ) for the one who persists in sinning. In Rev 12:9 the devil is one who leads all the world astray. The Gnostic view that Jesus means "the father of the devil"is grotesque. Jesus does not, of course, here deny that the Jews, like all men, are children of God the Creator, like Paul’ s offspring of God for all men in Act 17:28. What he denies to these Pharisees is that they are spiritual children of God who do his will. They do the lusts and will of the devil. The Baptist had denied this same spiritual fatherhood to the merely physical descendants of Abraham (Mat 3:9). He even called them "broods of vipers"as Jesus did later (Mat 12:34).

Robertson: Joh 8:44 - A murderer A murderer ( anthrōpoktonos ). Old and rare word (Euripides) from anthrōpos , man, and kteinō , to kill. In N.T. only here and 1Jo 3:15. The Je...

A murderer ( anthrōpoktonos ).

Old and rare word (Euripides) from anthrōpos , man, and kteinō , to kill. In N.T. only here and 1Jo 3:15. The Jews were seeking to kill Jesus and so like their father the devil.

Robertson: Joh 8:44 - Stood not in the truth Stood not in the truth ( en tēi alētheiāi ouk estēken ). Since ouk , not ouch , is genuine, the form of the verb is esteken the imperfect o...

Stood not in the truth ( en tēi alētheiāi ouk estēken ).

Since ouk , not ouch , is genuine, the form of the verb is esteken the imperfect of the late present stem stēkō (Mar 11:25) from the perfect active hestēka (intransitive) of histēmi , to place.

Robertson: Joh 8:44 - No truth in him No truth in him ( ouk estin alētheia en autōi ). Inside him or outside (environment). The devil and truth have no contact.

No truth in him ( ouk estin alētheia en autōi ).

Inside him or outside (environment). The devil and truth have no contact.

Robertson: Joh 8:44 - When he speaketh a lie When he speaketh a lie ( hotan lalēi to pseudos ). Indefinite temporal clause with hotan and the present active subjunctive of laleō . But note...

When he speaketh a lie ( hotan lalēi to pseudos ).

Indefinite temporal clause with hotan and the present active subjunctive of laleō . But note the article to : "Whenever he speaks the lie,"as he is sure to do because it is his nature. Hence "he speaks out of his own"(ek tōn idiōn lalei ) like a fountain bubbling up (cf. Mat 12:34).

Robertson: Joh 8:44 - For he is a liar For he is a liar ( hoti pseustēs estin ). Old word for the agent in a conscious falsehood (pseudos ). See 1Jo 1:10; Rom 3:4. Common word in John b...

For he is a liar ( hoti pseustēs estin ).

Old word for the agent in a conscious falsehood (pseudos ). See 1Jo 1:10; Rom 3:4. Common word in John because of the emphasis on alētheia (truth).

Robertson: Joh 8:44 - And the father thereof And the father thereof ( kai ho patēr autou ). Either the father of the lie or of the liar, both of which are true as already shown by Jesus. Autou...

And the father thereof ( kai ho patēr autou ).

Either the father of the lie or of the liar, both of which are true as already shown by Jesus. Autou in the genitive can be either neuter or masculine. Westcott takes it thus, "because he is a liar and his father (the devil) is a liar,"making "one,"not the devil, the subject of "whenever he speaks,"a very doubtful expression.

Robertson: Joh 8:45 - Because I speak the truth Because I speak the truth ( egō de hoti tēn alētheian legō ). Proleptic emphatic position of egō . "Truth is uncongenial to them"(Bernard)....

Because I speak the truth ( egō de hoti tēn alētheian legō ).

Proleptic emphatic position of egō . "Truth is uncongenial to them"(Bernard). See Joh 3:19 for their picture.

Robertson: Joh 8:46 - Which of you convicteth me of sin? Which of you convicteth me of sin? ( Tis ex humōn elegchei me peri hamaritas ). See on Joh 3:20; Joh 16:8 (the work of the Holy Spirit) for elegcho...

Which of you convicteth me of sin? ( Tis ex humōn elegchei me peri hamaritas ).

See on Joh 3:20; Joh 16:8 (the work of the Holy Spirit) for elegchō for charge and proof. The use of hamartia as in Joh 1:29 means sin in general, not particular sins. The rhetorical question which receives no answer involves sinlessness (Heb 4:15) without specifically saying so. Bernard suggests that Jesus paused after this pungent question before going on.

Robertson: Joh 8:46 - Why do ye not believe me? Why do ye not believe me? ( Dia ti humeis ou pisteuete moi ). This question drives home the irrationality of their hostility to Jesus. It was based o...

Why do ye not believe me? ( Dia ti humeis ou pisteuete moi ).

This question drives home the irrationality of their hostility to Jesus. It was based on prejudice and predilection.

Robertson: Joh 8:47 - He that is of God He that is of God ( ho ōn ek tou theou ). See this use of ek in Joh 3:31. "Their not listening proved that they were not of God"(Dods). They were...

He that is of God ( ho ōn ek tou theou ).

See this use of ek in Joh 3:31. "Their not listening proved that they were not of God"(Dods). They were of the earth and the devil, not of God.

Robertson: Joh 8:48 - Thou art a Samaritan and hast a demon Thou art a Samaritan and hast a demon ( Samareitēs ei su kai daimonion echeis ). On the spur of the moment in their rage and fury they can think of...

Thou art a Samaritan and hast a demon ( Samareitēs ei su kai daimonion echeis ).

On the spur of the moment in their rage and fury they can think of no meaner things to say. They know, of course, that Jesus was not a Samaritan, but he had acted like a Samaritan in challenging their peculiar spiritual privileges (Joh 4:9, Joh 4:39). The charge of having a demon was an old one by the Pharisees (Mat 12:24) and it is repeated later (Joh 10:20).

Robertson: Joh 8:49 - I have not a demon I have not a demon ( egō daimonion ouk echō ). This Jesus says calmly, passing by the reference to the Samaritans as beneath notice.

I have not a demon ( egō daimonion ouk echō ).

This Jesus says calmly, passing by the reference to the Samaritans as beneath notice.

Robertson: Joh 8:49 - My Father My Father ( ton patera mou ). As in Joh 2:16. He is not mad in claiming to honour God (cf. Joh 7:18). They were insulting the Father in insulting him...

My Father ( ton patera mou ).

As in Joh 2:16. He is not mad in claiming to honour God (cf. Joh 7:18). They were insulting the Father in insulting him (cf. Joh 5:23). On atimazō (a privative and timaō , to dishonour) see Luk 20:11.

Robertson: Joh 8:50 - But I seek not mine own glory But I seek not mine own glory ( egō de ou zētō tēn doxan mou ). As they did not seek the glory of God (Joh 5:44; Joh 8:4).

But I seek not mine own glory ( egō de ou zētō tēn doxan mou ).

As they did not seek the glory of God (Joh 5:44; Joh 8:4).

Robertson: Joh 8:50 - And judgeth And judgeth ( kai krinōn ). The Father judges between you and me, though the Son is the Judge of mankind (Joh 5:22). "It is only the doxa (glory)...

And judgeth ( kai krinōn ).

The Father judges between you and me, though the Son is the Judge of mankind (Joh 5:22). "It is only the doxa (glory) that comes from God that is worth having"(Bernard).

Robertson: Joh 8:51 - If a man keep my word If a man keep my word ( ean tis ton emon logon tērēsēi ). Condition of third class with ean and constative aorist active subjunctive of tēr...

If a man keep my word ( ean tis ton emon logon tērēsēi ).

Condition of third class with ean and constative aorist active subjunctive of tēreō . Repeated in Joh 8:52. See Joh 8:43 about hearing the word of Christ. Common phrase in John (Joh 8:51, Joh 8:52, Joh 8:55; Joh 14:23, Joh 14:24; Joh 15:20; Joh 17:6; 1Jo 2:5). Probably the same idea as keeping the commands of Christ (Joh 14:21).

Robertson: Joh 8:51 - He shall never see death He shall never see death ( thanaton ou mē theōrēsēi eis ton aiona ). Spiritual death, of course. Strong double negative ou mē with first ...

He shall never see death ( thanaton ou mē theōrēsēi eis ton aiona ).

Spiritual death, of course. Strong double negative ou mē with first aorist active subjunctive of theōreō . The phrase "see death"is a Hebraism (Psa 89:48) and occurs with idein (see) in Luk 2:26; Heb 11:5. No essential difference meant between horaō and theōreō . See Joh 14:23 for the blessed fellowship the Father and the Son have with the one who keeps Christ’ s word.

Robertson: Joh 8:52 - Now we know Now we know ( nun egnōkamen ). Perfect active indicative of ginōskō , state of completion, "Now since such talk we have come to certain knowled...

Now we know ( nun egnōkamen ).

Perfect active indicative of ginōskō , state of completion, "Now since such talk we have come to certain knowledge that thou hast a demon"(Joh 8:48).

Robertson: Joh 8:52 - Is dead Is dead ( apethanen ). Second aorist active indicative of apothnēskō . "Abraham died."

Is dead ( apethanen ).

Second aorist active indicative of apothnēskō . "Abraham died."

Robertson: Joh 8:52 - And thou sayest And thou sayest ( kai su legeis ). Adversative use of kai , "and yet."Emphatic position of su (thou). Same condition quoted as in Joh 8:51.

And thou sayest ( kai su legeis ).

Adversative use of kai , "and yet."Emphatic position of su (thou). Same condition quoted as in Joh 8:51.

Robertson: Joh 8:52 - He shall never taste of death He shall never taste of death ( ou me geusētai thanatou eis ton aiona ). Same emphatic negative with subjunctive as in Joh 8:51, but geusētai (...

He shall never taste of death ( ou me geusētai thanatou eis ton aiona ).

Same emphatic negative with subjunctive as in Joh 8:51, but geusētai (first aorist middle subjunctive of geuō with genitive case thanatou (death). Another Hebraism for dying like theōrēsēi (see) in Joh 8:51. Used in Heb 2:9 of the death of Jesus and in Synoptics (Mat 16:28; Mar 9:1; Luk 9:27). It occurs in the Talmud, but not in the O.T. The Pharisees thus did not misquote Jesus, though they misunderstood him.

Robertson: Joh 8:53 - Art thou greater than our father Abraham? Art thou greater than our father Abraham? ( Mē su meizōn ei tou patros hēmōn Abraam ). Negative answer expected by mē with ablative case ...

Art thou greater than our father Abraham? ( Mē su meizōn ei tou patros hēmōn Abraam ).

Negative answer expected by mē with ablative case of comparison in patros after meizōn . The question was designed to put Jesus in a difficult position, for Abraham and the prophets all "died."They do not see that Jesus uses death in a different sense.

Robertson: Joh 8:53 - Whom makest thou thyself? Whom makest thou thyself? ( tina seauton poieis ). Seauton is predicate accusative with poieis . They suspect that Jesus is guilty of blasphemy as ...

Whom makest thou thyself? ( tina seauton poieis ).

Seauton is predicate accusative with poieis . They suspect that Jesus is guilty of blasphemy as they charged in Joh 5:18 in making himself equal with God. Later they will make it specifically (Joh 10:33; Joh 19:7). They set a trap for Jesus for this purpose.

Robertson: Joh 8:54 - If I glorify myself If I glorify myself ( ean egō doxasō emauton ). Third-class condition with ean and first aorist active subjunctive (or future active indicative...

If I glorify myself ( ean egō doxasō emauton ).

Third-class condition with ean and first aorist active subjunctive (or future active indicative) of doxazō .

Robertson: Joh 8:54 - It is my Father that glorifieth me It is my Father that glorifieth me ( estin ho patēr mou ho doxazōn me ). The position and accent of estin mean: "Actually my Father is the one,...

It is my Father that glorifieth me ( estin ho patēr mou ho doxazōn me ).

The position and accent of estin mean: "Actually my Father is the one,"etc.

Robertson: Joh 8:54 - Of whom ye say Of whom ye say ( hon humeis legete ). The accusative of the person (hon ) with legete is regular (cf. Joh 10:36).

Of whom ye say ( hon humeis legete ).

The accusative of the person (hon ) with legete is regular (cf. Joh 10:36).

Robertson: Joh 8:54 - Your God Your God ( theos humōn ). So Aleph B D and apparently correct, though A C L W Delta Theta have hēmōn (our God). The hoti can be taken as re...

Your God ( theos humōn ).

So Aleph B D and apparently correct, though A C L W Delta Theta have hēmōn (our God). The hoti can be taken as recitative (direct quotation, hēmōn , our) or declarative (indirect, that, and so humōn ). The Jews claimed God as their peculiar national God as they had said in Joh 8:41. So Jesus turns this confession and claim against them.

Robertson: Joh 8:55 - And ye have not known him And ye have not known him ( kai ouk egnōkate auton ). Adversative use again of kai = "and yet."Perfect active indicative of ginōskō , the ver...

And ye have not known him ( kai ouk egnōkate auton ).

Adversative use again of kai = "and yet."Perfect active indicative of ginōskō , the verb for experiential knowledge. This was true of the kosmos (Joh 1:10; Joh 17:25) and of the hostile Jews (Joh 16:3). Jesus prays that the world may know (Joh 17:23) and the handful of disciples had come to know (Joh 17:25).

Robertson: Joh 8:55 - But I know him But I know him ( egō de oida auton ). Equipped by eternal fellowship to reveal the Father (1:1-18). This peculiar intimate knowledge Jesus had alre...

But I know him ( egō de oida auton ).

Equipped by eternal fellowship to reveal the Father (1:1-18). This peculiar intimate knowledge Jesus had already claimed (Joh 7:29). Jesus used oida (Joh 8:19; Joh 15:21) or ginōskō (Joh 17:23, Joh 17:25) for the knowledge of the Father. No undue distinction can be drawn here.

Robertson: Joh 8:55 - And if I should say And if I should say ( kan eipō ). Third-class condition (concession), "even if I say,"with kai ean (kan ) and second aorist active subjunctive. ...

And if I should say ( kan eipō ).

Third-class condition (concession), "even if I say,"with kai ean (kan ) and second aorist active subjunctive. "Suppose I say."

Robertson: Joh 8:55 - I shall be like you a liar I shall be like you a liar ( esomai homoios humin pseustēs ). Apodosis of the condition. Homoios (like) is followed by the associative-instrument...

I shall be like you a liar ( esomai homoios humin pseustēs ).

Apodosis of the condition. Homoios (like) is followed by the associative-instrumental case humin . The word pseustēs (liar), in spite of the statement that they are the children of the devil, the father of lying (Joh 8:44), comes with a sudden jolt because it is a direct charge. This word liar is not considered polite today in public speech when hurled at definite individuals. There is a rather free use of the word in 1Jo 2:4, 1Jo 2:22; 1Jo 4:20; 1Jo 5:10. It is not hard to imagine the quick anger of these Pharisees.

Robertson: Joh 8:56 - Rejoiced Rejoiced ( ēgalliasato ). First aorist middle indicative of agalliaomai , a word of Hellenistic coinage from agallomai , to rejoice.

Rejoiced ( ēgalliasato ).

First aorist middle indicative of agalliaomai , a word of Hellenistic coinage from agallomai , to rejoice.

Robertson: Joh 8:56 - To see To see ( hina idēi ). Sub-final use of hina and second aorist active subjunctive of horaō . This joy of Abraham is referred to in Heb 11:13 (sa...

To see ( hina idēi ).

Sub-final use of hina and second aorist active subjunctive of horaō . This joy of Abraham is referred to in Heb 11:13 (saluting, aspasamenoi , the promises from afar). There was a Jewish tradition that Abraham saw the whole history of his descendants in the vision of Gen 15:6., but that is not necessary here. He did look for and welcome the Messianic time, "my day"(tēn hēmeran tēn emēn ). "He saw it, and was glad"(eiden kai echarē ). Second aorist active indicative of horaō and second aorist passive indicative of chairō . Ye see it and are angry!

Robertson: Joh 8:57 - Thou art not yet fifty years old Thou art not yet fifty years old ( pentēkonta eti oupō echeis ). Literally, "Thou hast not yet fifty years."Not meaning that Jesus was near that ...

Thou art not yet fifty years old ( pentēkonta eti oupō echeis ).

Literally, "Thou hast not yet fifty years."Not meaning that Jesus was near that age at all. It was the crisis of completed manhood (Num 4:3) and a round number. Jesus was about thirty to thirty-three.

Robertson: Joh 8:57 - And hast thou seen Abraham? And hast thou seen Abraham? ( Kai Abraam heōrakas ). So A C D and B W Theta have heōrakes , both second person singular of the perfect active ind...

And hast thou seen Abraham? ( Kai Abraam heōrakas ).

So A C D and B W Theta have heōrakes , both second person singular of the perfect active indicative of horaō . But Aleph, Sin-syr., Coptic versions (accepted by Bernard) have kai Abraam heōrake sė "Has Abraam seen thee?"Either makes sense here.

Robertson: Joh 8:58 - Before Abraham was Before Abraham was ( prin Abraam genesthai ). Usual idiom with prin in positive sentence with infinitive (second aorist middle of ginomai ) and th...

Before Abraham was ( prin Abraam genesthai ).

Usual idiom with prin in positive sentence with infinitive (second aorist middle of ginomai ) and the accusative of general reference, "before coming as to Abraham,""before Abraham came into existence or was born."

Robertson: Joh 8:58 - I am I am ( egō eimi ). Undoubtedly here Jesus claims eternal existence with the absolute phrase used of God. The contrast between genesthai (entrance...

I am ( egō eimi ).

Undoubtedly here Jesus claims eternal existence with the absolute phrase used of God. The contrast between genesthai (entrance into existence of Abraham) and eimi (timeless being) is complete. See the same contrast between en in Joh 1:1 and egeneto in Joh 1:14. See the contrast also in Psa 90:2 between God (ei , art) and the mountains (genēthēnai ). See the same use of eimi in Joh 6:20; Joh 9:9; Joh 8:24, Joh 8:28; Joh 18:6.

Robertson: Joh 8:59 - They took up stones therefore They took up stones therefore ( ēran oun lithous ). First aorist active indicative of airō , inferential use of oun . The time for argument had p...

They took up stones therefore ( ēran oun lithous ).

First aorist active indicative of airō , inferential use of oun . The time for argument had past.

Robertson: Joh 8:59 - To cast at him To cast at him ( hina balōsin ep' auton ). Final clause with hina and the second aorist active subjunctive of ballō . Vivid picture of a mob re...

To cast at him ( hina balōsin ep' auton ).

Final clause with hina and the second aorist active subjunctive of ballō . Vivid picture of a mob ready to kill Jesus, already beginning to do so.

Robertson: Joh 8:59 - Hid himself Hid himself ( ekrubē ). Second aorist passive indicative of kruptō . He was hidden. No Docetic vanishing, but quietly and boldly Jesus went out o...

Hid himself ( ekrubē ).

Second aorist passive indicative of kruptō . He was hidden. No Docetic vanishing, but quietly and boldly Jesus went out of the temple. His hour had not yet come. Once again three months later the Pharisees will try to kill him, but he will pass out of their hands (Joh 10:39).

Vincent: Joh 8:12 - The light of the world The light of the world ( τὸ φῶς τοῦ κόσμου ) Not λύχνος , a lamp , as John the Baptist (Joh 8:35). Light is an...

The light of the world ( τὸ φῶς τοῦ κόσμου )

Not λύχνος , a lamp , as John the Baptist (Joh 8:35). Light is another of John's characteristic terms and ideas, playing a most important part in his writings, as related to the manifestation of Jesus and His work upon men. He comes from God, who is light (1Jo 1:5). " In Him was life, and the life was the light of men" (Joh 1:4). The Word was among men as light before the incarnation (Joh 1:9; Joh 9:5), and light came with the incarnation (Joh 3:19-21; Joh 8:12; Joh 12:46). Christ is light through the illuminating energy of the Spirit (Joh 14:21, Joh 14:26; Joh 16:13; 1Jo 2:20, 1Jo 2:27), which is received through love (Joh 14:22, Joh 14:23). The object of Christ's work is to make men sons of light (Joh 12:36, Joh 12:46), and to endow them with the light of life (Joh 8:12).

In Joh 8:20, we are told that Jesus spake these words in the Treasury . This was in the Court of the Women, the most public part of the temple. Four golden candelabra stood there, each with four golden bowls, each one filled from a pitcher of oil by a youth of priestly descent. These were lighted on the first night of the Feast of Tabernacles. It is not unlikely that they may have suggested our Lord's figure, but the figure itself was familiar both from prophecy and from tradition. According to tradition, Light was one of the names of the Messiah. See Isa 9:1; Isa 42:6; Isa 49:6; Isa 60:1-3; Mal 4:2; Luk 2:32.

Vincent: Joh 8:12 - Walk in darkness Walk in darkness ( περιπετήσει ἐν τῇ σκοτία ) This phrase is peculiar to the Gospel and First Epistle.

Walk in darkness ( περιπετήσει ἐν τῇ σκοτία )

This phrase is peculiar to the Gospel and First Epistle.

Vincent: Joh 8:12 - Shall have Shall have ( ἕξει ) Not only shall see it, but shall possess it. Hence Christ's disciples are the light of the world (Mat 5:1...

Shall have ( ἕξει )

Not only shall see it, but shall possess it. Hence Christ's disciples are the light of the world (Mat 5:14). Compare lights , or, properly, luminaries (φωστῆρες ) a name, applied to believers in Phi 2:15.

Vincent: Joh 8:13 - Thou barest record of thyself Thou barest record of thyself Rev., witness . A technical objection, evading the real purport of Jesus' declaration. The Rabbinical writings dec...

Thou barest record of thyself

Rev., witness . A technical objection, evading the real purport of Jesus' declaration. The Rabbinical writings declared that no man could give witness for himself.

Vincent: Joh 8:14 - Though Though ( κἂν ) Literally, even if .

Though ( κἂν )

Literally, even if .

Vincent: Joh 8:14 - I know I know ( οἷδα ) With a clear inward consciousness. See on Joh 2:24.

I know ( οἷδα )

With a clear inward consciousness. See on Joh 2:24.

Vincent: Joh 8:14 - Whence I came and whither I go Whence I came and whither I go Two essential facts of testimony, viz., origin and destiny. " The question was one about His own personal consciou...

Whence I came and whither I go

Two essential facts of testimony, viz., origin and destiny. " The question was one about His own personal consciousness, of which only Himself could bear witness" (Lange). " If the sun or the day could speak, and should say: 'I am the sun!' and it were replied, 'No, thou mayest be the night, for thou bearest witness of thyself!' how would that sound? Argue it away if thou canst" (" Berlenburg Bible," cited by Stier, " Words of the Lord Jesus" ).

Vincent: Joh 8:14 - And whither I go And whither I go The best texts read, ἢ , or .

And whither I go

The best texts read, ἢ , or .

Vincent: Joh 8:16 - True True ( ἀληθής ) The best texts, however, read ἀληθινή , true to the perfect ideal of judgment.

True ( ἀληθής )

The best texts, however, read ἀληθινή , true to the perfect ideal of judgment.

Vincent: Joh 8:17 - In your law In your law ( ἐν τῷ νόμῳ τῷ ὑμετέρῳ ) Literally, in the law , that which is yours . Yours has ...

In your law ( ἐν τῷ νόμῳ τῷ ὑμετέρῳ )

Literally, in the law , that which is yours . Yours has an emphatic force: of which you claim a monopoly. See Joh 7:49.

Vincent: Joh 8:17 - It is written It is written ( γέγραπται ) The perfect tense: it has been written, and stands written. The common form of citation elsewhere,...

It is written ( γέγραπται )

The perfect tense: it has been written, and stands written. The common form of citation elsewhere, but used by John of the Old Testament scriptures only here. His usual form is γεγραμμένον ἐστίν , the participle with the finite verb, literally, it is having been written .

Vincent: Joh 8:17 - The witness of two men The witness of two men See Deu 19:15.

The witness of two men

See Deu 19:15.

Vincent: Joh 8:17 - The Father - beareth witness of me The Father - beareth witness of me Thus there are two witnesses, and the letter of the law is fulfilled.

The Father - beareth witness of me

Thus there are two witnesses, and the letter of the law is fulfilled.

Vincent: Joh 8:19 - Where Where The testimony of an unseen and unheard witness would not satisfy them.

Where

The testimony of an unseen and unheard witness would not satisfy them.

Vincent: Joh 8:20 - The Treasury The Treasury ( γαζοφυλακίῳ ) From γάζα , treasure , a Persian word, occurring only once in the New Testament (Act 8:27), ...

The Treasury ( γαζοφυλακίῳ )

From γάζα , treasure , a Persian word, occurring only once in the New Testament (Act 8:27), and φυλακή , guard . Used by John only here. The Treasury was in the Court of the Women, so called, not because it was appropriated to the worship of women exclusively, but because they were not allowed to proceed further, except for sacrificial purposes. The court covered a space upwards of two hundred feet square, and was surrounded by a colonnade, within which, and against the wall, were the thirteen trumpet-shaped chests, called " trumpets" from their shape, for charitable contributions. This court was the most public part of the temple.

Vincent: Joh 8:20 - And no man laid hands on Him And no man laid hands on Him ( καὶ ὸ…̓δεὶς ἐπί̀±σεν αυ…̓τὸν ) Notice the connection with the previous senten...

And no man laid hands on Him ( καὶ ὸ…̓δεὶς ἐπί̀±σεν αυ…̓τὸν )

Notice the connection with the previous sentence by the simple and , where another writer would have said and yet: the sense being that though Jesus was teaching where He might easily have been apprehended, yet no one attempted to arrest Him. See on Joh 1:10. Laid hands on is better rendered, as elsewhere, took (compare Joh 7:30). The inconsistency of the A.V. in the renderings of the same word, of which this is only one of many instances, is noteworthy here from the fact that in the only two passages in which John uses the phrase laid hands on (Joh 7:30; Joh 7:44), he employs the common formula, ἐπιβάλλειν τὰς χεῖρας , or τὴν χεῖρα , and in both these passages the word πιάσαι is rendered take . The use of this latter word is confined almost exclusively to John, as it is found only three times elsewhere (Act 3:7; Act 12:4; 2Co 11:32).

Vincent: Joh 8:21 - Then Then ( οὖν ) Properly, therefore , connecting the fact of Jesus' continuing to speak with His freedom from arrest.

Then ( οὖν )

Properly, therefore , connecting the fact of Jesus' continuing to speak with His freedom from arrest.

Vincent: Joh 8:21 - Said Jesus Said Jesus Omit Jesus , and read, He said therefore .

Said Jesus

Omit Jesus , and read, He said therefore .

Vincent: Joh 8:21 - Go away Go away ( ὑπάγω ) Withdraw myself from you; this sense being emphasized by the succeeding words, ye shall seek me . In expres...

Go away ( ὑπάγω )

Withdraw myself from you; this sense being emphasized by the succeeding words, ye shall seek me . In expressing one's departure from men or from surrounding objects, we may emphasize merely the fact of removal , in which case ἀπέρχομαι , to go away , would be appropriate; or we may emphasize the removal as affecting some relation of the person to that from which he removes, as in Joh 6:67, where Jesus says to the disciples, " will ye also go away , or withdraw from me," in which case ὑπάγω is the proper word.

Vincent: Joh 8:21 - In your sin In your sin ( ἐν τῇ ἁμαρτίᾳ ὑμῶν ) See on Mat 1:21. Note the singular, sin , not sins . It is used collectivel...

In your sin ( ἐν τῇ ἁμαρτίᾳ ὑμῶν )

See on Mat 1:21. Note the singular, sin , not sins . It is used collectively to express the whole condition of estrangement from God.

Vincent: Joh 8:22 - Will He kill Himself ? Will He kill Himself ( μήτι ἀποκτενεῖ ἑαυτὸν )? The mockery in these words is alike subtle and bitter. The interroga...

Will He kill Himself ( μήτι ἀποκτενεῖ ἑαυτὸν )?

The mockery in these words is alike subtle and bitter. The interrogative particle, μήτι , signifies surely He will not by any chance kill Himself; and the sense of the whole clause is, He will not surely go where we cannot reach Him, unless perchance He should kill Himself; and as that would insure His going to Gehenna, of course we could not go to Him there. The remark displays alike the scorn and the self-righteousness of the speakers.

Vincent: Joh 8:23 - Ye are from beneath Ye are from beneath ( ἐκ τῶν κάτω ἐστὲ ) A phrase peculiar to John and to his Gospel. Jesus states the radical antagonism ...

Ye are from beneath ( ἐκ τῶν κάτω ἐστὲ )

A phrase peculiar to John and to his Gospel. Jesus states the radical antagonism between His opposers and Himself, as based upon difference of origin and nature . They spring from the lower, sensual, earthly economy; He from the heavenly. Compare Jam 3:15 sqq.

Vincent: Joh 8:23 - From above From above ( ἐκ τῶν ἄνω ) Also peculiar to John's Gospel. Compare Col 3:1. On the phrase to be of (εἶναι ἐκ ) ...

From above ( ἐκ τῶν ἄνω )

Also peculiar to John's Gospel. Compare Col 3:1. On the phrase to be of (εἶναι ἐκ ) see on Joh 1:46.

Vincent: Joh 8:23 - Ye are of this world Ye are of this world ( ἐκ τοῦ κόσμου τούτου ἐστὲ ) Peculiar to John, and occurring in the First Epistle. On κο...

Ye are of this world ( ἐκ τοῦ κόσμου τούτου ἐστὲ )

Peculiar to John, and occurring in the First Epistle. On κόσμου , world , see on Joh 1:9. Ye are of this earthly order or economy .

Vincent: Joh 8:24 - I am he I am he ( ἐγώ εἰμι ) He is inserted in the versions and is not in the text. By retaining it, we read, I am the Messiah . Bu...

I am he ( ἐγώ εἰμι )

He is inserted in the versions and is not in the text. By retaining it, we read, I am the Messiah . But the words are rather the solemn expression of His absolute divine being, as in Joh 8:58 : " If ye believe not that I am ." See Deu 32:39; Isa 43:10; and compare Joh 8:28, Joh 8:58 of this chapter, and Joh 13:19.

Vincent: Joh 8:25 - Even the same that I said unto you from the beginning Even the same that I said unto you from the beginning ( τὴν ἀρχὴν ὅ τι καὶ λαλῶ ὑμῖν ) A very difficult p...

Even the same that I said unto you from the beginning ( τὴν ἀρχὴν ὅ τι καὶ λαλῶ ὑμῖν )

A very difficult passage, on which the commentators are almost hopelessly divided. There are two main classes of interpretations, according to one of which it is to be read interrogatively , and according to the other, affirmatively . The two principal representatives of the former class are Meyer, who renders " Do you ask that which all along (τὴν ἀρχὴν ) I am even saying to you?" and Westcott, " How is it that I even speak to you at all (τὴν ἀρχὴν )" ? So also Milligan and Moulton. This latter rendering requires the change of ὅ τι , the relative, that which , into the conjunction ὅτι , that .

The second class of interpreters, who construe the passage affirmatively , vary in their explanations of τὴν ἄρχην , which they render severally, altogether , essentially , first of all , in the beginning . There is also a third class, who take τὴν ἄρχην as a noun, and explain according to Rev 21:6, " I am the beginning , that which I am even saying unto you ." This view is represented mostly by the older commentators, Augustine, Bede, Lampe, and later by Wordsworth.

I adopt the view of Alford, who renders essentially , explaining by generally , or traced up to its principle (ἀρχὴ ). Shading off from this are Godet, absolutely; Winer, throughout; Thayer, wholly or precisely . I render, I am essentially that which I even speak to you . If we accept the explanation of I am , in Joh 8:24, as a declaration of Jesus' absolute divine being, that thought prepares the way for this interpretation of His answer to the question, Who art thou? His words are the revelation of Himself. " He appeals to His own testimony as the adequate expression of His nature. They have only to fathom the series of statements He has made concerning Himself, and they will find therein a complete analysis of His mission and essence" (Godet).

Vincent: Joh 8:26 - I have many things, etc I have many things, etc. The connection of thought seems to be as follows: " I being such as my words show me to be, I must declare the whole mes...

I have many things, etc.

The connection of thought seems to be as follows: " I being such as my words show me to be, I must declare the whole message of Him by virtue of my essential union with whom I speak. Many things I have to declare and judge, and you may turn a deaf ear to them; nevertheless, I must speak the whole truth, the things which I have heard from Him who sent me and who is true."

Vincent: Joh 8:26 - I speak to the world I speak to the world ( λέγω εἰς τὸν κοσμὸν ) The best texts read λαλῶ , which emphasizes not what Christ says (wh...

I speak to the world ( λέγω εἰς τὸν κοσμὸν )

The best texts read λαλῶ , which emphasizes not what Christ says (which would be λέγω ), but the fact that He speaks. See on Mat 28:18. The use of the preposition εἰς here is peculiar. Literally, " I speak into the world;" so that my words may reach and spread through the world. See for a similar construction 1Th 2:9; 1Th 4:8; Heb 2:3. So Sophocles, where Electra says, κήρυσσέ μ ' εἰς ἅπαντας proclaim me to all: so that the report of me may reach all ears (" Electra," 606).

Vincent: Joh 8:27 - They understood They understood ( ἔγνωσαν ) Perceived , as Rev.

They understood ( ἔγνωσαν )

Perceived , as Rev.

Vincent: Joh 8:27 - He spake He spake Imperfect. Was speaking would be much better.

He spake

Imperfect. Was speaking would be much better.

Vincent: Joh 8:28 - Lifted up Lifted up See on Joh 3:14.

Lifted up

See on Joh 3:14.

Vincent: Joh 8:28 - Ye shall know Ye shall know ( γνώσεσθε ) Render, perceive , here as in Joh 8:27.

Ye shall know ( γνώσεσθε )

Render, perceive , here as in Joh 8:27.

Vincent: Joh 8:28 - I am He I am He As in Joh 8:24, on which see note.

I am He

As in Joh 8:24, on which see note.

Vincent: Joh 8:28 - Of myself Of myself ( ἀπ ' ἐμαυτοῦ ) Properly, from myself, as Rev., at Joh 7:17, but not here. See on Joh 7:17.

Of myself ( ἀπ ' ἐμαυτοῦ )

Properly, from myself, as Rev., at Joh 7:17, but not here. See on Joh 7:17.

Vincent: Joh 8:28 - Hath taught Hath taught ( ἐδίδαξεν ) Rev., more correctly, taught . The aorist tense, regarding the teaching as a single act. Compare ἤκο...

Hath taught ( ἐδίδαξεν )

Rev., more correctly, taught . The aorist tense, regarding the teaching as a single act. Compare ἤκουσα , I heard , Joh 3:32.

Vincent: Joh 8:28 - I speak these things I speak these things ( παῦτα λαλῶ ) Not equivalent to so I speak ( i . e ., as the Father taught me), but an absolute declaration ...

I speak these things ( παῦτα λαλῶ )

Not equivalent to so I speak ( i . e ., as the Father taught me), but an absolute declaration with reference to these present revelations.

Vincent: Joh 8:29 - The Father The Father The best texts omit.

The Father

The best texts omit.

Vincent: Joh 8:29 - Alone Alone See Joh 8:16.

Alone

See Joh 8:16.

Vincent: Joh 8:29 - Those things that please Him Those things that please Him ( τὰ ἀρεστὰ αὐτῷ ) Literally, as Rev., the things that are pleasing to Him . A...

Those things that please Him ( τὰ ἀρεστὰ αὐτῷ )

Literally, as Rev., the things that are pleasing to Him . Always (πάντοτε ) closing the sentence, is emphatic. Jesus' holy activity is habitual and continuous . See Joh 4:34.

Vincent: Joh 8:30 - Believed on Believed on ( ἐπιστευκότας αὐτῷ ) See on Joh 1:12, and compare believed Him , Joh 8:31.

Believed on ( ἐπιστευκότας αὐτῷ )

See on Joh 1:12, and compare believed Him , Joh 8:31.

Vincent: Joh 8:31 - Believed on Him Believed on Him ( πεπιστευκότας αὐτῷ ) Note the different phrase, distinguishing the Jews from the mixed company in Joh ...

Believed on Him ( πεπιστευκότας αὐτῷ )

Note the different phrase, distinguishing the Jews from the mixed company in Joh 8:30. Rev., rightly, believed Him .

Vincent: Joh 8:31 - If ye continue If ye continue ( ἐὰν ὑμεῖς μείνητε ) The emphasis is on the ye , addressed to those whose faith was rudimentary; who be...

If ye continue ( ἐὰν ὑμεῖς μείνητε )

The emphasis is on the ye , addressed to those whose faith was rudimentary; who believed Him , but did not yet believe on Him . Rev., abide .

Vincent: Joh 8:31 - In my word In my word ( ἐν τῷ λόγῳ τῷ ἐμῷ ) Literally, in the word which is mine: peculiarly mine, characteri...

In my word ( ἐν τῷ λόγῳ τῷ ἐμῷ )

Literally, in the word which is mine: peculiarly mine, characteristic of me. The expression is intentionally stronger than my word . Compare my love (Joh 15:9).

Vincent: Joh 8:31 - Indeed Indeed ( ἀληθῶς ) Literally, truly; as Rev. As those who believe on me, not as those who are moved by temporary excitement to admit...

Indeed ( ἀληθῶς )

Literally, truly; as Rev. As those who believe on me, not as those who are moved by temporary excitement to admit my claims.

Vincent: Joh 8:33 - Were never in bondage Were never in bondage ( δεδουλεύκαμεν πώποτε ) Rev., better, have never yet been in bondage; thus giving the f...

Were never in bondage ( δεδουλεύκαμεν πώποτε )

Rev., better, have never yet been in bondage; thus giving the force of the perfect tense, never up to this time , and of the πώ , yet . In the light of the promises given to Abraham, Gen 17:16; Gen 22:17, Gen 22:18, the Jews claimed not only freedom, but dominion over the nations. In their reply to Jesus they ignore alike the Egyptian, Babylonian, and Syrian bondage, through which the nation had successively passed, as well as their present subjection to Rome, treating these merely as bondage which, though a fact , was not bondage by right , or bondage to which they had ever willingly submitted, and, therefore, not bondage in any real sense. Beside the fact that their words were the utterance of strong passion, it is to be remembered that the Romans, from motives of policy, had left them the semblance of political independence. As in so many other cases, they overlook the higher significance of Jesus' words, and base their reply on a technicality. These are the very Jews who believed Him (Joh 8:31). Stier remarks: " These poor believers soon come to the end of their faith." The hint of the possible inconstancy of their faith, conveyed in the Lord's words if ye abide in my word , is thus justified.

Vincent: Joh 8:34 - Whosoever committeth Whosoever committeth ( πᾶς ὁ ποιῶν ) Rev., more correctly, every one that committeth .

Whosoever committeth ( πᾶς ὁ ποιῶν )

Rev., more correctly, every one that committeth .

Vincent: Joh 8:34 - Sin Sin ( τὴν ἁμαρτίαν ) The definite article, the sin, shows that Jesus does not mean merely a simple act, but a life of s...

Sin ( τὴν ἁμαρτίαν )

The definite article, the sin, shows that Jesus does not mean merely a simple act, but a life of sin . Compare 1Jo 3:4-8, and doeth the truth (Joh 3:21); doeth the righteousness (1Jo 2:29).

Vincent: Joh 8:34 - The servant The servant ( δοῦλος ) Or, a servant. Properly, a bond-servant or slave . See on Mat 20:26.

The servant ( δοῦλος )

Or, a servant. Properly, a bond-servant or slave . See on Mat 20:26.

Vincent: Joh 8:34 - Of sin Of sin A few authorities omit, and read whosoever committeth sin is a bond-servant . Compare Rom 6:17, Rom 6:20.

Of sin

A few authorities omit, and read whosoever committeth sin is a bond-servant . Compare Rom 6:17, Rom 6:20.

Vincent: Joh 8:35 - Abideth not in the house forever Abideth not in the house forever A slave has no permanent place in the house. He may be sold, exchanged, or cast out. Compare Gen 21:10; Gal 4:30...

Abideth not in the house forever

A slave has no permanent place in the house. He may be sold, exchanged, or cast out. Compare Gen 21:10; Gal 4:30. House . See Heb 3:6; Joh 14:2. The elder son in the parable of the prodigal (Luk 15:29), denies his sonship by the words, " These many years do I serve thee (δουλεύω )."

Vincent: Joh 8:36 - Indeed Indeed ( ὄντως ) Used by John only here. It means essentially .

Indeed ( ὄντως )

Used by John only here. It means essentially .

Vincent: Joh 8:37 - Hath no place Hath no place ( οὐ χωρεῖ ) Rev., hath not free course , or maketh no way . This rendering is in harmony with Joh 8:30, Joh...

Hath no place ( οὐ χωρεῖ )

Rev., hath not free course , or maketh no way . This rendering is in harmony with Joh 8:30, Joh 8:31, concerning those who believed , but did not believe on Him, and who showed by their angry answer, in Joh 8:33, that the word of Jesus had made no advance in them. The rendering of the A.V. is not supported by usage, though Field (" Otium Norvicense" ) cites an undoubted instance of that sense from the Epistles of Alciphron, a post-Christian writer, who relates the story of a parasite returning gorged from a banquet and applying to a physician, who administered an emetic. The parasite, describing the effect of the medicine, says that the doctor wondered where such a mess had place (ἐχώρησε ). For the rendering of the Rev., compare Aristophanes: πῶς οὖν οὐ χωρεῖ τοὔργον ; " How is it that the work makes no progress? " (" Peace," 472). Plutarch, ἐχώρει διὰ τῆς πόλεως ὁ λόγος , " the word: (or report) spread (or advanced) through the city (" Caesar," 712).

Vincent: Joh 8:38 - Ye have seen Ye have seen The best texts read ἠκούσατε , ye heard .

Ye have seen

The best texts read ἠκούσατε , ye heard .

Vincent: Joh 8:39 - Children Children ( τέκνα ) See on Joh 1:12.

Children ( τέκνα )

See on Joh 1:12.

Vincent: Joh 8:40 - A man A man ( ἄνθρωπον ) Used only here by the Lord of Himself. To this corresponds His calling the Devil a manslayer at Joh 8:44. Perh...

A man ( ἄνθρωπον )

Used only here by the Lord of Himself. To this corresponds His calling the Devil a manslayer at Joh 8:44. Perhaps, too, as Westcott remarks, it may suggest the idea of the human sympathy which, as a man, He was entitled to claim from them.

Vincent: Joh 8:40 - This did not Abraham This did not Abraham In the oriental traditions Abraham is spoken of as " full of loving-kindness."

This did not Abraham

In the oriental traditions Abraham is spoken of as " full of loving-kindness."

Vincent: Joh 8:41 - Ye do Ye do Or, are doing .

Ye do

Or, are doing .

Vincent: Joh 8:41 - Fornication Fornication ( πορνείας ) From πέρνημι , to sell .

Fornication ( πορνείας )

From πέρνημι , to sell .

Vincent: Joh 8:42 - I proceeded forth - from God I proceeded forth - from God ( ἐκ τοῦ Θεοῦ ἐξῆλθον ) Rev., came forth . The phrase occurs only here and in Joh 16:28...

I proceeded forth - from God ( ἐκ τοῦ Θεοῦ ἐξῆλθον )

Rev., came forth . The phrase occurs only here and in Joh 16:28. Ἑξελθεῖν is found in Joh 13:3; Joh 16:30, and emphasizes the idea of separation; a going from God to whom He was to return ( and goeth unto God ). Ἑξελθεῖν παρά (Joh 16:27; Joh 17:8), is going from beside , implying personal fellowship with God. Ἑξελθεῖν ἐκ , here, emphasizes the idea of essential , community of being: " I came forth out of ."

Vincent: Joh 8:42 - And am come And am come ( ἥκω ) As much as to say, and here I am .

And am come ( ἥκω )

As much as to say, and here I am .

Vincent: Joh 8:42 - Of myself Of myself ( ἀπ ' ἐμαυτοῦ ) Of my own self-determination, independently, but my being is divinely derived. See on Joh 7:17.

Of myself ( ἀπ ' ἐμαυτοῦ )

Of my own self-determination, independently, but my being is divinely derived. See on Joh 7:17.

Vincent: Joh 8:43 - Speech - word Speech - word ( λαλιὰν - λόγον ) The former word refers to the form , the latter to the substance of discourse. So Mat 26:73,...

Speech - word ( λαλιὰν - λόγον )

The former word refers to the form , the latter to the substance of discourse. So Mat 26:73, of Peter, " thy speech (λαλιά ) bewrayeth thee;" thy mode of speaking. If they had understood the substance, they would have understood the form.

Vincent: Joh 8:43 - Cannot Cannot See on Joh 7:7.

Cannot

See on Joh 7:7.

Vincent: Joh 8:44 - Ye Ye ( ὑμεῖς ) Emphatic, in contrast with ἡμεῖς , we , of Joh 8:41.

Ye ( ὑμεῖς )

Emphatic, in contrast with ἡμεῖς , we , of Joh 8:41.

Vincent: Joh 8:44 - Of your father Of your father ( ἐκ ) Very suggestive, implying community of nature, as in Joh 8:42. Compare 1Jo 3:8, 1Jo 3:10.

Of your father ( ἐκ )

Very suggestive, implying community of nature, as in Joh 8:42. Compare 1Jo 3:8, 1Jo 3:10.

Vincent: Joh 8:44 - The Devil The Devil See on Mat 4:1. John uses Satan only once in the Gospel (Joh 13:27), frequently in Revelation, and nowhere in the Epistles. A few cri...

The Devil

See on Mat 4:1. John uses Satan only once in the Gospel (Joh 13:27), frequently in Revelation, and nowhere in the Epistles. A few critics have adopted the very singular rendering, which the Greek will bear, ye are of the father of the devil . This is explained by charging John with Gnosticism, and making him refer to the Demiurge , a mysterious and inferior being descended from God, by whom God, according to the Gnostics, created the universe, and who had rebelled against God, and was the father of Satan. It is only necessary to remark with Meyer that such a view is both unbiblical and un-Johannine.

Vincent: Joh 8:44 - Lusts Lusts ( ἐπιθυμίας ) See on Mar 4:19.

Lusts ( ἐπιθυμίας )

See on Mar 4:19.

Vincent: Joh 8:44 - Ye will do Ye will do ( θέλετε ποιεῖν ) Wrong. Properly, ye will to do . Rev., it is your will to do . See on Joh 7:17.

Ye will do ( θέλετε ποιεῖν )

Wrong. Properly, ye will to do . Rev., it is your will to do . See on Joh 7:17.

Vincent: Joh 8:44 - Murderer Murderer ( ἀνθρωποκτόνος ) Only here and 1Jo 3:15. Literally, a manslayer; from ἄνθρωπος , man , and κτεί...

Murderer ( ἀνθρωποκτόνος )

Only here and 1Jo 3:15. Literally, a manslayer; from ἄνθρωπος , man , and κτείνω , to kill . The epithet is applied to Satan, not with reference to the murder of Abel, but to the fact of his being the author of death to the race. Compare Rom 7:8, Rom 7:11; Heb 2:14.

Vincent: Joh 8:44 - From the beginning From the beginning Of the human race.

From the beginning

Of the human race.

Vincent: Joh 8:44 - Stood not Stood not ( οὐκ ἕστηκεν ) This may be explained in two ways. The verb may be taken as the perfect tense of ἵστημι , whi...

Stood not ( οὐκ ἕστηκεν )

This may be explained in two ways. The verb may be taken as the perfect tense of ἵστημι , which is the form for the English present tense, I stand . In that case it would describe Satan's present standing in the element of falsehood: he standeth not in the truth . Or it may be taken as the imperfect tense of στήκω , I keep my standing , or simply, I stand , in which case the form will be ἔστηκεν , and it will mean that even before his fall he was not true, or that he did not remain true to God, but fell. Meyer, who takes it in the former sense, observes: " Truth is the domain in which he has not his footing; to him it is a foreign, heterogeneous sphere of life.... The lie is the sphere in which he holds his place." So Mephistopheles in Goethe's " Faust" :

" I am the spirit that denies!

And justly so; for all things from the void

Called forth, deserve to be destroyed;

'Twere better, then, were naught created.

Thus, all which you as sin have rated, -

Destruction, - aught with evil blent, -

That is my proper element."

Vincent: Joh 8:44 - When he speaketh a lie When he speaketh a lie ( ὅταν λαλῇ τὸ ψεῦδος ) More strictly, whenever - the lie, as opposed to the truth, regard...

When he speaketh a lie ( ὅταν λαλῇ τὸ ψεῦδος )

More strictly, whenever - the lie, as opposed to the truth, regarded as a whole. Two interpretations are given. According to one, the Devil is the subject of speaketh: according to the other, the subject is indefinite; " when one speaketh;" stating a general proposition.

Vincent: Joh 8:44 - Of his own Of his own ( ἐκ τῶν ἰδίων ) Literally, out of the things which are his own . " That which is most peculiarly his...

Of his own ( ἐκ τῶν ἰδίων )

Literally, out of the things which are his own . " That which is most peculiarly his ethical nature" (Meyer).

Vincent: Joh 8:44 - For he is a liar, and the father of it For he is a liar, and the father of it ( ὅτι ψεύστης ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ πατὴρ αὐτοῦ ) Three interpretatio...

For he is a liar, and the father of it ( ὅτι ψεύστης ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ πατὴρ αὐτοῦ )

Three interpretations are given. 1. That of the A.V. and Rev. " He is a liar, and the father of the lie ." 2. " He is a liar, and the father of the liar (since of it may also be rendered of him )." 3. Making ὁ πατὴρ αὐτοῦ , his father , the subject of the sentence, and referring his to one , the indefinite subject of speaketh (" when one speaketh a lie" ). Thus the rendering will be, Because his father is a liar .As to Jesus' course of thought - if we accept either of the first two renderings, it turns on the character of Satan . After stating that the Jews are children of the Devil, He goes on to describe the Devil as a murderer and a liar, and enlarges on the latter characteristic by saying that falsehood is his natural and peculiar element. Whenever he lies he speaks out of his own false nature, for he is a liar, and the father of the lie or of the liar. If we accept the third rendering, the thought turns rather on the character of the Jews as children of Satan. He utters first, the general charge, ye are the children of the Devil , and as such will do his works. Hence you will be both murderers and liars . He was a murderer, and ye are seeking to kill me. He stood not in the truth, neither do ye; for, when one speaketh a lie, he speaketh out of his own false nature, by a birthright of falsehood, since his father also is a liar.

Vincent: Joh 8:45 - And because I And because I ( ἐγὼ δὲ ὅτι ) Render but , instead of and . You would believe falsehood if I should speak it, but because ...

And because I ( ἐγὼ δὲ ὅτι )

Render but , instead of and . You would believe falsehood if I should speak it, but because I tell you the truth , you do not believe. The I is emphatic. I , because I tell you, etc.

Vincent: Joh 8:46 - Convinceth Convinceth ( ἐλέγχει ) See on Joh 3:20. Rev., convicteth .

Convinceth ( ἐλέγχει )

See on Joh 3:20. Rev., convicteth .

Vincent: Joh 8:46 - Sin Sin ( ἁμαρτίας ) Not fault or error , but sin in general, as everywhere in the New Testament.

Sin ( ἁμαρτίας )

Not fault or error , but sin in general, as everywhere in the New Testament.

Vincent: Joh 8:46 - The truth The truth ( ἀλήθειαν ) Without the article, and therefore not the whole truth , but that which is true as to any part of...

The truth ( ἀλήθειαν )

Without the article, and therefore not the whole truth , but that which is true as to any part of divine revelation.

Vincent: Joh 8:47 - He that is of He that is of ( ὁ ὣν ἐκ ) The familiar construction. See on Joh 1:46.

He that is of ( ὁ ὣν ἐκ )

The familiar construction. See on Joh 1:46.

Vincent: Joh 8:48 - Say we not well Say we not well Indicating a current reproach. Well (καλῶς ) is literally, finely , beautifully . Sometimes ironical, as Mar 7:6.

Say we not well

Indicating a current reproach. Well (καλῶς ) is literally, finely , beautifully . Sometimes ironical, as Mar 7:6.

Vincent: Joh 8:48 - Thou art a Samaritan Thou art a Samaritan ( Σαμαρείτης εἶ σὺ ) Literally, a Samaritan art thou: the σὺ , thou , terminating the sente...

Thou art a Samaritan ( Σαμαρείτης εἶ σὺ )

Literally, a Samaritan art thou: the σὺ , thou , terminating the sentence with a bitter emphasis: thou who professest such reverence for God and His law, art only a Samaritan, hostile to the true law and kingdom of God.

Vincent: Joh 8:49 - I have not a devil I have not a devil He ignores the charge of being a Samaritan, refusing to recognize the national distinction. For devil read demon .

I have not a devil

He ignores the charge of being a Samaritan, refusing to recognize the national distinction. For devil read demon .

Vincent: Joh 8:50 - There is one that seeketh There is one that seeketh That seeks my honor and judges between me and my opposers.

There is one that seeketh

That seeks my honor and judges between me and my opposers.

Vincent: Joh 8:51 - Keep Keep ( τηρήσῃ ) See on 1Pe 1:4.

Keep ( τηρήσῃ )

See on 1Pe 1:4.

Vincent: Joh 8:51 - Saying Saying ( λόγον ) Better, word , as Rev. See on Joh 8:43.

Saying ( λόγον )

Better, word , as Rev. See on Joh 8:43.

Vincent: Joh 8:51 - He shall not see death He shall not see death ( θάνατον οὐ μὴ θεωρήσῃ ) The phrase θεωρεῖν θάνατον , to see death , o...

He shall not see death ( θάνατον οὐ μὴ θεωρήσῃ )

The phrase θεωρεῖν θάνατον , to see death , occurs only here in the New Testament. The double negative signifies in nowise , by no means . Θεωρήσῃ see , denoting steady , protracted vision, is purposely used, because the promise contemplates the entire course of the believer's life in Christ. It is not, shall not die forever , but shall live eternally . Upon this life, which is essentially the negation and contradiction of death, the believer enters from the moment of his union with Christ, and moves along its entire course , in time no less than in eternity, seeing only life, and with his back turned on death. The reverse of this truth, in connection with the same verb, is painfully suggestive. The question is pertinent why the Revisers have retained see , and have not substituted behold , as in so many instances.

Vincent: Joh 8:52 - Now Now Looking back to Joh 8:48. If we were too hasty then in saying that you have a demon, your words now fully justify us. They understood Him t...

Now

Looking back to Joh 8:48. If we were too hasty then in saying that you have a demon, your words now fully justify us. They understood Him to be speaking of natural death.

Vincent: Joh 8:52 - Is dead Is dead ( ἀπέθανε ) Better, died: referring to the historical fact.

Is dead ( ἀπέθανε )

Better, died: referring to the historical fact.

Vincent: Joh 8:52 - Taste of death Taste of death They change the form of Jesus' statement. The Lord himself tasted of death. See Heb 2:9. The phrase taste of death does no...

Taste of death

They change the form of Jesus' statement. The Lord himself tasted of death. See Heb 2:9. The phrase taste of death does not occur in the Old Testament, but is common in Rabbinic writings. " The angel of death," say the Rabbis, " holdeth his sword in his hand at the bed's head, having on the end thereof three drops of gall. The sick man, spying this deadly angel, openeth his mouth with fear; and then those drops fall in, of which one killeth him, the second maketh him pale, the third rotteth."

Vincent: Joh 8:53 - Art thou Art thou ( μὴ σὺ ) Thou , emphatic, and the negative interrogative particle implying a negative answer, thou art not surely gre...

Art thou ( μὴ σὺ )

Thou , emphatic, and the negative interrogative particle implying a negative answer, thou art not surely greater .

Vincent: Joh 8:53 - Which is dead Which is dead ( ὅστις ) The compound pronoun ὅστις , which , is used explicatively , according to a familiar New Testament us...

Which is dead ( ὅστις )

The compound pronoun ὅστις , which , is used explicatively , according to a familiar New Testament usage, instead of the simple relative. The sense is, seeing that he is dead. The compound relative properly indicates the class or kind to which an object belongs. Art thou greater than Abraham, who is himself one of the dead? So Col 3:5. " Mortify covetousness, seeing it is (ἥτις ἐστὶν ) idolatry." See on Mat 13:52; see on Mat 21:41; see on Mar 12:18; see on Luk 12:1; see on Act 7:53; see on Act 10:41; see on 1Pe 2:11.

Vincent: Joh 8:55 - Saying Saying ( λόγον ) Properly, word , as Joh 8:51. So Rev.

Saying ( λόγον )

Properly, word , as Joh 8:51. So Rev.

Vincent: Joh 8:56 - Rejoiced Rejoiced ( ἠγαλλιάσατο ) With exultant joy. See on 1Pe 1:6.

Rejoiced ( ἠγαλλιάσατο )

With exultant joy. See on 1Pe 1:6.

Vincent: Joh 8:56 - To see To see ( ἵνα ἴδῃ ) The Greek construction is peculiar. Literally, that he should see; i.e., in the knowledge or anticipat...

To see ( ἵνα ἴδῃ )

The Greek construction is peculiar. Literally, that he should see; i.e., in the knowledge or anticipation that he should see.

Vincent: Joh 8:56 - My day My day The exact meaning of the expression is altogether uncertain.

My day

The exact meaning of the expression is altogether uncertain.

Vincent: Joh 8:57 - Thou art not yet fifty years old Thou art not yet fifty years old ( πεντήκοντα ἔτη οὔπω ἔχεις ) Literally, thou hast not yet fifty ...

Thou art not yet fifty years old ( πεντήκοντα ἔτη οὔπω ἔχεις )

Literally, thou hast not yet fifty years . The age of completed manhood.

Vincent: Joh 8:57 - Hast thou seen Hast thou seen Again misquoting the Lord's words.

Hast thou seen

Again misquoting the Lord's words.

Vincent: Joh 8:58 - Was, I am Was, I am ( γενέσθαι, ἐγώ εἰμι ) It is important to observe the distinction between the two verbs. Abraham's life was unde...

Was, I am ( γενέσθαι, ἐγώ εἰμι )

It is important to observe the distinction between the two verbs. Abraham's life was under the conditions of time, and therefore had a temporal beginning. Hence, Abraham came into being , or was born (γενέσθαι ). Jesus' life was from and to eternity. Hence the formula for absolute , timeless existence, I am (ἐγώ εἰμι ). See on Joh 1:3; see on Joh 7:34.

Vincent: Joh 8:59 - Going through the midst of them, and so passed by Going through the midst of them, and so passed by The best texts omit.

Going through the midst of them, and so passed by

The best texts omit.

Wesley: Joh 8:5 - Moses hath commanded us to stone such If they spoke accurately, this must have been a woman, who, having been betrothed to a husband, had been guilty of this crime before the marriage was ...

If they spoke accurately, this must have been a woman, who, having been betrothed to a husband, had been guilty of this crime before the marriage was completed; for such only Moses commanded to be stoned. He commanded indeed that other adulteresses should be put to death; but the manner of death was not specified. Deu 22:23.

Wesley: Joh 8:6 - That they might have to accuse him Either of usurping the office of a judge, if he condemned her, or of being an enemy to the law, if he acquitted her. Jesus stooping down, wrote with h...

Either of usurping the office of a judge, if he condemned her, or of being an enemy to the law, if he acquitted her. Jesus stooping down, wrote with his finger on the ground - God wrote once in the Old Testament; Christ once in the New: perhaps the words which he afterward spoke, when they continued asking him. By this silent action, he, fixed their wandering, hurrying thoughts, in order to awaken their consciences: and, signified that he was not then come to condemn but to save the world.

Wesley: Joh 8:7 - He that is without sin He that is not guilty: his own conscience being the judge) either of the same sin, or of some nearly resembling it; let him - as a witness, cast the f...

He that is not guilty: his own conscience being the judge) either of the same sin, or of some nearly resembling it; let him - as a witness, cast the first stone at her.

Wesley: Joh 8:9 - Beginning at the eldest Or the elders.

Or the elders.

Wesley: Joh 8:9 - Jesus was left alone By all those scribes and Pharisees who proposed the question. But many others remained, to whom our Lord directed his discourse presently after.

By all those scribes and Pharisees who proposed the question. But many others remained, to whom our Lord directed his discourse presently after.

Wesley: Joh 8:10 - Hath no man condemned thee? Hath no judicial sentence been passed upon thee?

Hath no judicial sentence been passed upon thee?

Wesley: Joh 8:11 - Neither do I condemn thee Neither do I take upon me to pass any such sentence. Let this deliverance lead thee to repentance.

Neither do I take upon me to pass any such sentence. Let this deliverance lead thee to repentance.

Wesley: Joh 8:12 - He that followeth me shall in nowise walk in darkness In ignorance, wickedness, misery: but shall have the light of life - He that closely, humbly, steadily follows me, shall have the Divine light continu...

In ignorance, wickedness, misery: but shall have the light of life - He that closely, humbly, steadily follows me, shall have the Divine light continually shining upon him, diffusing over his soul knowledge, holiness, joy, till he is guided by it to life everlasting.

Wesley: Joh 8:13 - Thou testifiest of thyself; thy testimony is not valid They retort upon our Lord his own words, Joh 5:31; if I testify of myself, my testimony is not valid. He had then added, There is another who testifie...

They retort upon our Lord his own words, Joh 5:31; if I testify of myself, my testimony is not valid. He had then added, There is another who testifieth of me. To the same effect he replies here, Joh 8:14, Though I testify of myself, yet my testimony is valid; for I am inseparably united to the Father.

Wesley: Joh 8:13 - I know And from firm and certain knowledge proceeds the most unexceptionable testimony: whence I came, and whither I go - To these two heads may be referred ...

And from firm and certain knowledge proceeds the most unexceptionable testimony: whence I came, and whither I go - To these two heads may be referred all the doctrine concerning Christ. The former is treated of Joh 8:16, &c, the latter Joh 8:21, &c.

Wesley: Joh 8:13 - For I know whence I came That is, For I came from God, both as God and as man. And I know it, though ye do not.

That is, For I came from God, both as God and as man. And I know it, though ye do not.

Wesley: Joh 8:15 - Ye judge after the flesh As the flesh, that is, corrupt nature dictates.

As the flesh, that is, corrupt nature dictates.

Wesley: Joh 8:15 - I judge no man Not thus; not now; not at my first coming.

Not thus; not now; not at my first coming.

Wesley: Joh 8:16 - I am not alone No more in judging, than in testifying: but I and the Father that sent me - His Father is in him, and he is in the Father, Joh 14:10-11; and so the Fa...

No more in judging, than in testifying: but I and the Father that sent me - His Father is in him, and he is in the Father, Joh 14:10-11; and so the Father is no more alone without the Son, than the Son is without the Father, Pro 8:22-23, Pro 8:30. His Father and he are not one and another God, but one God, (though distinct persons,) and so inseparable from each other. And though the Son came from the Father, to assume human nature, and perform his office as the Messiah upon earth, as God is sometimes said to come from heaven, for particular manifestations of himself; yet Christ did not leave the Father, nor the Father leave him, any more than God leaves heaven when he is said to come down to the earth.

Wesley: Joh 8:17 - -- Deu 19:15.

Wesley: Joh 8:19 - Then said they to him, Where is thy Father? Jesus answered Showing the perverseness of their question; and teaching that they ought first to know the Son, if they would know the Father.

Showing the perverseness of their question; and teaching that they ought first to know the Son, if they would know the Father.

Wesley: Joh 8:19 - Where the Father is he shows, Joh 8:23. Meantime he plainly intimates that the Father and he were distinct persons, as they were two witnesses; and yet one in essence, as...

he shows, Joh 8:23. Meantime he plainly intimates that the Father and he were distinct persons, as they were two witnesses; and yet one in essence, as the knowledge of him includes the knowledge of the Father.

Wesley: Joh 8:23 - Ye are Again he passes over their interruption, and proves what he advanced, Joh 8:21.

Again he passes over their interruption, and proves what he advanced, Joh 8:21.

Wesley: Joh 8:23 - Of them that are beneath From the earth.

From the earth.

Wesley: Joh 8:23 - I am of them that are above Here he directly shows whence he came, even from heaven, and whither he goes.

Here he directly shows whence he came, even from heaven, and whither he goes.

Wesley: Joh 8:24 - If ye believe not that I AM Here (as in Joh 8:58) our Lord claims the Divine name, I AM, Exo 3:14. But the Jews, as if he had stopped short, and not finished the sentence, answer...

Here (as in Joh 8:58) our Lord claims the Divine name, I AM, Exo 3:14. But the Jews, as if he had stopped short, and not finished the sentence, answered, Who art thou?

Wesley: Joh 8:25 - Even what I say to you from the beginning The same which I say to you, as it were in one discourse, with one even tenor from the time I first spake to you.

The same which I say to you, as it were in one discourse, with one even tenor from the time I first spake to you.

Wesley: Joh 8:26 - I have many things to say and to judge of you I have much to say concerning your inexcusable unbelief: but he that sent me is true - Whether ye believe or no.

I have much to say concerning your inexcusable unbelief: but he that sent me is true - Whether ye believe or no.

Wesley: Joh 8:26 - And I speak the things which I have heard from him I deliver truly what he hath given me in charge.

I deliver truly what he hath given me in charge.

Wesley: Joh 8:27 - They understood not That by him that sent him he meant God the Father. Therefore in Joh 8:28-29 he speaks plainly of the Father, and again claims the Divine name, I AM.

That by him that sent him he meant God the Father. Therefore in Joh 8:28-29 he speaks plainly of the Father, and again claims the Divine name, I AM.

Wesley: Joh 8:28 - When ye shall have lifted up On the cross, ye shall know - And so many of them did, that I AM - God over all; and that I do nothing of myself - Being one with the Father.

On the cross, ye shall know - And so many of them did, that I AM - God over all; and that I do nothing of myself - Being one with the Father.

Wesley: Joh 8:29 - The Father hath not left me alone Never from the moment I came into the world.

Never from the moment I came into the world.

Wesley: Joh 8:32 - The truth Written in your hearts by the Spirit of God, shall make you free - From guilt, sin, misery, Satan.

Written in your hearts by the Spirit of God, shall make you free - From guilt, sin, misery, Satan.

Wesley: Joh 8:33 - They The other Jews that were by, (not those that believed,) as appears by the whole tenor of the conversation.

The other Jews that were by, (not those that believed,) as appears by the whole tenor of the conversation.

Wesley: Joh 8:33 - We were never enslaved to any man A bold, notorious untruth. At that very time they were enslaved to the Romans.

A bold, notorious untruth. At that very time they were enslaved to the Romans.

Wesley: Joh 8:34 - Jesus answered Each branch of their objection, first concerning freedom, then concerning their being Abraham's offspring, Joh 8:37, &c. He that committeth sin, is, i...

Each branch of their objection, first concerning freedom, then concerning their being Abraham's offspring, Joh 8:37, &c. He that committeth sin, is, in fact, the slave of sin.

Wesley: Joh 8:35 - And the slave abideth not in the house All sinners shall be cast out of God's house, as the slave was out of Abraham's: but I, the Son, abide therein for ever.

All sinners shall be cast out of God's house, as the slave was out of Abraham's: but I, the Son, abide therein for ever.

Wesley: Joh 8:36 - If I therefore make you free, ye shall partake of the same privilege: being made free from all guilt and sin, ye shall abide in the house of God for ever.

shall partake of the same privilege: being made free from all guilt and sin, ye shall abide in the house of God for ever.

Wesley: Joh 8:37 - I know that ye are Abraham's offspring As to the other branch of your objection, I know that, ye are Abraham's offspring, after the flesh; but not in a spiritual sense. Ye are not followers...

As to the other branch of your objection, I know that, ye are Abraham's offspring, after the flesh; but not in a spiritual sense. Ye are not followers of the faith of Abraham: my word hath no place in your hearts.

Wesley: Joh 8:41 - Ye do the deeds of your father He is not named yet. But when they presumed to call God their Father, then he is expressly called the devil, Joh 8:44.

He is not named yet. But when they presumed to call God their Father, then he is expressly called the devil, Joh 8:44.

Wesley: Joh 8:42 - I proceeded forth As God, and come - As Christ.

As God, and come - As Christ.

Wesley: Joh 8:43 - Ye cannot Such is your stubbornness and pride, hear - Receive, obey my word. Not being desirous to do my will, ye cannot understand my doctrine, Joh 7:17.

Such is your stubbornness and pride, hear - Receive, obey my word. Not being desirous to do my will, ye cannot understand my doctrine, Joh 7:17.

Wesley: Joh 8:44 - He was a murderer In inclination, from the beginning - Of his becoming a devil; and abode not in the truth - Commencing murderer and liar at the same time. And certainl...

In inclination, from the beginning - Of his becoming a devil; and abode not in the truth - Commencing murderer and liar at the same time. And certainly he was a killer of men (as the Greek word properly signifies) from the beginning of the world: for from the very creation he designed and contrived the ruin of men. When he speaketh a lie, he speaketh of his own - For he is the proper parent, and, as it were, creator of it. See the origin not only of lies, but of evil in general!

Wesley: Joh 8:45 - Because I speak the truth Which liars hate.

Which liars hate.

Wesley: Joh 8:46 - Which of you convicteth me of sin? And is not my life as unreprovable as my doctrine? Does not my whole behaviour confirm the truth of what I teach?

And is not my life as unreprovable as my doctrine? Does not my whole behaviour confirm the truth of what I teach?

Wesley: Joh 8:47 - He that is of God That either loves or fears him, heareth - With joy and reverence, God's words - Which I preach.

That either loves or fears him, heareth - With joy and reverence, God's words - Which I preach.

Wesley: Joh 8:48 - Say we not well Have we not just cause to say, Thou art, a Samaritan - An enemy to our Church and nation; and hast a devil? - Art possessed by a proud and lying spiri...

Have we not just cause to say, Thou art, a Samaritan - An enemy to our Church and nation; and hast a devil? - Art possessed by a proud and lying spirit?

Wesley: Joh 8:49 - I honour my Father I seek his honour only.

I seek his honour only.

Wesley: Joh 8:50 - I seek not my own glory That is, as I am the Messiah, I consult not my own glory. I need not. For my Father consulteth it, and will pass sentence on you accordingly.

That is, as I am the Messiah, I consult not my own glory. I need not. For my Father consulteth it, and will pass sentence on you accordingly.

Wesley: Joh 8:51 - If a man keep my word So will my Father consult my glory. We keep his doctrine by believing, his promises by hoping, his command by obeying.

So will my Father consult my glory. We keep his doctrine by believing, his promises by hoping, his command by obeying.

Wesley: Joh 8:51 - He shall never see death That is, death eternal. He shall live for ever. Hereby he proves that he was no Samaritan; for the Samaritans in general were Sadducees.

That is, death eternal. He shall live for ever. Hereby he proves that he was no Samaritan; for the Samaritans in general were Sadducees.

Wesley: Joh 8:54 - If I honour myself Referring to their words, Whom makest thou thyself?

Referring to their words, Whom makest thou thyself?

Wesley: Joh 8:56 - He saw it By faith in types, figures, and promises; as particularly in Melchisedec; in the appearance of Jehovah to him in the plains of Mamre, Gen 18:1; and in...

By faith in types, figures, and promises; as particularly in Melchisedec; in the appearance of Jehovah to him in the plains of Mamre, Gen 18:1; and in the promise that in his seed all the nations of the earth shall be blessed. Possibly he had likewise a peculiar revelation either of Christ's first or second coming.

Wesley: Joh 8:57 - Thou art not yet fifty years old At the most. Perhaps the gravity of our Lord's countenance, together with his afflictions and labours, might make him appear older than he really was.

At the most. Perhaps the gravity of our Lord's countenance, together with his afflictions and labours, might make him appear older than he really was.

Wesley: Joh 8:57 - Hast thou seen Abraham Which they justly supposed must have been, if Abraham had seen him.

Which they justly supposed must have been, if Abraham had seen him.

Wesley: Joh 8:58 - Before Abraham was I AM Even from everlasting to everlasting. This is a direct answer to the objection of the Jews, and shows how much greater he was than Abraham.

Even from everlasting to everlasting. This is a direct answer to the objection of the Jews, and shows how much greater he was than Abraham.

Wesley: Joh 8:59 - Then they took up stones To stone him as a blasphemer; but Jesus concealed himself - Probably by becoming invisible; and so passed on - With the same ease as if none had been ...

To stone him as a blasphemer; but Jesus concealed himself - Probably by becoming invisible; and so passed on - With the same ease as if none had been there.

JFB: Joh 8:1-2 - Jesus went unto the Mount of Olives This should have formed the last verse of the foregoing chapter. "The return of the people to the inert quiet and security of their dwellings (Joh 7:5...

This should have formed the last verse of the foregoing chapter. "The return of the people to the inert quiet and security of their dwellings (Joh 7:53), at the close of the feast, is designedly contrasted with our Lord's homeless way, so to speak, of spending the short night, who is early in the morning on the scene again. One cannot well see why what is recorded in Luk 21:37-38 may not even thus early have taken place; it might have been the Lord's ordinary custom from the beginning to leave the brilliant misery of the city every night, that so He might compose His sorrowful and interceding heart, and collect His energies for new labors of love; preferring for His resting-place Bethany, and the Mount of Olives, the scene thus consecrated by many preparatory prayers for His final humiliation and exaltation" [STIER].

JFB: Joh 8:3-6 - scribes and Pharisees Foiled in their yesterday's attempt, and hoping to succeed better in this.

Foiled in their yesterday's attempt, and hoping to succeed better in this.

JFB: Joh 8:4-5 - woman . . . in adultery . . . Moses . . . commanded . . . should be stoned Simply put to death (Deu 22:22), but in aggravated cases, at least in later times, this was probably by stoning (Eze 16:40).

Simply put to death (Deu 22:22), but in aggravated cases, at least in later times, this was probably by stoning (Eze 16:40).

JFB: Joh 8:4-5 - but what sayest thou Hoping, whatever He might answer, to put Him in the wrong:--if He said, Stone her, that would seem a stepping out of His province; if He forbade it, t...

Hoping, whatever He might answer, to put Him in the wrong:--if He said, Stone her, that would seem a stepping out of His province; if He forbade it, that would hold Him up as a relaxer of the public morals. But these cunning hypocrites were overmatched.

JFB: Joh 8:6 - stooped down It will be observed He was sitting when they came to Him.

It will be observed He was sitting when they came to Him.

JFB: Joh 8:6 - with his finger wrote on the ground The words of our translators in italics ("as though He heard them not") have hardly improved the sense, for it is scarcely probable He could wish that...

The words of our translators in italics ("as though He heard them not") have hardly improved the sense, for it is scarcely probable He could wish that to be thought. Rather He wished to show them His aversion to enter on the subject. But as this did not suit them, they "continue asking Him," pressing for an answer. At last, raising Himself He said.

JFB: Joh 8:7 - He that is without sin Not meaning sinless altogether; nor yet, guiltless of a literal breach of the Seventh Commandment; but probably, he whose conscience acquits him of an...

Not meaning sinless altogether; nor yet, guiltless of a literal breach of the Seventh Commandment; but probably, he whose conscience acquits him of any such sin.

JFB: Joh 8:7 - cast a stone "the stone," meaning the first one (Deu 17:7).

"the stone," meaning the first one (Deu 17:7).

JFB: Joh 8:8 - again he stooped down and wrote The design of this second stooping and writing on the ground was evidently to give her accusers an opportunity to slink away unobserved by Him, and so...

The design of this second stooping and writing on the ground was evidently to give her accusers an opportunity to slink away unobserved by Him, and so avoid an exposure to His eye which they could ill have stood. Accordingly it is added.

JFB: Joh 8:9 - they . . . convicted . . . went out one by one . . . Jesus was left alone That is, without one of her accusers remaining; for it is added.

That is, without one of her accusers remaining; for it is added.

JFB: Joh 8:9 - the woman in the midst That is, of the remaining audience. While the trap failed to catch Him for whom it was laid, it caught those who laid it. Stunned by the unexpected ho...

That is, of the remaining audience. While the trap failed to catch Him for whom it was laid, it caught those who laid it. Stunned by the unexpected home thrust, they immediately made off--which makes the impudence of those impure hypocrites in dragging such a case before the public eye the more disgusting.

JFB: Joh 8:10 - Woman, &c. What inimitable tenderness and grace! Conscious of her own guilt, and till now in the hands of men who had talked of stoning her, wondering at the ski...

What inimitable tenderness and grace! Conscious of her own guilt, and till now in the hands of men who had talked of stoning her, wondering at the skill with which her accusers had been dispersed, and the grace of the few words addressed to herself, she would be disposed to listen, with a reverence and teachableness before unknown, to our Lord's admonition. "And Jesus said unto her, Neither do I condemn thee, go and sin no more." He pronounces no pardon upon the woman (such as, "Thy sins are forgiven thee" [compare Luk 5:28; Luk 7:48] --"Go in peace" [compare Mar 5:34; Luk 7:50; Luk 8:48]), much less does He say that she had done nothing condemnable; He simply leaves the matter where it was. He meddles not with the magistrate's office, nor acts the Judge in any sense (Joh 12:47). But in saying, "Go and sin no more," which had been before said to one who undoubtedly believed (Joh 5:14), more is probably implied than expressed. If brought suddenly to conviction of sin, admiration of her Deliverer, and a willingness to be admonished and guided by Him, this call to begin a new life may have carried with it what would ensure and naturally bring about a permanent change. (This whole narrative is wanting in some of the earliest and most valuable manuscripts, and those which have it vary to some extent. The internal evidence in its favor is almost overpowering. It is easy to account for its omission, though genuine; but if not so, it is next to impossible to account for its insertion).

JFB: Joh 8:12 - I am the light of the world As the former references to water (Joh 4:13-14; Joh 7:37-39) and to bread (Joh 6:35) were occasioned by outward occurrences, so this one to light. In ...

As the former references to water (Joh 4:13-14; Joh 7:37-39) and to bread (Joh 6:35) were occasioned by outward occurrences, so this one to light. In "the treasury" where it was spoken (see on Joh 8:20) stood two colossal golden lamp-stands, on which hung a multitude of lamps, lighted after the evening sacrifice (probably every evening during the feast of tabernacles), diffusing their brilliancy, it is said, over all the city. Around these the people danced with great rejoicing. Now, as amidst the festivities of the water from Siloam Jesus cried, saying, "If any man thirst, let him come unto me and drink," so now amidst the blaze and the joyousness of this illumination, He proclaims, "I AM THE LIGHT OF THE WORLD"--plainly in the most absolute sense. For though He gives His disciples the same title, they are only "light in the Lord" (Eph 5:8); and though He calls the Baptist "the burning and shining light" (or "lamp" of his day, Joh 5:35), yet "he was not that Light, but was sent to bear witness of that Light: that was THE TRUE LIGHT which, coming into the world, lighteth every man" (Joh 1:8-9). Under this magnificent title Messiah was promised of old (Isa 42:6; Mal 4:2, &c.).

JFB: Joh 8:12 - he that followeth me As one does a light going before him, and as the Israelites did the pillar of bright cloud in the wilderness.

As one does a light going before him, and as the Israelites did the pillar of bright cloud in the wilderness.

JFB: Joh 8:12 - but shall have the light of life The light, as of a new world, a newly awakened spiritual and eternal life.

The light, as of a new world, a newly awakened spiritual and eternal life.

JFB: Joh 8:13-19 - bearest record of thyself; thy record is not true How does He meet this specious cavil? Not by disputing the wholesome human maxim that "self-praise is no praise," but by affirming that He was an exce...

How does He meet this specious cavil? Not by disputing the wholesome human maxim that "self-praise is no praise," but by affirming that He was an exception to the rule, or rather, that it had no application to Him.

JFB: Joh 8:14 - for I know whence I came, and whither I go, &c. (See on Joh 7:28).

(See on Joh 7:28).

JFB: Joh 8:15 - Ye judge after the flesh With no spiritual apprehension. I judge no man.

With no spiritual apprehension.

I judge no man.

JFB: Joh 8:16 - And yet if I judge, my judgment is true, &c. Ye not only form your carnal and warped judgments of Me, but are bent on carrying them into effect; I, though I form and utter My judgment of you, am ...

Ye not only form your carnal and warped judgments of Me, but are bent on carrying them into effect; I, though I form and utter My judgment of you, am not here to carry this into execution--that is reserved to a future day; yet the judgment I now pronounce and the witness I now bear is not Mine only as ye suppose, but His also that sent Me. (See on Joh 5:31-32). And these are the two witnesses to any fact which your law requires.

JFB: Joh 8:20 - These words spake Jesus in the treasury A division, so called, of the fore court of the temple, part of the court of the women [JOSEPHUS, Antiquities, 19.6.2, &c.], which may confirm the gen...

A division, so called, of the fore court of the temple, part of the court of the women [JOSEPHUS, Antiquities, 19.6.2, &c.], which may confirm the genuineness of Joh 8:2-11, as the place where the woman was brought.

JFB: Joh 8:20 - no man laid hands on him, &c. (See on Joh 7:30). In the dialogue that follows, the conflict waxes sharper on both sides, till rising to its climax, they take up stones to stone him...

(See on Joh 7:30). In the dialogue that follows, the conflict waxes sharper on both sides, till rising to its climax, they take up stones to stone him.

JFB: Joh 8:21-25 - Then said Jesus again unto them, I go my way, &c. (See on Joh 7:33).

(See on Joh 7:33).

JFB: Joh 8:22 - Then said the Jews, Will he kill himself? Seeing something more in His words than before (Joh 7:35), but their question more malignant and scornful.

Seeing something more in His words than before (Joh 7:35), but their question more malignant and scornful.

JFB: Joh 8:23 - Ye are from beneath; I am from above Contrasting Himself, not as in Joh 3:31, simply with earthborn messengers of God, but with men sprung from and breathing an opposite element from His,...

Contrasting Himself, not as in Joh 3:31, simply with earthborn messengers of God, but with men sprung from and breathing an opposite element from His, which rendered it impossible that He and they should have any present fellowship, or dwell eternally together. (Again see on Joh 7:33; also see on Joh 8:44).

JFB: Joh 8:24 - if ye believe not that I am he, ye shall die in your sins They knew well enough what He meant (Mar 13:6, Greek; compare Mat 24:5). But He would not, by speaking it out, give them the materials for a charge fo...

They knew well enough what He meant (Mar 13:6, Greek; compare Mat 24:5). But He would not, by speaking it out, give them the materials for a charge for which they were watching. At the same time, one is irresistibly reminded by such language, so far transcending what is becoming in men, of those ancient declarations of the God of Israel, "I AM HE" (Deu 32:39; Isa 43:10, Isa 43:13; Isa 46:4; Isa 48:12). See on Joh 6:20.

JFB: Joh 8:25 - Who art thou? Hoping thus to extort an explicit answer; but they are disappointed.

Hoping thus to extort an explicit answer; but they are disappointed.

JFB: Joh 8:26-27 - I have many things to say and to judge of you; but he that sent me is true, &c. That is, I could, and at the fitting time, will say and judge many things of you (referring perhaps to the work of the Spirit which is for judgment as...

That is, I could, and at the fitting time, will say and judge many things of you (referring perhaps to the work of the Spirit which is for judgment as well as salvation, Joh 16:8), but what I do say is just the message My Father hath given Me to deliver.

JFB: Joh 8:28-30 - When ye have lifted up the Son of man The plainest intimation He had yet given in public of the manner and the authors of His death.

The plainest intimation He had yet given in public of the manner and the authors of His death.

JFB: Joh 8:28-30 - then shall ye know that I am he, &c. That is, find out, or have sufficient evidence, how true was all He said, though they would be far from owning it.

That is, find out, or have sufficient evidence, how true was all He said, though they would be far from owning it.

JFB: Joh 8:29 - the Father hath not left me alone; for I do always those things that please him, &c. That is, To you, who gnash upon Me with your teeth, and frown down all open appearance for Me, I seem to stand uncountenanced and alone; but I have a ...

That is, To you, who gnash upon Me with your teeth, and frown down all open appearance for Me, I seem to stand uncountenanced and alone; but I have a sympathy and support transcending all human applause; I came hither to do My Father's will, and in the doing of it have not ceased to please Him; therefore is He ever by Me with His approving smile, His cheering words, His supporting arm.

JFB: Joh 8:30 - As he spake these words, many believed on him Instead of wondering at this, the wonder would be if words of such unearthly, surpassing grandeur could be uttered without captivating some that heard...

Instead of wondering at this, the wonder would be if words of such unearthly, surpassing grandeur could be uttered without captivating some that heard them. And just as "all that sat in the council" to try Stephen "saw his face"--though expecting nothing but death--"as it had been the face of an angel" (Act 6:15), so may we suppose that, full of the sweet supporting sense of His Father's presence, amidst the rage and scorn of the rulers, a divine benignity beamed from His countenance, irradiated the words that fell from Him, and won over the candid "many" of His audience.

JFB: Joh 8:31-33 - Then said Jesus to those Jews who believed, If ye continue in my word, then are ye my disciples indeed, &c. The impression produced by the last words of our Lord may have become visible by some decisive movement, and here He takes advantage of it to press on...

The impression produced by the last words of our Lord may have become visible by some decisive movement, and here He takes advantage of it to press on them "continuance" in the faith, since then only were they His real disciples (compare Joh 15:3-8), and then should they experimentally "know the truth," and "by the truth be made (spiritually) free."

JFB: Joh 8:33 - They answered him, We be Abraham's seed, and were never in bondage to any man, &c. Who said this? Not surely the very class just spoken of as won over by His divine words, and exhorted to continue in them. Most interpreters seem to t...

Who said this? Not surely the very class just spoken of as won over by His divine words, and exhorted to continue in them. Most interpreters seem to think so; but it is hard to ascribe such a petulant speech to the newly gained disciples, even in the lowest sense, much less persons so gained as they were. It came, probably, from persons mixed up with them in the same part of the crowd, but of a very different spirit. The pride of the Jewish nation, even now after centuries of humiliation, is the most striking feature of their character. "Talk of freedom to us? Pray when or to whom were we ever in bondage?" This bluster sounds almost ludicrous from such a nation. Had they forgotten their long and bitter bondage in Egypt? their dreary captivity in Babylon? their present bondage to the Roman yoke, and their restless eagerness to throw it off? But probably they saw that our Lord pointed to something else--freedom, perhaps, from the leaders of sects or parties--and were not willing to allow their subjection even to these. Our Lord, therefore, though He knew what slaves they were in this sense, drives the ploughshare somewhat deeper than this, to a bondage they little dreamt of.

JFB: Joh 8:34-35 - Whosoever committeth sin That is, liveth in the commission of it--(Compare 1Jo 3:8; Mat 7:23).

That is, liveth in the commission of it--(Compare 1Jo 3:8; Mat 7:23).

JFB: Joh 8:34-35 - is the servant of sin That is, the bond-servant, or slave of it; for the question is not about free service, but who are in bondage. (Compare 2Pe 2:19; Rev 6:16). The great...

That is, the bond-servant, or slave of it; for the question is not about free service, but who are in bondage. (Compare 2Pe 2:19; Rev 6:16). The great truth here expressed was not unknown to heathen moralists; but it was applied only to vice, for they were total strangers to what in revealed religion is called sin. The thought of slaves and freemen in the house suggests to our Lord a wider idea.

JFB: Joh 8:35 - And the servant abideth not in the house for ever, but the Son abideth ever That is, "And if your connection with the family of God be that of BOND-SERVANTS, ye have no natural tie to the house; your tie is essentially uncerta...

That is, "And if your connection with the family of God be that of BOND-SERVANTS, ye have no natural tie to the house; your tie is essentially uncertain and precarious. But the SON'S relationship to the FATHER is a natural and essential one; it is an indefeasible tie; His abode in it is perpetual and of right: That is My relationship, My tie: If, then, ye would have your connection with God's family made real, rightful, permanent, ye must by the Son be manumitted and adopted as sons and daughters of the Lord Almighty." In this sublime statement there is no doubt a subordinate allusion to Gen 21:10, "Cast out this bondwoman and her son, for the son of this bond-woman shall not be heir with my son, with Isaac." (Compare Gal 4:22-30).

JFB: Joh 8:37-41 - ye seek to kill me He had said this to their face before: He now repeats it, and they do not deny it; yet are they held back, as by some marvellous spell--it was the awe...

He had said this to their face before: He now repeats it, and they do not deny it; yet are they held back, as by some marvellous spell--it was the awe which His combined dignity, courage, and benignity struck into them.

JFB: Joh 8:37-41 - because my word hath no place in you When did ever human prophet so speak of His words? They tell us of "the word of the Lord" coming to them. But here is One who holds up "His word" as t...

When did ever human prophet so speak of His words? They tell us of "the word of the Lord" coming to them. But here is One who holds up "His word" as that which ought to find entrance and abiding room for itself in the souls of all who hear it.

JFB: Joh 8:38 - my Father . . . your father (See on Joh 8:23).

(See on Joh 8:23).

JFB: Joh 8:39 - If ye were Abraham's children, ye would do the works of Abraham He had just said He "knew they were Abraham's children," that is, according to the flesh; but the children of his faith and holiness they were not, bu...

He had just said He "knew they were Abraham's children," that is, according to the flesh; but the children of his faith and holiness they were not, but the reverse.

JFB: Joh 8:40 - this did not Abraham In so doing ye act in direct opposition to him.

In so doing ye act in direct opposition to him.

JFB: Joh 8:41 - We be not born of fornication . . . we have one Father, God Meaning, as is generally allowed, that they were not an illegitimate race in point of religion, pretending only to be God's people, but were descended...

Meaning, as is generally allowed, that they were not an illegitimate race in point of religion, pretending only to be God's people, but were descended from His own chosen Abraham.

JFB: Joh 8:42-43 - If God were your Father, ye would love me "If ye had anything of His moral image, as children have their father's likeness, ye would love Me, for I am immediately of Him and directly from Him....

"If ye had anything of His moral image, as children have their father's likeness, ye would love Me, for I am immediately of Him and directly from Him." But "My speech" (meaning His peculiar style of expressing Himself on these subjects) is unintelligible to you because ye cannot take in the truth which it conveys.

JFB: Joh 8:44 - Ye are of your father the devil "This is one of the most decisive testimonies to the objective (outward) personality of the devil. It is quite impossible to suppose an accommodation ...

"This is one of the most decisive testimonies to the objective (outward) personality of the devil. It is quite impossible to suppose an accommodation to Jewish views, or a metaphorical form of speech, in so solemn an assertion as this" [ALFORD].

JFB: Joh 8:44 - the lusts of your father His impure, malignant, ungodly propensities, inclinations, desires.

His impure, malignant, ungodly propensities, inclinations, desires.

JFB: Joh 8:44 - ye will do Are willing to do; not of any blind necessity of nature, but of pure natural inclination.

Are willing to do; not of any blind necessity of nature, but of pure natural inclination.

JFB: Joh 8:44 - He was a murderer from the beginning The reference is not to Cain (as LOCKE, DE WETTE, ALFORD, &c.), but to Adam [GROTIUS, CALVIN, MEYER, LUTHARDT, &c.]. The death of the human race, in i...

The reference is not to Cain (as LOCKE, DE WETTE, ALFORD, &c.), but to Adam [GROTIUS, CALVIN, MEYER, LUTHARDT, &c.]. The death of the human race, in its widest sense, is ascribed to the murderous seducer of our race.

JFB: Joh 8:44 - and abode not in the truth As, strictly speaking, the word means "abideth," it has been denied that the fall of Satan from a former holy state is here expressed [LOCKE, &c.], an...

As, strictly speaking, the word means "abideth," it has been denied that the fall of Satan from a former holy state is here expressed [LOCKE, &c.], and some superior interpreters think it only implied [OLSHAUSEN, &c.]. But though the form of the thought is present--not past--this is to express the important idea, that his whole character and activity are just a continual aberration from his own original truth or rectitude; and thus his fall is not only the implied basis of the thought, but part of the statement itself, properly interpreted and brought out.

JFB: Joh 8:44 - no truth in him Void of all that holy, transparent rectitude which, as His creature, he originally possessed.

Void of all that holy, transparent rectitude which, as His creature, he originally possessed.

JFB: Joh 8:44 - When he speaketh a lie, he speaketh of his own Perhaps his own resources, treasures (Mat 12:35) [ALFORD]. (The word is plural). It means that he has no temptation to it from without; it is purely s...

Perhaps his own resources, treasures (Mat 12:35) [ALFORD]. (The word is plural). It means that he has no temptation to it from without; it is purely self-begotten, springing from a nature which is nothing but obliquity.

JFB: Joh 8:44 - the father of it That is, of lying: all the falsehood in the world owes its existence to him. What a verse is this! It holds up the devil (1) as the murderer of the hu...

That is, of lying: all the falsehood in the world owes its existence to him. What a verse is this! It holds up the devil (1) as the murderer of the human race; but as this is meant here in the more profound sense of spiritual death, it holds him up, (2) as the spiritual parent of this fallen human family, communicating to his offspring his own evil passions and universal obliquity, and stimulating these into active exercise. But as there is "a stronger than he," who comes upon him and overcomes him (Luk 11:21-22), it is only such as "love the darkness," who are addressed as children of the devil (Mat 13:38; 1Jo 3:8-10).

JFB: Joh 8:45-47 - And because I tell you the truth, ye believe me not Not although, but just because He did so, for the reason given in the former verse. Had He been less true they would have hailed Him more readily.

Not although, but just because He did so, for the reason given in the former verse. Had He been less true they would have hailed Him more readily.

JFB: Joh 8:46 - Which of you convinceth me of sin "Convicteth," bringeth home a charge of sin. Glorious dilemma! "Convict Me of sin, and reject Me: If not, why stand ye out against My claims?" Of cour...

"Convicteth," bringeth home a charge of sin. Glorious dilemma! "Convict Me of sin, and reject Me: If not, why stand ye out against My claims?" Of course, they could only be supposed to impeach His life; but in One who had already passed through unparalleled complications, and had continually to deal with friends and foes of every sort and degree, such a challenge thrown wide among His bitterest enemies, can amount to nothing short of a claim to absolute sinlessness.

JFB: Joh 8:48-51 - Say we not well that thou art a Samaritan, and hast a devil? What intense and virulent scorn! (See Heb 12:3). The "say we not well" refers to Joh 7:20. "A Samaritan" means more than "no Israelite at all"; it mea...

What intense and virulent scorn! (See Heb 12:3). The "say we not well" refers to Joh 7:20. "A Samaritan" means more than "no Israelite at all"; it means one who pretended, but had no manner of claim to the title--retorting perhaps, this denial of their true descent from Abraham.

JFB: Joh 8:49 - Jesus answered, I have not a devil What calm dignity is here! Verily, "when reviled, He reviled not again" (1Pe 2:23). Compare Paul (Act 26:25), "I am not mad," &c. He adds not, "Nor am...

What calm dignity is here! Verily, "when reviled, He reviled not again" (1Pe 2:23). Compare Paul (Act 26:25), "I am not mad," &c. He adds not, "Nor am I a Samaritan," that He might not even seem to partake of their contempt for a race that had already welcomed Him as the Christ, and began to be blessed by Him.

JFB: Joh 8:49 - I honour my Father, and ye do dishonour me The language of wounded feeling. But the interior of His soul at such moments is only to be seen in such prophetic utterances as these, "For thy sake ...

The language of wounded feeling. But the interior of His soul at such moments is only to be seen in such prophetic utterances as these, "For thy sake I have borne reproach; shame hath covered my face; I am become a stranger unto my brethren, an alien unto my mother's children. For the zeal of thine house hath eaten me up, and the reproaches of them that reproached thee are fallen upon me" (Psa 69:7-9).

JFB: Joh 8:50 - I seek not mine own glory: there is one that seeketh That is, evidently, "that seeketh My glory"; requiring "all men to honor the Son even as they honor the Father"; judicially treating him "who honoreth...

That is, evidently, "that seeketh My glory"; requiring "all men to honor the Son even as they honor the Father"; judicially treating him "who honoreth not the Son as honoring not the Father that hath sent Him" (Joh 5:23; and compare Mat 17:5); but giving to Him (Joh 6:37) such as will yet cast their crowns before His throne, in whom He "shall see of the travail of his soul, and be satisfied" (Isa 53:11).

JFB: Joh 8:51 - If a man keep my saying, he shall never see death Partly thus vindicating His lofty claims as Lord of the kingdom of life everlasting, and, at the same time, holding out even to His revilers the scept...

Partly thus vindicating His lofty claims as Lord of the kingdom of life everlasting, and, at the same time, holding out even to His revilers the scepter of grace. The word "keep" is in harmony with Joh 8:31, "If ye continue in My word," expressing the permanency, as a living and paramount principle, of that faith to which He referred: "never see death," though virtually uttered before (Joh 5:24; Joh 6:40, Joh 6:47, Joh 6:51), is the strongest and most naked statement of a very glorious truth yet given. (In Joh 11:26 it is repeated in nearly identical terms).

JFB: Joh 8:52-53 - Then said the Jews unto him, Now we know that thou hast a devil, &c. "Thou art now self-convicted; only a demoniac could speak so; the most illustrious of our fathers are dead, and Thou promisest exemption from death to...

"Thou art now self-convicted; only a demoniac could speak so; the most illustrious of our fathers are dead, and Thou promisest exemption from death to anyone who will keep Thy saying! pray, who art Thou?"

JFB: Joh 8:54-56 - If I honour myself, my honour is nothing, &c. (See on Joh 5:31, &c.).

(See on Joh 5:31, &c.).

JFB: Joh 8:55 - I shall be a liar like unto you Now rising to the summit of holy, naked severity, thereby to draw this long dialogue to a head.

Now rising to the summit of holy, naked severity, thereby to draw this long dialogue to a head.

JFB: Joh 8:56 - Abraham rejoiced to see my day, &c. Exulted, or exceedingly rejoiced that he should see, he exulted to see it, that is, by anticipation. Nay,

Exulted, or exceedingly rejoiced that he should see, he exulted to see it, that is, by anticipation. Nay,

JFB: Joh 8:56 - he saw it, and was glad He actually beheld it, to his joy. If this mean no more than that he had a prophetic foresight of the gospel-day--the second clause just repeating the...

He actually beheld it, to his joy. If this mean no more than that he had a prophetic foresight of the gospel-day--the second clause just repeating the first--how could the Jews understand our Lord to mean that He "had seen Abraham?" And if it mean that Abraham was then beholding, in his disembodied spirit, the incarnate Messiah [STIER, ALFORD, &c.], the words seem very unsuitable to express it. It expresses something past--"he saw My day, and was glad," that is, surely while he lived. He seems to refer to the familiar intercourse which Abraham had with God, who is once and again in the history called "the Angel of the Lord," and whom Christ here identifies with Himself. On those occasions, Abraham "saw ME" (OLSHAUSEN, though he thinks the reference is to some unrecorded scene). If this be the meaning, all that follows is quite natural.

JFB: Joh 8:57-59 - Then said the Jews unto him, Thou art not yet fifty years old "No inference can be drawn from this as to the age of our Lord at the time as man. Fifty years was with the Jews the completion of manhood" [ALFORD].

"No inference can be drawn from this as to the age of our Lord at the time as man. Fifty years was with the Jews the completion of manhood" [ALFORD].

JFB: Joh 8:57-59 - and hast thou seen Abraham? He had said Abraham saw Him, as being his peculiar privilege. They give the opposite turn to it--"Hast Thou seen Abraham?" as an honor too great for H...

He had said Abraham saw Him, as being his peculiar privilege. They give the opposite turn to it--"Hast Thou seen Abraham?" as an honor too great for Him to pretend to.

JFB: Joh 8:58 - Before Abraham was, I am The words rendered "was" and "am" are quite different. The one clause means, "Abraham was brought into being"; the other, "I exist." The statement the...

The words rendered "was" and "am" are quite different. The one clause means, "Abraham was brought into being"; the other, "I exist." The statement therefore is not that Christ came into existence before Abraham did (as Arians affirm is the meaning), but that He never came into being at all, but existed before Abraham had a being; in other words, existed before creation, or eternally (as Joh 1:1). In that sense the Jews plainly understood Him, since "then took they up stones to cast at Him," just as they had before done when they saw that He made Himself equal with God (Joh 5:18).

JFB: Joh 8:58 - hid himself (See on Luk 4:30).

(See on Luk 4:30).

Clarke: Joh 8:3 - A woman taken in adultery A woman taken in adultery - Some of the popish writers say that her name was Susanna; that she was espoused to an old decrepid man, named Manasseh; ...

A woman taken in adultery - Some of the popish writers say that her name was Susanna; that she was espoused to an old decrepid man, named Manasseh; that she died a saint in Spain, whither she had followed St. James. These accounts the judicious Calmet properly terms fables

It is allowed that adultery was exceedingly common at this time, so common that they had ceased to put the law in force against it. The waters of jealousy were no longer drunk, the culprits or those suspected of this crime, being so very numerous; and the men who were guilty themselves dared not try their suspected wives, as it was believed the waters would have no evil effect upon the wife, if the husband himself had been criminal. See the whole of the process on the waters of jealousy in the notes on Num 5:14 (note), etc.; and see at the end of chap. 18 (note).

Clarke: Joh 8:5 - That such should be stoned That such should be stoned - It is not strictly true that Moses ordered adultery in general to be punished by stoning. The law simply says that the ...

That such should be stoned - It is not strictly true that Moses ordered adultery in general to be punished by stoning. The law simply says that the adulterer and the adulteress shall be put to death. Lev 20:10; Deu 22:22. The rabbins say they were strangled. This they affirm was the ordinary mode of punishment, where the species of death was not marked in the law, If the person guilty of an act of this kind had been betrothed, but not married, she was to be stoned: Deu 22:23. But if she was the daughter of a priest, she was to be burned alive: Lev 16:9. It appears, from Eze 16:38, Eze 16:40, that adulteresses in the time of that prophet were stoned, and pierced with a sword

Selden and Fagius suppose that this woman’ s case was the same with that mentioned, Deu 22:23. If a damsel that is a virgin be betrothed unto a husband, and a man find her in the city, and lie with her; then ye shall stone them with stones that they die, the damsel because she cried not, and the man because he hath humbled his neighbors wife. As the Pharisees spoke of stoning the woman, it is possible this was her case; and some suppose that the apparent indulgence with which our Lord treated her insinuates that she had suffered some sort of violence, though not entirely innocent. Therefore he said, I do not condemn thee, i.e. to death, because violence had been used. Sin no more. Nevertheless thou art in certain respects guilty; thou mightest have made more resistance.

Clarke: Joh 8:6 - That they might have to accuse him That they might have to accuse him - Had our Lord condemned the woman to death, they might have accused him to Pilate, as arrogating to himself the ...

That they might have to accuse him - Had our Lord condemned the woman to death, they might have accused him to Pilate, as arrogating to himself the power of life and death, which the Romans had taken away from the Jews; besides, the Roman laws did not condemn an adulteress to be put to death. On the other hand, if he had said she should not be put to death, they might have represented him to the people as one who decided contrary to the law, and favored the crime of which the woman was accused

Clarke: Joh 8:6 - With his finger wrote With his finger wrote - Several MSS. add their sins who accused her, and the sins of all men. There are many idle conjectures concerning what our Lo...

With his finger wrote - Several MSS. add their sins who accused her, and the sins of all men. There are many idle conjectures concerning what our Lord wrote on the ground, several of which may be seen in Calmet

We never find that Christ wrote any thing before or after this; and what he wrote at this time we know not. On this the pious Quesnel makes the following reflections: -

"1. Since Jesus Christ never wrote but once that we hear of in his whole life; 2. since he did it only in the dust; 3. since it was only to avoid condemning a sinner; and, 4. since he would not have that which he wrote so much as known; let men learn from hence never to write but when it is necessary or useful; to do it with humility and modesty; and to do it on a principle of charity. How widely does Christ differ from men! He writes his Divine thoughts in the dust: they wish to have theirs cut in marble, and engraved on brass."Schools for children are frequently held under trees in Bengal, and the children who are beginning to learn write the letters of the alphabet in the dust. This saves pen, ink, and paper

Ward.

||&&$

Clarke: Joh 8:7 - He that is without sin He that is without sin - Αναμαρτητος, meaning the same kind of sin, adultery, fornication, etc. Kypke has largely proved that the verb ...

He that is without sin - Αναμαρτητος, meaning the same kind of sin, adultery, fornication, etc. Kypke has largely proved that the verb ἁμαρτανειν is used in this sense by the best Greek writers

Clarke: Joh 8:7 - Let him first cast a stone at her Let him first cast a stone at her - Or, upon her, επ ’ αυτῃ . The Jewish method of stoning, according to the rabbins, was as follows...

Let him first cast a stone at her - Or, upon her, επ αυτῃ . The Jewish method of stoning, according to the rabbins, was as follows: The culprit, half naked, the hands tied behind the back, was placed on a scaffold, ten or twelve feet high; the witnesses, who stood with her, pushed her off with great force: if she was killed by the fall there was nothing farther done; but, if she was not, one of the witnesses took up a very large stone, and dashed it upon her breast, which generally was the coup de grace, or finishing stroke. This mode of punishment seems referred to, Mat 21:44. However, this procedure does not appear to have been always attended to. See Lev 24:16, and Joh 8:59 of this chapter.

Clarke: Joh 8:9 - Being convicted by their own conscience Being convicted by their own conscience - So it is likely they were all guilty of similar crimes. Their own is not in the original, and is needless:...

Being convicted by their own conscience - So it is likely they were all guilty of similar crimes. Their own is not in the original, and is needless: being convicted by conscience is expressive enough

Clarke: Joh 8:9 - Beginning at the eldest even unto the last Beginning at the eldest even unto the last - Απο των πρεσβυτερων ἑως των εσχατων, from the most honorable to those ...

Beginning at the eldest even unto the last - Απο των πρεσβυτερων ἑως των εσχατων, from the most honorable to those of the least repute. In this sense the words are undoubtedly to be understood

Clarke: Joh 8:9 - The woman standing in the midst The woman standing in the midst - But if they all went out, how could she be in the midst? It is not said that all the people whom our Lord had been...

The woman standing in the midst - But if they all went out, how could she be in the midst? It is not said that all the people whom our Lord had been instructing went out, but only her accusers: see Joh 8:2. The rest undoubtedly continued with their teacher.

Clarke: Joh 8:11 - Neither do I condemn thee Neither do I condemn thee - Bishop Pearce says: "It would have been strange if Jesus, when he was not a magistrate, and had not the witnesses before...

Neither do I condemn thee - Bishop Pearce says: "It would have been strange if Jesus, when he was not a magistrate, and had not the witnesses before him to examine them, and when she had not been tried and condemned by the law and legal judges, should have taken upon him to condemn her. This being the case, it appears why Jesus avoided giving an answer to the question of the scribes and Pharisees, and also how little reason there is to conclude from hence that Christ seems in this case not enough to have discouraged adultery, though he called it a sin. And yet this opinion took place so early among the Christians, that the reading of this story was industriously avoided, in the lessons recited out of the Gospels, in the public service of the churches; as if Jesus’ s saying, I do not condemn thee, had given too much countenance to women guilty of that crime. In consequence of this, as it was never read in the churches, and is now not to be found in any of the Evangelistaria, and as it was probably marked in the MSS. as a portion not to be read there, this whole story, from Joh 8:1-11, inclusive, came, in length of time, to be left out in some MSS., though in the greater part it is still remaining."Thus far the judicious and learned bishop. How the passage stands in all the MSS. hitherto collated may be seen in Wetstein and Griesbach. After weighing what has been adduced in favor of its authenticity, and seriously considering its state in the MSS., as exhibited in the Var. Lect. of Griesbach, I must confess, the evidence in its favor does not appear to me to be striking. Yet I by no means would have it expunged from the text. Its absence from many MSS., and the confused manner in which it appears in others, may be readily accounted for on the principles laid down by Bishop Pearce above. It may however be necessary to observe, that a very perfect connection subsists between Joh 7:52 and Joh 8:12 - all the intermediate verses having been omitted by MSS. of the first antiquity and authority. In some MSS. it is found at the end of this Gospel; in others a vacant place is left in this chapter; and in others it is placed after the 21st chapter of Luke. See at the end of this chapter.

Clarke: Joh 8:12 - Then spake Jesus again unto them Then spake Jesus again unto them - Allowing the story about the woman taken in adultery to be authentic, and to stand here in its proper place, we m...

Then spake Jesus again unto them - Allowing the story about the woman taken in adultery to be authentic, and to stand here in its proper place, we may consider that our Lord, having begun to teach the people in the temple, was interrupted by the introduction of this woman by the scribes and Pharisees; and now, having dismissed them and the woman also, he resumes his discourse

Clarke: Joh 8:12 - I am the light of the world I am the light of the world - The fountain whence an intellectual light and spiritual understanding proceed: without me all is darkness, misery, and...

I am the light of the world - The fountain whence an intellectual light and spiritual understanding proceed: without me all is darkness, misery, and death. The Divine Being was, by the rabbins denominated, The light of the world. So in Bamidbar Rabba: "The Israelites said to God, O Lord of the universe, thou commandest us to light lamps to thee, yet thou art The Light of The World: and with thee the light dwelleth."Our Lord, therefore, assumes here a well known character of the Supreme Being; and with this we find the Jews were greatly offended

Clarke: Joh 8:12 - Shall not walk in darkness Shall not walk in darkness - He shall be saved from ignorance, infidelity, and sin. If he follow me, become my disciple, and believe on my name, he ...

Shall not walk in darkness - He shall be saved from ignorance, infidelity, and sin. If he follow me, become my disciple, and believe on my name, he shall have my Spirit to bear witness with his, that he is a child of God. He shall have the light of life - such a light as brings and supports life. The sun, the fountain of light, is also the fountain of life: by his vivifying influences, all things live - neither animal nor vegetative life could exist, were it not for his influence. Jesus, the Sun of righteousness, Mal 4:2, is the fountain of all spiritual and eternal Life. His light brings life with it, and they who walk in his light live in his life. This sentiment is beautifully expressed and illustrated in the following inimitable verse (all monosyllables except one word) of that second Spenser, Phineas Fletcher. Speaking of the conversion of a soul to God, he says: -

"New Light new Love, new Love new Life hath bred

A Life that lives by Love, and loves by Light

A Love to him, to whom all Loves are wed

A Light, to whom the sun is darkest night

Eye’ s Light, heart’ s Love, soul’ s only Life he is

Life, soul, love, heart, Light, eye, and all are his

He eye, Light, heart, Love, soul; He all my joy and bliss.

Purple Island, Can. I. v. 7

Some suppose our Lord alludes to the custom of lighting lamps or torches, on the first day of the feast of tabernacles. But as these words seem to have been spoken the day after that last and great day of the feast, mentioned Joh 7:37, they may rather be considered as referring to the following custom: It has already been observed, that the Jews added a ninth day to this feast, which day they termed, The feast of joy for the law; and on that day they were accustomed to take all the sacred books out of the chest where they had been deposited, and put a lighted candle in their place, in allusion to Pro 6:23 : For the commandment is a Lamp (or Candle) and the law is life: or to Psa 119:105 : Thy word is a Lamp unto my feet, and a Light unto my path. If this custom existed in the time of our Lord, it is most likely that it is to it he here alludes; as it must have happened about the same time in which these words were spoken. See Buxtorf. Synagog. Jud. c. xxi

As the Messiah was frequently spoken of by the prophets under the emblem of light, see Isa 60:1; Isa 49:6; Isa 9:2, the Pharisees must at once perceive that he intended to recommend himself to the people as the Messiah, when he said, I am the light of the world

The rabbins think that the Messiah is intended in Gen 1:8, And God said, Let there be light, and there was light. "From this we may learn that the holy and blessed God saw the light of the Messiah and his works before the world was created; and reserved it for the Messiah, and his generation, under the throne of his glory. Satan said to the holy and blessed God, For whom dost thou reserve that light which is under the throne of thy glory? God answered: For him who shall subdue thee, and overwhelm thee with confusion. Satan rejoined, Lord of the universe, show that person to me! God said, Come and see him. When he saw him, he was greatly agitated, and fell upon his face, saying, Truly this is the Messiah, who shall cast me and idolaters into hell."Yalcut Rubeni, fol. 6. This is a very remarkable saying; and, as it might have existed in the time of our Lord, to it he might have alluded in the verse before us. The thing itself is true: the Messiah is the light of the world, and by him Satan’ s empire of idolatry is destroyed in the world, and the kingdom of light and life established. See several similar testimonies in Schoettgen.

Clarke: Joh 8:13 - Thou bearest record Thou bearest record - As if they had said, Dost thou imagine that we shall believe thee, in a matter so important, on thy bare assertion? Had these ...

Thou bearest record - As if they had said, Dost thou imagine that we shall believe thee, in a matter so important, on thy bare assertion? Had these people attended to the teaching and miracles of Christ, they would have seen that his pretensions to the Messiahship were supported by the most irrefragable testimony.

Clarke: Joh 8:14 - I know whence I came I know whence I came - I came from God, and am going to God, and can neither do nor say any thing but what leads to and glorifies him.

I know whence I came - I came from God, and am going to God, and can neither do nor say any thing but what leads to and glorifies him.

Clarke: Joh 8:15 - Ye judge after the flesh Ye judge after the flesh - Because I appear in the form of man, judging from this appearance, ye think I am but a mere man - pay attention to my tea...

Ye judge after the flesh - Because I appear in the form of man, judging from this appearance, ye think I am but a mere man - pay attention to my teaching and miracles, and ye shall then see that nothing less than infinite wisdom and unlimited power could teach and do what I have taught and performed. Our Lord speaks here exactly in the character of an ambassador. Such a person does not bring a second with him to vouch his truth; his credentials from his king ascertain his character: he represents the king’ s person. So our Lord represents the Father as bearing witness with him. The miracles which he wrought were the proof from heaven that he was the promised Messiah: these were the great seal of all his pretensions.

Clarke: Joh 8:19 - Ye neither know me, etc. Ye neither know me, etc. - Ye know neither the Messiah, nor the God that sent him

Ye neither know me, etc. - Ye know neither the Messiah, nor the God that sent him

Clarke: Joh 8:19 - If ye had known me If ye had known me - If ye had received my teaching, ye would have got such an acquaintance with the nature and attributes of God as ye never could ...

If ye had known me - If ye had received my teaching, ye would have got such an acquaintance with the nature and attributes of God as ye never could have had, and never can have any other way. That is a true saying, No man hath seen God at any time: the only begotten Son, who lay an the bosom of the Father. he hath Declared him. The nature and perfections of God never can be properly known, but in the light of the Gospel of Jesus Christ. It is worthy of remark that, in all this discourse, our blessed Lord ever speaks of the Father and himself as two distinct persons. Therefore, the Father is not the Son, nor the Son the Father, as some persons vainly imagine; though it is plain enough that the completest unity and equality subsists between them.

Clarke: Joh 8:20 - The treasury The treasury - Lightfoot observes, from the rabbins, that the treasury was in what was called the court of the women - that there were thirteen ches...

The treasury - Lightfoot observes, from the rabbins, that the treasury was in what was called the court of the women - that there were thirteen chests in it; in the thirteenth only the women were permitted to put their offerings. Probably the other twelve were placed there in reference to the twelve tribes; each perhaps inscribed with the name of one of Jacob’ s twelve sons

It seems that our Lord sometimes sat in this court to teach the people. See Mar 12:41, etc

Clarke: Joh 8:20 - His hour was not yet come His hour was not yet come - The time was not arrived, in which he had determined to give himself up into the hands of his crucifiers.

His hour was not yet come - The time was not arrived, in which he had determined to give himself up into the hands of his crucifiers.

Clarke: Joh 8:21 - Then said Jesus again unto them Then said Jesus again unto them - He had said the same things to them the day before. See Joh 7:34

Then said Jesus again unto them - He had said the same things to them the day before. See Joh 7:34

Clarke: Joh 8:21 - Ye shall seek me Ye shall seek me - When your calamities come upon you, ye shall in vain seek for the help of the Messiah, whom ye now reject, and whom ye shall shor...

Ye shall seek me - When your calamities come upon you, ye shall in vain seek for the help of the Messiah, whom ye now reject, and whom ye shall shortly crucify.

Clarke: Joh 8:22 - Will he kill himself? Will he kill himself? - They now understood that he spoke concerning his death; but before, Joh 7:35, they thought he spoke of going to some of the ...

Will he kill himself? - They now understood that he spoke concerning his death; but before, Joh 7:35, they thought he spoke of going to some of the Grecian provinces, to preach to the dispersed Jews.

Clarke: Joh 8:23 - Ye are from beneath Ye are from beneath - Ye are capable of murder, and of self-murder too, because ye have nothing of God in you. Ye are altogether earthly, sensual, a...

Ye are from beneath - Ye are capable of murder, and of self-murder too, because ye have nothing of God in you. Ye are altogether earthly, sensual, and devilish. They verified this character in murdering the Lord Jesus; and many of them afterwards, to escape famine, etc., put an end to their own lives.

Clarke: Joh 8:25 - Who art thou? Who art thou? - This marks the indignation of the Pharisees - as if they had said: Who art thou that takest upon thee to deal out threatenings in th...

Who art thou? - This marks the indignation of the Pharisees - as if they had said: Who art thou that takest upon thee to deal out threatenings in this manner against us

Clarke: Joh 8:25 - Jesus saith unto them, Even the same that I said unto you from the beginning Jesus saith unto them, Even the same that I said unto you from the beginning - Rather, Just what I have already told you, i.e. that I am the light o...

Jesus saith unto them, Even the same that I said unto you from the beginning - Rather, Just what I have already told you, i.e. that I am the light of the world - the Christ - the Savior of mankind. There are a variety of renderings for this verse among the critics. Some consider την αρχην (which makes the principal difficulty in the text) as the answer of our Lord. Who art thou? I am την αρχην, the chief, the supreme; and have therefore a right to judge, and to execute judgment. But if our Lord had intended to convey this meaning, he would doubtless have said ἡ Αρχη, or ὁ Αρχων, and not την αρχην, in the accusative case. This mode of reading appears to have been followed by the Vulgate, some copies of the Itala, and some of the fathers; but this construction can never be reconciled to the Greek text. Others take την αρχην as an adverb, in which sense it is repeatedly used by the best Greek writers; and, connecting the 25th with the 26th verse, they translate thus: I have indeed, as I Assure ye, many things to say of you, and to condemn in you. See Wakefield. Raphelius takes up the words nearly in the same way, and defends his mode of exposition with much critical learning; and to him I refer the reader. I have given it that meaning which I thought the most simple and plain, should any departure from our own version be thought necessary: both convey a good and consistent sense.

Clarke: Joh 8:26 - I have many things to say and to judge of you I have many things to say and to judge of you - Or, to speak and to condemn, etc. I could speedily expose all your iniquities - your pride and ambit...

I have many things to say and to judge of you - Or, to speak and to condemn, etc. I could speedily expose all your iniquities - your pride and ambition, your hypocrisy and irreligion, your hatred to the light, and your malice against the truth, together with the present obstinate unbelief of your hearts, and show that these are the reasons why I say you will die in your sins; but these will appear in their true light: when, after you have crucified me, the judgments of God shall descend upon and consume you

Clarke: Joh 8:26 - He that sent me is true He that sent me is true - Whatever he hath spoken of you by the prophets shall surely come to pass; his word cannot fail.

He that sent me is true - Whatever he hath spoken of you by the prophets shall surely come to pass; his word cannot fail.

Clarke: Joh 8:28 - When ye have lifted up When ye have lifted up - When ye have crucified me, and thus filled up the measure of your iniquities, ye shall know that I am the Christ, by the si...

When ye have lifted up - When ye have crucified me, and thus filled up the measure of your iniquities, ye shall know that I am the Christ, by the signs that shall follow; and ye shall know that what I spoke is true, by the judgments that shall follow. To be lifted up, is a common mode of expression, among the Jewish writers, for to die, or to be killed.

Clarke: Joh 8:29 - The Father hath not left me alone The Father hath not left me alone - Though ye shalt have power to put me to death, yet this shall not be because he hath abandoned me. No - he is ev...

The Father hath not left me alone - Though ye shalt have power to put me to death, yet this shall not be because he hath abandoned me. No - he is ever with me, because I do that which pleaseth him; and it is his pleasure that I should lay down my life for the salvation of the world. Does not our Lord allude to the following scriptures? - Sacrifice and offering thou didst not desire; my ears hast thou opened: (or, a body hast thou prepared me: Heb 10:5): then said I, Lo, I come: this is written in the volume of the book concerning me. I delight to do thy will, O my God! Thy law is in my heart. Psa 40:6-8.

Clarke: Joh 8:30 - As he spake these words, many believed on him As he spake these words, many believed on him - The same sun that hardens the clay softens the wax. This discourse, which proved the savor of death ...

As he spake these words, many believed on him - The same sun that hardens the clay softens the wax. This discourse, which proved the savor of death unto death to the obstinate Pharisees, became the savor of life unto life to many of the simple-hearted people.

Clarke: Joh 8:31 - If ye continue in my word If ye continue in my word - Or, in this doctrine of mine. It is not enough to receive God’ s truth - we must retain and walk in it. And it is o...

If ye continue in my word - Or, in this doctrine of mine. It is not enough to receive God’ s truth - we must retain and walk in it. And it is only when we receive the truth, love it, keep it, and walk in it, that we are the genuine disciples of Christ.

Clarke: Joh 8:32 - Ye shall know the truth Ye shall know the truth - Shall have a constant experimental knowledge of its power and efficacy

Ye shall know the truth - Shall have a constant experimental knowledge of its power and efficacy

Clarke: Joh 8:32 - And the truth shall make you free And the truth shall make you free - It was a maxim of the Jews, "That no man was free, but he who exercised himself in the meditation of the law."No...

And the truth shall make you free - It was a maxim of the Jews, "That no man was free, but he who exercised himself in the meditation of the law."No man is truly free, but he in whose heart the power of sin is destroyed, and who has received the Spirit of adoption, through which he cries, Abba! Father! See Rom 8:15. The bondage of sin is the most grievous bondage; and freedom from its guilt and influence is the greatest liberty.

Clarke: Joh 8:33 - They answered They answered - That is, the other Jews who had not believed - the carping, cavilling Pharisees already mentioned; for the words cannot be spoken of...

They answered - That is, the other Jews who had not believed - the carping, cavilling Pharisees already mentioned; for the words cannot be spoken of the simple people who had already believed. See Joh 8:30

Clarke: Joh 8:33 - Were never in bondage to any man Were never in bondage to any man - This assertion was not only false, but it was ridiculous in the extreme; seeing their whole history, sacred and p...

Were never in bondage to any man - This assertion was not only false, but it was ridiculous in the extreme; seeing their whole history, sacred and profane, is full of recitals of their servitude in Egypt, in Chaldea, under the Persians, under the Macedonians, and under the Romans. But those who are not under the influence of the truth of God will speak and act according to the influence of the spirit of falsehood and error. If the words are to be restrained to themselves alone, they may be understood thus: We are Abraham’ s seed: and we were never in bondage. Both these propositions had a faint shadow of truth.

Clarke: Joh 8:34 - Whosoever committeth sin is the servant of sin Whosoever committeth sin is the servant of sin - Or, δουλος εστι, etc., is the slave of sin. This was the slavery of which Christ spoke; ...

Whosoever committeth sin is the servant of sin - Or, δουλος εστι, etc., is the slave of sin. This was the slavery of which Christ spoke; and deliverance from it, was the liberty which he promised.

Clarke: Joh 8:35 - And the servant abideth not in the house And the servant abideth not in the house - Or, rather, Now the slave abided not in the family. As if Jesus had said: And now that I am speaking of a...

And the servant abideth not in the house - Or, rather, Now the slave abided not in the family. As if Jesus had said: And now that I am speaking of a slave, I will add one thing more, viz. a slave has no right to any part of the inheritance in the family to which he belongs; but the son, the legitimate son, has a right. He can make any servant of the family free, though no slave can. He can divide or bestow the inheritance as he pleases. Our Lord seems here to refer to the sending away of Ishmael, mentioned, Gen 21:10-14. Only those who are genuine children can inherit the estate. If sons, then heirs: heirs of God, and joint heirs with Christ: Gal 4:21-31; Rom 8:17; and see Bishop Pearce’ s Paraphrase.

Clarke: Joh 8:37 - My word hath no place in you My word hath no place in you - Or, this doctrine of mine hath no place to you. Ye hear the truths of God, but ye do not heed them: the word of life ...

My word hath no place in you - Or, this doctrine of mine hath no place to you. Ye hear the truths of God, but ye do not heed them: the word of life has no influence over you; and how can it, when you seek to kill me because I proclaim this truth to you

It is a dismal omen when a person is regardless of the truth of God: it is more so to be provoked against it: but to persecute and endeavor to destroy those who preach it is the last degree of perverseness and obduracy. The word of God requires a heart which is empty. A heart filled with earthly projects, carnal interests ambition, thoughts of raising a fortune, and with the love of the superfluities and pleasures of life, is not fit to receive the seed of the kingdom. When a man shuts his heart against it by his passions, he at the same time opens it to all sorts of crimes. Quesnel

From what is here said, it is manifest, says Dr. Lightfoot, that the whole tendency of our Savior’ s discourse is to show the Jews, that they are the seed of that serpent which was to bruise the heel of the Messiah: else what could that mean, Joh 8:44 : Ye are of your father the devil, i.e. ye are the seed of the serpent.

Clarke: Joh 8:38 - I speak that which I have seen I speak that which I have seen - I speak nothing but that unchangeable, eternal truth which I have received from the bosom of God

I speak that which I have seen - I speak nothing but that unchangeable, eternal truth which I have received from the bosom of God

Clarke: Joh 8:38 - Ye do that which ye have seen Ye do that which ye have seen - Instead of ἑωρακατε, ye have seen, I think we should read ηκουσατε, ye have heard, on the author...

Ye do that which ye have seen - Instead of ἑωρακατε, ye have seen, I think we should read ηκουσατε, ye have heard, on the authority of BCKL, fifteen others; Coptic, Ethiopic, Armenian, later Syriac in the margin, Gothic, one copy of the Itala; Origen, Cyril, and Chrysostom. This reading, says Bishop Pearce, (who has adopted it), seems preferable to the other, because it could not be said, with the same propriety, that the Jews had seen any thing with their father the devil, as it could that Jesus had seen with his

Jesus saw the Father, for he was the Word that was with God from eternity. The Jews did not see, they only felt and heard, their father the devil. It is the interest of Satan to keep himself out of sight, and to work in the dark.

Clarke: Joh 8:39 - If ye were Abraham’ s children If ye were Abraham’ s children - Griesbach reads εϚε, ye are, instead of ητε, ye were, on the authority of BDL, Vulgate, four copies of...

If ye were Abraham’ s children - Griesbach reads εϚε, ye are, instead of ητε, ye were, on the authority of BDL, Vulgate, four copies of the Itala; Origen and Augustin

Clarke: Joh 8:39 - Ye would do the works of Abraham Ye would do the works of Abraham - As the son has the nature of his father in him, and naturally imitates him, so, if ye were the children of Abraha...

Ye would do the works of Abraham - As the son has the nature of his father in him, and naturally imitates him, so, if ye were the children of Abraham, ye would imitate him in his faith, obedience, and uprightness; but this ye do not, for ye seek to kill me - ye are watching for an opportunity to destroy me, merely because I tell you the truth: Abraham never did any thing like this; therefore, you have no spiritual relationship to him.

Clarke: Joh 8:41 - Ye do the deeds of your father Ye do the deeds of your father - You have certainly another father than Abraham - one who has instilled his own malignant nature into you; and, as y...

Ye do the deeds of your father - You have certainly another father than Abraham - one who has instilled his own malignant nature into you; and, as ye seek to murder me for telling you the truth, ye must be the offspring of him who was a murderer from the beginning, and stood not in the truth, Joh 8:44

Clarke: Joh 8:41 - We be not born of fornication We be not born of fornication - We are not a mixed, spurious breed - our tribes and families have been kept distinct - we are descended from Abraham...

We be not born of fornication - We are not a mixed, spurious breed - our tribes and families have been kept distinct - we are descended from Abraham by his legal wife Sarah; and we are no idolaters

Clarke: Joh 8:41 - We have one Father, even God We have one Father, even God - In the spiritual sense of father and son, we are not a spurious, that is, an idolatrous race; because we acknowledge ...

We have one Father, even God - In the spiritual sense of father and son, we are not a spurious, that is, an idolatrous race; because we acknowledge none as our spiritual father, and worship none as such, but the true God. See Bishop Pearce.

Clarke: Joh 8:42 - If God were your Father, ye would love me If God were your Father, ye would love me - I came from God, and it would be absurd to suppose that you would persecute me if you were under the inf...

If God were your Father, ye would love me - I came from God, and it would be absurd to suppose that you would persecute me if you were under the influence of God. The children of the same father should not murder each other.

Clarke: Joh 8:43 - Why do ye not understand my speech? Why do ye not understand my speech? - Την λαλιαν την εμην, This my mode of speaking - when illustrating spiritual by natural things...

Why do ye not understand my speech? - Την λαλιαν την εμην, This my mode of speaking - when illustrating spiritual by natural things: λαλια refers to the manner of speaking; λογος, to the matter or subject on which he spoke. For λαλιαν, the Codex Bezae had originally αληθειαν : why do ye not acknowledge this Truth of mine? A few other MSS. agree in this reading

Clarke: Joh 8:43 - Because ye cannot hear my word Because ye cannot hear my word - That is, ye cannot bear my doctrine: it comes too close to you; it searches your hearts, detects your hypocrisy, an...

Because ye cannot hear my word - That is, ye cannot bear my doctrine: it comes too close to you; it searches your hearts, detects your hypocrisy, and exposes your iniquitous intentions and designs; and as ye are determined not to leave your sins, so ye are purposed not to hear my doctrine.

Clarke: Joh 8:44 - Ye are of your father the devil Ye are of your father the devil - Ye are the seed of the old serpent. See on Joh 8:37 (note)

Ye are of your father the devil - Ye are the seed of the old serpent. See on Joh 8:37 (note)

Clarke: Joh 8:44 - The lusts of your father The lusts of your father - Like father like son. What Satan desires, ye desire; because ye are filled with his nature. Awful state of unregenerate m...

The lusts of your father - Like father like son. What Satan desires, ye desire; because ye are filled with his nature. Awful state of unregenerate men! They have the nearest alliance to Satan; they partake of his nature and have in them the same principles and propensities which characterize the very nature and essence of the devil! Reader, canst thou rest in this state? Apply to God, through Christ, that thou mayest be born again

Clarke: Joh 8:44 - He was a murderer from the beginning He was a murderer from the beginning - It was through him that Adam transgressed; in consequence of which death entered into the world, and slew him...

He was a murderer from the beginning - It was through him that Adam transgressed; in consequence of which death entered into the world, and slew him and all his posterity. This was the sentiment of the Jews themselves. In Sohar Kadash, the wicked are called, "The children of the old serpent, who slew Adam and all his descendants."See Schoettgen

Clarke: Joh 8:44 - Abode not in the truth Abode not in the truth - He stood not in the truth - was once in a state of glorious felicity, but fell from it; and, being deprived of all good him...

Abode not in the truth - He stood not in the truth - was once in a state of glorious felicity, but fell from it; and, being deprived of all good himself, he could not endure that others should enjoy any; therefore by his lies he deceived Eve, and brought her, her husband, and, through them, their posterity, into his own condemnation

Clarke: Joh 8:44 - He speaketh of his own He speaketh of his own - Εκ των ιδιων λαλει, He speaketh of his own offspring, or, from his own disposition, for he is the father an...

He speaketh of his own - Εκ των ιδιων λαλει, He speaketh of his own offspring, or, from his own disposition, for he is the father and fountain of all error and falsity; and all who are deceived by him, and partake of his disposition, falsity and cruelty, are his offspring, for he is a liar, and the father of it - και ὁ πατηρ αυτου - literally, his father also. There is considerable difficulty in this verse. The Cainites, and the Archontites, mentioned by Epiphanius, read it thus: "Ye are the children of your father the devil, because he is a liar, and his father was a liar. He was a man-slayer, and he did not remain in the truth. When he speaketh, he speaketh a lie of his own, (progenitors understood), because his father also was a liar."The consequences which the above heretics drew from this verse were the following. They said that the father of the Jews was a demon; that he also had a demon for his father; and that he had a demon for his father, etc. The Archontites maintained that Cain had a demon for his father, the spirit which our Lord speaks of here; and that the Jews proceeded from the race of Cain

Grotius, supposing that the devil who tempted Eve was not the prince of devils, but rather a subordinate one, seems to think he may be understood here, he is a liar, and his father also, which is the literal translation of the latter clause of the text, ὡς και ὁ πατηρ αυτου, as it has been read by many of the primitive fathers

Mr. Wakefield, by changing το, before ψευδος, into τις, gives the text the following translation: - "The devil is your father, and ye willingly perform the lusts of your father. He was a man-slayer from the first, and continued not in the truth, because there is no truth in him. When Any One speaketh a lie, he speaketh according to his own kindred: for his father also is a liar."Our own translation, that refers πατηρ αυτου to ψευδος, a lie, and not to ψευϚης, a liar, is probably the most correct.

Clarke: Joh 8:46 - Which of you convinceth me of sin? Which of you convinceth me of sin? - Do you pretend to reject the truths which I announce, because my life does not correspond to the doctrines I ha...

Which of you convinceth me of sin? - Do you pretend to reject the truths which I announce, because my life does not correspond to the doctrines I have taught? But can any of you prove me guilty of any fault? You have maliciously watched all my steps; have you seen the smallest matter to reprove, in any part of my conduct

But it is probable that ἁμαρτια, sin, is put here in opposition to αληθεια, truth, in the same verse, and then it should be rendered falsehood. The very best Greek writers use the word in the same sense: this, Kypke proves by quotations from Polybius, Lucian, Dionysius Halicarnassensis, Plutarch, Thucydides, and Hippocrates. Raphelius adds a pertinent quotation from Herodotus, and shows that the purest Latin writers have used the word peccatum , sin, in the sense of error or falsehood. See the note on Gen 13:13.

Clarke: Joh 8:47 - He that is of God He that is of God - Meaning probably himself: he who came from God, or was born of God - heareth the words of God - has the constant inspiration of ...

He that is of God - Meaning probably himself: he who came from God, or was born of God - heareth the words of God - has the constant inspiration of his Spirit, speaks nothing but truth, and cannot possibly err.

Clarke: Joh 8:48 - Thou art a Samaritan Thou art a Samaritan - This was the same, among them, as heretic, or schismatic, among us. This is the only time in which the Jews gave our Lord thi...

Thou art a Samaritan - This was the same, among them, as heretic, or schismatic, among us. This is the only time in which the Jews gave our Lord this title of reproach; and they probably grounded it on his having preached among them, and lodged in their villages. See the account in Joh 4:39, Joh 4:40; but Samaritan, among them, meant a person unworthy of any credit

Clarke: Joh 8:48 - Hast a devil? Hast a devil? - Art possessed by an evil spirit; and art, in consequence, deranged.

Hast a devil? - Art possessed by an evil spirit; and art, in consequence, deranged.

Clarke: Joh 8:49 - I have not a devil I have not a devil - The first part of the charge was too futile: if taken literally, it was both absurd and impossible; they did not believe it the...

I have not a devil - The first part of the charge was too futile: if taken literally, it was both absurd and impossible; they did not believe it themselves, and therefore our Lord does not stop a moment to refute it; but he answers to the second with the utmost meekness and conclusiveness: I honor God. This is what no demon can do, nor any man who is under such influence.

Clarke: Joh 8:50 - I seek not mine own glory I seek not mine own glory - Another proof that I am not influenced by any spirit but that which proceeds from God. But there is one that seeketh - i...

I seek not mine own glory - Another proof that I am not influenced by any spirit but that which proceeds from God. But there is one that seeketh - i.e. my glory - and judgeth - will punish you for your determined obstinacy and iniquity.

Clarke: Joh 8:51 - Shall never see death Shall never see death - As Moses promised a long life, with abundance of temporal blessings, to those who should keep his statutes and ordinances, s...

Shall never see death - As Moses promised a long life, with abundance of temporal blessings, to those who should keep his statutes and ordinances, so he who keeps my doctrine shall not only have a long life, but shall never see death - he shall never come under the power of the death of the soul, but shall live eternally with me in glory.

Clarke: Joh 8:54 - Your God Your God - Many MSS. and most of the versions read ἡμων, our, instead of ὑμων . The variation is of very little consequence. They call...

Your God - Many MSS. and most of the versions read ἡμων, our, instead of ὑμων . The variation is of very little consequence. They called God their God, while enemies to him both in their spirit and conduct.

Clarke: Joh 8:56 - Abraham rejoiced to see my day Abraham rejoiced to see my day - Or, he earnestly desired to see my day; ηγαλλιασατο, from αγαν, very much, and ἁλλομαι, ...

Abraham rejoiced to see my day - Or, he earnestly desired to see my day; ηγαλλιασατο, from αγαν, very much, and ἁλλομαι, I leap - his soul leaped forward in earnest hope and strong expectation that he might see the incarnation of Jesus Christ. The metaphor appears to be taken from a person who, desiring to see a long-expected friend who is coming, runs forward, now and then jumping up to see if he can discover him. There is a saying very like this in Sohar Numer fol. 61: "Abraham rejoiced because he could know, and perceive, and cleave to the Divine Name."The Divine name is יהוה Yehovah ; and by this they simply mean God himself

Clarke: Joh 8:56 - And he saw it And he saw it - Not only in the first promise, Gen 3:15, for the other patriarchs saw this as well as he; and not only in that promise which was mad...

And he saw it - Not only in the first promise, Gen 3:15, for the other patriarchs saw this as well as he; and not only in that promise which was made particularly to himself, Gen 12:7; Gen 22:18, (compared with Gal 3:16), that the Messiah should spring from his family; but he saw this day especially when Jehovah appeared to him in a human form, Gen 18:2, Gen 18:17, which many suppose to have been a manifestation of the Lord Jesus.

Clarke: Joh 8:57 - Thou art not yet fifty years old Thou art not yet fifty years old - Some MSS. read forty. The age of our blessed Lord has never been properly determined. Some of the primitive fathe...

Thou art not yet fifty years old - Some MSS. read forty. The age of our blessed Lord has never been properly determined. Some of the primitive fathers believed that he was fifty years old when he was crucified; but their foundation, which is no other than these words of the Jews, is but a very uncertain one. Calmet thinks that our Lord was at this time about thirty-four years and ten months old, and that he was crucified about the middle of his thirty-sixth year; and asserts that the vulgar era is three years too late. On the other hand, some allow him to have been but thirty-one years old, and that his ministry had lasted but one year. Many opinions on this subject, which are scarcely worthy of being copied, may be found in Calmet.

Clarke: Joh 8:58 - Before Abraham was, I am Before Abraham was, I am - The following is a literal translation of Calmet’ s note on this passage: - "I am from all eternity. I have existed ...

Before Abraham was, I am - The following is a literal translation of Calmet’ s note on this passage: - "I am from all eternity. I have existed before all ages. You consider in me only the person who speaks to you, and who has appeared to you within a particular time. But besides this human nature, which ye think ye know, there is in me a Divine and eternal nature. Both, united, subsist together in my person. Abraham knew how to distinguish them. He adored me as his God; and desired me as his Savior. He has seen me in my eternity, and he predicted my coming into the world."On the same verse Bishop Pearce speaks as follows: - "What Jesus here says relates (I think) to his existence antecedent to Abraham’ s days, and not to his having been the Christ appointed and foretold before that time; for, if Jesus had meant this, the answer I apprehend would not have been a pertinent one. He might have been appointed and foretold for the Christ; but if he had not had an existence before Abraham’ s days, neither could he have seen Abraham, (as, according to our English translation, the Jews suppose him to have said), nor could Abraham have seen him, as I suppose the Jews understood him to have said in the preceding verse, to which words of the Jews the words of Jesus here are intended as an answer."

Clarke: Joh 8:59 - Then took they up stones, etc. Then took they up stones, etc. - It appears that the Jews understood him as asserting his Godhead; and, supposing him to be a blasphemer, they proce...

Then took they up stones, etc. - It appears that the Jews understood him as asserting his Godhead; and, supposing him to be a blasphemer, they proceeded to stone him, according to the law. Lev 24:16

Clarke: Joh 8:59 - But Jesus hid himself But Jesus hid himself - In all probability he rendered himself invisible - though some will have it that he conveyed himself away from those Jews wh...

But Jesus hid himself - In all probability he rendered himself invisible - though some will have it that he conveyed himself away from those Jews who were his enemies, by mixing himself with the many who believed on him, (Joh 8:30, Joh 8:31), and who, we may suppose, favored his escape. Pearce

But where did they find the stones, Christ and they being in the temple? It is answered

1st. It is probable, as the buildings of the temple had not been yet completed, there might have been many stones near the place; or

2dly. They might have gone out so the outer courts for them; and, before their return, our Lord had escaped. See Lightfoot and Calmet

Clarke: Joh 8:59 - Going through the midst of them, and so passed by Going through the midst of them, and so passed by - These words are wanting in the Codex Bezae, and in several editions and versions. Erasmus, Groti...

Going through the midst of them, and so passed by - These words are wanting in the Codex Bezae, and in several editions and versions. Erasmus, Grotius, Beza, Pearce, and Griesbach, think them not genuine. The latter has left them out of the test. But, notwithstanding what these critics have said, the words seem necessary to explain the manner of our Lord’ s escape

1st.    He hid himself, by becoming invisible; and then

2dly.    He passed through the midst of them, and thus got clear away from the place

See a similar escape mentioned, Luk 4:30, and the note there

The subjects of this chapter are both uncommon and of vast importance

1.    The case of the woman taken in adultery, when properly and candidly considered, is both intelligible and edifying. It is likely that the accusation was well founded; and that the scribes and Pharisees endeavored maliciously to serve themselves of the fact, to embroil our Lord with the civil power, or ruin his moral reputation. Our Lord was no magistrate, and therefore could not, with any propriety, give judgment in the case; had he done it, it must have been considered an invasion of the rights and office of the civil magistrate, and would have afforded them ground for a process against him. On the other hand, had he acquitted the woman, he might have been considered, not only as setting aside the law of Moses, but as being indulgent to a crime of great moral turpitude, and the report of this must have ruined his moral character. He disappointed this malice by refusing to enter into the case; and overwhelmed his adversaries with confusion, by unmasking their hearts, and pointing out their private abominations. It is generally supposed that our Lord acquitted the woman: this is incorrect; he neither acquitted nor condemned her: he did not enter at all juridically into the business. His saying, Neither do I condemn thee, was no more than a simple declaration that he would not concern himself with the matter - that being the office of the chief magistrate; but, as a preacher of righteousness, he exhorted her to abandon her evil practices, lest the punishment, which she was now likely to escape, should be inflicted on her for a repetition of her transgression

2.    In several places in this chapter, our Lord shows his intimate union with the Father, both in will, doctrine, and deed; and though he never speaks so as to confound the persons, yet he evidently shows that such was the indivisible unity, subsisting between the Father and the Son, that what the one witnessed, the other witnessed; what the one did, the other did; and that he who saw the one necessarily saw the other

3.    The original state of Satan is here pointed out - he abode not in the truth, Joh 8:44. Therefore he was once in the truth, in righteousness and true holiness - and he fell from that truth into sin and falsehood, so that he became the father of lies and the first murderer. Our Lord confirms here the Mosaic account of the fall of man, and shows that this fall was brought about by his lies, and that these lies issued in the murder or destruction both of the body and soul of man

4.    The patience and meekness exercised by our Lord, towards his most fell and unrelenting enemies, are worthy the especial regard of all those who are persecuted for righteousness. - When he was reviled, he reviled not again. As the searcher of hearts, he simply declared their state, Joh 8:44, in order to their conviction and conversion: not to have done so, would have been to betray their souls. In this part of his conduct we find two grand virtues united, which are rarely associated in man, Meekness and Fidelity - patience to bear all insults and personal injuries; and boldness, is the face of persecution and death, to declare the truth. The meek man generally leaves the sinner unreproved: the bold and zealous man often betrays a want of due self-management, and reproves sin in a spirit which prevents the reproof from reaching the heart. In this respect also, our blessed Lord has left us an example, that we should follow his steps. Let him that readeth understand.

Calvin: Joh 8:3 - And the scribes and Pharisees bring to him 3.And the scribes and Pharisees bring to him It is plain enough that this passage was unknown anciently to the Greek Churches; and some conjecture th...

3.And the scribes and Pharisees bring to him It is plain enough that this passage was unknown anciently to the Greek Churches; and some conjecture that it has been brought from some other place and inserted here. But as it has always been received by the Latin Churches, and is found in many old Greek manuscripts, and contains nothing unworthy of an Apostolic Spirit, there is no reason why we should refuse to apply it to our advantage. When the Evangelist says that the scribes brought to him a woman, he means that it was done by an agreement among them, in order to lay traps for Christ. He expressly mentions the Pharisees, because they were the chief persons in the rank of scribes In adopting this pretense for slander, they display enormous wickedness, and even their own lips accuse them; for they do not disguise that they have a plain commandment of the Law, and hence it follows that they act maliciously in putting a question as if it were a doubtful matter. But their intention was, to constrain Christ to depart from his office of preaching grace, that he might appear to be fickle and unsteady. They expressly state that adulteresses are condemned by Moses, (Lev 20:10,) that they may hold Christ bound by the sentence already given by the Law, for it was not lawful to acquit those whom the Law condemned; and, on the other hand, if he had consented to the Law, he might be thought to be somewhat unlike himself.

Calvin: Joh 8:6 - And Jesus stooping down 6.And Jesus stooping down By this attitude he intended to show that he despised them. Those who conjecture that he wrote this or the other thing, i...

6.And Jesus stooping down By this attitude he intended to show that he despised them. Those who conjecture that he wrote this or the other thing, in my opinion, do not understand his meaning. Nor do I approve of the ingenuity of Augustine, who thinks that in this manner the distinction between the Law and the Gospel is pointed out, because Christ did not write on tables of stone, (Exo 31:18,) but on man, who is dust and earth. For Christ rather intended, by doing nothing, to show how unworthy they were of being heard; just as if any person, while another was speaking to him, were to draw lines on the wall, or to turn his back, or to show, by any other sign, that he was not attending to what was said. Thus in the present day, when Satan attempts, by various methods, to draw us aside from the right way of teaching, we ought disdainfully to pass by many things which he holds out to us. The Papists teaze us, to the utmost of their power, by many trifling cavils, as if they were throwing clouds into the air. If godly teachers be laboriously employed in examining each of those cavils, they will begin to weave Penelope’s web; 208 and therefore delays of this sort, which do nothing but hinder the progress of the Gospel, are wisely disregarded.

Calvin: Joh 8:7 - He who is without sin among you 7.He who is without sin among you He said this according to the custom of the Law; for God commanded that the witnesses should, with their own hands,...

7.He who is without sin among you He said this according to the custom of the Law; for God commanded that the witnesses should, with their own hands, put malefactors to death, according to the sentence which had been pronounced on them; that greater caution might be used in bearing testimony, (Deu 17:7.) There are many who proceed rashly to overwhelm their brother by perjury, because they do not think that they inflict a deadly wound by their tongue. And this very argument, had weight with those slanderers, desperate as they were; for no sooner do they obtain a sight of it, than they lay aside those fierce passions with which they were swelled when they came. Yet there is this difference between the injunction of the Law and the words of Christ, that in the Law God merely enjoined that they should not condemn a man with the tongue, unless they were permitted to put him to death with their own hands; but here Christ demands from the witnesses perfect innocence, so that no man ought to accuse another of crime, unless he be pure, and free from every fault. Now what he said, at that time, to a few persons, we ought to view as spoken to all, that whoever accuses another, ought to impose on himself a law of innocence; otherwise, we do not pursue wicked actions, but rather are hostile to the persons of men.

In this way, however, Christ appears to take out of the world all judicial decisions, so that no man shall dare to say that he has a right to punish crimes. For shall a single judge be found, who is not conscious of having something that is wrong? Shall a single witness be produced who is not chargeable with some fault? He appears, therefore, to forbid all witnesses to give public testimony, and all judges to occupy the judgment-seat. I reply: this is not an absolute and unlimited prohibition, by which Christ forbids sinners to do their duty in correcting the sins of others; but by this word he only reproves hypocrites, who mildly flatter themselves and their vices, but are excessively severe, and even act the part of felons, in censuring others. No man, therefore, shall be prevented by his own sins from correcting the sins of others, and even from punishing them, when it may be found necessary, provided that both in himself and in others he hate what ought to be condemned; and in addition to all this, every man ought to begin by interrogating his own conscience, and by acting both as witness and judge against himself, before he come to others. In this manner shall we, without hating men, make war with sins.

Calvin: Joh 8:9 - And being reproved by their conscience // Beginning from the eldest even to the last // Jesus was left alone 9.And being reproved by their conscience Here we perceive how great is the power of an evil conscience. Though those wicked hypocrites intended to en...

9.And being reproved by their conscience Here we perceive how great is the power of an evil conscience. Though those wicked hypocrites intended to entrap Christ by their cavils, yet as soon as he pierces their consciences by a single word, shame puts them to flight. This is the hammer with which we must break the pride of hypocrites. They must be summoned to the judgment-seat of God. Though it is possible that the shame, with which they were struck before men, had greater influence over them than the fear of God, still it is a great matter that, of their own accord, they acknowledge themselves to be guilty, when they thus fly away as if they were confounded. It is immediately added,

Beginning from the eldest even to the last Our attention is drawn to this circumstance, that, according as each of them surpassed the others in honorable rank, he was the more quickly moved by his condemnation. And would to God that 209 our scribes, who in the present day sell their labors to the Pope to make war with Christ, had at least as much modesty as those men; but they are so destitute of shame that, while they have rendered themselves infamous by every detestable crime, they glory in the fact that they are permitted to be as abominable as they choose, without being punished. We ought also to observe how widely this conviction of sin, by which the scribes were affected, differs from true repentance. For we ought to be affected by the judgment of God in such a manner, that we shall not seek a place of concealment to avoid the presence of the Judge, but rather shall go direct to Him, in order to implore his forgiveness.

Jesus was left alone This was brought about by the Spirit of wisdom, that those wicked men, having gained nothing by tempting Christ, went away. Nor is there any reason to doubt that we shall succeed in defeating all the contrivances of our enemies, provided that we permit ourselves to be governed by the same Spirit. But it frequently happens that they gain an advantage over us, because, not attending to their snares, we are not careful to take advice, or rather, trusting to our own wisdom, we do not consider how much we need the government of the Holy Spirit. He says that Christ remained alone; not that the people, whom he was formerly teaching, had left him, but because all the scribes, who had brought the adulteress, gave him no farther annoyance. When it is said that the woman remained with Christ, let us learn by this example that there is nothing better for us than to be brought, as guilty, to his tribunal, provided that we surrender ourselves mildly and submissively to his government.

Calvin: Joh 8:11 - Neither do I condemn thee // Go, and sin no more 11.Neither do I condemn thee We are not told that Christ absolutely acquitted the woman, but that he allowed her to go at liberty. Nor is this wonder...

11.Neither do I condemn thee We are not told that Christ absolutely acquitted the woman, but that he allowed her to go at liberty. Nor is this wonderful, for he did not wish to undertake any thing that did not belong to his office. He bad been sent by the Father to gather the lost sheep, (Mat 10:6;) and, therefore, mindful of his calling, he exhorts the woman to repentance, and comforts her by a promise of grace. They who infer from this that adultery ought not to be punished with death, must, for the same reason, admit that inheritances ought not to be divided, because Christ refused to arbitrate in that matter between two brothers, (Luk 12:13.) Indeed, there will be no crime whatever that shall not be exempted from the penalties of the law, if adultery be not punished; for then the door will be thrown open for any kind of treachery, and for poisoning, and murder, and robbery. Besides, the adulteress, when she bears an unlawful child, not only robs the name of the family, but violently takes away the right of inheritance from the lawful offspring, and conveys it to strangers. But what is worst of all, the wife not only dishonors the husband to whom she had been united, but prostitutes herself to shameful wickedness, and likewise violates the sacred covenant of God, without which no holiness can continue to exist in the world.

Yet the Popish theology is, that in this passage Christ has brought to us the Law of grace, by which adulterers are freed from punishment. And though they endeavor, by every method, to efface from the minds of men the grace of God, such grace as is every where declared to us by the doctrine of the Gospel, yet in this passage alone they preach aloud the Law of grace. Why is this, but that they may pollute, with unbridled lust, almost every marriage-bed, and may escape unpunished? Truly, this is the fine fruit 210 which we have reaped from the diabolical system of celibacy, that they who are not permitted to marry a lawful wife can commit fornication without restraint. But let us remember that, while Christ forgives the sins of men, he does not overturn political order, or reverse the sentences and punishments appointed by the laws.

Go, and sin no more Hence we infer what is the design of the grace of Christ. It is, that the sinner, being reconciled to God, may honor the Author of his salvation by a good and holy life. In short, by the same word of God, when forgiveness is offered to us, we are likewise called to repentance. Besides, though this exhortation looks forward to the future, still it humbles sinners by recalling to remembrance their past life.

Calvin: Joh 8:12 - I am the light of the world // He who followeth me 12.I am the light of the world Those who leave out the former narrative, which relates to the adulteress, 213 connect this discourse of Christ with t...

12.I am the light of the world Those who leave out the former narrative, which relates to the adulteress, 213 connect this discourse of Christ with the sermon which he delivered on the last day of the assembly. It is a beautiful commendation of Christ, when he is called the light of the world; for, since we are all blind by nature, a remedy is offered, by which we may be freed and rescued from darkness and made partakers of the true light Nor is it only to one person or to another that this benefit is offered, for Christ declares that he is the light of the whole world; for by this universal statement he intended to remove the distinction, not only between Jews and Gentiles, but between the learned and ignorant, between persons of distinction and the common people.

But we must first ascertain what necessity there is for seeking this light; for men will never present themselves to Christ to be illuminated, until they have known both that this world is darkness, and that they themselves are altogether blind. Let us therefore know that, when the manner of obtaining this light is pointed out to us in Christ, we are all condemned for blindness, and everything else which we consider to be light is compared to darkness, and to a very dark night. For Christ does not speak of it as what belongs to him in common with others, but claims it as being peculiarly his own. Hence it follows, that out of Christ there is not even a spark of true light There may be some appearance of brightness, but it resembles lightning, which only dazzles the eyes. It must also be observed, that the power and office of illuminating is not confined to the personal presence of Christ; for though he is far removed from us with respect to his body, yet he daily sheds his light upon us, by the doctrine of the Gospel, and by the secret power of his Spirit. Yet we have not a full definition of this light, unless we learn that we are illuminated by the Gospel and by the Spirit of Christ, that we may know that the fountain of all knowledge and wisdom is hidden in him.

He who followeth me To the doctrine he adds an exhortation, which he immediately afterwards confirms by a promise. For when we learn that all who allow themselves to be governed by Christ are out of danger of going astray, we ought to be excited to follow him, and, indeed, by stretching out his hand — as it were — he draws us to him. We ought also to be powerfully affected by so large and magnificent a promise, that they who shall direct their eyes to Christ are certain that, even in the midst of darkness, they will be preserved from going astray; and that not only for a short period, but until they have finished their course. For that is the meaning of the words used in the future tense, he shall not walk in darkness, but shall have the light of life Such is also the import of this latter clause, in which the perpetuity of life is stated in express terms. We ought not to fear, therefore, lest it leave us in the middle of the journey, for it conducts us even to life The genitive of life, in accordance with the Hebrew idiom, is employed, instead of the adjective, to denote the effect; as if he had said, the life-giving light We need not wonder that such gross darkness of errors and superstitions prevails in the world, in which there are so few that have their eyes fixed on Christ.

Calvin: Joh 8:13 - The Pharisees therefore said 13.The Pharisees therefore said They adduce as an objection what is commonly said, that no man ought to be trusted, when speaking in his own cause. F...

13.The Pharisees therefore said They adduce as an objection what is commonly said, that no man ought to be trusted, when speaking in his own cause. For a true testimony is put for “what is lawful and worthy of credit.” In short, they mean that it is of no use for him to speak, unless he bring proof from some other quarter.

Calvin: Joh 8:14 - Though I testify concerning myself // I know whence I came // But you know not whence I came, and whither I go 14.Though I testify concerning myself Christ replies, that his testimony possesses sufficient credit and authority, because he is not a private perso...

14.Though I testify concerning myself Christ replies, that his testimony possesses sufficient credit and authority, because he is not a private person belonging to the great body of men, but holds a very different station. For when he says, that he knoweth whence he came, and whither he goeth, he thus excludes himself from the ordinary rank of men. The meaning therefore is, that every man is heard with suspicion in his own cause, and it is provided by the laws, that no man shall be believed, when he speaks for his own advantage. But this does not apply to the Son of God, who holds a rank above the whole world; for he is not reckoned as belonging to the rank of men, but has received from his Father this privilege, to reduce all men to obedience to him by a single word.

I know whence I came By these words he declares that his origin is not from the world, but that he proceeded from God, and therefore that it would be unjust and unreasonable that his doctrine, which is Divine, should be subjected to the laws of men. But as he was at that time clothed with the form of a servant, in consequence of which they despised him on account of the mean condition of the flesh, he sends them away to the future glory of his resurrection, from which his Divinity, formerly hidden and unknown, received a clear demonstration. That intermediate condition, therefore, ought not to have prevented the Jews from submitting to God’s only ambassador, who had been formerly promised to them in the Law.

But you know not whence I came, and whither I go He means that his glory is not at all diminished by their unbelief. Again, as he has given the same testimony to us, our faith ought to despise all the reports and slanders of wicked men; for it cannot be founded upon God without rising far above the loftiest pride of the world. But in order that we may perceive the majesty of his Gospel, we ought always to direct our eyes to the heavenly glory of the Son of God, 214 and to hear him speaking in the world, so as to remember whence he came, and what authority he now possesses, after having discharged his embassy. For as he humbled himself for a time, so now he is highly exalted 215 at the right hand of the Father, that every knee may bow to him, (Phi 2:10.)

Calvin: Joh 8:15 - You judge according to the flesh // I judge no man 15.You judge according to the flesh This may be explained in two ways; either that they judge according to the wicked views of the flesh, or that t...

15.You judge according to the flesh This may be explained in two ways; either that they judge according to the wicked views of the flesh, or that they judge according to the appearance of the person. For the flesh sometimes denotes the outward appearance of a man; and both meanings agree well with this passage, since wherever either the feelings of the flesh prevail, or a regard to the person regulates the judgment, neither truth nor justice dwells. But I think that the meaning will be more certain, if you contrast the flesh with the Spirit, understanding his meaning to be, that they are not lawful and competent judges, because they have not the Spirit for their guide.

I judge no man Here, too, commentators differ. Some distinguish it thus, that he does not judge as man. Others refer it to the time, that while he was on earth, he did not undertake the office of a Judge Augustine gives both expositions, but does not decide between them. But the former distinction cannot at all apply. For this sentence contains two clauses, that Christ does not judge, and that if he judge, his judgment is solid and just, because it is divine. As to the former clause, therefore, in which he says that he does not judge, I confine it to what belongs peculiarly to this passage. For in order the more fully to convict his enemies of pride, he employs this comparison, that they unjustly assume the liberty to judge, and yet cannot condemn him, while he merely teaches and abstains from performing the office of a judge.

Calvin: Joh 8:16 - And if I judge, // For I am not alone 16.And if I judge, He adds this correction, that he may not appear entirely to surrender his right. If I judge, says he, my judgment is true, that ...

16.And if I judge, He adds this correction, that he may not appear entirely to surrender his right. If I judge, says he, my judgment is true, that is, it is entitled to authority. Now the authority arises from this consideration, that he does nothing but according to the commandment of the Father.

For I am not alone This phrase amounts to an affirmative, that he is not one of the ordinary rank of men, but that he must be considered along with the office which was assigned to him by the Father. But why does he not rather make an open assertion of his Divinity, as he might truly and justly have done? The reason is, that as his Divinity was concealed under the veil of the flesh, he brings forward his Father, in whom it was more manifest. Still, the object of the discourse is, to show that all that he does and teaches ought to be accounted Divine.

Calvin: Joh 8:17 - Even in your law it is written 17.Even in your law it is written The argument might, at first sight, appear to be weak, because no man is received as a witness in his own cause. Bu...

17.Even in your law it is written The argument might, at first sight, appear to be weak, because no man is received as a witness in his own cause. But we ought to remember what I have already said, that the Son of God 217 ought to be excluded from the ordinary number of other men, 218 because he neither is a private individual, nor transacts his own private business. As to his distinguishing himself from his Father, by doing so he accommodates himself to the capacity of his hearers, and that on account of his office, because he was at that time a servant of the Father, from whom, therefore, he asserts that all his doctrine has proceeded.

Calvin: Joh 8:19 - Where is thy father // You neither know me nor my Father 19.Where is thy father ? There can be no doubt whatever, that it was in mockery that they inquired about his Father For not only do they, with thei...

19.Where is thy father ? There can be no doubt whatever, that it was in mockery that they inquired about his Father For not only do they, with their wonted pride, treat contemptuously what he had said about the Father, but they likewise ridicule him for talking loftily about his Father, as if he had drawn his birth from heaven. By these words, therefore, they mean that they do not value so highly Christ’s Father, as to ascribe any thing to the Son on his account. And the reason why there are so many in the present day who, with daring presumption, despise Christ, is, that few consider that God has sent him.

You neither know me nor my Father He does not deign to give them a direct reply, but in a few words reproaches them with the ignorance in which they flattered themselves. They inquired about the Father; and yet when they had the Son before their eyes, seeing, they did not see, (Mat 13:13.) It was therefore a just punishment of their pride and wicked ingratitude, that they who despised the Son of God, who had been familiarly offered to them, never approached to the Father For how shall any mortal man ascend to the height of God, unless he be raised on high by the hand of his Son? God in Christ condescended to the mean condition of men, so as to stretch out his hand; and do not those who reject God, when he thus approaches to them, deserve to be excluded from heaven?

Let us know that the same thing is spoken to us all; for whoever aspires to know God, and does not begin with Christ, must wander — as it were — in a labyrinth; for it is not without good reason that Christ is called the image of the Father, as has been already said. Again, as all who, leaving Christ, attempt to rise to heaven, after the manner of the giants, 219 are destitute of all right knowledge of God, so every man who shall direct his mind and all his senses to Christ, will be led straight to the Father. For on good grounds does God declare that,

by the mirror of the Gospel, we clearly behold God in the person of Christ,
(2Co 3:18.)

And certainly it is an astonishing reward of the obedience of faith, that whosoever humbles himself before the Lord Jesus, 220 penetrates above all the heavens, even to those mysteries which the angels behold and adore.

Calvin: Joh 8:20 - These words spoke Jesus in the treasury. The treasury 20.These words spoke Jesus in the treasury. The treasury was a part of the temple where the sacred offerings were laid up. It was a much frequented p...

20.These words spoke Jesus in the treasury. The treasury was a part of the temple where the sacred offerings were laid up. It was a much frequented place, and hence we infer that this sermon was delivered by Christ amidst a large assembly of men, so that the people had less excuse. The Evangelist likewise holds out to us the astonishing power of God in this respect, that they were constrained to endure Christ openly teaching in the temple, though but lately they sought to seize him, and put him to death. For since they held an undisputed sway in the temple, so that they ruled there with the fierceness of tyrants, they might have banished Christ from it by a single word. And when he ventured to take upon himself the office of a teacher, why do they not instantly lay violent hands on him? We see then that God caused men to hear him, and guarded him by his protection, so that those savage beasts did not touch him, though they had their throats opened to swallow him. 221 The Evangelist again mentions his hour, that we may learn that it is not by the will of men, but by the will of God, that we live and die.

Calvin: Joh 8:21 - I go // And you shall seek me 21.I go Perceiving that he is doing no good among these obstinate men, he threatens their destruction; and this is the end of all those who reject th...

21.I go Perceiving that he is doing no good among these obstinate men, he threatens their destruction; and this is the end of all those who reject the Gospel. For it is not thrown uselessly into the air, but must breathe the odour either of life or of death, (2Co 2:16.) The meaning of these words amounts to this. “The wicked will at length feel how great loss they have suffered by rejecting Christ, when he freely offers himself to them. They will feel it, but it will be too late, for there will be no more room for repentance.” And to alarm them still more by showing them that their judgment is near at hand, in the first place, he says that he will soon go away, by which he means that the Gospel is preached to them only for a short time, and that if they allow this opportunity to pass away, the accepted time and the days appointed for salvation (Isa 49:8; 2Co 6:2) will not always last. Thus also, in the present day, when Christ knocks at our door, we ought to go immediately to meet him, lest he be wearied by our slothfulness and withdraw from us. And indeed we have learned, by many experiments in all ages, how greatly this departure of Christ is to be dreaded.

And you shall seek me We must first ascertain in what manner the persons now spoken of sought Christ; for if they had been truly converted, they would not have sought him in vain; because he has not falsely promised that, as soon as a sinner groans, he will be ready to assist him. Christ does not mean, therefore, that they sought him by the right way of faith, but that they sought him, as men, overwhelmed by the extremity of anguish, look for deliverance on every hand. For unbelievers would desire to have God reconciled to them, but yet they do not cease to fly from him. God calls them; the approach consists in faith and repentance; but they oppose God by hardness of heart, and, overwhelmed with despair, they exclaim against him. In short, they are so far from desiring to enjoy the favor of God, that they do not give him permission to assist them, unless he deny himself, which he will never do.

In this manner, however wicked the scribes were, they would willingly have applied to themselves the redemption which had been promised by the hand of the Messiah, provided that Christ would transform himself, to suit their natural disposition. Wherefore, by these words Christ threatens and denounces to all unbelievers, that, after having despised the doctrine of the Gospel, they will be seized with such anguish, that they shall be constrained to cry to God, but their howling will be of no avail; because, as we have already said, seeking, they do not seek And this is still more plainly expressed in the next clause, when he says, you shall die in your sin; for he shows that the cause of their destruction will be, that they were disobedient and rebellious to the very last. What is the nature of their sin we shall presently see.

Calvin: Joh 8:22 - Will he kill himself? 22.Will he kill himself? The scribes persevere not only in fearless scorn, but likewise in effrontery; for they ridicule what he had said, that they...

22.Will he kill himself? The scribes persevere not only in fearless scorn, but likewise in effrontery; for they ridicule what he had said, that they cannot follow whither he shall go; as if they had said, “If he kill himself, we acknowledge that we cannot accompany him, because we do not choose to do so.” They regarded Christ’s absence as a matter of no moment, and thought that in all respects they would gain a victory over him; and so they bid him begone wherever he pleases. Shocking stupidity! But thus does Satan infatuate the reprobate, that, intoxicated with more than brutal indifference, 222 they may throw themselves into the midst of the flame of the wrath of God. Do we not in the present day behold the same rage in many who, having stupified their consciences, insolently play off their jests and buffoonery on every thing that they hear about the dreadful judgment of God? Yet it is certain that this is an affected or sardonic smile, for they are pierced inwardly with unseen wounds; but all on a sudden, like men bereft of their senses, they burst out into furious laughter.

Calvin: Joh 8:23 - You are from beneath, I am from above 23.You are from beneath, I am from above As they did not deserve that he should teach them, he wished only to strike them with reproofs conveyed in f...

23.You are from beneath, I am from above As they did not deserve that he should teach them, he wished only to strike them with reproofs conveyed in few words, as in this passage he declares that they do not receive his doctrine, because they have an utter dislike of the kingdom of God. Under the words, world and beneath, he includes all that men naturally possess, and thus points out the disagreement which exists between his Gospel and the ingenuity and sagacity of the human mind; for the Gospel is heavenly wisdom, but our mind grovels on the earth. No man, therefore, will ever be qualified to become a disciple of Christ, till Christ has formed him by his Spirit. And hence it arises that faith is so seldom found in the world, because all mankind are naturally opposed and averse to Christ, except those whom he elevates by the special grace of his Holy Spirit.

Calvin: Joh 8:24 - You shall die in your sins // If you do not believe that I am 24.You shall die in your sins Having formerly employed the singular number, in your sin, he now resorts to the plural number, in your sins; but the...

24.You shall die in your sins Having formerly employed the singular number, in your sin, he now resorts to the plural number, in your sins; but the meaning is the same, except that in the former passage he intended to point out that unbelief is the source and cause of all evils. Not that there are no other sins but unbelief, 223 or that it is unbelief alone which subjects us to the condemnation of eternal death before God, as some men too extravagantly talk; but because it drives us away from Christ, and deprives us of his grace, from which we ought to expect deliverance from all our sins. That the Jews reject the medicine with obstinate malice, is their mortal disease; and hence it arises that the slaves of Satan do not cease to heap up sins on sins, and continually to bring down upon themselves fresh condemnations. And, therefore, he immediately adds, —

If you do not believe that I am For there is no other way for lost men to recover salvation, but to betake themselves to Christ. The phrase, that I am, is emphatic; for, in order to make the meaning complete, we must supply all that the Scripture ascribes to the Messiah, and all that it bids us expect from him. But the sum and substance is — the restoration of the Church, the commencement of which is the light of faith, from which proceed righteousness and a new life. Some of the ancient writers have deduced from this passage the Divine essence of Christ; but that is a mistake, for he speaks of his office towards us. This statement is worthy of observation; for men never consider sufficiently the evils in which they are plunged; and though they are constrained to acknowledge their destruction, yet they neglect Christ, and look around them, in every direction, for useless remedies. Wherefore we ought to believe that, until the grace of Christ be manifested to deliver us, nothing but a boundless mass of all evils reigns perpetually in us. 224

Calvin: Joh 8:25 - From the beginning // Because I also speak to you; 25.From the beginning They who translate the words τὴν ἀρχὴν, as if they had been in the nominative case, I am the beginning, 227 and as ...

25.From the beginning They who translate the words τὴν ἀρχὴν, as if they had been in the nominative case, I am the beginning, 227 and as if Christ were here asserting his eternal Divinity, are greatly mistaken. There is no ambiguity of this sort in the Greek, but still the Greek commentators also differ as to the meaning. All of them, indeed, are agreed that a preposition must be understood; but many give to it the force of an adverb, as if Christ had said, “This ought first (τὴν ἀρχὴν) to be observed.” Some too — among whom is Chrysostom — render it continuously thus: The beginning, who also speak to you, I have many things to say and judge of you This meaning has been put into verse by Nonnus. 228 But a different reading is more generally adopted, and appears to be the true one. I interpret τὴν ἀρχὴν, from the beginning; so that the meaning, in my opinion, is this: “I did not arise suddenly, but as I was formerly promised, so now I come forth publicly.” He adds,

Because I also speak to you; by which he means that he testifies plainly enough who he is, provided that they had ears. This word, ὄτι because, is not employed merely to assign a reason, as if Christ intended to prove that he was from the beginning, because he now speaks; but he asserts that there is such an agreement between his doctrine and the eternity which he has spoken of, that it ought to be reckoned an undoubted confirmation of it. It may be explained thus: “ According to the beginning, that is, what I have formerly said, I now, as it were, confirm anew;” or, “And truly what I now also speak, is in accordance with the conditions made in all ages, so as to be a strong confirmation of it.”

In short, this reply consists of two clauses; for, under the word beginning, he includes an uninterrupted succession of ages, during which God had made a covenant with their fathers. When he says that he also speaks, he joins his doctrine with the ancient predictions, and shows that it depends on them. Hence it follows that the Jews had no other reason for their ignorance, than that they did not believe either the Prophets or the Gospel; for it is the same Christ that is exhibited in all of them. They pretended to be disciples of the Prophets, and to look to the eternal covenant of God; but still they rejected Christ, who had been promised from the beginning, and presented himself before them.

Calvin: Joh 8:26 - I have many things to say and judge of you // And I speak to the world those things which I have heard from him 26.I have many things to say and judge of you Perceiving that he is in the position of one who sings to the deaf, he pursues his discourse no farther...

26.I have many things to say and judge of you Perceiving that he is in the position of one who sings to the deaf, he pursues his discourse no farther, but only declares that God will defend that doctrine, which they despise, because he is the Author of it. “If I wished to accuse you,” says he, “your malice and wickedness supply me with ample materials; but I leave you for the present. But my Father, who committed to me the office of a teacher, will not fail to fulfill his promise; for he will always vindicate his word against the wicked and sacrilegious contempt of men.” This saying of Christ is of the same import with that of Paul,

If we deny him, he remaineth faithful, he cannot deny himself,
(2Ti 2:13.)

In short, he threatens the judgment of God against unbelievers, who refuse to give credit to his word; and he does so on this ground, that God must inevitably defend his truth. Now this is the true firmness of faith, when we believe that God is alone sufficient to establish the authority of his doctrine, though the world should reject it. All who, relying on this doctrine, serve Christ faithfully, may fearlessly accuse the whole world of falsehood.

And I speak to the world those things which I have heard from him He says that he utters nothing which he has not received from the Father; and this is the only confirmation of a doctrine, when the minister shows that what he speaks has proceeded from the Father. Now we know that Christ sustained, at that time, the office of a minister; and, therefore, we need not wonder, if he demands that men listen to him, because he brings to them the commandments of God. Besides, by his example he lays down a general law for the whole Churc