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Teks -- John 12:1-50 (NET)

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Konteks
Jesus’ Anointing
12:1 Then, six days before the Passover, Jesus came to Bethany, where Lazarus lived, whom he had raised from the dead. 12:2 So they prepared a dinner for Jesus there. Martha was serving, and Lazarus was among those present at the table with him. 12:3 Then Mary took three quarters of a pound of expensive aromatic oil from pure nard and anointed the feet of Jesus. She then wiped his feet dry with her hair. (Now the house was filled with the fragrance of the perfumed oil.) 12:4 But Judas Iscariot, one of his disciples (the one who was going to betray him) said, 12:5 “Why wasn’t this oil sold for three hundred silver coins and the money given to the poor?” 12:6 (Now Judas said this not because he was concerned about the poor, but because he was a thief. As keeper of the money box, he used to steal what was put into it.) 12:7 So Jesus said, “Leave her alone. She has kept it for the day of my burial. 12:8 For you will always have the poor with you, but you will not always have me!” 12:9 Now a large crowd of Judeans learned that Jesus was there, and so they came not only because of him but also to see Lazarus whom he had raised from the dead. 12:10 So the chief priests planned to kill Lazarus too, 12:11 for on account of him many of the Jewish people from Jerusalem were going away and believing in Jesus.
The Triumphal Entry
12:12 The next day the large crowd that had come to the feast heard that Jesus was coming to Jerusalem. 12:13 So they took branches of palm trees and went out to meet him. They began to shout, “Hosanna! Blessed is the one who comes in the name of the Lord! Blessed is the king of Israel!” 12:14 Jesus found a young donkey and sat on it, just as it is written, 12:15 “Do not be afraid, people of Zion; look, your king is coming, seated on a donkey’s colt!” 12:16 (His disciples did not understand these things when they first happened, but when Jesus was glorified, then they remembered that these things were written about him and that these things had happened to him.) 12:17 So the crowd who had been with him when he called Lazarus out of the tomb and raised him from the dead were continuing to testify about it. 12:18 Because they had heard that Jesus had performed this miraculous sign, the crowd went out to meet him. 12:19 Thus the Pharisees said to one another, “You see that you can do nothing. Look, the world has run off after him!”
Seekers
12:20 Now some Greeks were among those who had gone up to worship at the feast. 12:21 So these approached Philip, who was from Bethsaida in Galilee, and requested, “Sir, we would like to see Jesus.” 12:22 Philip went and told Andrew, and they both went and told Jesus. 12:23 Jesus replied, “The time has come for the Son of Man to be glorified. 12:24 I tell you the solemn truth, unless a kernel of wheat falls into the ground and dies, it remains by itself alone. But if it dies, it produces much grain. 12:25 The one who loves his life destroys it, and the one who hates his life in this world guards it for eternal life. 12:26 If anyone wants to serve me, he must follow me, and where I am, my servant will be too. If anyone serves me, the Father will honor him. 12:27 “Now my soul is greatly distressed. And what should I say? ‘Father, deliver me from this hour’? No, but for this very reason I have come to this hour. 12:28 Father, glorify your name.” Then a voice came from heaven, “I have glorified it, and I will glorify it again.” 12:29 The crowd that stood there and heard the voice said that it had thundered. Others said that an angel had spoken to him. 12:30 Jesus said, “This voice has not come for my benefit but for yours. 12:31 Now is the judgment of this world; now the ruler of this world will be driven out. 12:32 And I, when I am lifted up from the earth, will draw all people to myself.” 12:33 (Now he said this to indicate clearly what kind of death he was going to die.) 12:34 Then the crowd responded, “We have heard from the law that the Christ will remain forever. How can you say, ‘The Son of Man must be lifted up’? Who is this Son of Man?” 12:35 Jesus replied, “The light is with you for a little while longer. Walk while you have the light, so that the darkness may not overtake you. The one who walks in the darkness does not know where he is going. 12:36 While you have the light, believe in the light, so that you may become sons of light.” When Jesus had said these things, he went away and hid himself from them.
The Outcome of Jesus’ Public Ministry Foretold
12:37 Although Jesus had performed so many miraculous signs before them, they still refused to believe in him, 12:38 so that the word of Isaiah the prophet would be fulfilled. He said, “Lord, who has believed our message, and to whom has the arm of the Lord been revealed?” 12:39 For this reason they could not believe, because again Isaiah said, 12:40 “He has blinded their eyes and hardened their heart, so that they would not see with their eyes and understand with their heart, and turn to me, and I would heal them.” 12:41 Isaiah said these things because he saw Christ’s glory, and spoke about him. 12:42 Nevertheless, even among the rulers many believed in him, but because of the Pharisees they would not confess Jesus to be the Christ, so that they would not be put out of the synagogue. 12:43 For they loved praise from men more than praise from God.
Jesus’ Final Public Words
12:44 But Jesus shouted out, “The one who believes in me does not believe in me, but in the one who sent me, 12:45 and the one who sees me sees the one who sent me. 12:46 I have come as a light into the world, so that everyone who believes in me should not remain in darkness. 12:47 If anyone hears my words and does not obey them, I do not judge him. For I have not come to judge the world, but to save the world. 12:48 The one who rejects me and does not accept my words has a judge; the word I have spoken will judge him at the last day. 12:49 For I have not spoken from my own authority, but the Father himself who sent me has commanded commanded me what I should say and what I should speak. 12:50 And I know that his commandment is eternal life. Thus the things I say, I say just as the Father has told me.”
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Andrew the brother of Simon Peter
 · Bethany a small town on the east slope of the Mount of Olives,a town located east of the Jordan river
 · Bethsaida a town located on the northeast side of the Sea of Galilee
 · Galilee the region of Palestine north of Sameria and west of the upper Jordan River,a region west of Lake Galilee and north of the Jezreel Valley
 · Greek the language used by the people of Greece
 · Isaiah a son of Amoz; a prophet active in Judah from about 740 to 701 B.C.,son of Amoz; a major prophet in the time of Hezekiah
 · Iscariot the surname of Judas, the man who betrayed Christ
 · Israel a citizen of Israel.,a member of the nation of Israel
 · Jerusalem the capital city of Israel,a town; the capital of Israel near the southern border of Benjamin
 · Jews the people descended from Israel
 · Judas a son of Mary and Joseph; half-brother of Jesus)
 · Lazarus the beggar man in the parable of the rich man,the brother of Mary and Martha from Bethany whom Jesus raised from the dead
 · Martha sister of Mary and of Lazarus of Bethany
 · Mary mother of Jesus and wife of Joseph,a woman from Magdala in Galilee,the mother of James and Joses,the wife of Cleophas,the sister of Lazarus and Martha in Bethany,the mother of John Mark who was a nephew of Barnabas,a Christian woman in Rome who helped Paul
 · Passover a Jewish religious feast. It may also refer to the lamb sacrificed and eaten at the feast.
 · Pharisee a religious group or sect of the Jews
 · Philip a man who was one of the twelve apostles,a son of Herod the Great; husband of Herodias; ruler of Iturea and Traconitis north and west of Galilee,a man who was one of the seven chosen to serve tables at the church at Jerusalem
 · Zion one of the hills on which Jerusalem was built; the temple area; the city of Jerusalem; God's people,a town and citidel; an ancient part of Jerusalem


Topik/Tema Kamus: JOHN, GOSPEL OF | KING, CHRIST AS | Jesus, The Christ | JESUS CHRIST, 4E1 | Andrew | Lazarus | PHILIP (2) | Mary | Bethany | Martha | OLIVES, MOUNT OF | Philip | Spikenard | OIL | Unbelief | Love | Blindness | CHRIST, OFFICES OF | Anointing | Light | selebihnya
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Robertson , Vincent , Wesley , JFB , Clarke , Calvin , Defender , TSK

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Evidence

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per frasa)

Robertson: Joh 12:1 - Jesus therefore Jesus therefore ( Iēsous oun ). Here oun is not causal, but simply copulative and transitional, "and so"(Bernard), as often in John (Joh 1:22, et...

Jesus therefore ( Iēsous oun ).

Here oun is not causal, but simply copulative and transitional, "and so"(Bernard), as often in John (Joh 1:22, etc.).

Robertson: Joh 12:1 - Six days before the passover Six days before the passover ( pro hex hēmerōn tou pascha ). This idiom, transposition of pro , is like the Latin use of ante , but it occurs i...

Six days before the passover ( pro hex hēmerōn tou pascha ).

This idiom, transposition of pro , is like the Latin use of ante , but it occurs in the old Doric, in the inscriptions and the papyri. See Amo 1:1 for it also (cf. Moulton, Proleg ., pp. 100ff.; Robertson, Grammar , pp. 621f.). If the crucifixion was on Friday, as seems certain from both John and the Synoptics, then six days before would be the Jewish Sabbath preceding or more probably the Friday afternoon before, since Jesus would most likely arrive before the Sabbath. Probably we are to put together in one scene for the atmosphere Joh 11:55-57; Joh 12:1, Joh 12:9-11.

Robertson: Joh 12:1 - Came to Bethany, where Lazarus was, whom Jesus raised from the dead Came to Bethany, where Lazarus was, whom Jesus raised from the dead ( ētlhen eis Bēthanian ,hopou ēn Lazaros ,hon ēgeiren ek nekrōn Iēso...

Came to Bethany, where Lazarus was, whom Jesus raised from the dead ( ētlhen eis Bēthanian ,hopou ēn Lazaros ,hon ēgeiren ek nekrōn Iēsous ).

Each phrase explains the preceding. There is no reason for thinking this a gloss as Bernard does. It was a place of danger now after that great miracle and the consequent rage of the Sanhedrin (Joh 12:9-11). The crowd of eager spectators to see both Lazarus and Jesus would only intensify this rage.

Robertson: Joh 12:2 - So they made him a supper there So they made him a supper there ( epoiēsan oun autōi deipnon ekei ). Here again oun is not inferential, but merely transitional. This supper is...

So they made him a supper there ( epoiēsan oun autōi deipnon ekei ).

Here again oun is not inferential, but merely transitional. This supper is given by Mark (Mar 14:3-9) and Matthew (Mat 26:6-13) just two days (Mar 14:1) before the passover, that is on our Tuesday evening (beginning of Jewish Wednesday), while John mentions (Joh 12:2-9) it immediately after the arrival of Jesus in Bethany (Joh 12:1). One must decide which date to follow. Mark and Matthew and Luke follow it with the visit of Judas to the Sanhedrin with an offer to betray Jesus as if exasperated by the rebuke by Jesus at the feast. Bernard considers that John "is here more probably accurate."It all turns on John’ s purpose in putting it here. This is the last mention of Jesus in Bethany and he may have mentioned it proleptically for that reason as seems to me quite reasonable. Westcott notes that in chapter 12John closes his record of the public ministry of the Lord relative to the disciples at this feast (Joh 12:1-11), to the multitude in the triumphal entry (Joh 12:12-19), to the world outside in the visit of the Greeks (verses 20-36a), and with two summary judgments (Joh 12:36-50). There is no further reason to refer to the feast in the house of another Simon when a sinful woman anointed Jesus (Luk 7:36-50). It is no credit to Luke or to John with Mark and Matthew to have them all making a jumble like that. There were two anointings by two absolutely different women for wholly different purposes. See the discussion on Luke for further details.

Robertson: Joh 12:2 - And Martha served And Martha served ( kai hē Martha diēkonei ). Imperfect active of diakoneō , picturing Martha true to the account of her in Luk 10:40 (pollēn...

And Martha served ( kai hē Martha diēkonei ).

Imperfect active of diakoneō , picturing Martha true to the account of her in Luk 10:40 (pollēn diakonian , diakonein as here). But this fact does not show that Martha was the wife of this Simon at all. They were friends and neighbours and Martha was following her bent. It is Mark (Mar 14:3) and Matthew (Mat 26:6) who mention the name of the host. It is not Simon the Pharisee (Luk 7:36), but Simon the leper (Mar 14:3; Mat 26:6) in whose house they meet. The name is common enough. The Simon in Luke was sharply critical of Jesus; this one is full of gratitude for what Jesus has done for him.

Robertson: Joh 12:2 - That sat at meat That sat at meat ( tōn anakeimenōn ). "That lay back,"reclined as they did, articular participle (ablative case after ek ) of the common verb an...

That sat at meat ( tōn anakeimenōn ).

"That lay back,"reclined as they did, articular participle (ablative case after ek ) of the common verb anakeimai . Perhaps Simon gave the feast partly in honour of Lazarus as well as of Jesus since all were now talking of both (Joh 12:9). It was a gracious occasion. The guests were Jesus, the twelve apostles, and Martha, Mary, and Lazarus.

Robertson: Joh 12:3 - A pound A pound ( litran ). Latin libra , late Koiné (Polybius, Plutarch) word with weight of 12 ounces, in N.T. only here and Joh 19:39. Mark (Mar 14:3...

A pound ( litran ).

Latin libra , late Koiné (Polybius, Plutarch) word with weight of 12 ounces, in N.T. only here and Joh 19:39. Mark (Mar 14:3) and Matthew (Mat 26:7) have alabaster cruse.

Robertson: Joh 12:3 - Of ointment of spikenard Of ointment of spikenard ( murou nardou pistikēs ). "Of oil of nard."See note on Joh 11:2 for murou (also Mat 26:7). Nard is the head or spike of...

Of ointment of spikenard ( murou nardou pistikēs ).

"Of oil of nard."See note on Joh 11:2 for murou (also Mat 26:7). Nard is the head or spike of an East Indian plant, very fragrant. Occurs also in Mar 14:3. Pistikēs here and in Mar 14:3 probably means genuine (pistikos , from pistos , reliable). Only two instances in the N.T.

Robertson: Joh 12:3 - Very precious Very precious ( polutimou ). Old compound adjective (polus , much, timē ), in N.T. only here, Mat 13:46; 1Pe 1:7. Mark has polutelous (very cost...

Very precious ( polutimou ).

Old compound adjective (polus , much, timē ), in N.T. only here, Mat 13:46; 1Pe 1:7. Mark has polutelous (very costly). Matthew (Mat 26:7) has here barutimou of weighty value (only N.T. instance).

Robertson: Joh 12:3 - Anointed Anointed ( ēleipsen ). First aorist active indicative of aleiphō , old word (Mar 16:1).

Anointed ( ēleipsen ).

First aorist active indicative of aleiphō , old word (Mar 16:1).

Robertson: Joh 12:3 - The feet The feet ( tous podas ). Mark (Mar 14:3) and Matthew (Mat 26:7) have "his head."Why not both, though neither Gospel mentions both? The Latin MS. ful...

The feet ( tous podas ).

Mark (Mar 14:3) and Matthew (Mat 26:7) have "his head."Why not both, though neither Gospel mentions both? The Latin MS. fuldensis and the Syriac Sinatic do give both head and feet here.

Robertson: Joh 12:3 - Wiped Wiped ( exemaxen ). First aorist active indicative of ekmassō , old verb to wipe off already in Joh 11:2; Luk 7:38, Luk 7:44.

Wiped ( exemaxen ).

First aorist active indicative of ekmassō , old verb to wipe off already in Joh 11:2; Luk 7:38, Luk 7:44.

Robertson: Joh 12:3 - With her hair With her hair ( tais thrixin autēs ). Instrumental plural. It is this item that is relied on largely by those who identify Mary of Bethany with the...

With her hair ( tais thrixin autēs ).

Instrumental plural. It is this item that is relied on largely by those who identify Mary of Bethany with the sinful woman in Luk 7:37 and with Mary Magdalene. It is no doubt true that it was usually considered immodest for a woman to wear her hair loose. But it is not impossible that Mary of Bethany in her carefully planned love-offering for Jesus on this occasion was only glad to throw such a punctilio to the winds. Such an act on this occasion does not brand her a woman of loose character.

Robertson: Joh 12:3 - Was filled with the odour of the ointment Was filled with the odour of the ointment ( eplērōthē ek tēs osmēs tou murou ). Effective first aorist passive of plēroō and a natura...

Was filled with the odour of the ointment ( eplērōthē ek tēs osmēs tou murou ).

Effective first aorist passive of plēroō and a natural result.

Robertson: Joh 12:4 - Judas Iscariot Judas Iscariot ( Ioudas ho Iskariōtēs ). See ho Iskariōtēs in Joh 14:22. See Joh 6:71; Joh 13:1 for like description of Judas save that in ...

Judas Iscariot ( Ioudas ho Iskariōtēs ).

See ho Iskariōtēs in Joh 14:22. See Joh 6:71; Joh 13:1 for like description of Judas save that in Joh 6:71 the father’ s name is given in the genitive, Simōnos and Iskariōtou (agreeing with the father), but in Joh 13:1 Iskariōtēs agrees with Ioudas , not with Simōnos . Clearly then both father and son were called "Iscariot"or man of Kerioth in the tribe of Judah (Jos 15:25). Judas is the only one of the twelve not a Galilean.

Robertson: Joh 12:4 - One of his disciples One of his disciples ( heis tōn mathētōn autou ). Likewise in Joh 6:71, only there ek is used after heis as some MSS. have here. This is th...

One of his disciples ( heis tōn mathētōn autou ).

Likewise in Joh 6:71, only there ek is used after heis as some MSS. have here. This is the shameful fact that clung to the name of Judas.

Robertson: Joh 12:4 - Which should betray him Which should betray him ( ho mellōn auton paradidonai ). John does not say in Joh 6:71 (emellen paradidonai auton ) or here that Judas "was predes...

Which should betray him ( ho mellōn auton paradidonai ).

John does not say in Joh 6:71 (emellen paradidonai auton ) or here that Judas "was predestined to betray Jesus"as Bernard suggests. He had his own responsibility for his guilt as Jesus said (Mat 26:24). Mellō here simply points to the act as future, not as necessary. Note the contrast between Mary and Judas. "Mary in her devotion unconsciously provides for the honour of the dead. Judas in his selfishness unconsciously brings about the death itself"(Westcott).

Robertson: Joh 12:5 - Sold Sold ( eprathē ). First aorist passive indicative of pipraskō , old verb to sell (Mat 13:46).

Sold ( eprathē ).

First aorist passive indicative of pipraskō , old verb to sell (Mat 13:46).

Robertson: Joh 12:5 - For three hundred pence For three hundred pence ( triakosiōn dēnariōn ). Genitive of price. Same item in Mar 14:5, while in Mat 26:9 it is simply "for much"(pollou )....

For three hundred pence ( triakosiōn dēnariōn ).

Genitive of price. Same item in Mar 14:5, while in Mat 26:9 it is simply "for much"(pollou ). But all three have "given to the poor"(edothē ptōchois ). First aorist passive indicative of didōmi with dative case ptōchois (note absence of the article, poor people), real beggars, mendicants (Mat 19:21; Luk 14:13). But only John singles out Judas as the one who made the protest against this waste of money while Mark says that "some"had indignation and Matthew has it that "the disciples"had indignation. Clearly Judas was the spokesman for the group who chimed in and agreed with his protest. The amount here spent by Mary (ten guineas) would equal a day labourer’ s wages for a year (Dods).

Robertson: Joh 12:6 - Not because he cared for the poor Not because he cared for the poor ( ouch hoti peri tōn ptōchōn emelen autōi ). Literally, "not because it was a care to him concerning the po...

Not because he cared for the poor ( ouch hoti peri tōn ptōchōn emelen autōi ).

Literally, "not because it was a care to him concerning the poor"(impersonal imperfect of melei , it was a care). John often makes explanatory comments of this kind as in Joh 2:21.; Joh 7:22, Joh 7:39.

Robertson: Joh 12:6 - But because he was a thief But because he was a thief ( alle hoti kleptēs ēn ). Clearly the disciples did not know then that Judas was a petty thief. That knowledge came la...

But because he was a thief ( alle hoti kleptēs ēn ).

Clearly the disciples did not know then that Judas was a petty thief. That knowledge came later after he took the bribe of thirty pieces of silver for betraying Jesus (Mat 26:15), for the disciples did not suspect Judas of treachery (Joh 13:28.), let alone small speculations. There is no reason for thinking that John is unfair to Judas. "Temptation commonly comes through that for which we are naturally fitted"(Westcott). In this case Judas himself was "the poor beggar"who wanted this money.

Robertson: Joh 12:6 - And having the bag took away what was put therein And having the bag took away what was put therein ( kai to glōssokomon echōn ta ballomena ebastazen ). This is the correct text. This compound fo...

And having the bag took away what was put therein ( kai to glōssokomon echōn ta ballomena ebastazen ).

This is the correct text. This compound for the earlier glōssokomeion (from glōssa , tongue, and komeō , to tend) was originally a receptacle for the tongues or mouth-pieces of wind instruments. The shorter form is already in the Doric inscriptions and is common in the papyri for "money-box"as here. It occurs also in Josephus, Plutarch, etc. In N.T. only here and Joh 13:29 in same sense about Judas. Ballomena is present passive participle (repeatedly put in) of ballō , to cast or fling. The imperfect active (custom) of bastazō , old verb to pick up (Joh 10:31), to carry (Joh 19:17), but here and Joh 20:15 with the sense to bear away as in Polybius, Josephus, Diogenes Laertes, and often so in the papyri.

Robertson: Joh 12:7 - Suffer her to keep it against the day of my burying Suffer her to keep it against the day of my burying ( Aphes autēn ,hina eis tēn hēmeran tou entaphiasmou mou tērēsēi auto ). This readin...

Suffer her to keep it against the day of my burying ( Aphes autēn ,hina eis tēn hēmeran tou entaphiasmou mou tērēsēi auto ).

This reading (hina tērēsēi , purpose clause with hina and first aorist active subjunctive of tēreō ) rather than that of the Textus Receptus (just tetēreken , perfect active indicative) is correct. It is supported by Aleph B D L W Theta. The hina can be rendered as above after aphes according to Koiné idiom or more probably: "Let her alone: it was that,"etc. (supplying "it was"). Either makes good sense. The word entaphiasmos is a later and rare substantive from the late verb entaphiazō , to prepare for burial (Mat 26:12; Joh 19:40), and means preparation for burial. In N.T. only here and Mar 14:8. "Preparation for my burial"is the idea here and in Mark. The idea of Jesus is that Mary had saved this money to use in preparing his body for burial. She is giving him the flowers before the funeral. We can hardly take it that Mary did not use all of the ointment for Mark (Mar 14:3) says that she broke it and yet he adds (Mar 14:8) what John has here. It is a paradox, but Jesus is fond of paradoxes. Mary has kept this precious gift by giving it now beforehand as a preparation for my burial. We really keep what we give to Christ. This is Mary’ s glory that she had some glimmering comprehension of Christ’ s death which none of the disciples possessed.

Robertson: Joh 12:8 - Ye have always Ye have always ( pantote echete ). Jesus does not discredit gifts to the poor at all. But there is relativity in one’ s duties.

Ye have always ( pantote echete ).

Jesus does not discredit gifts to the poor at all. But there is relativity in one’ s duties.

Robertson: Joh 12:8 - But me ye have not always But me ye have not always ( eme de ou pantote echete ). This is what Mary perceived with her delicate woman’ s intuition and what the apostles f...

But me ye have not always ( eme de ou pantote echete ).

This is what Mary perceived with her delicate woman’ s intuition and what the apostles failed to understand though repeatedly and plainly told by Jesus. John does not mention the precious promise of praise for Mary preserved in Mar 14:9; Mat 26:13, but he does show her keen sympathetic insight and Christ’ s genuine appreciation of her noble deed. It is curiously mal-a - propos surely to put alongside this incident the other incident told long before by Luke (Luk 7:35.) of the sinful woman. Let Mary alone in her glorious act of love.

Robertson: Joh 12:9 - The common people The common people ( ho ochlos polus ). This is the right reading with the article ho , literally, "the people much or in large numbers."One is remind...

The common people ( ho ochlos polus ).

This is the right reading with the article ho , literally, "the people much or in large numbers."One is reminded of the French idiom. Gildersleeve ( Syntax , p. 284) gives a few rare examples of the idiom ho anēr agathos . Westcott suggests that ochlos polus came to be regarded as a compound noun. This is the usual order in the N.T. rather than polus ochlos (Robertson, Grammar , p. 774). Mar 12:37 has ho polus ochlos . Moulton ( Proleg ., p. 84) terms ho ochlos polus here and in Joh 12:12 "a curious misplacement of the article."John’ s use of ochlos is usually the common crowd as "riff-raff."

Robertson: Joh 12:9 - That he was That he was ( hoti estin ). Present active indicative retained in indirect discourse after the secondary tense (egnō , second aorist active indicat...

That he was ( hoti estin ).

Present active indicative retained in indirect discourse after the secondary tense (egnō , second aorist active indicative of ginōskō ). These "Jews"are not all hostile to Jesus as in Joh 5:10; Joh 6:41, etc., but included some who were friendly (Joh 12:11).

Robertson: Joh 12:9 - But that they might see Lazarus also But that they might see Lazarus also ( all' hina kai ton Lazaron idōsin ). Purpose clause with hina and second aorist active subjunctive of horao...

But that they might see Lazarus also ( all' hina kai ton Lazaron idōsin ).

Purpose clause with hina and second aorist active subjunctive of horaō . Motive enough to gather a great crowd, to see one raised from the dead (cf. Joh 12:1 for the same phrase, "whom he had raised from the dead"). Some of the very witnesses of the raising of Lazarus will bear witness later (Joh 12:17). It was a tense situation.

Robertson: Joh 12:10 - The chief priests took counsel The chief priests took counsel ( ebouleusanto hoi archiereis ). First aorist middle indicative of bouleuō , old verb, seen already in Joh 11:53 whi...

The chief priests took counsel ( ebouleusanto hoi archiereis ).

First aorist middle indicative of bouleuō , old verb, seen already in Joh 11:53 which see. The whole Sanhedrin (Joh 7:32) had decided to put Jesus to death and had asked for information concerning him (Joh 11:57) that might lead to his arrest, but the Sadducees were specially active now to accomplish the death of Lazarus also (hina with first aorist active subjunctive of apokteinō as in Joh 11:53). Perhaps they argued that, if they should kill both Jesus and Lazarus, then Lazarus would remain dead. The raising of Lazarus has brought matters to a crisis. Incidentally, it may be observed that here we may see the reason why the Synoptics do not tell the story of the raising of Lazarus, if he was still living (cf. the case of Malchus’ s name in Joh 18:10).

Robertson: Joh 12:11 - Because that Because that ( hoti ). Causal use of hoti .

Because that ( hoti ).

Causal use of hoti .

Robertson: Joh 12:11 - By reason of him By reason of him ( di' auton ). "Because of him,"regular idiom, accusative case with dia .

By reason of him ( di' auton ).

"Because of him,"regular idiom, accusative case with dia .

Robertson: Joh 12:11 - Went away Went away ( hupēgon ). Cf. Joh 6:67 for this verb. Inchoative imperfect active of hupagō , "began to withdraw"as happened at the time of the rais...

Went away ( hupēgon ).

Cf. Joh 6:67 for this verb. Inchoative imperfect active of hupagō , "began to withdraw"as happened at the time of the raising of Lazarus (Joh 11:45.) and the secession was still going on.

Robertson: Joh 12:11 - And believed on Jesus And believed on Jesus ( kai episteuon eis ton Iēsoun ). Imperfect active of pisteuō (note aorist in Joh 11:45). There was danger of a mass move...

And believed on Jesus ( kai episteuon eis ton Iēsoun ).

Imperfect active of pisteuō (note aorist in Joh 11:45). There was danger of a mass movement of the people to Jesus.

Robertson: Joh 12:12 - On the morrow On the morrow ( tēi epaurion ). Locative case. Supply hēmerāi (day) after the adverb epaurion ("on the tomorrow day"). That is on our Sunda...

On the morrow ( tēi epaurion ).

Locative case. Supply hēmerāi (day) after the adverb epaurion ("on the tomorrow day"). That is on our Sunday, Palm Sunday.

Robertson: Joh 12:12 - A great multitude A great multitude ( ho ochlos polus ). Same idiom rendered "the common people"in Joh 12:9 and should be so translated here.

A great multitude ( ho ochlos polus ).

Same idiom rendered "the common people"in Joh 12:9 and should be so translated here.

Robertson: Joh 12:12 - That had come That had come ( ho elthōn ). Second aorist active participle, masculine singular of erchomai agreeing with ochlos , "that came."

That had come ( ho elthōn ).

Second aorist active participle, masculine singular of erchomai agreeing with ochlos , "that came."

Robertson: Joh 12:12 - When they heard When they heard ( akousantes ). First aorist active masculine plural participle of akouō , construction according to sense (plural, though ochlos ...

When they heard ( akousantes ).

First aorist active masculine plural participle of akouō , construction according to sense (plural, though ochlos singular).

Robertson: Joh 12:12 - Was coming Was coming ( erchetai ). Present middle indicative of erchomai retained in indirect discourse after a secondary tense. It is a vivid picture. What ...

Was coming ( erchetai ).

Present middle indicative of erchomai retained in indirect discourse after a secondary tense. It is a vivid picture. What they heard was: "Jesus is coming into Jerusalem."He is defying the Sanhedrin with all their public advertisement for him.

Robertson: Joh 12:13 - Took Took ( elabon ). Second aorist active indicative of lambanō .

Took ( elabon ).

Second aorist active indicative of lambanō .

Robertson: Joh 12:13 - The branches of the palm trees The branches of the palm trees ( ta baia tōn phoinikōn ). Phoinix is an old word for palm tree (Rev 7:9 for the branches) and in Act 27:12 the ...

The branches of the palm trees ( ta baia tōn phoinikōn ).

Phoinix is an old word for palm tree (Rev 7:9 for the branches) and in Act 27:12 the name of a city. Baion is apparently a word of Egyptian origin, palm branches, here only in N.T., but in the papyri and 1Macc 13:51. Here we have "the palm branches of the palm trees."The use in 1Macc 13:51 (cf. 2Macc 10:7) is in the account of Simon’ s triumphal entry into Jerusalem. Bernard notes that to carry palms was a mark of triumphant homage to a victor or a king (Rev 7:9). Palm trees grew on the Mount of Olives (Mar 11:8) on the road from Bethany to Jerusalem. The crowds (one in front and one behind, Mar 11:9; Mat 21:9; Joh 2:18) cut the branches as they came (Mat 21:8).

Robertson: Joh 12:13 - To meet him To meet him ( eis hupantēsin autōi ). Literally, for a meeting (hupantēsis , late word from the verb hupantaō , Mat 8:28; Joh 11:20, Joh 11...

To meet him ( eis hupantēsin autōi ).

Literally, for a meeting (hupantēsis , late word from the verb hupantaō , Mat 8:28; Joh 11:20, Joh 11:30; Joh 12:18, in the papyri, but only here in the N.T.) "with him"(autōi , associative instrumental case after hupantēsin as after the verb in Joh 12:18). It was a scene of growing excitement.

Robertson: Joh 12:13 - And cried out And cried out ( kai ekraugazon ). Imperfect active of kraugazō , old and rare verb (from kraugē ) as in Mat 12:19; Joh 19:15.

And cried out ( kai ekraugazon ).

Imperfect active of kraugazō , old and rare verb (from kraugē ) as in Mat 12:19; Joh 19:15.

Robertson: Joh 12:13 - Hosannah Hosannah ( Hōsannah ). Transliteration of the Hebrew word meaning "Save now."The lxx renders it by Sōson dē (Save now).

Hosannah ( Hōsannah ).

Transliteration of the Hebrew word meaning "Save now."The lxx renders it by Sōson dē (Save now).

Robertson: Joh 12:13 - Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord ( eulogēmenos ho erchomenos en onomati kuriou ). Perfect passive participle of eulogeō . Quotat...

Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord ( eulogēmenos ho erchomenos en onomati kuriou ).

Perfect passive participle of eulogeō . Quotation from Psa 118:25., written, some think, for the dedication of the second temple, or, as others think, for the feast of tabernacles after the return (Ezr 3:1.). It was sung in the processional recitation then as a welcome to the worshippers. Here the words are addressed to the Messiah as is made plain by the addition of the words, "even the king of Israel"(kai ho basileus tou Israēl ) as Nathanael called him (Joh 1:49). Jesus is here hailed by the multitudes as the long-looked for Messiah of Jewish hope and he allows them so to greet him (Luk 19:38-40), a thing that he prevented a year before in Galilee (Joh 6:14.). It is probable that "in the name of the Lord"should be taken with "blessed"as in Deu 21:5; 2Sa 6:18; 1Ki 22:16; 2Ki 2:24. The Messiah was recognized by Martha as the Coming One (Joh 11:27) and is so described by the Baptist (Mat 11:3). Mark (Mar 11:10) adds "the kingdom that cometh"while Luke (Joh 19:38) has "the king that cometh.""It was this public acclamation of Jesus as King of Israel or King of the Jews which was the foundation of the charge made against him before Pilate (Joh 18:33)"(Bernard).

Robertson: Joh 12:14 - Found Found ( heurōn ). Second aorist active participle of heuriskō . Through the disciples, of course, as in Mar 11:2-6 (Mat 21:2-3, Mat 21:6; Luk 19:...

Found ( heurōn ).

Second aorist active participle of heuriskō . Through the disciples, of course, as in Mar 11:2-6 (Mat 21:2-3, Mat 21:6; Luk 19:30.).

Robertson: Joh 12:14 - A young ass A young ass ( onarion ). Late diminutive of onos , in Epictetus and the papyri (even the double diminitive, onaridion ), only here in the N.T. See n...

A young ass ( onarion ).

Late diminutive of onos , in Epictetus and the papyri (even the double diminitive, onaridion ), only here in the N.T. See note on Mat 21:5 where kai has been wrongly rendered "and"instead of "even."Rightly understood Matthew has Jesus riding only the colt like the rest.

Robertson: Joh 12:15 - Daughter of Zion Daughter of Zion ( thugatēr Siōn ). Nominative form (instead of thugater ) but vocative case. The quotation is from Zec 9:9 shortened.

Daughter of Zion ( thugatēr Siōn ).

Nominative form (instead of thugater ) but vocative case. The quotation is from Zec 9:9 shortened.

Robertson: Joh 12:15 - Thy King cometh Thy King cometh ( ho basileus erchetai ). Prophetic futuristic present. The ass was the animal ridden in peace as the horse was in war (Jdg 10:4; Jdg...

Thy King cometh ( ho basileus erchetai ).

Prophetic futuristic present. The ass was the animal ridden in peace as the horse was in war (Jdg 10:4; Jdg 12:14; 2Sa 17:23; 2Sa 19:26). Zechariah pictures one coming in peace. So the people here regarded Jesus as the Prince of Peace in the triumphal entry.

Robertson: Joh 12:15 - Sitting on an ass’ s colt Sitting on an ass’ s colt ( kathēmenos epi pōlon onou ). Matthew (Mat 21:6.) does speak of both the ass and the colt having garments put on ...

Sitting on an ass’ s colt ( kathēmenos epi pōlon onou ).

Matthew (Mat 21:6.) does speak of both the ass and the colt having garments put on them, but he does not say that Jesus "sat upon"both animals at once, for epanō autōn (upon them) probably refers to the garments, not to the colts. When John wrote (end of the century), Jerusalem had fallen. Jesus will lament over Jerusalem (Luk 19:41.). So "Fear not"(mē phobou ).

Robertson: Joh 12:16 - Understood not Understood not ( ouk egnōsan ). Second aorist active indicative of ginōskō . Another comment by John concerning the failure of the disciples to...

Understood not ( ouk egnōsan ).

Second aorist active indicative of ginōskō . Another comment by John concerning the failure of the disciples to know what was happening (cf. Joh 2:22; Joh 7:39).

Robertson: Joh 12:16 - At the first At the first ( to prōton ). Adverbial accusative, as in Joh 10:40; Joh 19:39.

At the first ( to prōton ).

Adverbial accusative, as in Joh 10:40; Joh 19:39.

Robertson: Joh 12:16 - Was glorified Was glorified ( edoxasthē ). First aorist passive indicative of doxazō , to glorify, used of his death already in Joh 7:39 and by Jesus himself o...

Was glorified ( edoxasthē ).

First aorist passive indicative of doxazō , to glorify, used of his death already in Joh 7:39 and by Jesus himself of his death, resurrection, and ascension in Joh 12:23; Joh 13:31.

Robertson: Joh 12:16 - Then remembered they Then remembered they ( tote emnēsthēsan ). First aorist passive indicative of mimnēskō . It was easier to understand then and they had the Ho...

Then remembered they ( tote emnēsthēsan ).

First aorist passive indicative of mimnēskō . It was easier to understand then and they had the Holy Spirit to help them (Joh 16:13-15).

Robertson: Joh 12:16 - Were written of him Were written of him ( ēn ep' autōi gegrammena ). Periphrastic past perfect passive of graphō with neuter plural participle agreeing with taut...

Were written of him ( ēn ep' autōi gegrammena ).

Periphrastic past perfect passive of graphō with neuter plural participle agreeing with tauta (these things) and singular verb, though the plural ēsan could have been used. Note the threefold repetition of tauta in this verse, "clumsy"Bernard calls it, but making for clarity. The use of ep' autōi for "of him"rather than peri autou is unusual, but occurs in Rev 10:11; Rev 22:16.

Robertson: Joh 12:16 - They had done They had done ( epoiēsan ). First aorist active indicative of poieō , simply, "they did."

They had done ( epoiēsan ).

First aorist active indicative of poieō , simply, "they did."

Robertson: Joh 12:17 - Bare witness Bare witness ( emarturei ). Imperfect active of martureō . This crowning triumph of Jesus gave an added sense of importance to the crowds that were...

Bare witness ( emarturei ).

Imperfect active of martureō . This crowning triumph of Jesus gave an added sense of importance to the crowds that were actually with Jesus when he called Lazarus out of the tomb and raised him from the dead. For this description of this portion of the crowd see Joh 11:45.; Joh 12:1, Joh 12:9-11.

Robertson: Joh 12:18 - The multitude The multitude ( ho ochlos ). The multitude of Joh 12:13, not the crowd just mentioned that had been with Jesus at the raising of Lazarus. There were ...

The multitude ( ho ochlos ).

The multitude of Joh 12:13, not the crowd just mentioned that had been with Jesus at the raising of Lazarus. There were two crowds (one following Jesus, one meeting Jesus as here).

Robertson: Joh 12:18 - Went and met him Went and met him ( hupēntēsen autōi ). First aorist active indicative of hupantaō , old compound verb (hupo ,antaō ) to go to meet, with ...

Went and met him ( hupēntēsen autōi ).

First aorist active indicative of hupantaō , old compound verb (hupo ,antaō ) to go to meet, with associative instrumental case autōi . Cf. Joh 4:51.

Robertson: Joh 12:18 - That he had done this sign That he had done this sign ( touto auton pepoiēkenai to sēmeion ). Perfect active infinitive in indirect discourse after ēkousan (first aoris...

That he had done this sign ( touto auton pepoiēkenai to sēmeion ).

Perfect active infinitive in indirect discourse after ēkousan (first aorist active indicative of akouō , to hear) (instead of a hoti clause) with the accusative of general reference auton (as to him) and another accusative (sēmeion , sign) the object of the infinitive. Clearly there was much talk about the raising of Lazarus as the final proof that Jesus in truth is the Messiah of Jewish hope.

Robertson: Joh 12:19 - The Pharisees therefore laid among themselves The Pharisees therefore laid among themselves ( hoi oun Pharisaioi eipan pros heautous ). Graphic picture of the predicament of the Pharisees standin...

The Pharisees therefore laid among themselves ( hoi oun Pharisaioi eipan pros heautous ).

Graphic picture of the predicament of the Pharisees standing off and watching the enthusiastic crowds sweep by. As people usually do, they blame each other for the defeat of their plots against Jesus and for his final victory, as it seemed.

Robertson: Joh 12:19 - Behold how ye prevail nothing Behold how ye prevail nothing ( theōreite hoti ouk ōpheleite ouden ). It was a pathetic confession of failure because the rest of the plotters ha...

Behold how ye prevail nothing ( theōreite hoti ouk ōpheleite ouden ).

It was a pathetic confession of failure because the rest of the plotters had bungled the whole thing. "Ye help nothing at all"by your plots and plans.

Robertson: Joh 12:19 - Lo, the world is gone after him Lo, the world is gone after him ( ide ho kosmos opisō autou apēlthen ). Exclamatory use of ide and timeless aorist active indicative of apercho...

Lo, the world is gone after him ( ide ho kosmos opisō autou apēlthen ).

Exclamatory use of ide and timeless aorist active indicative of aperchomai . The "world"is a bunch of fools, they feel, but see for yourselves. And the Sanhedrin had advertised to "find"Jesus! They can find him now!

Robertson: Joh 12:20 - Certain Greeks Certain Greeks ( Hellēnes tines ). Real Greeks, not Greek-speaking Jews (Hellenists, Act 6:1), but Greeks like those in Antioch (Act 11:20, correct...

Certain Greeks ( Hellēnes tines ).

Real Greeks, not Greek-speaking Jews (Hellenists, Act 6:1), but Greeks like those in Antioch (Act 11:20, correct text pros tous Hellēnas ) to whom Barnabas was sent. These were probably proselytes of the gate or God-fearers like those worshipping Greeks in Thessalonica whom Paul won to Christ (Act 17:4).

Robertson: Joh 12:20 - To worship at the feast To worship at the feast ( hina proskunēsōsin en tēi heortēi ). Purpose clause with hina and the first aorist active subjunctive of proskune...

To worship at the feast ( hina proskunēsōsin en tēi heortēi ).

Purpose clause with hina and the first aorist active subjunctive of proskuneō , old and common verb to kiss the hand in reverence, to bow the knee in reverence and worship. We do not know whence they came, whether from Decapolis, Galilee, or further away. They found the pilgrims and the city ringing with talk about Jesus. They may even have witnessed the triumphal entry.

Robertson: Joh 12:21 - To Philip which was of Bethsaida of Galilee To Philip which was of Bethsaida of Galilee ( Philippōi tōi apo Bēthsaida tēs Galilaias ). He had a Greek name and the Greeks may have seen P...

To Philip which was of Bethsaida of Galilee ( Philippōi tōi apo Bēthsaida tēs Galilaias ).

He had a Greek name and the Greeks may have seen Philip in Galilee where there were many Greeks, probably (Mar 6:45) the Western Bethsaida in Galilee, not Bethsaida Julias on the Eastern side (Luk 9:10).

Robertson: Joh 12:21 - Asked Asked ( ērōtōn ). Imperfect active, probably inchoative, "began to ask,"in contrast with the aorist tense just before (prosēlthan , came to).

Asked ( ērōtōn ).

Imperfect active, probably inchoative, "began to ask,"in contrast with the aorist tense just before (prosēlthan , came to).

Robertson: Joh 12:21 - Sir Sir ( Kurie ). Most respectfully and courteously.

Sir ( Kurie ).

Most respectfully and courteously.

Robertson: Joh 12:21 - We would see Jesus We would see Jesus ( thelomen ton Iēsoun idein ). "We desire to see Jesus."This is not abrupt like our "we wish"or "we want,"but perfectly polite. ...

We would see Jesus ( thelomen ton Iēsoun idein ).

"We desire to see Jesus."This is not abrupt like our "we wish"or "we want,"but perfectly polite. However, they could easily "see"Jesus, had already done so, no doubt. They wish an interview with Jesus.

Robertson: Joh 12:22 - Andrew Andrew ( tōi Andreāi ). Another apostle with a Greek name and associated with Philip again (Joh 6:7.), the man who first brought his brother Simo...

Andrew ( tōi Andreāi ).

Another apostle with a Greek name and associated with Philip again (Joh 6:7.), the man who first brought his brother Simon to Jesus (Joh 1:41). Andrew was clearly a man of wisdom for a crisis. Note the vivid dramatic presents here, cometh (erchetai ), telleth (legei ). What was the crisis? These Greeks wish an interview with Jesus. True Jesus had said something about "other sheep"than Jews (Joh 10:16), but he had not explained. Philip and Andrew wrestle with the problem that will puzzle Peter on the housetop in Joppa (Act 10:9-18), that middle wall of partition between Jew and Gentile that was only broken down by the Cross of Christ (Eph 2:11-22) and that many Christians and Jews still set up between each other. Andrew has no solution for Philip and they bring the problem, but not the Greeks, to Jesus.

Robertson: Joh 12:23 - The hour is come The hour is come ( elēluthen hē hōra ). The predestined hour, seen from the start (Joh 2:4), mentioned by John (Joh 7:30; Joh 8:20) as not yet ...

The hour is come ( elēluthen hē hōra ).

The predestined hour, seen from the start (Joh 2:4), mentioned by John (Joh 7:30; Joh 8:20) as not yet come and later as known by Jesus as come (Joh 13:1), twice again used by Jesus as already come (in the prayer of Jesus, Joh 17:1; Mar 14:41, just before the betrayal in the Garden). The request from the Greeks for this interview stirs the heart of Jesus to its depths.

Robertson: Joh 12:23 - That the Son of man should be glorified That the Son of man should be glorified ( hina doxasthēi ho huios tou anthrōpou ). Purpose clause with hina (not in the sense of hote , when) a...

That the Son of man should be glorified ( hina doxasthēi ho huios tou anthrōpou ).

Purpose clause with hina (not in the sense of hote , when) and the first aorist passive subjunctive of doxazō , same sense as in Joh 12:16, Joh 13:31. The Cross must come before Greeks can really come to Jesus with understanding. But this request shows that interest in Jesus now extends beyond the Jewish circles.

Robertson: Joh 12:24 - Except Except ( ean mē ). Negative condition of third class (undetermined, supposable case) with second aorist active participle pesōn (from piptō ,...

Except ( ean mē ).

Negative condition of third class (undetermined, supposable case) with second aorist active participle pesōn (from piptō , to fall) and the second aorist active subjunctive of apothnēskō , to die.

Robertson: Joh 12:24 - A grain of wheat A grain of wheat ( ho kokkos tou sitou ). Rather, "the grain of wheat."

A grain of wheat ( ho kokkos tou sitou ).

Rather, "the grain of wheat."

Robertson: Joh 12:24 - By itself alone By itself alone ( autos monos ). Both predicate nominatives after menei . It is not necessary to think (nor likely) that Jesus has in mind the Eleusi...

By itself alone ( autos monos ).

Both predicate nominatives after menei . It is not necessary to think (nor likely) that Jesus has in mind the Eleusinian mysteries which became a symbol of the mystery of spring. Paul in 1Co 15:36 uses the same illustration of the resurrection that Jesus does here. Jesus shows here the paradox that life comes through death. Whether the Greeks heard him or not we do not know. If so, they heard something not in Greek philosophy, the Christian ideal of sacrifice, "and this was foreign to the philosophy of Greece"(Bernard). Jesus had already spoken of himself as the bread of life (6:35-65).

Robertson: Joh 12:24 - But if it die But if it die ( ean de apothanēi ). Parallel condition of the third class. Grains of wheat have been found in Egyptian tombs three or four thousand...

But if it die ( ean de apothanēi ).

Parallel condition of the third class. Grains of wheat have been found in Egyptian tombs three or four thousand years old, but they are now dead. They bore no fruit.

Robertson: Joh 12:25 - Loseth it Loseth it ( apolluei autēn ). The second paradox. Present active indicative of apolluō . This great saying was spoken at various times as in Mar ...

Loseth it ( apolluei autēn ).

The second paradox. Present active indicative of apolluō . This great saying was spoken at various times as in Mar 8:35 (Mat 16:25; Luk 9:24) and Mar 10:39 (Luk 17:33). See those passages for discussion of psuchē (life or soul). For "he that hateth his life"(ho misōn tēn psuchēn autou ) see the sharp contrasts in Luk 14:26-35 where miseō is used of father, mother, wife, children, brothers, sisters, as well as one’ s own life. Clearly miseō means "hate"when the issue is between Christ and the dearest things of life as happens when the choice is between martyrdom and apostasy. In that case one keeps his soul for eternal life by losing his life (psuchē , each time) here. That is the way to "guard"(phulaxei ) life by being true to Christ. This is the second paradox to show Christ’ s philosophy of life.

Robertson: Joh 12:26 - If any man serve me If any man serve me ( ean emoi tis diakonēi ). Condition of third class again (ean with present active subjunctive of diakoneō , keep on servin...

If any man serve me ( ean emoi tis diakonēi ).

Condition of third class again (ean with present active subjunctive of diakoneō , keep on serving with dative emoi ).

Robertson: Joh 12:26 - Let him follow me Let him follow me ( emoi akoloutheitō ). "Me (associative instrumental case) let him keep on following"(present active imperative of akoloutheō ...

Let him follow me ( emoi akoloutheitō ).

"Me (associative instrumental case) let him keep on following"(present active imperative of akoloutheō ).

Robertson: Joh 12:26 - Where ... there Where ... there ( hopou ...ekei ). In presence and spiritual companionship here and hereafter. Cf. Joh 14:3; Joh 17:24; Mat 28:20.

Where ... there ( hopou ...ekei ).

In presence and spiritual companionship here and hereafter. Cf. Joh 14:3; Joh 17:24; Mat 28:20.

Robertson: Joh 12:26 - Shall honour Shall honour ( timēsei ). Future active of timaō , but it may be the kind of honour that Jesus will get (Joh 12:23).

Shall honour ( timēsei ).

Future active of timaō , but it may be the kind of honour that Jesus will get (Joh 12:23).

Robertson: Joh 12:27 - My soul My soul ( hē psuchē mou ). The soul (psuchē ) here is synonymous with spirit (pneuma ) in Joh 13:21.

My soul ( hē psuchē mou ).

The soul (psuchē ) here is synonymous with spirit (pneuma ) in Joh 13:21.

Robertson: Joh 12:27 - Is troubled Is troubled ( tetaraktai ). Perfect passive indicative of tarassō , used also in Joh 11:33; Joh 13:21 of Jesus. While John proves the deity of Jesu...

Is troubled ( tetaraktai ).

Perfect passive indicative of tarassō , used also in Joh 11:33; Joh 13:21 of Jesus. While John proves the deity of Jesus in his Gospel, he assumes throughout his real humanity as here (cf. Joh 4:6). The language is an echo of that in Psa 6:4; Psa 42:7. John does not give the agony in Gethsemane which the Synoptics have (Mar 14:35.; Mat 26:39; Luk 22:42), but it is quite beside the mark to suggest, as Bernard does, that the account here is John’ s version of the Gethsemane experience. Why do some critics feel called upon to level down to a dead plane every variety of experience in Christ’ s life?

Robertson: Joh 12:27 - And what shall I say? And what shall I say? ( kai ti eipō ). Deliberative subjunctive which expresses vividly "a genuine, if momentary indecision"(Bernard). The request ...

And what shall I say? ( kai ti eipō ).

Deliberative subjunctive which expresses vividly "a genuine, if momentary indecision"(Bernard). The request of the Greeks called up graphically to Jesus the nearness of the Cross.

Robertson: Joh 12:27 - Father, save me from this hour Father, save me from this hour ( pater ,sōson me ek tēs hōras tautēs ). Jesus began his prayers with "Father"(Joh 11:41). Dods thinks that t...

Father, save me from this hour ( pater ,sōson me ek tēs hōras tautēs ).

Jesus began his prayers with "Father"(Joh 11:41). Dods thinks that this should be a question also. Westcott draws a distinction between ek (out of) and apo (from) to show that Jesus does not pray to draw back from the hour, but only to come safely out of it all and so interprets ek in Heb 5:7, but that distinction will not stand, for in Joh 1:44 ek and apo are used in the same sense and in the Synoptics (Mar 14:35.; Mat 26:39; Luk 22:42) we have apo . If it holds here, we lose the point there. Here as in Gethsemane the soul of Jesus instinctively and naturally shrinks from the Cross, but he instantly surrenders to the will of God in both experiences.

Robertson: Joh 12:27 - But for this cause came I unto this hour But for this cause came I unto this hour ( alla dia touto ēlthon eis tēn hōran tautēn ). It was only a moment of human weakness as in Gethsem...

But for this cause came I unto this hour ( alla dia touto ēlthon eis tēn hōran tautēn ).

It was only a moment of human weakness as in Gethsemane that quickly passed. Thus understood the language has its natural meaning.

Robertson: Joh 12:28 - Father, glorify thy name Father, glorify thy name ( pater ,doxason sou to onoma ). First aorist (note of urgency) active imperative of doxazō and in the sense of his dea...

Father, glorify thy name ( pater ,doxason sou to onoma ).

First aorist (note of urgency) active imperative of doxazō and in the sense of his death already in Joh 12:16, Joh 12:23 and again in Joh 13:31; Joh 17:5. This is the prayer of the pneuma (or psuchē ) as opposed to that of the sarx (flesh) in Joh 12:27. The "name"(onoma ) of God expresses the character of God (Joh 1:12; Joh 5:43; Joh 17:11). Cf. Mat 6:9.

Robertson: Joh 12:28 - A voice out of heaven A voice out of heaven ( phōnē ek tou ouranou ). This was the Father’ s answer to the prayer of Jesus for help. See note on the Father’ ...

A voice out of heaven ( phōnē ek tou ouranou ).

This was the Father’ s answer to the prayer of Jesus for help. See note on the Father’ s voice at the baptism of Jesus (Mar 1:11) and on the Father’ s voice at the transfiguration (Mar 9:7). The rabbis called the audible voice of God bath -qol (the daughter of a voice).

Robertson: Joh 12:28 - I have both glorified it and will glorify it again I have both glorified it and will glorify it again ( kai edoxasa kai palin doxasō ). This definite assurance from the Father will nerve the soul of...

I have both glorified it and will glorify it again ( kai edoxasa kai palin doxasō ).

This definite assurance from the Father will nerve the soul of Jesus for the coming ordeal. Cf. Joh 11:40 for edoxasa and Joh 13:31; Joh 17:5 for doxasō .

Robertson: Joh 12:29 - That it had thundered That it had thundered ( brontēn gegonenai ). Perfect active infinitive of ginomai in indirect discourse after elegen and the accusative of gene...

That it had thundered ( brontēn gegonenai ).

Perfect active infinitive of ginomai in indirect discourse after elegen and the accusative of general reference (brontēn , thunder, as in Mar 3:17), "that thunder came to pass."So the crowd "standing by"(hestōs , second perfect active participle of histēmi ), but Jesus understood his Father’ s voice.

Robertson: Joh 12:29 - An angel hath spoken to him An angel hath spoken to him ( Aggelos autōi lelalēken ). Perfect active indicative of laleō . So, when Jesus spoke to Saul on the way to Damasc...

An angel hath spoken to him ( Aggelos autōi lelalēken ).

Perfect active indicative of laleō . So, when Jesus spoke to Saul on the way to Damascus, those with Saul heard the voice, but did not understand (Act 9:7; Act 22:9).

Robertson: Joh 12:30 - Not for my sake, but for your sakes Not for my sake, but for your sakes ( ou di' eme ,alla di' humas ). These words seem to contradict Joh 12:28, Joh 12:29. Bernard suggests an interpo...

Not for my sake, but for your sakes ( ou di' eme ,alla di' humas ).

These words seem to contradict Joh 12:28, Joh 12:29. Bernard suggests an interpolation into the words of Jesus. But why not take it to be the figure of exaggerated contrast, "not merely for my sake, but also for yours"?

Robertson: Joh 12:31 - The judgment The judgment ( krisis ). No article, "A judgment."The next few days will test this world.

The judgment ( krisis ).

No article, "A judgment."The next few days will test this world.

Robertson: Joh 12:31 - The prince of this world The prince of this world ( ho archōn tou kosmou toutou ). This phrase here, descriptive of Satan as in possession of the evil world, occurs again i...

The prince of this world ( ho archōn tou kosmou toutou ).

This phrase here, descriptive of Satan as in possession of the evil world, occurs again in Joh 14:30; Joh 16:11. In the temptations Satan claims power over the world and offers to share it with Jesus (Mat 4:8-10; Luk 4:5-8). Jesus did not deny Satan’ s power then, but here proclaims final victory over him.

Robertson: Joh 12:31 - Shall be cast out Shall be cast out ( ekblēthēsetai exō ). Future passive of ekballō . Note exō , clean out. The Book of Revelation also proclaims final vict...

Shall be cast out ( ekblēthēsetai exō ).

Future passive of ekballō . Note exō , clean out. The Book of Revelation also proclaims final victory over Satan.

Robertson: Joh 12:32 - And I, if I be lifted from the earth And I, if I be lifted from the earth ( kagō an hupsōthō ek tēs gēs ). Note proleptic position of egō (I). Condition of third class (und...

And I, if I be lifted from the earth ( kagō an hupsōthō ek tēs gēs ).

Note proleptic position of egō (I). Condition of third class (undetermined with prospect) with an (= ean here) with first aorist passive subjunctive of hupsoō , the verb used in Joh 3:14 of the brazen serpent and of the Cross of Christ as here and also in Joh 8:28. Westcott again presses ek instead of apo to make it refer to the ascension rather than to the Cross, a wrong interpretation surely.

Robertson: Joh 12:32 - Will draw all men unto myself Will draw all men unto myself ( pantas helkusō pros emauton ). Future active of helkuō , late form of helkō , to draw, to attract. Jesus had al...

Will draw all men unto myself ( pantas helkusō pros emauton ).

Future active of helkuō , late form of helkō , to draw, to attract. Jesus had already used this verb of the Father’ s drawing power (Joh 6:44). The magnetism of the Cross is now known of all men, however little they understand the mystery of the Cross. By "all men"(pantas ) Jesus does not mean every individual man, for some, as Simeon said (Luk 2:34) are repelled by Christ, but this is the way that Greeks (Joh 12:22) can and will come to Christ, by the way of the Cross, the only way to the Father (Joh 14:6).

Robertson: Joh 12:33 - Signifying Signifying ( sēmainōn ). Present active participle of semainō , old verb to give a sign (sēmeion ) as in Act 25:27, and the whole phrase rep...

Signifying ( sēmainōn ).

Present active participle of semainō , old verb to give a sign (sēmeion ) as in Act 25:27, and the whole phrase repeated in Joh 18:32 and nearly so in Joh 21:19. The indirect question here and in Joh 18:32 has the imperfect emellen with present infinitive rather than the usual present mellei retained while in Joh 21:19 the future indicative doxasei occurs according to rule. The point in poiōi (qualitative relative in the instrumental case with thanatōi ) is the Cross (lifted up) as the kind of death before Christ.

Robertson: Joh 12:34 - Out of the law Out of the law ( ek tou nomou ). That is, "out of the Scriptures"(Joh 10:34; Joh 15:25).

Out of the law ( ek tou nomou ).

That is, "out of the Scriptures"(Joh 10:34; Joh 15:25).

Robertson: Joh 12:34 - The Christ abideth forever The Christ abideth forever ( ho Christos menei eis ton aiōna ). Timeless present active indicative of menō , to abide, remain. Perhaps from Psa 8...

The Christ abideth forever ( ho Christos menei eis ton aiōna ).

Timeless present active indicative of menō , to abide, remain. Perhaps from Psa 89:4; Psa 110:4; Isa 9:7; Eze 37:25; Dan 7:14.

Robertson: Joh 12:34 - How sayest thou? How sayest thou? ( pōs legeis su ). In opposition to the law (Scripture).

How sayest thou? ( pōs legeis su ).

In opposition to the law (Scripture).

Robertson: Joh 12:34 - The Son of man The Son of man ( ton huion tou anthrōpou ). Accusative case of general reference with the infinitive hupsōthēnai (first aorist passive of hup...

The Son of man ( ton huion tou anthrōpou ).

Accusative case of general reference with the infinitive hupsōthēnai (first aorist passive of hupsoō and taken in the sense of death by the cross as Jesus used it in Joh 12:32). Clearly the crowd understand Jesus to be "the Son of man"and take the phrase to be equivalent to "the Christ."This is the obvious way to understand the two terms in their reply, and not, as Bernard suggests, that they saw no connexion between "the Christ"(the Messiah) and "the Son of man."The use of "this"(houtos ) in the question that follows is in contrast to Joh 12:32. The Messiah (the Son of man) abides forever and is not to be crucified as you say he "must"(dei ) be.

Robertson: Joh 12:35 - Yet a little while is the light among you Yet a little while is the light among you ( eti mikron chronon to phōs en humin estin ). Chronon is the accusative of extent of time. Jesus does ...

Yet a little while is the light among you ( eti mikron chronon to phōs en humin estin ).

Chronon is the accusative of extent of time. Jesus does not argue the point of theology with the crowd who would not understand. He turns to the metaphor used before when he claimed to be the light of the world (Joh 8:12) and urges that they take advantage of their privilege "while ye have the light"(hōs to phōs echete ).

Robertson: Joh 12:35 - That darkness overtake you not That darkness overtake you not ( hina mē skotia humas katalabēi ). Purpose (negative) with hina mē and second aorist active subjunctive of ka...

That darkness overtake you not ( hina mē skotia humas katalabēi ).

Purpose (negative) with hina mē and second aorist active subjunctive of katalambanō . See this verb in Joh 1:5. In 1Th 5:4 this verb occurs with hēmera (day) overtaking one like a thief.

Robertson: Joh 12:35 - Knoweth not whither he goeth Knoweth not whither he goeth ( ouk oiden pou hupagei ). See Joh 11:10 for this idea and the same language in 1Jo 2:11. The ancients did not have our ...

Knoweth not whither he goeth ( ouk oiden pou hupagei ).

See Joh 11:10 for this idea and the same language in 1Jo 2:11. The ancients did not have our electric street lights. The dark streets were a terror to travellers.

Robertson: Joh 12:36 - Believe in the light Believe in the light ( pisteuete eis to phōs ). That is, "believe in me as the Messiah"(Joh 8:12; Joh 9:5).

Believe in the light ( pisteuete eis to phōs ).

That is, "believe in me as the Messiah"(Joh 8:12; Joh 9:5).

Robertson: Joh 12:36 - That ye may become sons of light That ye may become sons of light ( hina huioi phōtos genēsthe ). Purpose clause with hina and second aorist subject of ginomai , to become. The...

That ye may become sons of light ( hina huioi phōtos genēsthe ).

Purpose clause with hina and second aorist subject of ginomai , to become. They were not "sons of light,"a Hebrew idiom (cf. Joh 17:12; Luk 16:8 with the contrast), an idiom used by Paul in 1Th 5:5; Eph 5:8. It is equivalent to "enlightened men"(Bernard) and Jesus called his disciples the light of the world (Mat 5:14).

Robertson: Joh 12:36 - Hid himself from them Hid himself from them ( ekrubē ap' autōn ). Second aorist passive indicative of kruptō , late form (in lxx) for old ekruphē , "was hidden fro...

Hid himself from them ( ekrubē ap' autōn ).

Second aorist passive indicative of kruptō , late form (in lxx) for old ekruphē , "was hidden from them,"as in Joh 8:59. This part of Joh 12:36 begins a new paragraph.

Robertson: Joh 12:37 - Though he had done so many signs before them Though he had done so many signs before them ( tosauta autou sēmeia pepoiēkotos emprosthen autōn ). Genitive absolute with perfect active parti...

Though he had done so many signs before them ( tosauta autou sēmeia pepoiēkotos emprosthen autōn ).

Genitive absolute with perfect active participle in concessive sense of poieō .

Robertson: Joh 12:37 - Yet they believed not on him Yet they believed not on him ( ouk episteuon eis auton ). No "yet"in the Greek. Negative imperfect active of pisteuō , "they kept on not believing ...

Yet they believed not on him ( ouk episteuon eis auton ).

No "yet"in the Greek. Negative imperfect active of pisteuō , "they kept on not believing on him,"stubborn refusal in face of the light (Joh 12:35).

Robertson: Joh 12:38 - That might be fulfilled That might be fulfilled ( hina plērōthēi ). It is usually assumed that hina here with the first aorist passive subjunctive of plēroō ha...

That might be fulfilled ( hina plērōthēi ).

It is usually assumed that hina here with the first aorist passive subjunctive of plēroō has its full telic force. That is probable as God’ s design, but it is by no means certain since hina is used in the N.T. with the idea of result, just as ut in Latin is either purpose or result, as in Joh 6:7; Joh 9:2; 1Th 5:4; Gal 5:17; Rom 11:11 (Robertson, Grammar , p. 998). Paul in Rom 10:16 quotes Isa 53:1 as John does here but without hina . See note on Rom 10:16 for discussion of the quotation. The next verse adds strength to the idea of design.

Robertson: Joh 12:39 - For this cause they could not believe For this cause they could not believe ( dia touto ouk edunanto pisteuein ). Touto (this) seems to have a double reference (to what precedes and to ...

For this cause they could not believe ( dia touto ouk edunanto pisteuein ).

Touto (this) seems to have a double reference (to what precedes and to what follows) as in Joh 8:47. The negative imperfect (double augment, edunanto ) of dunamai . John is not absolving these Jews from moral responsibility, but only showing that the words of Isaiah "had to be fulfilled, for they were the expression of Divine foreknowledge"(Bernard).

Robertson: Joh 12:40 - He hath blinded He hath blinded ( tetuphlōken ). Perfect active indicative of tuphloō , old causative verb to make blind (from tuphlos , blind), in N.T. only her...

He hath blinded ( tetuphlōken ).

Perfect active indicative of tuphloō , old causative verb to make blind (from tuphlos , blind), in N.T. only here, 2Co 4:4; 1Jo 2:11.

Robertson: Joh 12:40 - He hardened He hardened ( epōrōsen ). First aorist active indicative of pōroō , a late causative verb (from pōros , hard skin), seen already in Mar 6:5...

He hardened ( epōrōsen ).

First aorist active indicative of pōroō , a late causative verb (from pōros , hard skin), seen already in Mar 6:52, etc. This quotation is from Isa 6:10 and differs from the lxx.

Robertson: Joh 12:40 - Lest they should see Lest they should see ( hina mē idōsin ). Negative purpose clause with hina mē instead of mēpote (never used by John) of the lxx. Matthew ...

Lest they should see ( hina mē idōsin ).

Negative purpose clause with hina mē instead of mēpote (never used by John) of the lxx. Matthew (Mat 13:15) has mēpote and quotes Jesus as using the passage as do Mark (Mar 4:12) and Luke (Luk 8:10). Paul quotes it again (Act 28:26) to the Jews in Rome. In each instance the words of Isaiah are interpreted as forecasting the doom of the Jews for rejecting the Messiah. Matthew (Mat 13:15) has sunōsin where John has noēsōsin (perceive), and both change from the subjunctive to the future (kai iasomai ), "And I should heal them."John has here straphōsin (second aorist passive subjunctive of strephō ) while Matthew reads epistrepsōsin (first aorist active of epistrephō ).

Robertson: Joh 12:41 - Because he saw his glory Because he saw his glory ( hoti eiden tēn doxan autou ). Correct reading here hoti (because), not hote (when). Isaiah with spiritual vision saw...

Because he saw his glory ( hoti eiden tēn doxan autou ).

Correct reading here hoti (because), not hote (when). Isaiah with spiritual vision saw the glory of the Messiah and spoke (elalēsen ) of him, John says, whatever modern critics may think or say. So Jesus said that Abraham saw his day (Joh 8:56). Cf. Heb 11:13.

Robertson: Joh 12:42 - Nevertheless even Nevertheless even ( homōs mentoi kai ). For the old homōs see 1Co 14:7; Gal 3:15 (only other examples in N.T.), here only with mentoi , "but ye...

Nevertheless even ( homōs mentoi kai ).

For the old homōs see 1Co 14:7; Gal 3:15 (only other examples in N.T.), here only with mentoi , "but yet,"and kai , "even."In spite of what has just been said "many (polloi ) even of the rulers"(recall the lonely shyness of Nicodemus in Joh 3:1.). These actually "believed on him"(episteusan eis auton ) in their convictions, a remarkable statement as to the effect that Christ had in Jerusalem as the Sanhedrin plotted his death. Cf. Nicodemus and Joseph of Arimathea.

Robertson: Joh 12:42 - But because of the Pharisees But because of the Pharisees ( alla dia tous Pharisaious ). Like the whispered talk in Joh 7:13 "because of the fear of the Jews."Once the Pharisees ...

But because of the Pharisees ( alla dia tous Pharisaious ).

Like the whispered talk in Joh 7:13 "because of the fear of the Jews."Once the Pharisees sneeringly asked the officers (Joh 7:48): "Hath any one of the rulers believed on him?"And now "many of the rulers have believed on him."

Robertson: Joh 12:42 - They did not confess They did not confess ( ouch hōmologoun ). Negative imperfect in contrast to the punctiliar aorist episteusan . "They kept on not confessing."How li...

They did not confess ( ouch hōmologoun ).

Negative imperfect in contrast to the punctiliar aorist episteusan . "They kept on not confessing."How like the cowardly excuses made today by those under conviction who refuse to step out for Christ.

Robertson: Joh 12:42 - Lest they should be put out of the synagogue Lest they should be put out of the synagogue ( hina mē aposunagōgoi genōntai ). Cf. Joh 9:22 where this very word occurs in a purpose clause li...

Lest they should be put out of the synagogue ( hina mē aposunagōgoi genōntai ).

Cf. Joh 9:22 where this very word occurs in a purpose clause like this. Only once more in the N.T. (Joh 16:2), a Jewish word not in profane authors. This ostracism from the synagogue was dreaded by the Jews and made cowards of these "believing elders."

Robertson: Joh 12:42 - More than More than ( mallon ēper ). They preferred the glory and praise of men more than the glory and praise of God. How apropos these words are to some ...

More than ( mallon ēper ).

They preferred the glory and praise of men more than the glory and praise of God. How apropos these words are to some suave cowards today.

Robertson: Joh 12:44 - Cried and said Cried and said ( ekraxen kai eipen ). First aorist active indicative of krazō , to cry aloud, and second aorist active of defective verb erō , to...

Cried and said ( ekraxen kai eipen ).

First aorist active indicative of krazō , to cry aloud, and second aorist active of defective verb erō , to say. This is probably a summary of what Jesus had already said as in Joh 12:36 John closes the public ministry of Jesus without the Synoptic account of the last day in the temple on our Tuesday (Mark 11:27-12:44; Matt 21:23-23:39; Luke 20:1-21:4).

Robertson: Joh 12:44 - Not on me, but on him Not on me, but on him ( ou eis eme ,alla eis ton ). "Not on me only, but also on,"another example of exaggerated contrast like that in Joh 12:30. Th...

Not on me, but on him ( ou eis eme ,alla eis ton ).

"Not on me only, but also on,"another example of exaggerated contrast like that in Joh 12:30. The idea of Jesus here is a frequent one (believing on Jesus whom the Father has sent) as in Joh 3:17.; Joh 5:23, Joh 5:30, Joh 5:43; Joh 7:16; Joh 8:42; Joh 13:20; Joh 14:1; Mat 10:40; Luk 9:48.

Robertson: Joh 12:46 - I am come a light I am come a light ( Egō phōs elēlutha ). As in Joh 3:19; Joh 9:5; Joh 8:12; Joh 12:35. Final clause (negative) also here (hina mē meinēi , ...

I am come a light ( Egō phōs elēlutha ).

As in Joh 3:19; Joh 9:5; Joh 8:12; Joh 12:35. Final clause (negative) also here (hina mē meinēi , first aorist active subjunctive) as in Joh 12:35. Light dispels darkness.

Robertson: Joh 12:47 - If any one If any one ( ean tis ). Third-class condition with ean and first aorist active subjunctive (akousēi ) of akouō and same form (phulaxēi ) ...

If any one ( ean tis ).

Third-class condition with ean and first aorist active subjunctive (akousēi ) of akouō and same form (phulaxēi ) of phulassō with negative mē .

Robertson: Joh 12:47 - But to save the world But to save the world ( all' hina sōsō ton kosmon ). Purpose clause again (cf. hina krinō , just before) with hina and first aorist active of...

But to save the world ( all' hina sōsō ton kosmon ).

Purpose clause again (cf. hina krinō , just before) with hina and first aorist active of sōzō . Exaggerated contrast again, "not so much to judge, but also to save."See Joh 3:17 for same contrast. And yet Jesus does judge the world inevitably (Joh 8:15.; Joh 9:39), but his primary purpose is to save the world (Joh 3:16). See close of the Sermon on the Mount for the same insistence on hearing and keeping (obeying) the words of Jesus (Mat 7:24, Mat 7:26) and also Luk 11:28.

Robertson: Joh 12:48 - Rejecteth Rejecteth ( athetōn ). Present active participle of atheteō , late Koiné verb (from athetos , a privative, and tithēmi ), to render null ...

Rejecteth ( athetōn ).

Present active participle of atheteō , late Koiné verb (from athetos , a privative, and tithēmi ), to render null and void, only here in John, but see Mar 6:26; Mar 7:9.

Robertson: Joh 12:48 - One that judgeth him One that judgeth him ( ton krinonta auton ). Articular present active participle of krinō . See same idea in Joh 8:50; Joh 12:47.

One that judgeth him ( ton krinonta auton ).

Articular present active participle of krinō . See same idea in Joh 8:50; Joh 12:47.

Robertson: Joh 12:48 - The same The same ( ekeinos ). "That"very word of Christ which one rejects will confront him and accuse him to the Father "at the last day"(en tēi eschatē...

The same ( ekeinos ).

"That"very word of Christ which one rejects will confront him and accuse him to the Father "at the last day"(en tēi eschatēi hēmerai , this phrase peculiar to John). There is no escaping it. And yet Jesus himself will bear witness for or against the one whose conduct has already revealed his attitude towards the message of God (Mat 10:32; Luk 12:8.).

Robertson: Joh 12:49 - He hath given He hath given ( dedōken ). Perfect active indicative. Christ has permanent commission.

He hath given ( dedōken ).

Perfect active indicative. Christ has permanent commission.

Robertson: Joh 12:49 - What I should say and what I should speak What I should say and what I should speak ( ti eipō kai ti lalēsō ). Indirect question retaining the deliberative subjunctive (second aorist ac...

What I should say and what I should speak ( ti eipō kai ti lalēsō ).

Indirect question retaining the deliberative subjunctive (second aorist active eipō , first aorist active lalēsō ). Meyer and Westcott take eipō to refer to the content and lalēsō more to the varying manner of delivery. Possibly so.

Robertson: Joh 12:50 - Life eternal Life eternal ( zōē aiōnios ). See Joh 3:15; Mat 25:46 for this great phrase. In Joh 6:68 Peter says to Jesus, "Thou hast the words of eternal l...

Life eternal ( zōē aiōnios ).

See Joh 3:15; Mat 25:46 for this great phrase. In Joh 6:68 Peter says to Jesus, "Thou hast the words of eternal life."Jesus had just said (Joh 6:63) that his words were spirit and life. The secret lies in the source, "as the Father hath said to me"(eirēken ).

Vincent: Joh 12:1 - Which had been dead Which had been dead (Omit.)

Which had been dead

(Omit.)

Vincent: Joh 12:1 - He raised He raised For He , read Jesus .

He raised

For He , read Jesus .

Vincent: Joh 12:3 - A pound A pound ( λίτραν ) Only here and Joh 19:39. Matthew and Mark, ἀλάβαστρον , a flask .

A pound ( λίτραν )

Only here and Joh 19:39. Matthew and Mark, ἀλάβαστρον , a flask .

Vincent: Joh 12:3 - Of spikenard Of spikenard ( νάρδου πιστικῆς ) So Mark. See on Mar 14:3.

Of spikenard ( νάρδου πιστικῆς )

So Mark. See on Mar 14:3.

Vincent: Joh 12:3 - Very precious Very precious ( πολυτίμου ) Literally, of much value. Matthew has βαρυτίμου , of weighty value .

Very precious ( πολυτίμου )

Literally, of much value. Matthew has βαρυτίμου , of weighty value .

Vincent: Joh 12:3 - Anointed Anointed See on Joh 11:2.

Anointed

See on Joh 11:2.

Vincent: Joh 12:3 - Feet Feet The Synoptists mention only the pouring on the head.

Feet

The Synoptists mention only the pouring on the head.

Vincent: Joh 12:4 - Simon's son Simon's son Omit.

Simon's son

Omit.

Vincent: Joh 12:5 - Three hundred pence Three hundred pence ( τριακοσίων δηναρίων ) Or three hundred denarii . On the denarius, see on Mat 20:2. Mark says more ...

Three hundred pence ( τριακοσίων δηναρίων )

Or three hundred denarii . On the denarius, see on Mat 20:2. Mark says more than three hundred pence. Three hundred denarii would be about fifty dollars, or twice that amount if we reckon according to the purchasing power.

Vincent: Joh 12:5 - The poor The poor ( πτωχοῖς ) See on Mat 5:3. No article: to poor people .

The poor ( πτωχοῖς )

See on Mat 5:3. No article: to poor people .

Vincent: Joh 12:6 - And had the bag, and bare what was put therein And had the bag, and bare what was put therein ( καὶ τὸ γλωσσόκομον εἶχε, καὶ τὰ βαλλόμενα ἐβα...

And had the bag, and bare what was put therein ( καὶ τὸ γλωσσόκομον εἶχε, καὶ τὰ βαλλόμενα ἐβάσταζεν )

The best texts read ἔχων , having , and omit the second καὶ and . The rendering would then be, and having the bag bare , etc.

Vincent: Joh 12:6 - The bag The bag ( γλωσσόκομον ) Only here and Joh 13:29. Originally a box for keeping the mouth-pieces of wind instruments. From γλῶσ...

The bag ( γλωσσόκομον )

Only here and Joh 13:29. Originally a box for keeping the mouth-pieces of wind instruments. From γλῶσσα , tongue , and κομέω , to tend . The word was also used for a coffin . Josephus applies it to the coffer in which the golden mice and emerods were preserved (1Sa 6:11). In the Septuagint, of the chest which Joash had provided for receiving contributions for the repairing of the Lord's house (2Ch 24:8). Rev. gives box , in margin.

Vincent: Joh 12:6 - Bare Bare ( ἐβάσταζεν ) Carried away or purloined . This meaning is rather imparted by the context than residing in the verb itself,...

Bare ( ἐβάσταζεν )

Carried away or purloined . This meaning is rather imparted by the context than residing in the verb itself, i . e ., according to New Testament usage (see on Joh 10:21). Unquestionably it has this meaning in later Greek, frequently in Josephus. Render, therefore, as Rev., took away . The rendering of the A.V. is tautological.

Vincent: Joh 12:7 - Let her alone: against the day of my burying hath she kept this Let her alone: against the day of my burying hath she kept this ( ἄφες αὐτήν εἰς τὴν ἡμέραν τοῦ ἐντα...

Let her alone: against the day of my burying hath she kept this ( ἄφες αὐτήν εἰς τὴν ἡμέραν τοῦ ἐνταφιασμοῦ )

This passage presents great difficulty. According to the reading just given, the meaning is that Mary had kept the ointment, perhaps out of the store provided for Lazarus' burial, against the day of Christ's preparation for the tomb. The word ἐνταφιασμοῦ is wrongly rendered burial . It means the preparation for burial, the laying out , or embalmment . It is explained by Joh 19:40, as the binding in linen cloths with spices, " as the manner of the Jews is ἐνταφιάζειν to prepare for burial ," not to bury . It is the Latin pollingere , to wash and prepare a corpse for the funeral pile . Hence the name of the servant to whom this duty was committed was pollinctor . He was a slave of the libitinarius , or furnishing undertaker. Mary, then, has kept the ointment in order to embalm Jesus with it on this day, as though He were already dead. This is the sense of the Synoptists. Matthew (Mat 26:12) says, she did it with reference to my preparation for burial . Mark, she anticipated to anoint .

The reading of the Received Text is, however, disputed. The best textual critics agree that the perfect, τετήρηκεν , she hath kept , was substituted for the original reading τηρήσῃ , the aorist, she may keep , or may have kept , by some one who was trying to bring the text into harmony with Mar 14:8; not understanding how she could keep for His burial that which she poured out now. Some, however, urge the exact contrary, namely, that the perfect is the original reading, and that the aorist is a correction by critics who were occupied with the notion that no man is embalmed before his death, or who failed to see how the ointment could have been kept already, as it might naturally be supposed to have been just purchased. (So Godet and Field.)

According to the corrected reading, ἵνα , in order that , is inserted after ἄφες αὐτὴν , let her alone , or suffer her; τετήρηκεν , hath kept , is changed to τηρήσῃ , may keep , and the whole is rendered, suffer her to keep it against the day of my burying . So Rev.

But it is difficult to see why Christ should desire to have kept for His embalmment what had already been poured out upon Him. Some, as Meyer, assume that only a part of the ointment was poured out, and refer αὐτό , it , to the part remaining. " Let her alone, that she may not give away to the poor this ointment, of which she has just used a portion for the anointing of my feet, but preserve it for the day of my embalmming ." Canon Westcott inclines to this view of the use of only a part. But the inference from the synoptic narratives can be only that the whole contents of the flask were used, and the mention of the pound by John, and the charge of waste are to the same effect. There is nothing whatever to warrant a contrary supposition.

Others explain, suffer her to have kept it , or suffer that she may have kept it . So Westcott, who says: " The idiom by which a speaker throws himself into the past, and regards what is done as still a purpose, is common to all languages."

Others, again, retain the meaning let her alone , and render ἵνα , in order that , with an ellipsis, thus: " Let her alone: (she hath not sold her treasure) in order that she might keep it," etc.

The old rendering, as A.V., is the simplest, and gives a perfectly intelligible and consistent sense. If, however, this must be rejected, it seems, on the whole, best to adopt the marginal reading of the Rev., with the elliptical ἵνα : let her alone: it was that she might keep it . This preserves the prohibitory force of ἄφες αὐτήν , which is implied in Mat 26:10, and is unquestionable in Mar 14:6. Compare Mat 15:14; Mat 19:14; Mat 27:49.

Note that the promise of the future repute of this act (Mat 26:13; Mar 14:9) is omitted by the only Evangelist who records Mary's name in connection with it.

Vincent: Joh 12:9 - Much people Much people ( ὄχλος πολὺς ) The best texts insert the article, which converts the expression into the current phrase, the comm...

Much people ( ὄχλος πολὺς )

The best texts insert the article, which converts the expression into the current phrase, the common people . So Rev.

Vincent: Joh 12:9 - Knew Knew ( ἔγνω ) Rev., more correctly, learned . They came to know .

Knew ( ἔγνω )

Rev., more correctly, learned . They came to know .

Vincent: Joh 12:10 - The chief priests The chief priests See on Joh 12:47.

The chief priests

See on Joh 12:47.

Vincent: Joh 12:11 - Went away Went away ( ὑπῆγον ) Withdrew from their company.

Went away ( ὑπῆγον )

Withdrew from their company.

Vincent: Joh 12:12 - A great multitude A great multitude ( ὄχλος πολὺς ) Some editors add the article and render, the common people .

A great multitude ( ὄχλος πολὺς )

Some editors add the article and render, the common people .

Vincent: Joh 12:13 - Branches of palms Branches of palms ( τὰ βαΐ́α τῶν φοινίκων ) The A.V. overlooks both the articles, the branches of the palms. βαι...

Branches of palms ( τὰ βαΐ́α τῶν φοινίκων )

The A.V. overlooks both the articles, the branches of the palms. βαΐ́α occurs only here in the New Testament, and means palm branches , or, strictly, tops of the palms where the fruit is produced. Of the palms may have been added by John for readers unacquainted with the technical term, but the expression palm branches of the palms , is similar to housemaster of the house (οἰκοδεσπότης τῆς οἰκίας , Luk 22:11). The articles are commonly explained as marking the trees which were by the wayside on the route of the procession. Some think that they point to the well-known palm branches connected with the Feast of Tabernacles. On the different terms employed by the Evangelists for " branches," see on Mar 11:8.

Vincent: Joh 12:13 - To meet To meet ( εἰς ὑπάντησιν ) Very literally, to a going to meet .

To meet ( εἰς ὑπάντησιν )

Very literally, to a going to meet .

Vincent: Joh 12:13 - Cried Cried ( ἔκραζον ) Imperfect, kept crying as he advanced.

Cried ( ἔκραζον )

Imperfect, kept crying as he advanced.

Vincent: Joh 12:13 - Hosanna Hosanna Meaning O save!

Hosanna

Meaning O save!

Vincent: Joh 12:13 - Blessed Blessed ( εὐλογημένος ) A different word from the blessed of Mat 5:3 (μακάριος ). This is the perfect participle of th...

Blessed ( εὐλογημένος )

A different word from the blessed of Mat 5:3 (μακάριος ). This is the perfect participle of the verb εὐλογέω , to speak well of , praise , hence our eulogy . Matthew's word applies to character; this to repute . The ascription of praise here is from Psa 118:25, Psa 118:26. This Psalm, according to Perowne, was composed originally for the first celebration of the Feast of Tabernacles after the completion of the sacred temple. The words of the twenty-fifth verse were sung during that feast, when the altar of burnt-offering was solemnly compassed; that is, once on each of the first six days of the feast, and seven times on the seventh day. This seventh day was called " the Great Hosanna," and not only the prayers for the feast, but even the branches of trees, including the myrtles which were attached to the palm branch, were called " Hosannas."

Vincent: Joh 12:13 - The King of Israel The King of Israel The best texts add καὶ , even the king, etc.

The King of Israel

The best texts add καὶ , even the king, etc.

Vincent: Joh 12:14 - A young ass A young ass ( ὀνάριον ) Only here in the New Testament. Matthew mentions an ass and a colt; Mark and Luke a colt only.

A young ass ( ὀνάριον )

Only here in the New Testament. Matthew mentions an ass and a colt; Mark and Luke a colt only.

Vincent: Joh 12:18 - Met Met ( ὑπήντησεν ) The verb means to go to meet . Hence Rev., went and met .

Met ( ὑπήντησεν )

The verb means to go to meet . Hence Rev., went and met .

Vincent: Joh 12:19 - Is gone after Him Is gone after Him ( ὀπίσω αὐτοῦ ἀπῆλθεν ) The phrase occurs only here. Literally, is gone away .

Is gone after Him ( ὀπίσω αὐτοῦ ἀπῆλθεν )

The phrase occurs only here. Literally, is gone away .

Vincent: Joh 12:20 - Greeks Greeks ( Ἕλληνες ) Gentiles, not Hellenists. See on Act 6:1. Jesus comes into contact with the Gentile world at His birth (the Magi) a...

Greeks ( Ἕλληνες )

Gentiles, not Hellenists. See on Act 6:1. Jesus comes into contact with the Gentile world at His birth (the Magi) and at the close of His ministry.

Vincent: Joh 12:22 - Philip - Andrew Philip - Andrew They appear together in Joh 1:45; Joh 6:7, Joh 6:8. Compare Mar 3:18.

Philip - Andrew

They appear together in Joh 1:45; Joh 6:7, Joh 6:8. Compare Mar 3:18.

Vincent: Joh 12:23 - Answered Answered ( ἀπεκρίνατο ) The best texts read ἀποκρίνεται , answereth .

Answered ( ἀπεκρίνατο )

The best texts read ἀποκρίνεται , answereth .

Vincent: Joh 12:23 - The hour is come, that The hour is come, that ( ἐλήλυθεν ἡ ὥρα ἵνα ) This is not equivalent to " the hour is come in which ." The ho...

The hour is come, that ( ἐλήλυθεν ἡ ὥρα ἵνα )

This is not equivalent to " the hour is come in which ." The hour is used absolutely: the critical hour is come in order that the Son, etc.

Vincent: Joh 12:24 - Verily, verily Verily, verily See on Joh 1:51; see on Joh 10:1.

Verily, verily

See on Joh 1:51; see on Joh 10:1.

Vincent: Joh 12:24 - A corn A corn ( ὁ κόκκος ) Properly, the corn or grain. The article should be inserted in the translation, because Jesus is citing the whea...

A corn ( ὁ κόκκος )

Properly, the corn or grain. The article should be inserted in the translation, because Jesus is citing the wheat-grain as a familiar type of that which contains in itself the germ of life. So wheat has the article: the corn of the wheat. The selection of the corn of wheat as an illustration acquires a peculiar interest from the fact of its being addressed to Greeks, familiar with the Eleusinian mysteries celebrated in their own country. These mysteries were based on the legend of Dionysus (Bacchus). According to the legend his original name was Zagreus. He was the son of Zeus (Jupiter) by his own daughter Persephone (Proserpina), and was destined to succeed to supreme dominion and to the wielding of the thunderbolt. The jealousy of Here (Juno), the wife of Zeus, incited the Titans against him, who killed him while he was contemplating his face in a mirror, cut up his body, and boiled it in a caldron, leaving only the heart. Zeus, in his wrath, hurled the Titans to Tartarus, and Apollo collected the remains of Zagreus and buried them. The heart was given to Semele, and Zagreus was born again from her under the form of Dionysus. The mysteries represented the original birth from the serpent, the murder and dismemberment of the child, and the revenge inflicted by Zeus; and the symbols exhibited - the dice, ball, top, mirror, and apple - signified the toys with which the Titans allured the child into their power. Then followed the restoration to life; Demeter (Ceres) the goddess of agriculture, the mother of food, putting the limbs together, and giving her maternal breasts to the child. All this was preparatory to the great Eleusinia, in which the risen Dionysus in the freshness of his second life was conducted from Athens to Eleusis in joyful procession. An ear of corn, plucked in solemn silence, was exhibited to the initiated as the object of mystical contemplation, as the symbol of the god, prematurely killed, but, like the ear enclosing the seed-corn, bearing within himself the germ of a second life.

With this mingled the legend of Persephone, the daughter of Demeter, who was carried off by Pluto to the infernal world. The mother wandered over the earth seeking her daughter, and having found her, applied to Zeus, through whose intervention Persephone, while condemned to Hades for a part of the year, was allowed to remain upon earth during the other part. Thus the story became the symbol of vegetation, which shoots forth in spring, and the power of which withdraws into the earth at other seasons of the year. These features of the mysteries set forth, and with the same symbol as that employed by Christ here, the crude pagan conception of life rising out of death.

Vincent: Joh 12:24 - Alone Alone ( αὐτὸς μόνος ) Literally, itself alone . Rev., by itself alone .

Alone ( αὐτὸς μόνος )

Literally, itself alone . Rev., by itself alone .

Vincent: Joh 12:25 - Life Life ( ψυχὴν ) See on Mar 12:30; see on Luk 1:46.

Life ( ψυχὴν )

See on Mar 12:30; see on Luk 1:46.

Vincent: Joh 12:25 - Shall lose Shall lose ( ἄπολέσει ) The best texts read ἀπολλύει , loseth . See on Luk 9:25.

Shall lose ( ἄπολέσει )

The best texts read ἀπολλύει , loseth . See on Luk 9:25.

Vincent: Joh 12:25 - In this world In this world This earthly economy, regarded as alien and hostile to God. The words are added in order to explain the strong phrase, hateth hi...

In this world

This earthly economy, regarded as alien and hostile to God. The words are added in order to explain the strong phrase, hateth his life or soul .

Vincent: Joh 12:25 - Shall keep Shall keep ( φυλάξει ) See on 1Pe 1:4.

Shall keep ( φυλάξει )

See on 1Pe 1:4.

Vincent: Joh 12:26 - Serve Serve ( διακονῇ ) See on Mat 20:26; see on Mar 9:35; see on 1Pe 1:12.

Serve ( διακονῇ )

See on Mat 20:26; see on Mar 9:35; see on 1Pe 1:12.

Vincent: Joh 12:26 - Me Me ( ἐμοὶ ) Notice the emphatic recurrence of the pronoun in this verse.

Me ( ἐμοὶ )

Notice the emphatic recurrence of the pronoun in this verse.

Vincent: Joh 12:26 - My Father My Father Rev., rightly, the Father. " Very much of the exact force of St. John's record of the Lord's words appears to depend upon the differe...

My Father

Rev., rightly, the Father. " Very much of the exact force of St. John's record of the Lord's words appears to depend upon the different conceptions of the two forms under which the fatherhood of God is described. God is spoken of as ' the Father' and as ' my Father.' Generally it may be said that the former title expresses the original relation of God to being, and specially to humanity, in virtue of man's creation in the divine image; and the latter more particularly the relation of the Father to the Son incarnate, and so indirectly to man in virtue of the incarnation. The former suggests those thoughts which spring from the consideration of the absolute moral connection of man with God; the latter, those which spring from what is made known to us through revelation of the connection of the incarnate Son with God and with man. 'The Father' corresponds, under this aspect, with the group of ideas gathered up in the Lord's titles, 'the Son' 'the Son of man;' and 'my Father' with those which are gathered up in the title 'the Son of God,' 'the Christ'" (Westcott).

Vincent: Joh 12:27 - My soul My soul See reff. on Joh 12:25. The soul , ψυχή , is the seat of the human affections; the spirit (πνεῦμα ) of the religious ...

My soul

See reff. on Joh 12:25. The soul , ψυχή , is the seat of the human affections; the spirit (πνεῦμα ) of the religious affections.

Vincent: Joh 12:27 - Is troubled Is troubled ( τετάρακται ) The perfect tense; has been disturbed and remains troubled. The same verb as in Joh 11:33. Notice th...

Is troubled ( τετάρακται )

The perfect tense; has been disturbed and remains troubled. The same verb as in Joh 11:33. Notice that there it is said. He groaned in the spirit (τῷ πνεύματι ). His inward agitation did not arise from personal sorrow or sympathy, but from some shock to His moral and spiritual sense.

Vincent: Joh 12:27 - What shall I say? What shall I say? A natural expression out of the depths of our Lord's humanity. How shall I express my emotion? Some commentators connect this w...

What shall I say?

A natural expression out of the depths of our Lord's humanity. How shall I express my emotion? Some commentators connect this with the following clause, shall I say , Father , save me , etc. But this does not agree with the context, and represents a hesitation in the mind of Jesus which found no place there.

Vincent: Joh 12:27 - Save me Save me The shrinking from suffering belongs to the human personality of our Lord (compare Mat 26:39); but the prayer, save me from this ...

Save me

The shrinking from suffering belongs to the human personality of our Lord (compare Mat 26:39); but the prayer, save me from this hour , is not for deliverance from suffering, but for victory in the approaching trial. See Heb 5:7. The expression is very vivid. " Save me out of this hour."

Vincent: Joh 12:27 - For this cause For this cause Explained by glorify thy name . For this use, namely, that the Father's name might be glorified.

For this cause

Explained by glorify thy name . For this use, namely, that the Father's name might be glorified.

Vincent: Joh 12:28 - Glorify Glorify ( δόξασον ) (Wyc., clarify , as the Vulgate clarifca .)

Glorify ( δόξασον )

(Wyc., clarify , as the Vulgate clarifca .)

Vincent: Joh 12:28 - Name Name See on Mat 28:19.

Name

See on Mat 28:19.

Vincent: Joh 12:30 - For my sake For my sake Emphatic in the Greek order. It is not for my sake that this voice hath come.

For my sake

Emphatic in the Greek order. It is not for my sake that this voice hath come.

Vincent: Joh 12:31 - The prince of this world The prince of this world ( ὁ ἄρχων ροῦ κόσμου τούτου ) The phrase occurs only in the Gospel; here, Joh 14:30; Jo...

The prince of this world ( ὁ ἄρχων ροῦ κόσμου τούτου )

The phrase occurs only in the Gospel; here, Joh 14:30; Joh 16:11.

Vincent: Joh 12:31 - Shall be cast out Shall be cast out ( ἐκβληθήσεται ἔξω ) In every case but one where the word ἐκβάλλω occurs in John, it is used...

Shall be cast out ( ἐκβληθήσεται ἔξω )

In every case but one where the word ἐκβάλλω occurs in John, it is used of casting out from a holy place or society. See Joh 2:15; Joh 9:34, Joh 9:3; 3Jo 1:10; Rev 12:2. Compare Joh 10:4.

Vincent: Joh 12:32 - Be lifted up Be lifted up ( ὑψωθῶ ) See on Joh 3:14. The primary reference is to the cross, but there is included a reference to the resurrection and...

Be lifted up ( ὑψωθῶ )

See on Joh 3:14. The primary reference is to the cross, but there is included a reference to the resurrection and ascension. Bengel says: " In the very cross there was already something tending towards glory." Wyc., enhanced .

Vincent: Joh 12:32 - From the earth From the earth ( ἐκ τῆς γῆς ) Literally, out of the earth.

From the earth ( ἐκ τῆς γῆς )

Literally, out of the earth.

Vincent: Joh 12:32 - Will draw Will draw ( ἑλκύσω ) See on Joh 6:44.

Will draw ( ἑλκύσω )

See on Joh 6:44.

Vincent: Joh 12:32 - All men All men ( πάντας ) Some high authorities read πάντα , all things .

All men ( πάντας )

Some high authorities read πάντα , all things .

Vincent: Joh 12:32 - Unto Me Unto Me ( πρὸς ἐμαυτόν ) Rev., rightly, unto myself: in contrast with the prince of this world .

Unto Me ( πρὸς ἐμαυτόν )

Rev., rightly, unto myself: in contrast with the prince of this world .

Vincent: Joh 12:34 - The law The law See on Joh 10:34.

The law

See on Joh 10:34.

Vincent: Joh 12:35 - With you With you ( μεθ ' ὑμῶν ) The best texts read πάντα , among you .

With you ( μεθ ' ὑμῶν )

The best texts read πάντα , among you .

Vincent: Joh 12:35 - While ye have While ye have ( ἕως ) The best texts read ὡς , as: walk in conformity with the fact that you have the Light among you.

While ye have ( ἕως )

The best texts read ὡς , as: walk in conformity with the fact that you have the Light among you.

Vincent: Joh 12:35 - Lest darkness come upon you Lest darkness come upon you ( ἵνα μὴ σξοτία ὑμᾶς καταλάβῃ ) Rev., better, that darkness overtake yo...

Lest darkness come upon you ( ἵνα μὴ σξοτία ὑμᾶς καταλάβῃ )

Rev., better, that darkness overtake you not . On overtake see on taketh , Mar 9:18; and see on perceived , Act 4:13.

Vincent: Joh 12:40 - He hath blinded, etc He hath blinded, etc. These words of Isaiah are repeated five times in the New Testament as the description of the Jewish people in its latest st...

He hath blinded, etc.

These words of Isaiah are repeated five times in the New Testament as the description of the Jewish people in its latest stage of decay. Mat 13:13; Mar 4:12; Luk 8:10; Joh 12:40; Act 28:26.

Vincent: Joh 12:40 - Hardened Hardened ( πεπώρωκεν ) See on the kindred noun πώρωσις , hardness , Mar 3:5.

Hardened ( πεπώρωκεν )

See on the kindred noun πώρωσις , hardness , Mar 3:5.

Vincent: Joh 12:40 - Understand Understand ( νόησωσιν ) Rev., better, perceive . Mark has συνιῶσιν , understand . See on understanding , Luk 2:47.

Understand ( νόησωσιν )

Rev., better, perceive . Mark has συνιῶσιν , understand . See on understanding , Luk 2:47.

Vincent: Joh 12:40 - Be converted Be converted ( ἐπιστραφῶσιν ) See on Mat 13:15; see on Luk 22:32. Rev., more accurately, turn , with the idea of turning to or...

Be converted ( ἐπιστραφῶσιν )

See on Mat 13:15; see on Luk 22:32. Rev., more accurately, turn , with the idea of turning to or toward something (ἐπί ).

Vincent: Joh 12:41 - When When ( ὅτε ) The best texts read ὅτι , because .

When ( ὅτε )

The best texts read ὅτι , because .

Vincent: Joh 12:41 - His glory His glory In the vision in the temple, Isa 6:1, Isa 6:3, Isa 6:5.

His glory

In the vision in the temple, Isa 6:1, Isa 6:3, Isa 6:5.

Vincent: Joh 12:41 - Of Him Of Him Christ.

Of Him

Christ.

Vincent: Joh 12:42 - Among the chief rulers Among the chief rulers ( καὶ ἐκ τῶν ἀρχόντων ) Rev., more neatly and accurately, even of the rulers .

Among the chief rulers ( καὶ ἐκ τῶν ἀρχόντων )

Rev., more neatly and accurately, even of the rulers .

Vincent: Joh 12:42 - Believed on Him Believed on Him ( ἐπίστευσαν εἰς αὐτόν ) See on Joh 1:12. It is to be noted that John here uses of this imperfect fai...

Believed on Him ( ἐπίστευσαν εἰς αὐτόν )

See on Joh 1:12. It is to be noted that John here uses of this imperfect faith which refused to complete itself in confession, the formula for complete faith. Compare believed in His name (Joh 2:23), and see note there.

Vincent: Joh 12:42 - Confess Him Confess Him ( ὡμολόγουν ) The Him , or, Rev., it , is not in the text. The verb is used absolutely. They did not make confessio...

Confess Him ( ὡμολόγουν )

The Him , or, Rev., it , is not in the text. The verb is used absolutely. They did not make confession . See on Mat 7:23; see on Mat 10:32; see on Mat 14:7.

Vincent: Joh 12:42 - Lest they should be put out of the synagogue Lest they should be put out of the synagogue ( ἵνα μὴ ἀποσυνάγωγοι γένωνται ) Better, that they should ...

Lest they should be put out of the synagogue ( ἵνα μὴ ἀποσυνάγωγοι γένωνται )

Better, that they should not be , etc. Compare Rev., Joh 12:35. On the phrase, be put out of the synagogue , see on Joh 9:22.

Vincent: Joh 12:43 - Praise Praise ( δόξαν ) Much better, Rev., glory , because suggesting a contrast with the vision of divine glory referred to in Joh 12:41. Compa...

Praise ( δόξαν )

Much better, Rev., glory , because suggesting a contrast with the vision of divine glory referred to in Joh 12:41. Compare Joh 5:44.

Vincent: Joh 12:43 - Than Than ( ἤπερ ) The word cannot be rendered by a corresponding word in English The force is, " more than the glory of God, though He i...

Than ( ἤπερ )

The word cannot be rendered by a corresponding word in English The force is, " more than the glory of God, though He is so much more glorious ." The word is found nowhere else in the New Testament. Some authorities read ὕπερ , above .

Vincent: Joh 12:44 - Cried Cried ( ἔκραξεν ) This is not meant to relate a reappearance of Jesus in public. The close of His public ministry is noted at Joh 12:3...

Cried ( ἔκραξεν )

This is not meant to relate a reappearance of Jesus in public. The close of His public ministry is noted at Joh 12:36. It is in continuation of the Evangelist's own remarks, and introduces a summary of Jesus' past teaching to the Jews.

Vincent: Joh 12:44 - Believeth - on Him that sent Me Believeth - on Him that sent Me ( πιστεύει - εἰς τὸν πέμψαντά με ) This is the first and almost the only plac...

Believeth - on Him that sent Me ( πιστεύει - εἰς τὸν πέμψαντά με )

This is the first and almost the only place in the Gospel where the words believe on are used with reference to the Father. This rendering in Joh 5:24 is an error. See Joh 14:1. The phrase is constantly associated with our Lord. At the same time it is to be noted that it contemplates the Father as the source of the special revelation of Christ, and therefore is not absolutely an exception to the habitual usage. The same is true of Joh 14:1.

Vincent: Joh 12:45 - Seeth Seeth ( θεωρεῖ ) Rev., properly, beholdeth . Compare Joh 14:9. The word is purposely chosen to mark an intent , continuous contemplat...

Seeth ( θεωρεῖ )

Rev., properly, beholdeth . Compare Joh 14:9. The word is purposely chosen to mark an intent , continuous contemplation of Christ, issuing in ever larger knowledge of the Father.

Vincent: Joh 12:45 - I am come I am come ( ἐλήλυθα ) The perfect tense, pointing to the abiding result of His manifestation. Compare Joh 5:43; Joh 7:28; Joh 8:42; Jo...

I am come ( ἐλήλυθα )

The perfect tense, pointing to the abiding result of His manifestation. Compare Joh 5:43; Joh 7:28; Joh 8:42; Joh 16:28; Joh 18:37.

Vincent: Joh 12:45 - Abide in darkness Abide in darkness The phrase occurs only here. Compare 1Jo 2:9, 1Jo 2:11; also Joh 8:12; Joh 12:35.

Abide in darkness

The phrase occurs only here. Compare 1Jo 2:9, 1Jo 2:11; also Joh 8:12; Joh 12:35.

Vincent: Joh 12:47 - Believe not Believe not ( μὴ πιστεύσῃ ) The best texts read φυλάξῃ , keep (them).

Believe not ( μὴ πιστεύσῃ )

The best texts read φυλάξῃ , keep (them).

Vincent: Joh 12:47 - Came Came ( ἦλθον ) The aorist tense, pointing to the purpose of the coming, as I am come (Joh 12:46) to the result . Compare Joh 8:...

Came ( ἦλθον )

The aorist tense, pointing to the purpose of the coming, as I am come (Joh 12:46) to the result . Compare Joh 8:14; Joh 9:39; Joh 10:10; Joh 12:27, Joh 12:47; Joh 15:22. Both tenses are found in Joh 8:42; Joh 16:28.

Vincent: Joh 12:48 - Rejecteth Rejecteth ( ἀθετῶν ) See on Luk 7:30.

Rejecteth ( ἀθετῶν )

See on Luk 7:30.

Vincent: Joh 12:48 - The word The word ( ὁ λόγος ) Comprehending all the sayings (ῥήματα ).

The word ( ὁ λόγος )

Comprehending all the sayings (ῥήματα ).

Vincent: Joh 12:48 - The same The same ( ἐκεῖνος ) That . The pronoun of remote reference Westcott finely remarks: " The resumptive, isolating pronoun places in em...

The same ( ἐκεῖνος )

That . The pronoun of remote reference Westcott finely remarks: " The resumptive, isolating pronoun places in emphatic prominence the teaching which is regarded as past, and separated from those to whom it was addressed. It stands, as it were, in the distance, as a witness and an accuser."

Vincent: Joh 12:48 - The last day The last day Peculiar to John. See Joh 6:39.

The last day

Peculiar to John. See Joh 6:39.

Vincent: Joh 12:49 - Of myself Of myself ( ἐξ ἐμαυτοῦ ) Out of myself . This formula occurs only here. The usual expression is ἀπ ' ἐμαυτοῦ ....

Of myself ( ἐξ ἐμαυτοῦ )

Out of myself . This formula occurs only here. The usual expression is ἀπ ' ἐμαυτοῦ . Ἁπό , from , as distinguished from ἐκ , out of , marks rather the point of departure , while ἐκ , including this idea, emphasizes the point of departure as the living and impelling source of that which issues forth. In Joh 7:17, we read, " whether it be out of God (ἐκ τοῦ Θεοῦ ), or whether I speak from myself (ἀπ ' ἐμαυτοῦ )."

Vincent: Joh 12:49 - Gave Gave ( ἔδωκεν ) The best texts read δέδεκεν , the perfect tense, hath given , the result of the gift still abiding. So Rev.

Gave ( ἔδωκεν )

The best texts read δέδεκεν , the perfect tense, hath given , the result of the gift still abiding. So Rev.

Vincent: Joh 12:49 - Say - speak Say - speak ( εἴπω - λαλήσω ) The former relating to the substance , and the latter to the form of Jesus' utterances.

Say - speak ( εἴπω - λαλήσω )

The former relating to the substance , and the latter to the form of Jesus' utterances.

Wesley: Joh 12:1 - Six days before the passover Namely, on the Sabbath: that which was called by the Jews, "The Great Sabbath." This whole week was anciently termed "The great and holy week." Jesus ...

Namely, on the Sabbath: that which was called by the Jews, "The Great Sabbath." This whole week was anciently termed "The great and holy week." Jesus came - From Ephraim, Joh 11:54.

Wesley: Joh 12:2 - -- It seems Martha was a person of some figure, from the great respect which was paid to her and her sister, in visits and condolences on Lazarus's death...

It seems Martha was a person of some figure, from the great respect which was paid to her and her sister, in visits and condolences on Lazarus's death, as well as from the costly ointment mentioned in the next verse. And probably it was at their house our Lord and his disciples lodged, when he returned from Jerusalem to Bethany, every evening of the last week of his life, upon which he was now entered.

Wesley: Joh 12:3 - Then Mary, taking a pound of ointment There were two persons who poured ointment on Christ. One toward the beginning of his ministry, at or near Nain, Luk 7:37, &c. The other six days befo...

There were two persons who poured ointment on Christ. One toward the beginning of his ministry, at or near Nain, Luk 7:37, &c. The other six days before his last passover, at Bethany; the account of whom is given here, as well as by St. Matthew and Mark.

Wesley: Joh 12:7 - Against the day of my burial Which now draws nigh.

Which now draws nigh.

Wesley: Joh 12:10 - The chief priests consulted, how to kill Lazarus also Here is the plain reason why the other evangelists, who wrote while Lazarus was living, did not relate his story.

Here is the plain reason why the other evangelists, who wrote while Lazarus was living, did not relate his story.

Wesley: Joh 12:12 - The next day On Sunday.

On Sunday.

Wesley: Joh 12:12 - Who were come to the feast So that this multitude consisted chiefly of Galileans, not men of Jerusalem. Mat 21:8.

So that this multitude consisted chiefly of Galileans, not men of Jerusalem. Mat 21:8.

Wesley: Joh 12:13 - -- Psa 118:26; Mar 11:8; Luk 19:36.

Wesley: Joh 12:15 - Fear not For his meekness forbids fear, as well as the end of his coming. Zec 9:9.

For his meekness forbids fear, as well as the end of his coming. Zec 9:9.

Wesley: Joh 12:16 - These things his disciples understood not at first The design of God's providential dispensations is seldom understood at first. We ought therefore to believe, though we understand not, and to give our...

The design of God's providential dispensations is seldom understood at first. We ought therefore to believe, though we understand not, and to give ourselves up to the Divine disposal. The great work of faith is, to embrace those things which we knew not now, but shall know hereafter.

Wesley: Joh 12:16 - When he had been glorified At his ascension.

At his ascension.

Wesley: Joh 12:17 - When he called Lazarus out of the tomb How admirably does the apostle express, as well the greatness of the miracle, as the facility with which it was wrought! The easiness of the Scripture...

How admirably does the apostle express, as well the greatness of the miracle, as the facility with which it was wrought! The easiness of the Scripture style on the most grand occurrences, is more sublime than all the pomp of orators.

Wesley: Joh 12:18 - The multitude went to meet him, because they heard From those who had seen the miracle. So in a little time both joined together, to go before and to follow him.

From those who had seen the miracle. So in a little time both joined together, to go before and to follow him.

Wesley: Joh 12:20 - Certain Greeks A prelude of the Gentile Church. That these were circumcised does not appear. But they came up on purpose to worship the God of Israel.

A prelude of the Gentile Church. That these were circumcised does not appear. But they came up on purpose to worship the God of Israel.

Wesley: Joh 12:21 - These came to Philip of Bethsaida in Galilee Perhaps they used to lodge there, in their journey to Jerusalem. Or they might believe, a Galilean would be more ready to serve them herein, than a Je...

Perhaps they used to lodge there, in their journey to Jerusalem. Or they might believe, a Galilean would be more ready to serve them herein, than a Jew.

Wesley: Joh 12:21 - Sir They spake to him, as to one they were little acquainted with.

They spake to him, as to one they were little acquainted with.

Wesley: Joh 12:21 - We would see Jesus A modest request. They could scarce expect that he would now have time to talk with them.

A modest request. They could scarce expect that he would now have time to talk with them.

Wesley: Joh 12:23 - The hour is come that the Son of man should be glorified With the Father and in the sight of every creature. But he must suffer first.

With the Father and in the sight of every creature. But he must suffer first.

Wesley: Joh 12:24 - Unless a grain of wheat die The late resurrection of Lazarus gave our Lord a natural occasion of speaking on this subject. And agreeable to his infinite knowledge, he singles out...

The late resurrection of Lazarus gave our Lord a natural occasion of speaking on this subject. And agreeable to his infinite knowledge, he singles out, from among so many thousands of seeds, almost the only one that dies in the earth: and which therefore was an exceeding proper similitude, peculiarly adapted to the purpose for which he uses it. The like is not to be found in any other grain, except millet, and the large bean.

Wesley: Joh 12:25 - He that loveth his life More than the will of God; shall lose it eternally: and he that hateth his life - In comparison of the will of God, shall preserve it. Mat 10:39.

More than the will of God; shall lose it eternally: and he that hateth his life - In comparison of the will of God, shall preserve it. Mat 10:39.

Wesley: Joh 12:26 - Let him follow me By hating his life: and where I am - In heaven.

By hating his life: and where I am - In heaven.

Wesley: Joh 12:26 - If any man serve me Thus, him will the Father honour.

Thus, him will the Father honour.

Wesley: Joh 12:27 - Now is my soul troubled He had various foretastes of his passion.

He had various foretastes of his passion.

Wesley: Joh 12:27 - And what shall I say? Not what shall I choose? For his heart was fixed in choosing the will of his Father: but he laboured for utterance. The two following clauses, Save me...

Not what shall I choose? For his heart was fixed in choosing the will of his Father: but he laboured for utterance. The two following clauses, Save me from this hour - For this cause I came - Into the world; for the sake of this hour (of suffering) seem to have glanced through his mind in one moment. But human language could not so express it.

Wesley: Joh 12:28 - Father, glorify thy name Whatever I suffer. Now the trouble was over.

Whatever I suffer. Now the trouble was over.

Wesley: Joh 12:28 - I have glorified it By thy entrance into this hour.

By thy entrance into this hour.

Wesley: Joh 12:28 - And I will glorify it By thy passing through it.

By thy passing through it.

Wesley: Joh 12:29 - The multitude who stood and heard A sound, but not the distinct words - In the most glorious revelations there may remain something obscure, to exercise our faith. Said, It thundered -...

A sound, but not the distinct words - In the most glorious revelations there may remain something obscure, to exercise our faith. Said, It thundered - Thunder did frequently attend a voice from heaven. Perhaps it did so now.

Wesley: Joh 12:31 - Now This moment. And from this moment Christ thirsted more than ever, till his baptism was accomplished.

This moment. And from this moment Christ thirsted more than ever, till his baptism was accomplished.

Wesley: Joh 12:31 - Is the judgment of this world That is, now is the judgment given concerning it, whose it shall be.

That is, now is the judgment given concerning it, whose it shall be.

Wesley: Joh 12:31 - Now shall the prince of this world Satan, who had gained possession of it by sin and death, be cast out - That is, judged, condemned, cast out of his possession, and out of the bounds o...

Satan, who had gained possession of it by sin and death, be cast out - That is, judged, condemned, cast out of his possession, and out of the bounds of Christ's kingdom.

Wesley: Joh 12:32 - Lifted up from the earth This is a Hebraism which signifies dying. Death in general is all that is usually imported. But our Lord made use of this phrase, rather than others t...

This is a Hebraism which signifies dying. Death in general is all that is usually imported. But our Lord made use of this phrase, rather than others that were equivalent, because it so well suited the particular manner of his death.

Wesley: Joh 12:32 - I will draw all men Gentiles as well as Jews. And those who follow my drawings, Satan shall not be able to keep.

Gentiles as well as Jews. And those who follow my drawings, Satan shall not be able to keep.

Wesley: Joh 12:34 - How sayest thou, The Son of man must be lifted up? How can these things be reconciled? Very easily. He first dies, and then abideth for ever.

How can these things be reconciled? Very easily. He first dies, and then abideth for ever.

Wesley: Joh 12:34 - Who is this Son of man? Is he the Christ? Psa 110:4.

Is he the Christ? Psa 110:4.

Wesley: Joh 12:35 - Then Jesus said to them Not answering them directly, but exhorting them to improve what they had heard already.

Not answering them directly, but exhorting them to improve what they had heard already.

Wesley: Joh 12:35 - The light I and my doctrine.

I and my doctrine.

Wesley: Joh 12:36 - The children of light The children of God, wise, holy, happy.

The children of God, wise, holy, happy.

Wesley: Joh 12:37 - Though he had done so many miracles before them So that they could not but see them.

So that they could not but see them.

Wesley: Joh 12:38 - The arm of the Lord The power of God manifested by Christ, in his preaching, miracles, and work of redemption. Isa 53:1.

The power of God manifested by Christ, in his preaching, miracles, and work of redemption. Isa 53:1.

Wesley: Joh 12:39 - Therefore now they could not believe That is, by the just judgment of God, for their obstinacy and wilful resistance of the truth, they were at length so left to the hardness of their hea...

That is, by the just judgment of God, for their obstinacy and wilful resistance of the truth, they were at length so left to the hardness of their hearts, that neither the miracles nor doctrines of our Lord could make any impression upon them.

Wesley: Joh 12:40 - -- Isa 6:10; Mat 13:14; Act 28:26.

Wesley: Joh 12:41 - When he saw his glory Christ's, Isa 6:1, &c. And it is there expressly said to be the glory of the Lord, Jehovah, the Supreme God.

Christ's, Isa 6:1, &c. And it is there expressly said to be the glory of the Lord, Jehovah, the Supreme God.

Wesley: Joh 12:44 - Jesus said with a loud voice This which follows to the end of the chapter, is with St. John the epilogue of our Lord's public discourses, and a kind of recapitulation of them.

This which follows to the end of the chapter, is with St. John the epilogue of our Lord's public discourses, and a kind of recapitulation of them.

Wesley: Joh 12:44 - Believeth not on me Not on me alone, but also on him that sent me: because the Father hath sent the Son, and because he and the Father are one.

Not on me alone, but also on him that sent me: because the Father hath sent the Son, and because he and the Father are one.

Wesley: Joh 12:45 - And he that seeth me By the eye of faith.

By the eye of faith.

Wesley: Joh 12:47 - I judge him not Not now: for I am not come to judge the world. See, Christ came to save even them that finally perish! Even these are a part of that world, which he l...

Not now: for I am not come to judge the world. See, Christ came to save even them that finally perish! Even these are a part of that world, which he lived and died to save.

Wesley: Joh 12:50 - His commandment Kept, is life everlasting - That is the way to it, and the beginning of it.

Kept, is life everlasting - That is the way to it, and the beginning of it.

JFB: Joh 12:1-8 - six days before the passover That is, on the sixth day before it; probably after sunset on Friday evening, or the commencement of the Jewish sabbath preceding the passover.

That is, on the sixth day before it; probably after sunset on Friday evening, or the commencement of the Jewish sabbath preceding the passover.

JFB: Joh 12:2 - Martha served This, with what is afterwards said of Mary's way of honoring her Lord, is so true to the character in which those two women appear in Luk 10:38-42, as...

This, with what is afterwards said of Mary's way of honoring her Lord, is so true to the character in which those two women appear in Luk 10:38-42, as to constitute one of the strongest and most delightful confirmations of the truth of both narratives. (See also on Joh 11:20).

JFB: Joh 12:2 - Lazarus . . . sat at the table "Between the raised Lazarus and the healed leper (Simon, Mar 14:3), the Lord probably sits as between two trophies of His glory" [STIER].

"Between the raised Lazarus and the healed leper (Simon, Mar 14:3), the Lord probably sits as between two trophies of His glory" [STIER].

JFB: Joh 12:3 - spikenard Or pure nard, a celebrated aromatic (Son 1:12).

Or pure nard, a celebrated aromatic (Son 1:12).

JFB: Joh 12:3 - anointed the feet of Jesus And "poured it on His head" (Mat 26:7; Mar 14:3). The only use of this was to refresh and exhilarate--a grateful compliment in the East, amidst the cl...

And "poured it on His head" (Mat 26:7; Mar 14:3). The only use of this was to refresh and exhilarate--a grateful compliment in the East, amidst the closeness of a heated atmosphere, with many guests at a feast. Such was the form in which Mary's love to Christ, at so much cost to herself, poured itself out.

JFB: Joh 12:4 - Judas . . . who should betray him For the reason why this is here mentioned, see on Mar 14:11.

For the reason why this is here mentioned, see on Mar 14:11.

JFB: Joh 12:5 - three hundred pence Between nine and ten pounds sterling.

Between nine and ten pounds sterling.

JFB: Joh 12:6 - had the bag The purse.

The purse.

JFB: Joh 12:6 - bare what was put therein Not, bare it off by theft, though that he did; but simply, had charge of its contents, was treasurer to Jesus and the Twelve. How worthy of notice is ...

Not, bare it off by theft, though that he did; but simply, had charge of its contents, was treasurer to Jesus and the Twelve. How worthy of notice is this arrangement, by which an avaricious and dishonest person was not only taken into the number of the Twelve, but entrusted with the custody of their little property! The purposes which this served are obvious enough; but it is further noticeable, that the remotest hint was never given to the eleven of His true character, nor did the disciples most favored with the intimacy of Jesus ever suspect him, till a few minutes before he voluntarily separated himself from their company--for ever!

JFB: Joh 12:7 - said Jesus, Let her alone, against the day of my burying hath she done this Not that she thought of His burial, much less reserved any of her nard to anoint her dead Lord. But as the time was so near at hand when that office w...

Not that she thought of His burial, much less reserved any of her nard to anoint her dead Lord. But as the time was so near at hand when that office would have to be performed, and she was not to have that privilege even alter the spices were brought for the purpose (Mar 16:1), He lovingly regards it as done now.

JFB: Joh 12:8 - the poor always . . . with you Referring to Deu 15:11.

Referring to Deu 15:11.

JFB: Joh 12:8 - but me . . . not always A gentle hint of His approaching departure. He adds (Mar 14:8), "She hath done what she could," a noble testimony, embodying a principle of immense im...

A gentle hint of His approaching departure. He adds (Mar 14:8), "She hath done what she could," a noble testimony, embodying a principle of immense importance. "Verily, I say unto you, Wheresoever this Gospel shall be preached in the whole world, there shall also this, that this woman hath done, be told for a memorial of her" (Mat 26:13; Mar 14:9). "In the act of love done to Him she had erected to herself an eternal monument, as lasting as the Gospel, the eternal word of God. From generation to generation this remarkable prophecy of the Lord has been fulfilled; and even we, in explaining this saying of the Redeemer, of necessity contribute to its accomplishment" [OLSHAUSEN]. "Who but Himself had the power to ensure to any work of man, even if resounding in his own time through the whole earth, an imperishable remembrance in the stream of history? Behold once more here, the majesty of His royal judicial supremacy in the government of the world, in this, Verily I say unto you" [STIER]. Beautiful are the lessons here: (1) Love to Christ transfigures the humblest services. All, indeed, who have themselves a heart value its least outgoings beyond the most costly mechanical performances; but how does it endear the Saviour to us to find Him endorsing the principle as His own standard in judging of character and deeds!

What though in poor and humble guise

Thou here didst sojourn, cottage-born,

Yet from Thy glory in the skies

Our earthly gold Thou didst not scorn.

For Love delights to bring her best,

And where Love is, that offering evermore is blest.

Love on the Saviour's dying head

Her spikenard drops unblam'd may pour,

May mount His cross, and wrap Him dead

In spices from the golden shore.

KEBLE.

JFB: Joh 12:8 - (2) Works of utility should never be set in opposition to the promptings of self-sacrificing love, and the sincerity of those who do so is to be suspected. Under the mask of concern for the poor at home, how many excuse themselves from all care of the perishing heathen abroad. (3) Amidst conflicting duties, that which our "hand (presently) findeth to do" is to be preferred, and even a less duty only to be done now to a greater that can be done at any time. (4) "If there be first a willing mind, it is accepted according to that a man hath, and not according to that he hath not" (2Co 8:12). "She hath done what she could" (Mar 14:8). (5) As Jesus beheld in spirit the universal diffusion of His Gospel, while His lowest depth of humiliation ...

"She hath done what she could" (Mar 14:8). (5) As Jesus beheld in spirit the universal diffusion of His Gospel, while His lowest depth of humiliation was only approaching, so He regards the facts of His earthly history as constituting the substance of this Gospel, and the relation of them as just the "preaching of this Gospel." Not that preachers are to confine themselves to a bare narration of these facts, but that they are to make their whole preaching turn upon them as its grand center, and derive from them its proper vitality; all that goes before this in the Bible being but the preparation for them, and all that follows but the sequel.

JFB: Joh 12:9-11 - Crowds of the Jerusalem Jews hastened to Bethany, not so much to see Jesus, whom they knew to be there, as to see dead Lazarus alive; and this, issuing in their accession to Christ, led to a plot against the life of Lazarus also, as the only means of arresting the triumphs of Jesus (see Joh 12:19) To such a pitch had these chief priests come of diabolical determination to shut out the light from themselves, and quench it from the earth!

To such a pitch had these chief priests come of diabolical determination to shut out the light from themselves, and quench it from the earth!

JFB: Joh 12:12 - On the next day The Lord's day, or Sunday (see on Joh 12:1); the tenth day of the Jewish month Nisan, on which the paschal lamb was set apart to be "kept up until the...

The Lord's day, or Sunday (see on Joh 12:1); the tenth day of the Jewish month Nisan, on which the paschal lamb was set apart to be "kept up until the fourteenth day of the same month, when the whole assembly of the congregation of Israel were to kill it in the evening" (Exo 12:3, Exo 12:6). Even so, from the day of this solemn entry into Jerusalem, "Christ our Passover" was virtually set apart to be "sacrificed for us" (1Co 5:7).

JFB: Joh 12:16 - when Jesus was glorified, then remembered they that these things were written of him, &c. The Spirit, descending on them from the glorified Saviour at Pentecost, opened their eyes suddenly to the true sense of the Old Testament, brought viv...

The Spirit, descending on them from the glorified Saviour at Pentecost, opened their eyes suddenly to the true sense of the Old Testament, brought vividly to their recollection this and other Messianic predictions, and to their unspeakable astonishment showed them that they, and all the actors in these scenes, had been unconsciously fulfilling those predictions.

JFB: Joh 12:20-22 - Greeks Not Grecian Jews, but Greek proselytes to the Jewish faith, who were wont to attend the annual festivals, particularly this primary one, the Passover.

Not Grecian Jews, but Greek proselytes to the Jewish faith, who were wont to attend the annual festivals, particularly this primary one, the Passover.

JFB: Joh 12:20-22 - The same came therefore to Philip . . . of Bethsaida Possibly as being from the same quarter.

Possibly as being from the same quarter.

JFB: Joh 12:20-22 - saying, Sir, we would see Jesus Certainly in a far better sense than Zaccheus (Luk 19:3). Perhaps He was then in that part of the temple court to which Gentile proselytes had no acce...

Certainly in a far better sense than Zaccheus (Luk 19:3). Perhaps He was then in that part of the temple court to which Gentile proselytes had no access. "These men from the west represent, at the end of Christ's life, what the wise men from the east represented at its beginning; but those come to the cross of the King, even as these to His manger" [STIER].

JFB: Joh 12:22 - Philip . . . telleth Andrew As follow townsmen of Bethsaida (Joh 1:44), these two seem to have drawn to each other.

As follow townsmen of Bethsaida (Joh 1:44), these two seem to have drawn to each other.

JFB: Joh 12:22 - Andrew and Philip tell Jesus The minuteness of these details, while they add to the graphic force of the narrative, serves to prepare us for something important to come out of thi...

The minuteness of these details, while they add to the graphic force of the narrative, serves to prepare us for something important to come out of this introduction.

JFB: Joh 12:23-26 - Jesus answered them, The hour is come that the Son of man should be glorified That is, They would see Jesus, would they? Yet a little moment, and they shall see Him so as now they dream not of. The middle wall of partition that ...

That is, They would see Jesus, would they? Yet a little moment, and they shall see Him so as now they dream not of. The middle wall of partition that keeps them out from the commonwealth of Israel is on the eve of breaking down, "and I, if I be lifted up from the earth, shall draw all men unto Me"; I see them "flying as a cloud, and as doves to their cotes"--a glorious event that will be for the Son of man, by which this is to be brought about. It is His death He thus sublimely and delicately alluded to. Lost in the scenes of triumph which this desire of the Greeks to see Him called up before His view, He gives no direct answer to their petition for an interview, but sees the cross which was to bring them gilded with glory.

JFB: Joh 12:24 - Except a corn of wheat fall into the ground and die, it abideth alone; but if it die, it bringeth forth much fruit The necessity of His death is here brightly expressed, and its proper operation and fruit--life springing forth out of death--imaged forth by a beauti...

The necessity of His death is here brightly expressed, and its proper operation and fruit--life springing forth out of death--imaged forth by a beautiful and deeply significant law of the vegetable kingdom. For a double reason, no doubt, this was uttered--to explain what he had said of His death, as the hour of His own glorification, and to sustain His own Spirit under the agitation which was mysteriously coming over it in the view of that death.

JFB: Joh 12:25 - He that loveth his life shall lose it; and he that hateth his life in this world shall keep it unto life eternal (See on Luk 9:24). Did our Lord mean to exclude Himself from the operation of the great principle here expressed--self-renunciation, the law of self-p...

(See on Luk 9:24). Did our Lord mean to exclude Himself from the operation of the great principle here expressed--self-renunciation, the law of self-preservation; and its converse, self-preservation, the law of self-destruction? On the contrary, as He became Man to exemplify this fundamental law of the Kingdom of God in its most sublime form, so the very utterance of it on this occasion served to sustain His own Spirit in the double prospect to which He had just alluded.

JFB: Joh 12:26 - If any man serve me, let him follow me; and where I am, there shall also my servant be: If any man serve me, him will my Father honour Jesus here claims the same absolute subjection to Himself, as the law of men's exaltation to honor, as He yielded to the Father.

Jesus here claims the same absolute subjection to Himself, as the law of men's exaltation to honor, as He yielded to the Father.

JFB: Joh 12:27-28 - Now is my soul troubled He means at the prospect of His death, just alluded to. Strange view of the Cross this, immediately after representing it as the hour of His glory! (J...

He means at the prospect of His death, just alluded to. Strange view of the Cross this, immediately after representing it as the hour of His glory! (Joh 12:23). But the two views naturally meet, and blend into one. It was the Greeks, one might say, that troubled Him. Ah! they shall see Jesus, but to Him it shall be a costly sight.

JFB: Joh 12:27-28 - and what shall I say? He is in a strait betwixt two. The death of the cross was, and could not but be, appalling to His spirit. But to shrink from absolute subjection to th...

He is in a strait betwixt two. The death of the cross was, and could not but be, appalling to His spirit. But to shrink from absolute subjection to the Father, was worse still. In asking Himself, "What shall I say?" He seems as if thinking aloud, feeling His way between two dread alternatives, looking both of them sternly in the face, measuring, weighing them, in order that the choice actually made might be seen, and even by himself the more vividly felt, to be a profound, deliberate, spontaneous election.

JFB: Joh 12:27-28 - Father, save me from this hour To take this as a question--"Shall I say, Father, save me," &c.--as some eminent editors and interpreters do, is unnatural and jejune. It is a real pe...

To take this as a question--"Shall I say, Father, save me," &c.--as some eminent editors and interpreters do, is unnatural and jejune. It is a real petition, like that in Gethsemane, "Let this cup pass from Me"; only whereas there He prefaces the prayer with an "If it be possible," here He follows it up with what is tantamount to that--"Nevertheless for this cause came I unto this hour." The sentiment conveyed, then, by the prayer, in both cases, is twofold: (1) that only one thing could reconcile Him to the death of the cross--its being His Father's will He should endure it--and (2) that in this view of it He yielded Himself freely to it. What He recoils from is not subjection to His Father's will: but to show how tremendous a self-sacrifice that obedience involved, He first asks the Father to save Him from it, and then signifies how perfectly He knows that He is there for the very purpose of enduring it. Only by letting these mysterious words speak their full meaning do they become intelligible and consistent. As for those who see no bitter elements in the death of Christ--nothing beyond mere dying--what can they make of such a scene? and when they place it over against the feelings with which thousands of His adoring followers have welcomed death for His sake, how can they hold Him up to the admiration of men?

JFB: Joh 12:28 - Father, glorify thy name By a present testimony.

By a present testimony.

JFB: Joh 12:28 - I have both glorified it Referring specially to the voice from heaven at His baptism, and again at His transfiguration.

Referring specially to the voice from heaven at His baptism, and again at His transfiguration.

JFB: Joh 12:28 - and will glorify it again That is, in the yet future scenes of His still deeper necessity; although this promise was a present and sublime testimony, which would irradiate the ...

That is, in the yet future scenes of His still deeper necessity; although this promise was a present and sublime testimony, which would irradiate the clouded spirit of the Son of man.

JFB: Joh 12:29-33 - The people therefore that stood by, said, It thundered; others, An angel spake to him Some hearing only a sound, others an articulate, but to them unintelligible voice.

Some hearing only a sound, others an articulate, but to them unintelligible voice.

JFB: Joh 12:30 - Jesus . . . said, This voice came not because of me, but for your sakes That is, probably, to correct the unfavorable impressions which His momentary agitation and mysterious prayer for deliverance may have produced on the...

That is, probably, to correct the unfavorable impressions which His momentary agitation and mysterious prayer for deliverance may have produced on the by-standers.

JFB: Joh 12:31 - Now is the judgment of this world The world that "crucified the Lord of glory" (1Co 2:8), considered as a vast and complicated kingdom of Satan, breathing his spirit, doing his work, a...

The world that "crucified the Lord of glory" (1Co 2:8), considered as a vast and complicated kingdom of Satan, breathing his spirit, doing his work, and involved in his doom, which Christ's death by its hands irrevocably sealed.

JFB: Joh 12:31 - now shall the prince of this world be cast out How differently is that fast-approaching "hour" regarded in the kingdoms of darkness and of light! "The hour of relief; from the dread Troubler of our...

How differently is that fast-approaching "hour" regarded in the kingdoms of darkness and of light! "The hour of relief; from the dread Troubler of our peace--how near it is! Yet a little moment, and the day is ours!" So it was calculated and felt in the one region. "Now shall the prince of this world be cast out," is a somewhat different view of the same event. We know who was right. Though yet under a veil, He sees the triumphs of the Cross in unclouded and transporting light.

JFB: Joh 12:32 - And I, if I be lifted up from the earth, will draw all men unto me The "I" here is emphatic--I, taking the place of the world's ejected prince. "If lifted up," means not only after that I have been lifted up, but, thr...

The "I" here is emphatic--I, taking the place of the world's ejected prince. "If lifted up," means not only after that I have been lifted up, but, through the virtue of that uplifting. And truly, the death of the Cross, in all its significance, revealed in the light, and borne in upon the heart, by the power of the Holy Ghost, possesses an attraction over the wide world--to civilized and savage, learned and illiterate, alike--which breaks down all opposition, assimilates all to itself, and forms out of the most heterogeneous and discordant materials a kingdom of surpassing glory, whose uniting principle is adoring subjection "to Him that loved them." "Will draw all men 'UNTO ME,'" says He. What lips could venture to utter such a word but His, which "dropt as an honeycomb," whose manner of speaking was evermore in the same spirit of conscious equality with the Father?

JFB: Joh 12:33 - This he said, signifying what death he should die That is, "by being lifted up from the earth" on "the accursed tree" (Joh 3:14; Joh 8:28).

That is, "by being lifted up from the earth" on "the accursed tree" (Joh 3:14; Joh 8:28).

JFB: Joh 12:34 - We have heard out of the law The scriptures of the Old Testament (referring to such places as Psa 89:28-29; Psa 110:4; Dan 2:44; Dan 7:13-14).

The scriptures of the Old Testament (referring to such places as Psa 89:28-29; Psa 110:4; Dan 2:44; Dan 7:13-14).

JFB: Joh 12:34 - that Christ The Christ "endureth for ever."

The Christ "endureth for ever."

JFB: Joh 12:34 - and how sayest thou, The Son of Man must be lifted up, &c. How can that consist with this "uplifting?" They saw very well both that He was holding Himself up as the Christ and a Christ to die a violent death; ...

How can that consist with this "uplifting?" They saw very well both that He was holding Himself up as the Christ and a Christ to die a violent death; and as that ran counter to all their ideas of the Messianic prophecies, they were glad to get this seeming advantage to justify their unyielding attitude.

JFB: Joh 12:35-36 - Yet a little while is the light with you. Walk while ye have the light, &c. Instead of answering their question, He warns them, with mingled majesty and tenderness, against trifling with their last brief opportunity, and entre...

Instead of answering their question, He warns them, with mingled majesty and tenderness, against trifling with their last brief opportunity, and entreats them to let in the Light while they have it in the midst of them, that they themselves might be "light in the Lord." In this case, all the clouds which hung around His Person and Mission would speedily be dispelled, while if they continued to hate the light, bootless were all His answers to their merely speculative or captious questions. (See on Luk 13:23).

JFB: Joh 12:36 - These things spake Jesus, and departed, and did hide himself from them He who spake as never man spake, and immediately after words fraught with unspeakable dignity and love, had to "hide Himself" from His auditors! What ...

He who spake as never man spake, and immediately after words fraught with unspeakable dignity and love, had to "hide Himself" from His auditors! What then must they have been? He retired, probably to Bethany. (The parallels are: Mat 21:17; Luk 21:37).

JFB: Joh 12:37-41 - -- It is the manner of this Evangelist alone to record his own reflections on the scenes he describes; but here, having arrived at what was virtually the...

It is the manner of this Evangelist alone to record his own reflections on the scenes he describes; but here, having arrived at what was virtually the close of our Lord's public ministry, he casts an affecting glance over the fruitlessness of His whole ministry on the bulk of the now doomed people.

JFB: Joh 12:37-41 - though he had done so many miracles The word used suggests their nature as well as number.

The word used suggests their nature as well as number.

JFB: Joh 12:38 - That the saying of Esaias . . . might be fulfilled This unbelief did not at all set aside the purposes of God, but, on the contrary, fulfilled them.

This unbelief did not at all set aside the purposes of God, but, on the contrary, fulfilled them.

JFB: Joh 12:39-40 - Therefore they could not believe, because Esaias said again, He hath blinded their eyes, that they should not see, &c. That this expresses a positive divine act, by which those who wilfully close their eyes and harden their hearts against the truth are judicially shut ...

That this expresses a positive divine act, by which those who wilfully close their eyes and harden their hearts against the truth are judicially shut up in their unbelief and impenitence, is admitted by all candid critics [as OLSHAUSEN], though many of them think it necessary to contend that this is in no way inconsistent with the liberty of the human will, which of course it is not.

JFB: Joh 12:41 - These things said Esaias, when he saw his glory, and spake of him A key of immense importance to the opening of Isaiah's vision (Isa 6:1-13), and all similar Old Testament representations. "THE SON is the King Jehova...

A key of immense importance to the opening of Isaiah's vision (Isa 6:1-13), and all similar Old Testament representations. "THE SON is the King Jehovah who rules in the Old Testament and appears to the elect, as in the New Testament THE SPIRIT, the invisible Minister of the Son, is the Director of the Church and the Revealer in the sanctuary of the heart" [OLSHAUSEN].

JFB: Joh 12:42-43 - among the chief rulers also Rather, "even of the rulers"; such as Nicodemus and Joseph.

Rather, "even of the rulers"; such as Nicodemus and Joseph.

JFB: Joh 12:42-43 - because of the Pharisees That is, the leaders of the sects; for they were of it themselves.

That is, the leaders of the sects; for they were of it themselves.

JFB: Joh 12:42-43 - put out of the synagogue See Joh 9:22, Joh 9:34.

JFB: Joh 12:43 - they loved the praise of men more than the praise of God "a severe remark, considering that several at least of these persons afterwards boldly confessed Christ. It indicates the displeasure with which God r...

"a severe remark, considering that several at least of these persons afterwards boldly confessed Christ. It indicates the displeasure with which God regarded their conduct at this time, and with which He continues to regard similar conduct" [WEBSTER and WILKINSON].

JFB: Joh 12:44-50 - Jesus cried In a loud tone, and with peculiar solemnity. (Compare Joh 7:37).

In a loud tone, and with peculiar solemnity. (Compare Joh 7:37).

JFB: Joh 12:44-50 - and said, He that believeth on me, &c. This seems to be a supplementary record of some weighty proclamations, for which there had been found no natural place before, and introduced here as ...

This seems to be a supplementary record of some weighty proclamations, for which there had been found no natural place before, and introduced here as a sort of summary and winding up of His whole testimony.

Clarke: Joh 12:1 - Six days before the Passover Six days before the Passover - Reckoning the day of the Passover to be the last of the six. Our Lord came on our Sabbath, the first day of the Jewis...

Six days before the Passover - Reckoning the day of the Passover to be the last of the six. Our Lord came on our Sabbath, the first day of the Jewish week, to Bethany, where he supped; and on the next day he made his public entry into Jerusalem: Joh 12:12. Calmet thinks that this was about two months after the resurrection of Lazarus, on the 9th of Nisan, (March 29), in the thirty-sixth year of our Lord’ s age. It has been observed before - that Calmet adds three years to the common account.

Clarke: Joh 12:3 - Then took Mary a pound of ointment Then took Mary a pound of ointment - See the note on Mat 26:7; see also Mar 14:3. It does not seem the most likely that this was the same transactio...

Then took Mary a pound of ointment - See the note on Mat 26:7; see also Mar 14:3. It does not seem the most likely that this was the same transaction with that mentioned above. Some think that this was, notwithstanding that before is said to have been at the house of Simon the leper. The arguments, pro and con, are largely stated in the notes at the end of Matthew 26 (note), to which I beg leave to refer the reader.

Clarke: Joh 12:5 - Three hundred pence Three hundred pence - Or denarii: about 9£. 13s. 9d. of our money; reckoning the denarius at 7 3/4d. One of my MSS. of the Vulgate (a MS. of the 14...

Three hundred pence - Or denarii: about 9£. 13s. 9d. of our money; reckoning the denarius at 7 3/4d. One of my MSS. of the Vulgate (a MS. of the 14th century) reads, cccc denarii .

Clarke: Joh 12:6 - Not that He cared for the poor Not that He cared for the poor - There should be a particular emphasis laid on the word he, as the evangelist studies to show the most determined de...

Not that He cared for the poor - There should be a particular emphasis laid on the word he, as the evangelist studies to show the most determined detestation to his conduct

Clarke: Joh 12:6 - And bare what was put therein And bare what was put therein - Or rather, as some eminent critics contend, And stole what was put in it. This seems the proper meaning of εβαϚ...

And bare what was put therein - Or rather, as some eminent critics contend, And stole what was put in it. This seems the proper meaning of εβαϚαζεν ; and in this sense it is used, Joh 20:15 : If thou hast Stolen him away - ει συ εβαϚασας αυτον . In the same sense the word is used by Josephus, Ant. b. xii. c. 5, s 4; where speaking of the pillage of the temple by Antiochus, he says, Τα σκευη του Θεου βαϚασαι, He carried off, or Stole, also the vessels of the Lord. See also Ant. b. viii. c. 2, s. 2, where the harlot says before Solomon, concerning her child, βαϚασασα δε τουμον εκ των γονατων προς αὑτην μεταφερει - She Stole away my child out of my bosom, and removed it to herself. And Ibid. b. ix. c. 4, s. 5, speaking of the ten lepers that went into the Syrian camp, he says, finding the Syrians fled, They entered into the camp, and ate, and drank; and, having Stolen away ( εβαϚασαν ) garments, and much gold, they hid them without the camp. See the objections to this translation answered by Kypke, and the translation itself vindicated. See also Pearce in loc., Wakefield, Toup. Em. ad Suid. p. iii. p. 203. If stealing were not intended by the evangelist, the word itself must be considered as superfluous; for, when we are told that he had the bag, we need not be informed that he had what was in it. But the apostle says he was a thief; and because he was a thief, and had the common purse in his power, therefore he stole as much as he conveniently could, without subjecting himself to detection. And, as he saw that the death of Christ was at hand, he wished to secure a provision for himself, before he left the company of the apostles. I see that several copies of the old Itala version understood the word in this sense, and therefore have translated the word by auferebat, exportabat - took away, carried away. Jerome, who professed to mend this version, has in this place (as well as in many others) marred is, by rendering εβαϚαζεν, by portabat

The γλωσσοκομον, which we translate bag, meant originally the little box, or sheath, in which the tongues or reeds used for pipes were carried; and thus it is interpreted by Pollux in his Onomasticon; and this is agreeable to the etymology of the word. The Greek word is used in Hebrew letters by the Talmudists to signify a purse, scrip, chest, coffer, etc. As our Lord and his disciples lived on charity, a bag or scrip was provided to carry those pious donations by which they were supported. And Judas was steward and treasurer to this holy company.

Clarke: Joh 12:7 - Let her alone: against the day of my burying hath she kept this Let her alone: against the day of my burying hath she kept this - Several MSS. and versions read thus: - Αφες αυτην, ἱνα εις τη...

Let her alone: against the day of my burying hath she kept this - Several MSS. and versions read thus: - Αφες αυτην, ἱνα εις την ἡμεραντου ενταφιασμου μου τηρησῃ - Let her alone, That she may keep it to the day of my embalming. This is the reading of BDLQ, four others, Arabic, Coptic, Ethiopic, Armenian, later Syriac in the margin, Slavonic, Vulgate, all the Itala but one; Nonnus, Ambrosius, Gaudentius, and Augustin. This reading, which has the approbation of Mill, Bengel, Griesbach, Pearce, and others, intimates that only a part of the ointment was then used, and that the rest was kept till the time that the women came to embalm the body of Jesus: Luk 24:1. See the notes on Mat 26:12, Mat 26:13.

Clarke: Joh 12:9 - Much people of the Jews Much people of the Jews - John, who was a Galilean, often gives the title of Jews to those who were inhabitants of Jerusalem.

Much people of the Jews - John, who was a Galilean, often gives the title of Jews to those who were inhabitants of Jerusalem.

Clarke: Joh 12:10 - Consulted that they might put Lazarus also to death Consulted that they might put Lazarus also to death - As long as he lived they saw an incontestable proof of the Divine power of Christ; therefore t...

Consulted that they might put Lazarus also to death - As long as he lived they saw an incontestable proof of the Divine power of Christ; therefore they wished to put him to death, because many of the Jews, who came to see him through curiosity, became converts to Christ through his testimony. How blind were these men not to perceive that he who had raised him, after he had been dead four days, could raise him again though they had slain him a thousand times?

Clarke: Joh 12:12 - On the next day On the next day - On what we call Monday.

On the next day - On what we call Monday.

Clarke: Joh 12:13 - Took branches Took branches - See on Mat 21:1 (note), etc., and Mar 11:1-6 (note), where this transaction is largely explained.

Took branches - See on Mat 21:1 (note), etc., and Mar 11:1-6 (note), where this transaction is largely explained.

Clarke: Joh 12:16 - Then remembered they, etc. Then remembered they, etc. - After the ascension of Christ, the disciples saw the meaning of many prophecies which referred to Christ, and applied t...

Then remembered they, etc. - After the ascension of Christ, the disciples saw the meaning of many prophecies which referred to Christ, and applied them to him, which they had not fully comprehended before. Indeed it is only in the light of the new covenant, that the old is to be fully understood.

Clarke: Joh 12:17 - When he called When he called - It appears that these people, who had seen him raise Lazarus from the dead, were publishing abroad the miracle, which increased the...

When he called - It appears that these people, who had seen him raise Lazarus from the dead, were publishing abroad the miracle, which increased the popularity of Christ, and the envy of the Pharisees.

Clarke: Joh 12:19 - Ye prevail nothing Ye prevail nothing - Either by your threatening or excommunications

Ye prevail nothing - Either by your threatening or excommunications

Clarke: Joh 12:19 - The world is gone after him The world is gone after him - The whole mass of the people are becoming his disciples. This is a very common form of expression among the Jews, and ...

The world is gone after him - The whole mass of the people are becoming his disciples. This is a very common form of expression among the Jews, and simply answers to the French, tout le monde, and to the English, every body - the bulk of the people. Many MSS., versions, and fathers, add ὁλος, the Whole world. As our Lord’ s converts were rapidly increasing, the Pharisees thought it necessary to execute without delay what they had purposed at their first council. See Joh 11:53.

Clarke: Joh 12:20 - Certain Greeks Certain Greeks - There are three opinions concerning these 1.    That they were proselytes of the gate or covenant, who came up to wo...

Certain Greeks - There are three opinions concerning these

1.    That they were proselytes of the gate or covenant, who came up to worship the true God at this feast

2.    That they were real Jews, who lived in Grecian provinces, and spoke the Greek language

3.    That they were mere Gentiles, who never knew the true God: and hearing of the fame of the temple, or the miracles of our Lord, came to offer sacrifices to Jehovah, and to worship him according to the manner of the people of that land. This was not an unfrequent case: many of the Gentiles, Romans, and others, were in the habit of sending sacrifices to the temple at Jerusalem. Of these opinions the reader may choose; but the first seems best founded.

Clarke: Joh 12:21 - The same came therefore to Philip The same came therefore to Philip - Some suppose that these Gentiles were of Phoenicia or Syria, or perhaps inhabitants of Decapolis, near to the la...

The same came therefore to Philip - Some suppose that these Gentiles were of Phoenicia or Syria, or perhaps inhabitants of Decapolis, near to the lake of Gennesareth and Bethsaida; and therefore they addressed themselves to Philip, who was of the latter city, and probably known to them. The later Syriac calls them Arameans or Syrians. The Vulgate, and several copies of the Itala, call them Gentiles

Clarke: Joh 12:21 - Sir, we would see Jesus Sir, we would see Jesus - We have heard much concerning him, and we wish to see the person of whom we have heard such strange things. The final salv...

Sir, we would see Jesus - We have heard much concerning him, and we wish to see the person of whom we have heard such strange things. The final salvation of the soul often originates, under God, in a principle of simple curiosity. Many have only wished to se or hear a man who speaks much of Jesus, his miracles, and his mercies; and in hearing have felt the powers of the world to come, and have become genuine converts to the truths of the Gospel.

Clarke: Joh 12:22 - Andrew and Philip tell Jesus Andrew and Philip tell Jesus - How pleasing to God is this union, when the ministers of his Gospel agree and unite together to bring souls to Christ...

Andrew and Philip tell Jesus - How pleasing to God is this union, when the ministers of his Gospel agree and unite together to bring souls to Christ. But where self-love prevails, and the honor that comes from God is not sought, this union never exists. Bigotry often ruins every generous sentiment among the different denominations of the people of God.

Clarke: Joh 12:23 - The hour is come, that the Son of man, etc. The hour is come, that the Son of man, etc. - The time is just at hand in which the Gospel shall be preached to all nations, the middle wall of part...

The hour is come, that the Son of man, etc. - The time is just at hand in which the Gospel shall be preached to all nations, the middle wall of partition broken down, and Jews and Gentiles united in one fold. But this could not be till after his death and resurrection, as the succeeding verse teaches. The disciples were the first fruits of the Jews; these Greeks, the first fruits of the Gentiles.

Clarke: Joh 12:24 - Except a corn of wheat fall into the ground and die Except a corn of wheat fall into the ground and die - Our Lord compares himself to a grain of wheat; his death, to a grain sown and decomposed in th...

Except a corn of wheat fall into the ground and die - Our Lord compares himself to a grain of wheat; his death, to a grain sown and decomposed in the ground; his resurrection, to the blade which springs up from the dead grain; which grain, thus dying, brings forth an abundance of fruit. I must die to be glorified; and, unless I am glorified, I can not establish a glorious Church of Jews and Gentiles upon earth. In comparing himself thus to a grain of wheat, our Lord shows us: -

1.    The cause of his death - the order of God, who had rated the redemption of the world at this price; as in nature he had attached the multiplication of the corn to the death or decomposition of the grain

2.    The end of his death - the redemption of a lost world; the justification, sanctification, and glorification of men: as the multiplication of the corn is the end for which the grain is sown and dies

3.    The mystery of his death, which we must credit without being able fully to comprehend, as we believe the dead grain multiplies itself, and we are nourished by that multiplication, without being able to comprehend how it is done

The greatest philosopher that ever existed could not tell how one grain became thirty, sixty, a hundred, or a thousand - how it vegetated in the earth - how earth, air, and water, its component parts, could assume such a form and consistence, emit such odours, or produce such tastes. Nor can the wisest man on earth tell how the bodies of animals are nourished by this produce of the ground; how wheat, for instance, is assimilated to the very nature of the bodies that receive it, and how it becomes flesh and blood, nerves, sinews, bones, etc. All we can say is, the thing is so; and it has pleased God that is should be so, and not otherwise. So there are many things in the person, death, and sacrifice of Christ, which we can neither explain nor comprehend. All we should say here is, It is by this means that the world was redeemed - through this sacrifice men are saved: it has pleased God that it should be so, and not otherwise. Some say: "Our Lord spoke this according to the philosophy of those days, which was by no means correct."But, I would ask, has ever a more correct philosophy on this point appeared? Is it not a physical truth that the whole body of the grain dies, is converted into fine earth, which forms the first nourishment of the embryo plant, and prepares it to receive a grosser support from the surrounding soil; and that nothing lives but the germ, which was included in this body, and which must die also, if it did not receive, from the death or putrefaction of the body of the grain, nourishment, so as to enable it to unfold itself? Though the body of our Lord died, there was still the germ, the quickening power of the Divinity, which re-animated that body, and stamped the atonement with infinite merit. Thus the merit was multiplied; and, through the death of that one person, the man Christ Jesus united to the eternal Word, salvation was procured for the whole world. Never was a simile more appropriate, nor an illustration more happy or successful.

Clarke: Joh 12:25 - He that loveth his life He that loveth his life - See on Mat 10:39 (note); Luk 14:26 (note). I am about to give up my life for the salvation of men; but I shall speedily re...

He that loveth his life - See on Mat 10:39 (note); Luk 14:26 (note). I am about to give up my life for the salvation of men; but I shall speedily receive it back with everlasting honor, by my resurrection from the dead. In this I should be imitated by my disciples, who should, when called to it, lay down their lives for the truth; and, if they do, they shall receive them again with everlasting honor.

Clarke: Joh 12:26 - If any man serve me If any man serve me - Christ is a master in a twofold sense 1.    To instruct men 2.    To employ and appoint them the...

If any man serve me - Christ is a master in a twofold sense

1.    To instruct men

2.    To employ and appoint them their work. He who wishes to serve Christ must become

1.    His disciple or scholar, that he may be taught

2.    His servant, that he may be employed by and obey his master. To such a person a twofold promise is given

1.    He shall be with Christ, in eternal fellowship with him; an

2.    He shall be honored by the Lord: he shall have an abundant recompense in glory; but how great, eye hath not seen, ear heard, nor hath it entered into the heart of man to conceive

How similar to this is the saying of Creeshna (an incarnation of the supreme God, according to the Hindoo theology) to his disciple Arjoon! "If one whose ways were ever so evil serve me alone, he soon becometh of a virtuous spirit, is as respectable as the just man, and obtaineth eternal happiness. Consider this world as a finite and joyless place, and serve me. Be of my mind, my servant, my adorer, and bow down before me. Unite thy soul unto me, make me thy asylum, and thou shalt go unto me."And again: "I am extremely dear to the wise man, and he is dear to me-I esteem the wise man even as myself, because his devout spirit dependeth upon me alone as his ultimate resource."Bhagvat Geeta, pp. 71 and 82

The rabbins have an extravagant saying, viz. "God is more concerned for the honor of the just man than for his own."

Clarke: Joh 12:27 - Now is my soul troubled Now is my soul troubled - Our blessed Lord took upon him our weaknesses, that he might sanctify them to us. As a man he was troubled at the prospect...

Now is my soul troubled - Our blessed Lord took upon him our weaknesses, that he might sanctify them to us. As a man he was troubled at the prospect of a violent death. Nature abhors death: God has implanted that abhorrence in nature, that it might become a principle of self preservation; and it is to this that we owe all that prudence and caution by which we avoid danger. When we see Jesus working miracles which demonstrate his omnipotence, we should be led to conclude that he was not man were it not for such passages as these. The reader must ever remember that it was essentially necessary that he should be man; for, without being such, he could hot have died for the sin of the world

Clarke: Joh 12:27 - And what shall I say? Father, save me from this hour And what shall I say? Father, save me from this hour - Και τι ειπω; πατερ, σωσον με εκ της ὡρας ταυτης· wh...

And what shall I say? Father, save me from this hour - Και τι ειπω; πατερ, σωσον με εκ της ὡρας ταυτης· which may be paraphrased thus: And why should I say, Father, save me from this hour? when for this cause I am come to this hour. The common version makes our blessed Lord contradict himself here, by not attending to the proper punctuation of the passage, and by translating the particle τι what, instead of why or how. The sense of our Lord’ s words is this: "When a man feels a fear of a sudden or violent death, it is natural to him to cry out, Father, save me from this death! for he hopes that the glory of God and his welfare may be accomplished some other way, less dreadful to his nature: but why should I say so, seeing for this very purpose, that I might die this violent death for the sins of mankind, I am come into the world, and have almost arrived at the hour of my crucifixion."

Clarke: Joh 12:28 - Father, glorify thy name Father, glorify thy name - By the name of God is to be understood himself, in all his attributes: his wisdom, truth, mercy, justice, holiness, etc.,...

Father, glorify thy name - By the name of God is to be understood himself, in all his attributes: his wisdom, truth, mercy, justice, holiness, etc., which were all more abundantly glorified by Christ’ s death and resurrection, (i.e. shown forth in their own excellence), than they had ever been before. Christ teaches here a lesson of submission to the Divine will. Do with me what thou wilt, so that glory may redound to thy name. Some MSS. read, Father, glorify my name: others, glorify thy Son

Clarke: Joh 12:28 - Then came there a voice from heaven, etc. Then came there a voice from heaven, etc. - The following is a literal translation of Calmet’ s note on this passage, which he has taken from C...

Then came there a voice from heaven, etc. - The following is a literal translation of Calmet’ s note on this passage, which he has taken from Chrysostom, Theodoret, Theophylact, and others: "I have accomplished my eternal designs on thee. I have sent thee into the world to make an atonement for the sin of the world, and to satisfy my offended justice. I will finish my work. Thou shalt shed thy blood upon the cross. My glory is interested in the consummation of thy sacrifice. But, in procuring my own glory, I shall procure thine. Thy life and thy death glorify me: I have glorified thee by the miracles which have accompanied thy mission; and I will continue to glorify thee at thy death, by unexampled prodigies, and thy resurrection shall be the completion of thy glory and of thy elevation.

Christ was glorified

1.    By the prodigies which happened at his death

2.    In his resurrection

3.    In his ascension, and sitting at the right hand of God

4.    In the descent of the Holy Ghost on the apostles. an

5.    In the astonishing success with which the Gospel was accompanied, and by which the kingdom of Christ has been established in the world. 2Co 2:14.

Clarke: Joh 12:29 - The people - said that it thundered: others - an angel spake to him The people - said that it thundered: others - an angel spake to him - Bishop Pearce says, Probably there was thunder as well as a voice, as in Exo 1...

The people - said that it thundered: others - an angel spake to him - Bishop Pearce says, Probably there was thunder as well as a voice, as in Exo 19:16, Exo 19:17, and some persons, who were at a small distance, might hear the thunder without hearing the voice; while others heard the voice too; and these last said, "An angel hath spoken to him.

Wetstein supposes that the voice was in the language then in use among the Jews; which the Greeks, not understanding, took for thunder; the others, the Jews, who did understand it, said it was the voice of an angel. In Rev 6:1, the voice of one of the living creatures is compared to thunder; and in Rev 10:3, the voice of an angel is compared to seven thunders. The voice mentioned was probably very loud, which some heard distinctly, others indistinctly; hence the variety of opinion.

Clarke: Joh 12:30 - This voice came not because of me, but for your sakes This voice came not because of me, but for your sakes - Probably meaning those Greeks who had been brought to him by Philip and Andrew. The Jews had...

This voice came not because of me, but for your sakes - Probably meaning those Greeks who had been brought to him by Philip and Andrew. The Jews had frequent opportunities of seeing his miracles, and of being convinced that he was the Messiah; but these Greeks, who were to be a first fruits of the Gentiles, had never any such opportunity. For their sakes, therefore, to confirm them in the faith, this miraculous voice appears to have come from heaven.

Clarke: Joh 12:31 - Now is the judgment of this world Now is the judgment of this world - The judgment spoken of in this place is applied by some to the punishment which was about to fall on the Jewish ...

Now is the judgment of this world - The judgment spoken of in this place is applied by some to the punishment which was about to fall on the Jewish people for rejecting Christ. And the ruler or prince, ὁ αρχων, of this world, is understood to be Satan, who had blinded the eyes of the Jews, and hardened their hearts, that they might not believe on the Son of God; but his kingdom, not only among the Jews, but in all the world, was about to be destroyed by the abolition of idolatry and the vocation of the Gentiles

The epithet סר העולם sar ha -olam , prince of this world, is repeatedly applied to the devil, or to Samael, who is termed the angel of death. The Jews fabled that, into the hands of this chief, God had delivered all the nations of the earth, except the Israelites. See Lightfoot. The words are understood by others as addressed to these believing Greeks, and to have the following meaning, which is extremely different from the other. "In a short time (four or five days afterwards) ye shall see what sort of a judgment this world passes. I, who am its ruler and prince, shall be cast out, shall be condemned by my own creatures, as an impious and wicked person. But do not be discouraged: though I be lifted up on the cross, and die like a malefactor, nevertheless I will draw all men unto myself. The Gospel of Christ crucified shall be the grand agent, in the hand of the Most High, of the conversion and salvation of a ruined world."But see on Joh 14:30 (note); Joh 16:11 (note).

Clarke: Joh 12:32 - I - will draw all men unto me I - will draw all men unto me - After I shall have died and risen again, by the preaching of my word and the influence of my Spirit, I shall attract...

I - will draw all men unto me - After I shall have died and risen again, by the preaching of my word and the influence of my Spirit, I shall attract and illuminate both Jews and Gentiles. It was one of the peculiar characteristics of the Messiah, that unto him should the gathering of the people be, Gen 49:10. And probably our Lord refers to the prophecy, Isa 11:10, which peculiarly belonged to the Gentiles: "There shall be a root of Jesse which shall stand for an Ensign of the people, to it shall the Gentiles seek, and his rest shall be glorious."There is an allusion here to the ensigns or colors of commanders of regiments, elevated on high places, on long poles, that the people might see where the pavilion of their general was, and so flock to his standard

Instead of παντας, the Codex Bezae, another, several versions, and many of the fathers, read παντα, all men, or all things: so the Anglo-Saxon, I will draw all things to myself . But παντα may be here the accusative singular, and signify all men

The ancients fabled that Jupiter had a chain of gold, which he could at any time let down from heaven, and by it draw the earth and all its inhabitants to himself. See a fine passage to this effect in Homer, Iliad viii. ver. 18-27

Ειδ αγε, πειρησασθε θεοι, ἱνα ειδετε παντες,

Σειρην χρυσειην εξ ουρανοθεν κρεμασαντες·

Παντες δ εξαπτεσθε θεοι, πασαι τε θεαιναι. κ. τ. λ.

"Now prove me: let ye down the golden chai

From heaven, and pull at its inferior links

Both goddesses and gods: but me your king

Supreme in wisdom, ye shall never dra

To earth from heaven, strive with me as ye may

But I, if willing to exert my power

The earth itself, itself the sea, and you

Will lift with ease together, and will win

The chain around the spiry summit shar

Of the Olympian, that all things upheave

Shall hang in the mid heaven. So much am I

Alone, superior both to gods and men

Cowper

By this chain the poets pointed out the union between heaven and earth; or, in other words, the government of the universe by the extensive chain of causes and effects. It was termed golden, to point out, not only the beneficence of the Divine Providence, but also that infinite philanthropy of God by which he influences and by which he attracts all mankind to himself. It was possibly in allusion to this that our Lord spoke the above words. Should it be objected that it is inconsistent with the gravity of the subject, and the dignity of our Lord, to allude to the fable of a heathen poet, I answer

1.    The moral is excellent, and, applied to this purpose, expresses beautifully our Lord’ s gracious design in dying for the world, viz. That men might be united to himself, and drawn up into heaven

2.    It is no more inconsistent with the gravity of the subject, and his dignity, for our blessed Lord to allude to Homer, than it was for St. Paul to quote Aratus and Cleanthes, Act 17:28, and Epimenides, Tit 1:12; for he spoke by the same Spirit

So justice was sometimes represented under the emblem of a golden chain, and in some cases such a chain was constructed, one end attached to the emperor’ s apartment, and the other hanging within reach; that if any person were oppressed he might come and lay hold on the chain, and by shaking it give the king notice that he was oppressed, and thus claim protection from the fountain of justice and power. In the Jehangeer Nameh, a curious account of this kind is given, which is as follows. The first order which Jehangeer issued on his accession to the throne (which was A.H. 1014, answering to a.d. 1605) was for the construction of the Golden Chain of Justice. It was made of pure gold, and measured thirty yards in length, consisting of sixty links, and weighing, in the whole, four Hindostany maunds (about four hundred pounds avoirdupois.) One end of the chain was suspended from the royal bastion of the fortress of Agra, and the other fastened in the ground near the side of the river. The intention of this was, that if the officers of the courts of law were partial in their decisions, or dilatory in the administration of justice, the injured parties might come themselves to this chain, and, making a noise by shaking the links of it, give notice that they were waiting to represent their grievances to his majesty. Hist. of Hindostan, p. 96, Calcutta, 1788. Such a communication, prayer and faith establish between the most just and most merciful God, and the wretched and oppressed children of men. "And I, if I be lifted up from the earth, will draw all men unto me."O thou that hearest prayer, unto thee shall all flesh come! Psa 65:2.

Clarke: Joh 12:34 - We have heard out of the law We have heard out of the law - That is, out of the sacred writings. The words here are quoted from Psa 110:4; but the Jews called every part of the ...

We have heard out of the law - That is, out of the sacred writings. The words here are quoted from Psa 110:4; but the Jews called every part of the sacred writings by the name, The Law, in opposition to the words or sayings of the scribes. See on Joh 10:34 (note)

Clarke: Joh 12:34 - That Christ abideth for ever That Christ abideth for ever - There was no part of the law nor of the Scripture that said the Messiah should not die; but there are several passage...

That Christ abideth for ever - There was no part of the law nor of the Scripture that said the Messiah should not die; but there are several passages that say as expressly as they can that Christ must die, and die for the sin of the world too. See especially Isa 53:1, etc.; Dan 9:24, Dan 9:27. But as there were several passages that spoke of the perpetuity of his reign, as Isa 9:7; Eze 37:25; Dan 7:14, they probably confounded the one with the other, and thus drew the conclusion, The Messiah cannot die; for the Scripture hath said, his throne, kingdom, and reign shall be eternal. The prophets, as well as the evangelists and apostles, speak sometimes of the Divine, sometimes of the human nature of Christ: when they speak of the former, they show forth its glory, excellence, omnipotence, omniscience, and eternity; when they speak of the latter, they show forth its humiliations, afflictions, sufferings, and death. And those who do not make the proper distinction between the two natures of Christ, the human and the Divine, will ever make blunders as well as the Jews. It is only on the ground of two natures in Christ that the Scriptures which speak of him, either in the Old or New Testament, can be possibly understood. No position in the Gospel is plainer than this, God was manifest in the flesh.

Clarke: Joh 12:35 - Yet a little while is the light with you Yet a little while is the light with you - In answer to their objection, our Lord compares himself to a light, which was about to disappear for a sh...

Yet a little while is the light with you - In answer to their objection, our Lord compares himself to a light, which was about to disappear for a short time, and afterwards to shine forth with more abundant lustre; but not to their comfort, if they continued to reject its present beamings. He exhorts them to follow this light while it was among them. The Christ shall abide for ever, it is true; but he will not always be visible. When he shall depart from you, ye shall be left in the thickest darkness; in impenitence and hardness of heart. Then shall ye wish to see one of the days of the Son of man, and shall not see it, Luk 17:22. Then shall ye seek me, but shall not find me, Joh 7:34. For the kingdom of God shall be taken from you, and given to the Gentiles, Mat 21:43. If ye believe not in me now, ye shall then wish ye had done it, when wishing shall be for ever fruitless

Instead of μεθ ὑμων, with you, εν ὑμιν, among you, is the reading of BDL, seventeen others; Coptic, Gothic, Slavonic, Vulgate, Itala; Cyril, Nonnus, and Victorinus. Griesbach has received it into the text. The meaning of both is nearly the same

Clarke: Joh 12:35 - Lest darkness come upon you Lest darkness come upon you - Ye have a good part of your journey yet to go: ye cannot travel safely but in the daylight - that light is almost gone...

Lest darkness come upon you - Ye have a good part of your journey yet to go: ye cannot travel safely but in the daylight - that light is almost gone - run, that the darkness overtake you not, or in it ye shall stumble, fall, and perish

Reader, is thy journey near an end? There may be but a very little time remaining to thee. O, run, fly to Christ, lest the darkness of death overtake thee, before thy soul have found redemption in his blood!

Clarke: Joh 12:36 - Children of light Children of light - Let the light, the truth of Christ, so dwell in and work by you that ye may be all light in the Lord: that as truly as a child i...

Children of light - Let the light, the truth of Christ, so dwell in and work by you that ye may be all light in the Lord: that as truly as a child is the produce of his own parent, and partakes of his nature, so ye may be children of the light, having nothing in you but truth and righteousness

Clarke: Joh 12:36 - Did hide himself from them Did hide himself from them - Either by rendering himself invisible, or by suddenly mingling with the crowd, so that they could not perceive him. See...

Did hide himself from them - Either by rendering himself invisible, or by suddenly mingling with the crowd, so that they could not perceive him. See Joh 8:59. Probably it means no more than that he withdrew from them, and went to Bethany, as was his custom a little before his crucifixion; and concealed himself there during the night, and taught publicly every day in the temple. It was in the night season that they endeavored to seize upon him, in the absence of the multitude.

Clarke: Joh 12:37 - Yet they believed not on him Yet they believed not on him - Though the miracles were wrought for this very purpose, that they might believe in Christ, and escape the coming wrat...

Yet they believed not on him - Though the miracles were wrought for this very purpose, that they might believe in Christ, and escape the coming wrath, and every evidence given that Jesus was the Messiah, yet they did not believe; but they were blinded by their passions, and obstinately hardened their hearts against the truth.

Clarke: Joh 12:38 - That the saying of Esaias That the saying of Esaias - Or, Thus the word of Isaiah was fulfilled. So I think ἱνα (commonly rendered that) should be translated. For it c...

That the saying of Esaias - Or, Thus the word of Isaiah was fulfilled. So I think ἱνα (commonly rendered that) should be translated. For it certainly does not mean the end the Pharisees had in view by not believing; nor the end which the prophet had in view in predicting the incredulity of the Jews; but simply, such a thing was spoken by the prophet, concerning the Jews of his own time, and it had its literal fulfillment in those of our Lord’ s time

Clarke: Joh 12:38 - Our report Our report - The testimony of the prophets, concerning the person, office, sufferings, death, and sacrifice of the Messiah. See Isa 53:1, etc

Our report - The testimony of the prophets, concerning the person, office, sufferings, death, and sacrifice of the Messiah. See Isa 53:1, etc

Clarke: Joh 12:38 - The arm of the Lord The arm of the Lord - The power, strength, and miracles of Christ.

The arm of the Lord - The power, strength, and miracles of Christ.

Clarke: Joh 12:39 - Therefore they could not believe Therefore they could not believe - Why? Because they did not believe the report of the prophets concerning Christ; therefore they credited not the m...

Therefore they could not believe - Why? Because they did not believe the report of the prophets concerning Christ; therefore they credited not the miracles which he wrought as a proof that he was the person foretold by the prophets, and promised to their fathers. Having thus resisted the report of the prophets, and the evidence of Christ’ s own miracles, God gave them up to the darkness and hardness of their own hearts, so that they continued to reject every overture of Divine mercy; and God refused to heal their national wound, but, on the contrary, commissioned the Romans against them, so that their political existence was totally destroyed

The prophecy of Isaiah was neither the cause nor the motive of their unbelief: it was a simple prediction, which imposed no necessity on them to resist the offers of mercy. They might have believed, notwithstanding the prediction, for such kinds of prophecies always include a tacit condition; they may believe, if they properly use the light and power which God has given them. Such prophecies also are of a general application - they will always suit somebody, for in every age persons will be found who resist the grace and Spirit of God like these disobedient Jews. However, it appears that this prediction belonged especially to these rejecters and crucifiers of Christ; and if the prophecy was infallible in its execution, with respect to them, it was not because of the prediction that they continued in unbelief, but because of their own voluntary obstinacy; and God foreseeing this, foretold it by the prophet. Should I say that, they could not believe, means, they would not believe, I should perhaps offend a generation of his children; and yet I am pretty certain the words should be so understood. However, that I may put myself under cover from all suspicion of perverting the meaning of a text which seems to some to be spoken in favor of that awful doctrine of unconditional reprobation, the very father of it shall interpret the text for me. Thus then saith St. Augustin: Quare autem non Poterant, si a me quaeratur, cito respondeo; Quia Nolebant: Malam quippe eorum Voluntatem praevidit Deus, et per prophetam praenunciavit . "If I be asked why they Could not believe? I immediately answer, Because They Would Not. And God, having foreseen their Bad Will, foretold it by the prophet."Aug. Tract. 53, in Joan.

Clarke: Joh 12:40 - And I should heal them And I should heal them - This verse is taken from Isa 6:9, and, perhaps, refers more to the judgments that should fall upon them as a nation, which ...

And I should heal them - This verse is taken from Isa 6:9, and, perhaps, refers more to the judgments that should fall upon them as a nation, which God was determined should not be averted, than it does to their eternal state. To suppose that the text meant that God was unwilling that they should turn unto him, lest he should be obliged to save them, is an insupportable blasphemy.

Clarke: Joh 12:41 - When he saw his glory When he saw his glory - Isa 6:1, etc. I saw Jehovah, said the prophet, sitting upon a throne, high and lifted up, and his train filled the temple. A...

When he saw his glory - Isa 6:1, etc. I saw Jehovah, said the prophet, sitting upon a throne, high and lifted up, and his train filled the temple. Above it stood the seraphim; and one cried unto another, and said, Holy, holy, holy, is Jehovah, God of hosts; the whole earth shall be full of his glory! It appears evident, from this passage, that the glory which the prophet saw was the glory of Jehovah: John, therefore, saying here that it was the glory of Jesus, shows that he considered Jesus to be Jehovah. See Bishop Pearce. Two MSS. and a few versions have Θεου, and του Θεου αὑτου, the glory of God, or of his God.

Clarke: Joh 12:42 - Among the chief rulers - many believed on him Among the chief rulers - many believed on him - We only know the names of two of them, Nicodemus, and Joseph of Arimathea

Among the chief rulers - many believed on him - We only know the names of two of them, Nicodemus, and Joseph of Arimathea

Clarke: Joh 12:42 - But - they did not confess him But - they did not confess him - Or it: they were as yet weak in the faith, and could not bear the reproach of the cross of Christ. Besides, the pri...

But - they did not confess him - Or it: they were as yet weak in the faith, and could not bear the reproach of the cross of Christ. Besides, the principal rulers had determined to excommunicate every person who acknowledged Christ for the Messiah; see Joh 9:22.

Clarke: Joh 12:43 - They loved the praise of men They loved the praise of men - Δοξαν, the glory or honor that cometh from men How common are these four obstacles of faith! says Quesnel 1.&nb...

They loved the praise of men - Δοξαν, the glory or honor that cometh from men

How common are these four obstacles of faith! says Quesnel

1.    Too great a regard to men

2.    Riches and temporal advantages

3.    The fear of disgrace

4.    The love of the praise of men

Abundance of persons persuade themselves that they love God more than the world, till some trying occasion fully convinces them of their mistake. It is a very great misfortune for a person not to know himself but by his falls; but it is the greatest of all not to rise again after he has fallen. This is generally occasioned by the love of the praise of men, because in their account it is more shameful to rise again than it was to fall at first.

Clarke: Joh 12:44 - Jesus cried and said Jesus cried and said - This is our Lord’ s concluding discourse to this wicked people: probably this and the following verses should be underst...

Jesus cried and said - This is our Lord’ s concluding discourse to this wicked people: probably this and the following verses should be understood as a part of the discourse which was left off at the 36th verse

Jesus cried - he spoke these words aloud, and showed his earnest desire for their salvation

Clarke: Joh 12:44 - Believeth not on me, (only), but on him that sent me Believeth not on me, (only), but on him that sent me - Here he asserts again his indivisible unity with the Father: - he who believes on the Son bel...

Believeth not on me, (only), but on him that sent me - Here he asserts again his indivisible unity with the Father: - he who believes on the Son believes on the Father: he who hath seen the Son hath seen the Father: he who honors the Son honors the Father. Though it was for asserting this (his oneness with God) that they were going to crucify him, yet he retracts nothing of what he had spoken, but strongly reasserts it, in the very jaws of death!

Clarke: Joh 12:46 - I am come a light into the world I am come a light into the world - Probably referring to what his forerunner had said, Joh 1:5. Before the coming of this Savior, this sun of righte...

I am come a light into the world - Probably referring to what his forerunner had said, Joh 1:5. Before the coming of this Savior, this sun of righteousness, into the world, all was darkness: at his rising the darkness is dispersed; but it only profits those whose eyes are open to receive the rays of this sun of righteousness. See on Joh 1:5 (note); Joh 3:19 (note); Joh 8:12 (note); Joh 9:5 (note).

Clarke: Joh 12:47 - And believe not And believe not - Και μη φυλαξῃ, And keep them not, is the reading of ABL, seven others; Syriac, Wheelock’ s Persian, two of the ...

And believe not - Και μη φυλαξῃ, And keep them not, is the reading of ABL, seven others; Syriac, Wheelock’ s Persian, two of the Arabic, Coptic, Sahidic, Ethiopic, Armenian, later Syriac, Vulgate, six of the Itala, and some of the fathers

A man must hear the words of Christ in order to believe them; and he must believe, in order to keep them; and he must keep them in order to his salvation

Clarke: Joh 12:47 - I judge him not I judge him not - I need not do it: the words of Moses and the prophets judge and condemn him. See the notes on Joh 3:17; Joh 5:45.

I judge him not - I need not do it: the words of Moses and the prophets judge and condemn him. See the notes on Joh 3:17; Joh 5:45.

Clarke: Joh 12:48 - The word that I have spoken - shall judge him The word that I have spoken - shall judge him - Ye shall be judged according to my doctrine: the maxims which ye have heard from my mouth shall be t...

The word that I have spoken - shall judge him - Ye shall be judged according to my doctrine: the maxims which ye have heard from my mouth shall be those on which ye shall be tried in the great day; and ye shall be condemned or acquitted according as ye have believed or obeyed them, or according as ye have despised and violated them, See this proved, Mat 25:35 (note), etc.

Clarke: Joh 12:49 - For I have not spoken of myself For I have not spoken of myself - I have not spoken for my secular interest: I have not aimed at making any gain of you: I have not set up myself as...

For I have not spoken of myself - I have not spoken for my secular interest: I have not aimed at making any gain of you: I have not set up myself as your teachers in general do, to be supported by my disciples, and to be credited on my own testimony. I have taught you, not the things of men, but the deep, everlasting truths of God. As his envoy, I came to you; and his truth only I proclaim

Clarke: Joh 12:49 - Gave me a commandment Gave me a commandment - Or, commission. So I understand the original word, εντολη . Christ, as the Messiah, received his commission from God;...

Gave me a commandment - Or, commission. So I understand the original word, εντολη . Christ, as the Messiah, received his commission from God; what he should command - every thing that related to the formation and establishment of the Christian institution: and what he should speak - all his private conversations with his disciples or others, he, as man, commanded and spoke through the constant inspiration of the Holy Spirit.

Clarke: Joh 12:50 - I know that this commandment is life everlasting I know that this commandment is life everlasting - These words of our Lord are similar to that saying in St. John’ s first epistle, 1Jo 5:11, 1...

I know that this commandment is life everlasting - These words of our Lord are similar to that saying in St. John’ s first epistle, 1Jo 5:11, 1Jo 5:12. This is the record, that God hath given unto us eternal life, and this life is in his Son. He that hath the Son hath life. God’ s commandment or commission is, Preach salvation to a lost world, and give thyself a ransom for all; and whosoever believeth on thee shall not perish, but have everlasting life. Every word of Christ, properly credited, and carefully applied, leads to peace and happiness here, and to glory hereafter. What an amiable view of the Gospel of the grace of God does this give us? It is a system of eternal life, Divinely calculated to answer every important purpose to dying, miserable man. This sacred truth Jesus witnessed with his last breath. He began his public ministry proclaiming the kingdom of God; and he now finishes it by asserting that the whole commission is eternal life; and, having attested this, he went out of the temple, and retired to Bethany

The public work of our Lord was now done; and the remnant of his time, previously to his crucifixion, he spent in teaching his disciples - instructing them in the nature of his kingdom, his intercession, and the mission of the Holy Spirit; and in that heavenly life which all true believers live with the Father, through faith in the Son, by the operation of the Holy Ghost

Many persons are liberal in their condemnation of the Jews, because they did not believe on the Son of God; and doubtless their unbelief has merited and received the most signal punishment. But those who condemn them do not reflect that they are probably committing the same sort of transgression, in circumstances which heighten the iniquity of their sin. Will it avail any man, that he has believed that Christ has come in the flesh to destroy the works of the devil, who does not come unto him that he may have life, but continues to live under the power and guilt of sin? Paradoxical as it may seem, it is nevertheless possible, for a man to credit the four evangelists, and yet live and die an infidel, as far as his own salvation is concerned. Reader, it is possible to hold the truth in unrighteousness. Pray to God that this may not be thy condemnation. For a farther improvement of the principal subjects of this chapter, see the notes on Joh 12:24 (note), Joh 12:32 (note) and Joh 12:39 (note).

Calvin: Joh 12:1 - Jesus came to Bethany 1.Jesus came to Bethany We see that they judged too rashly who thought that Christ would not come to the feast, 2 (Joh 11:56;) and this, reminds us ...

1.Jesus came to Bethany We see that they judged too rashly who thought that Christ would not come to the feast, 2 (Joh 11:56;) and this, reminds us that we ought not to be so hasty as not to wait patiently and quietly, till the season arrive, which is unknown to us. Now Jesus came first to Bethany, that thence he might go three days afterwards to Jerusalem. Meanwhile, he intended to give Judas a fit time and place for betraying him, that he might present himself, ready to be sacrificed, at the appointed time; for he is not ignorant of what is to take place, but willingly comes forward to be sacrificed.

Having come to Bethany six days before the passover, he remained there four days; which may easily be inferred from Matthew and Mark. On what day the banquet was made for him, at which he was anointed by Mary, John does not state; but it seems probable that it took place not long after he had arrived. There are some who think that, the anointing mentioned by Matthew (Mat 26:7) and Mark (Mar 14:3) is different from what is mentioned here; but they are mistaken. They have been led to adopt this view by a calculation of time, because the two Evangelists, (Mat 26:2; Mar 14:1,) before relating that Christ was anointed, speak of two days as having elapsed. But the solution is easy, and may be given in two ways. For John does not say that Christ was anointed on the first day after his arrival; so that this might happen even when he was preparing to depart. Yet, as I have already said, there is another conjecture which is more probable, that he was anointed one day, at least, or two days, before his departure; for it is certain that Judas had made a bargain with the priests, before Christ sent two of his disciples to make ready the passover. 3 Now, at the very least, one day must have intervened. The Evangelists add, that he

sought a convenient opportunity for betraying Christ,
(Mat 26:16,)

after having received the bribe. When, therefore, after mentioning two days, they add the history of the anointing, they place last in the narrative what happened first. And the reason is, that after having related the words of Christ,

You know that after two days the Son of man shall be betrayed,
(Mat 26:2,)

they now add — what had been formerly omitted — in what manner and on what occasion he was betrayed by his disciple. There is thus a perfect agreement in the account of his having been anointed at Bethany.

Calvin: Joh 12:2 - There therefore they made him a banquet 2.There therefore they made him a banquet. Matthew (Mat 26:7) and Mark, (Mar 14:3) say that he then supped at the house of Simon the leper. John does...

2.There therefore they made him a banquet. Matthew (Mat 26:7) and Mark, (Mar 14:3) say that he then supped at the house of Simon the leper. John does not mention the house, but shows plainly enough, that it was in some other place than the house of Lazarus and Martha that he supped; for he says that Lazarus was one of those who sat at table with him, that is, one who had been invited along with Christ. Nor does it involve any contradiction, that Matthew and Mark relate that the head of Christ was anointed, while John relates that his feet were anointed. The usual practice was the anointing of the head, and on this account Pliny reckons it an instance of excessive luxury, that some anointed the ankles. The three Evangelists agree in this; that Mary did not anoint Christ sparingly, but poured on him a large quantity of ointment. What John speaks, about the feet, amounts to this, that the whole body of Christ, down to the feet, was anointed. There is an amplification in the word feet, which appears more fully from what follows, when he adds, that Mary wiped his feet with her hair

Calvin: Joh 12:3 - And the house was filled with the odor 3.And the house was filled with the odor of the ointment. It was not a simple liquor extracted from spikenard, but a compound of many odoriferous s...

3.And the house was filled with the odor of the ointment. It was not a simple liquor extracted from spikenard, but a compound of many odoriferous substances; and therefore it is not wonderful that the whole house was filled with the odor

Calvin: Joh 12:4 - One of his disciples, therefore, saith 4.One of his disciples, therefore, saith Next follows the murmuring of Judas, which Matthew (Mat 16:8) attributes to the disciples indiscriminately, ...

4.One of his disciples, therefore, saith Next follows the murmuring of Judas, which Matthew (Mat 16:8) attributes to the disciples indiscriminately, and Mark (Mar 14:4) to some of them; but it is customary in Scripture to apply to many, by way of synecdoche, what belongs to one or to a few. Yet I think it is probable, that the murmuring proceeded from Judas alone, and that the rest were induced to give him their assent, as murmurings, by fanning a flame, easily kindle in us a variety of dispositions; and more especially, as we are too prone to form unfavorable judgments, slanders are readily embraced by us. But the credulity which the Spirit of God reproves in the Apostles is a warning to us not to be too easy and credulous in listening to calumnious statements.

Calvin: Joh 12:5 - Why was not this ointment sold for three hundred denarii? 5.Why was not this ointment sold for three hundred denarii? A pound of ordinary ointment, Pliny tells us, cost not more than ten denarii; but the sam...

5.Why was not this ointment sold for three hundred denarii? A pound of ordinary ointment, Pliny tells us, cost not more than ten denarii; but the same Pliny says, that the highest price of the best ointment was three hundred and ten denarii. Now the Evangelists agree, that this was the most costly ointment, and Therefore Judas is correct in valuing a pound of it at three hundred denarii, — a sum which, according to the computation of Budaeus, amounts to fifty livres of French money. And as almost every kind of luxury involves excess and superfluity, the greater the waste of money, the more plausible reason had Judas for murmuring; as if he had said, “Had Mary spent little, there would have been some excuse for her; but now, since, in a matter of no importance, she has wasted a vast sum of money, has she not done an injury to the poor, who might have obtained from such a sum great relief? What she has done, therefore, admits of no apology.”

Calvin: Joh 12:6 - Because he was a thief 6.Because he was a thief. The rest of the Apostles, not from any bad disposition, but thoughtlessly, condemn Mary. But Judas resorts to a plausible p...

6.Because he was a thief. The rest of the Apostles, not from any bad disposition, but thoughtlessly, condemn Mary. But Judas resorts to a plausible pretext for his wickedness, when he brings forward the poor, though he cared nothing about them. We are taught by this instance what a frightful beast the desire of possessing is; the loss which Judas thinks that he has sustained, by the loss of an opportunity for stealing, excites him to such rage that he does not hesitate to betray Christ. And probably, in what he said about the poor having been defrauded, he did not only speak falsely to others, but likewise flattered himself inwardly, as hypocrites are wont to do; as if the act of betraying Christ were a trivial fault, by which he endeavored to obtain compensation for the loss which he had sustained. He had but one reason, indeed, for betraying Christ; and that was, to regain in some way the prey which had been snatched from his hands; for it was the indignation excited in him, by the gain which he had lost, that drove him to the design of betraying Christ.

It is wonderful that Christ should have chosen, as a steward, a person of this description, whom he knew to be a thief. For what else was it than to put into his hands a rope for strangling himself? Mortal man can give no other reply than this, that the judgments of God are a deep gulf. Yet the action of Christ ought not to be viewed as an ordinary rule, that we should commit the care of the poor, or any thing sacred, to a wicked and ungodly man. for God has laid down to us a law, who they are that ought to be called to the government of the Church, and to other offices; and this law we are not at liberty to violate. The case was otherwise with Christ, who, being the eternal Wisdom of God, furnished an opportunity for his secret predestination in the person of Judas.

Calvin: Joh 12:7 - Let her alone // For the day of my burial she hath kept it 7.Let her alone When Christ bids them let Mary alone, he shows that they act improperly and unjustly who disturb their neighbors without a good re...

7.Let her alone When Christ bids them let Mary alone, he shows that they act improperly and unjustly who disturb their neighbors without a good reason, and raise a disturbance about nothing. Christ’s reply, as given by the other Evangelists, is longer; but the meaning is the same. The anointing, which Judas finds fault with, is defended on this ground, that it will serve for his burial. Christ, therefore, does not approve of! it as an ordinary service, or one which ought to be commonly used in the Church; for if he had intended that an office of this sort should be performed daily, he could have said something else instead of speaking of it as connected with his burial. God certainly does not approve of outward display. Nay, more, perceiving that the mind of man is too prone to carnal observances, He frequently enjoins us to be sober and moderate in the use of them. Those persons, therefore, are absurd interpreters, who infer from Christ’s reply, that costly and magnificent worship is pleasing to God; for he rather excuses Mary on the ground of her having rendered to him an extraordinary service, which ought not to be regarded as a perpetual rule for the worship of God.

For the day of my burial she hath kept it. When he says, that the ointment was kept, he means that it was not poured unseasonably, but with a due regard to the time when it occurred; for a thing is said to be kept, which is reserved in store to be brought cut at a fit time and place. It is certain that, if any person, at a former period, had burdened him with costly delicacies, he would not have endured it. But he affirms that Mary did not do this as a customary matter, but in order to discharge her last duty towards him. Besides, the anointing of bodies was not at that time a useless ceremony, but rather a spiritual symbol, to place before their eyes the hope of a resurrection. The promises were still obscure; Christ had not risen, who is justly designated the first-fruits of them that rise, (1Co 15:20.) Believers, therefore, needed such aids to direct them to Christ, who was still absent; and, accordingly, the anointing of Christ was not at that time superfluous, for he was soon to be buried, and he was anointed as if he were to be laid in the tomb. The disciples were not yet aware of this, and Mary unquestionably was suddenly moved to do, under the direction of the Spirit of God, what she had not previously intended. But Christ applies to the hope of his resurrection what they so greatly disapproved, in order that the usefulness, which he pointed out to them in this action, 4 might lead them to renounce the fretful and wicked opinion which they had formed respecting it. As it was the will of God that the childhood of his ancient people should be guided by such exercises, so, in the present day, it would be foolish to attempt the same thing; nor could it be done without offering an insult to Christ, who has driven away such shadows by the brightness of his coming. But as his resurrection had not yet brought the fulfillment of the shadows of the Law, it was proper that his burial should be adorned by an outward ceremony. The odor of his resurrection has now sufficient efficacy, without spikenard and costly ointments, to quicken the whole world. But let us remember that, in judging of the actions of men, we ought to abide by the decision of Christ alone, at whose tribunal we must one day stand.

Calvin: Joh 12:8 - For the poor you have always with you // But me you have not always 8.For the poor you have always with you We must observe what I have already pointed out, that a distinction is here drawn expressly between the extra...

8.For the poor you have always with you We must observe what I have already pointed out, that a distinction is here drawn expressly between the extraordinary action of Mary, and the daily service which is due to Christ. Those persons, therefore, are apes, and not imitators, who are desirous to serve Christ by costly and splendid display; as if Christ approved of what was done once, and did not rather forbid that it should be done afterwards.

But me you have not always When he says, that he will not always be with his disciples, this ought to be referred to that kind of presence to which carnal worship and costly honors are suitable. For as to his presence with us by the grace and power of his Spirit, his dwelling in us, and also feeding us with his flesh and blood, this has nothing to do with bodily observances. Of all the pompous ceremonies which the Papists have contrived for the worship of Christ, in vain do they tell us, that they have bestowed them upon him, for he openly rejects them. When he says, that the poor will always be with us, though, by this saying, he reproves the hypocrisy of the Jews, yet we may learn from it a profitable doctrine; namely, that alms, by which the wants of the poor are relieved, are sacrifices acceptable, and of sweet savor, to God, and that any other kind of expense in the worship of God is improperly bestowed.

Calvin: Joh 12:9 - Then a great multitude of the Jews knew that he was there 9.Then a great multitude of the Jews knew that he was there The more nearly the time of the death of Christ approached, it became the more necessary ...

9.Then a great multitude of the Jews knew that he was there The more nearly the time of the death of Christ approached, it became the more necessary that his name should be universally celebrated, in order that it might be a preparation for stronger faith after his death. More especially, the Evangelist relates that the recent miracle of the resurrection of Lazarus had acquired great celebrity: and as Christ showed in it a remarkable proof of his Divinity, God intended that it should have many witnesses. When he says that they came not on account of Jesus only, but also for the sake of Lazarus, he does not mean that they came out of regard to Lazarus, as if they bestowed this mark of honor on him in particular, but that they might behold the astonishing display of the power of Christ in Lazarus.

Calvin: Joh 12:10 - Now the chief priests consulted 10.Now the chief priests consulted It certainly was worse than insane fury to endeavor to put to death one who had manifestly been raised from the de...

10.Now the chief priests consulted It certainly was worse than insane fury to endeavor to put to death one who had manifestly been raised from the dead by divine power. But such is the spirit of giddiness with which Satan torments the wicked, so that there is no end of their madness, even though God should bring heaven, and earth, and sea, to oppose them. For this wicked consultation is thus described, for the purpose of informing us that the enemies of Christ were led to so great obstinacy, not by mistake or folly, but by furious wickedness, so that they did not even shrink from making war against God; and also for the purpose of informing us that the power of God was not dimly seen in the resurrection of Lazarus, since ungodliness could contrive no other method of banishing it from remembrance than by perpetrating a base and shocking murder on an innocent man. Besides, since Satan labors with his utmost strength utterly to bury, or at least in some measure to obscure, the works of God, it is our duty to devote ourselves diligently to continual meditation on them.

Calvin: Joh 12:12 - The next day, a great multitude // A great multitude, which came to the feast 12.The next day, a great multitude This entrance of Christ is more copiously related (Mat 21:1; Mar 11:1; Luk 19:29) by the other Evangelists; but Jo...

12.The next day, a great multitude This entrance of Christ is more copiously related (Mat 21:1; Mar 11:1; Luk 19:29) by the other Evangelists; but John here embraces the leading points. In the first place, we ought to remember Christ’s design, which was, that he came to Jerusalem of his own accord, to. offer himself to die; for it was necessary that his death should be voluntary, because the wrath of God could be appeased only by a sacrifice of obedience. And, indeed, he well knew what would be the result; but before he is dragged to the cross, he wishes to be solemnly acknowledged by the people as their King; nay, he openly declares that he commences his reign by advancing to death, but though his approach was celebrated by a vast crowd of people, still he remained unknown to his enemies until, by the fulfillment of prophecies, which we shall afterwards see in their own place, he proved that he was the true Messiah; for he wished to omit nothing that would contribute to the full confirmation of our faith.

A great multitude, which came to the feast Thus strangers were more ready to discharge the duty of paying respect to the Son of God than the citizens of Jerusalem, who ought rather to have been all example to all others. For they had sacrifices daily; the temple was always before their eyes, which ought to have: kindled in their hearts the desire of seeking God; these too were the highest teachers of the Church, and there was the sanctuary of the divine light. It is therefore a manifestation of excessively base ingratitude in them that, after they have been trained to such exercise from their earliest years, they reject or despise the Redeemer who had been promised to them. But this fault has prevailed in almost every age, that the more nearly and the more familiarly God approached to men, the more daringly did men despise God.

In other men who, having left their homes, assembled to celebrate the feast, we observe much greater ardor, so that they eagerly inquire about Christ; and when they hear that he is coming into the city, they go out to meet and congratulate him. And yet it cannot be doubted that they were aroused by a secret movement of the Spirit to meet him. We do not read that this was done on any former occasion. But as earthly princes summon their subjects by the sound of a trumpet or by the public crier, when they go to take possession of their kingdom, so Christ, by a movement of his Spirit, assembled this people, that they might hail him as their king. When the multitudes wished to make him a king, while he was in the wilderness, (Joh 6:15,) he withdrew secretly into the mountain; for at that time they dreamed of no other kingdom than one under which they might be well fattened, in the same manner as cattle. Christ could not therefore grant and comply with their foolish and absurd wish, without denying himself, and renouncing the office which the Father had bestowed upon him. But now he claims for himself such a kingdom as he had received from the Father. I readily acknowledge that the people who went out to meet him were not well acquainted with the nature of this kingdom; but Christ looked to the future. Meanwhile, he permitted nothing to be done that was not suitable to his spiritual kingdom.

Calvin: Joh 12:13 - Took branches of palm-trees // Shouted, Hosanna // Who cometh in the name of the Lord 13.Took branches of palm-trees The palm was the emblem of victory and peace among the ancients; but they were wont to employ branches of palm-tree...

13.Took branches of palm-trees The palm was the emblem of victory and peace among the ancients; but they were wont to employ branches of palm-trees, when they bestowed kingly power on any one, or when they humbly supplicated the favor of a conqueror. But those persons appear to have taken into their hands branches of palm-trees, as a token of gladness and rejoicing at receiving a new king.

Shouted, Hosanna By this phrase they testified that they acknowledged Jesus Christ to be the Messiah, who had anciently been promised to the fathers, and from whom redemption and salvation were to be expected. For the Psa 118:25 from which that exclamation is taken was composed in reference to the Messiah for this purpose, that all the saints might continually desire and ardently long for his coming, and might receive him with the utmost reverence, when he was manifested. It is therefore probable, or rather it may be inferred with certainty, that this prayer was frequently used by the Jews, and, consequently, was in every man’s mouth; so that the Spirit of God put words into the mouths, 5 of those men, when they wished a prosperous arrival to the Lord Jesus; and they were chosen by him as heralds to attest that Christ was come.

The word Hosanna is composed of two Hebrew words, and means, Save, I beseech you. The Hebrews, indeed, pronounce it differently, ( הושיע-נא ) Hoshianna; 6 but it usually happens that the pronunciation of words is corrupted, when they are transferred to a foreign language. Yet the Evangelists, though they wrote in Greek, purposely retained the Hebrew word, in order to express more fully that the multitude employed the ordinary form of prayer, which was first employed by David, and afterwards throughout an uninterrupted succession of ages, received by the people of God, and peculiarly consecrated for the purpose of blessing the kingdom of the Messiah. 7 To the same purpose are the words which immediately follow, Blessed be the King of Israel, who cometh in the name of the Lord; for this is also a joyful prayer for the happy and prosperous success of that kingdom, on which the restoration and prosperity of the Church of God depended.

But as David appears to speak of himself rather than of Christ in that psalm, we must first of all solve this difficulty; nor will the task be hard. We know for what purpose the kingdom was established in the hand of David and of his posterity; and that purpose was, that it might be a sort of prelude of the everlasting kingdom which was to be manifested at the proper time. And, indeed, it was not necessary that David should confine his attention to himself; and the Lord, by the prophets, frequently commands all the godly to turn their eyes to a different person from David. 8 So then all that David sung about himself is justly referred to that king who, according to the promise, was to arise from the seed of David to be the redeemer.

But we ought to derive from it a profitable admonition; for if we are members of the Church, the Lord calls upon us to cherish the same desire which he wished believers to cherish under the Law; that is, that we should wish with our whole heart that the kingdom of Christ should flourish and prosper; and not only so, but that we should demonstrate this by our prayers. In order To give us greater courage in prayer, we ought to observe that he prescribes to us the words. Woe then to our slothfulness, if we extinguish by our coldness, or quench by indifference, that ardor which God excites. Yet let us know that the prayers which we offer by the direction and authority of God will not be in vain. Provided that we be not indolent or grow weary in praying, He will be a faithful guardian of his kingdom, to defend it by his invincible power and protection. True, indeed, though we remain drowsy and inactive, 9 the majesty of his kingdom will be firm and sure; but when — as is frequently the ease — it is less prosperous than it ought to be, or rather falls into decay, as we perceive it to be, at the present day, fearfully scattered and wasted, this unquestionably arises through our fault. And when but a small restoration, or almost none, is to be seen, or when at least it advances slowly, let us ascribe it to our indifference. We daily ask from God that his kingdom may come, (Mat 6:10,) but scarcely one man in a hundred earnestly desires it. Justly, therefore, are we deprived of the blessing of God, which we are weary of asking.

We are also taught by this expression, that it is God alone who preserves and defends the Church; for He does not claim for himself, or command us to give him, anything but what is his own. Since, therefore, while He guides our tongues, we pray that he may preserve the kingdom of Christ, we acknowledge that, in order that this kingdom may remain in a proper state, God himself is the only bestower of salvation. He employs, indeed, the labors of men for this purpose, but of men whom his own hand has prepared for the work. Besides, while he makes use of men for advancing, or maintaining the kingdom of Christ, still every thing is begun and completed, through their agency, by God alone through the power of his Spirit.

Who cometh in the name of the Lord We must first understand what is meant by this phrase, to come in the name of the Lord. He who does not rashly put himself forward, or falsely assume the honor, but, being duly called, has the direction and authority of God for his actions, cometh in the name of God This title belongs to all the true servants of God. A Prophet who guided by the Holy Spirit, honestly delivers to men the doctrine which he has received from heaven, — cometh in the name of God. A King, by whose hand God governs his people cometh in the same name. But as the Spirit of the Lord rested on Christ, and he is the Head of all things, (Eph 1:22,) and all who have ever been ordained to rule over the Church are subject to his say, or rather, are streams flowing from him as the fountain, he is justly said to have come in the name of God. Nor is it only by the high rank of his authority that he surpasses others, but because God manifests himself to us fully in him; for in him dwelleth the fullness of the Godhead bodily, as Paul says, (Col 2:9,) and he is the lively image of God, (Heb 1:3,) and, in short, is the true lmmanuel, (Mat 1:23.) It is therefore by a special right that he is said to have come in the name of the Lord, because by him God has manifested himself fully, and not partially, as he had formerly done by the Prophets. We ought therefore to begin with him as the Head, when we wish to bless the servants of God.

Now since the false prophets arrogantly boast of the name of God, and shelter themselves under this false pretense, we ought to supply an opposite clause in the prayer, that the Lord may scatter and utterly destroy them. Thus we cannot bless Christ without cursing the Pope and that sacrilegious tyranny which he has raised up against the Son of God. 10 He huffs his excommunications against us, indeed, with great violence, as if they were thunderbolts, but they are mere air-bladders, 11 and therefore we ought boldly to despise them. On the contrary, the Holy Spirit here dictates to us an awful curse, that it may sink the Pope to the lowest hell, with all his pomp and splendor. Nor is it necessary that there should be any Bishop or Pontiff 12 to pronounce the curse against him, since Christ at one time bestowed this authority on children, when he approved of their crying in the temple, and saying, Hosanna to the Son of David, as the other Evangelists relate, (Mat 21:15.)

Calvin: Joh 12:14 - And Jesus having found a young ass // Fear not // Daughter of Zion 14.And Jesus having found a young ass This part of the history is more minutely related by the other Evangelists, who tell us, that Christ sent two ...

14.And Jesus having found a young ass This part of the history is more minutely related by the other Evangelists, who tell us, that Christ sent two of his disciples to bring an ass, (Mat 21:1; Mar 11:1; Luk 19:29.) John, who was the latest writer of all the Evangelists, reckoned it enough to notice briefly the substance of what had been stated by the rest; and, on this account, he leaves out many circumstances. An apparent contradiction, by which many persons are perplexed, is very easily removed. When Matthew says, that Christ sat upon a she-ass and her colt, we ought to view it as a synecdoche. 13 Some imagine that he sat first on the she-ass, and afterwards on her colt; and out of this conjecture they frame an allegory, that he first sat on the Jewish people, who had been long accustomed to bear the yoke of the Law, and afterwards. subdued the Gentiles, like an untrained young ass which had never carried a rider. 14 But the plain truth is, that Christ rode on an ass which had been brought along with its mother; and to this agree the words of the Prophet, who, by a repetition very frequent among the Hebrews, expresses the same thing twice by different words. On an ass, he says, and on the colt of an ass which was under the yoke, (ὑποζυγίου) Our Evangelist, who studies brevity, leaves out the former clause, and quotes only the latter.

The Jews themselves are constrained to expound the prediction of Zec 9:9, which was at that time fulfilled, as referring to the Messiah; but, at the same time, they ridiculed us for being led astray by the shadow of an ass, 15 a so as to give the honor of the Messiah to the son of Mary. But far different are the testimonies on which our faith rests. And, indeed, when we say that Jesus is the Messiah, we do not begin by saying, that he entered into Jerusalem sitting on an ass; for there was displayed in him a glory, such as belonged to the Son of God, as we have seen under the first chapter of this Gospel; 16 and it was chiefly in his resurrection that his Divine power was illustriously displayed. But we ought not to despise this confirmation, that God, by his wonderful Providence, exhibited on that entrance, as on a public stage, the fulfillment of that which Zechariah had foretold.

Fear not In these words of the Prophet, as the Evangelist quotes them, we ought to observe, first, that never is tranquillity restored to our minds, or fear and trembling banished from them, except by knowing that Christ reigns amongst us. The words of the Prophet, indeed, are different; for he exhorts believers to gladness and rejoicing. But the Evangelist has here described the manner in which our hearts exult with true joy. It is, when that fear is removed, with which all must be tormented, until, being reconciled to God, they obtain that peace which springs from faith, (Rom 5:1.) This benefit, therefore, comes to us through Christ, that, freed from the tyranny of Satan, the yoke of sin being broken, guilt canceled, and death abolished, we freely boast, relying on the protection of our King, since they who are placed under his guardianship ought not to fear any danger. Not that we are free From fear, so long as we live in the world, but because confidence, founded on Christ, rises superior to all than. Though Christ was still at a distance, yet the Prophet exhorted the godly men of that age to be glad and joyful, because Christ was to come. Behold, said he, thy King will come; therefore fear not. Now that he is come, in order that we may enjoy his presence, we ought more vigorously to contend with fear, that, freed from our enemies, we may peacefully and joyfully honor our King.

Daughter of Zion The Prophet addressed Zion in his own time, because that was the habitation and abode of the Church. God has now, indeed, collected a Church for himself out of the whole world; but this promise is peculiarly addressed to believers, who submit to Christ, that he may reign in them. When he describes Christ as riding on an ass, the meaning is, that his kingdom will have nothing in common with the pomp, splendor, wealth, and power of the world; and it was proper that this should be made known by an outward manifestation, that all might be fully assured that it is spiritual.

Calvin: Joh 12:16 - These things his disciples did not understand at first // That these things had been written concerning him, and that they had done these things to him 16.These things his disciples did not understand at first As the seed does not spring up as soon as it is thrown into the earth, so the result of the...

16.These things his disciples did not understand at first As the seed does not spring up as soon as it is thrown into the earth, so the result of the works of God is not immediately seen. The Apostles are the servants of God to fulfill the prophecy, but they do not understand what they are doing. They hear the shout of the multitude, which was no confused noise, but a distinct salutation of Christ as King; but they do not perceive what is the object of it, or what it means. To them, therefore, it is an unmeaning exhibition, until the Lord, after his glorious resurrection, opens their eyes.

When it is said, that they at length remembered that these things had been written concerning him, the Evangelist points out the cause of such gross ignorance, by which their knowledge was preceded. It was because they had not the Scripture at that time as their guide and instructor, to direct their minds to just and accurate views; for we are blind, unless the word of God go before,, our steps, and it is not even enough that the word of God shine on us, if the Spirit do not also enlighten our eyes, which otherwise would be blind amidst the clearest light. This grace Christ bestowed on his disciples after his resurrection, because the full time, when the Spirit should bestow his riches in great abundance, was not come, until he was received into the heavenly glory, as we have seen under Joh 7:39 17

Taught by this example, let us learn to form our judgment of every thing that relates to Christ, not by our own carnal feelings, but by the Scripture. Besides, let us remember that it is a special favor of the Holy Spirit to instruct us in a gradual manner, that we may not be stupid in considering the works of God.

That these things had been written concerning him, and that they had done these things to him I interpret that clause in this manner: “ Then, for the first time, did it occur to the disciples that Christ did not do these things rashly, and that those men were not employed in idle amusement; but that the whole of this transaction had been regulated by the providence of God, because those things which had been written must necessarily be fulfilled;” so that the words may be thus arranged: “They did these things to him, as they had been written concerning him.”

Calvin: Joh 12:17 - The multitude gave their testimony 17.The multitude gave their testimony He again repeats what he had said, that many persons, aroused by the report of so great a miracle, came to meet...

17.The multitude gave their testimony He again repeats what he had said, that many persons, aroused by the report of so great a miracle, came to meet Christ. The reason why they go out in crowds is, that the rumor, respecting Lazarus who had been restored to life, was widely spread. They had good reason, therefore, for ascribing to the son of Mary the honor of the Messiah, since he was known to possess such extraordinary power.

Calvin: Joh 12:19 - Do you not see that you gain nothing? 19.Do you not see that you gain nothing? By these words they urge themselves to greater rage; for it may be regarded as a reproach of their slothfuln...

19.Do you not see that you gain nothing? By these words they urge themselves to greater rage; for it may be regarded as a reproach of their slothfulness, as if they had said, that the reason why the people revolted and followed Christ was their own excessive indolence and cowardice. This is the way in which desperate men are wont to talk, when they are making themselves ready for attempting any extreme measures. And if the enemies of God persevere so obstinately in what is evil, we ought to be far more steady in a just undertaking.

Calvin: Joh 12:20 - Now there were some Greeks // To worship 20.Now there were some Greeks I do not think that they were Gentiles or uncircumcised, because immediately afterwards it follows that they came to w...

20.Now there were some Greeks I do not think that they were Gentiles or uncircumcised, because immediately afterwards it follows that they came to worship. Now it was strictly prohibited by the Roman laws, and severely punished by the Proconsuls and other magistrates, if any person was discovered to have left the worship of his native country and passed over to, the Jewish religion. But Jews, who were scattered throughout Asia and Greece, were allowed to cross the sea for the purpose of offering sacrifices in the temple. Besides, the Jews were not permitted to associate with them in the solemn worship of God, because they thought that the temple, and the sacrifices, and themselves, would in that way be polluted. But though they were the descendants of Jews, yet as they resided at a great distance beyond the sea, we need not wonder that the Evangelist introduces them as strangers and unacquainted with the occurrences which took place at that time in Jerusalem and in places adjacent. The meaning therefore is, that Christ was received as King, not only by the inhabitants of Judea, who had come from villages and towns to the feast, but that the report had also reached men who lived beyond the sea, and who had come from distant countries.

To worship They might have done this also in their own country; but John describes here solemn worship, which was accompanied by sacrifices. For though religion and the fear of God were not confined to the temple, yet in no other place were they permitted to offer sacrifices to God, nor had they any where else the Ark of the Testimony, which was the token of the presence of God. Every man worshipped God daily at his own house in a spiritual manner; but the saints under the Law were likewise bound to make profession of outward worship and obedience, 18 such as was prescribed by Moses, by appearing in the temple in the presence of God. Such was the design for which the feasts were appointed. And if those men undertook so long a journey at great expense, with great inconvenience, and not without personal risk, that they might not treat with indifference the external profession of their piety, what apology can we now offer, if we do not testify, in our own houses, that we worship the true God? The worship which belonged to the Law has indeed come to an end; but the Lord has left to his Church Baptism, the Lord’s Supper, and public prayer, that in those exercises believers may be employed. If we despise them, therefore. it proves that our desire of godliness is excessively cold.

Calvin: Joh 12:21 - These men therefore went to Philip 21.These men therefore went to Philip It is an indication of reverence, that they do not address Christ, but are desirous to obtain access through P...

21.These men therefore went to Philip It is an indication of reverence, that they do not address Christ, but are desirous to obtain access through Philip; for reverence always begets modesty. The inference which the Papists draw from this, that we ought to call on departed saints, 19 that they may be our advocates with Christ and with the Father, is so ridiculous that it does not need refutation. The Greeks address Philip, while he is present; and, pray, where is the resemblance to those who address their prayers to departed saints, from whom they are separated? 20 But such are the fruits of human presumption, when it has once permitted itself to go beyond the limits of the word of God. Invocation of the saints has been rashly fabricated by the Papists out of their own brain; and now, in order to shelter themselves under a false pretense borrowed from the word of God, they corrupt the Scripture, and tear it to pieces, and do not scruple to expose it to shameful taunts.

Calvin: Joh 12:23 - The hour is come 23.The hour is come Many explain this as referring to the death of Christ, because by it the glory of Christ was manifested; so that, in their opinio...

23.The hour is come Many explain this as referring to the death of Christ, because by it the glory of Christ was manifested; so that, in their opinion, Christ now declares that the time of his death is at hand. But I rather view it as referring to the publication of the gospel; as if he had said, that the knowledge of him would soon be spread through every region of the world. Thus he wished to meet the astonishment which his death might excite in his disciples; for he shows that there is no reason why their courage should fail, because the doctrine of the’ gospel will nevertheless be proclaimed throughout the whole world. Again, that this contemplation of his glow may not soon afterwards vanish, when he shall be condemned to death, hung on the cross, and finally buried. he gives them early information and warning that the ignominy of his death is no obstruction to his glory. For this purpose he employs a most appropriate comparison.

Calvin: Joh 12:24 - Unless a grain of wheat having fallen into the ground, die, it remaineth alone. If a grain of wheat do not die 24.Unless a grain of wheat having fallen into the ground, die, it remaineth alone. If a grain of wheat do not die or putrefy, it continues to be dry ...

24.Unless a grain of wheat having fallen into the ground, die, it remaineth alone. If a grain of wheat do not die or putrefy, it continues to be dry and unfruitful; but the death of the seed has the beneficial effect of quickening it, that it may yield fruit. In short, Christ compares his death to sowing, which appears to tend to the destruction of the wheat, but yet is the cause of far more abundant increase. Though this admonition was especially necessary at that time, yet it is of continual use in the Church. And, first, we ought to begin with the Head. That dreadful appearance of disgrace and cursing, which appears in the death of Christ, not only obscures his glory, but removes it altogether from our view. We must not, therefore, confine our attention to his death alone, but must likewise consider the fruit which has been yielded by his glorious resurrection. 21 Thus there will be nothing to prevent his glory from being every where displayed. From him we must next come to the members; for not only do we think that we perish in death, but our life also is a sort of continual death, (Col 3:3.) We shall therefore be undone, unless we be supported by that consolation which Paul holds out:

if our outward man decays, the inward man is renewed
from day to day, (2Co 4:16.)

When, therefore, the godly are distressed by various afflictions, when they are pressed hard by the difficulties of their situation, when they suffer hunger, or nakedness, or disease, when they are assailed by reproaches, when it appears as if they would every hour be almost overwhelmed by death, let them unceasingly consider that this is a sowing which, in due time, will yield fruit.

Calvin: Joh 12:25 - He who loveth his soul shall destroy it // His soul // In this world // He who hateth his soul 25.He who loveth his soul shall destroy it To doctrine Christ joins exhortation; for if we must die in order that we may bring forth fruit, we ought...

25.He who loveth his soul shall destroy it To doctrine Christ joins exhortation; for if we must die in order that we may bring forth fruit, we ought patiently to permit God to mortify us. But as he draws a contrast between the love of life and the hatred of lit, we ought to understand what it is to love and hate life. He who, under the influence of immoderate desire of the present life, cannot leave the world but by constraint, is said to love life; but he who, despising life, advances courageously to death, is said to hate life. Not that we ought absolutely to hate life, which is justly reckoned to be one of the highest of God’s blessings; but because believers ought cheerfully to lay it down, when it retards them from approaching to Christ; just as a man, when he wishes to make haste in any matter, would shake off from his shoulders a heavy and disagreeable burden. In short, to love this life is not in itself wrong, provided that we only pass through it as pilgrims, keeping our eyes always fixed on our object. For the true limit of loving life, is, when we continue in it as long as it pleases God, and when we are prepared to leave it as soon as he shall order us, or — to express it in a single word — when we carry it, as it were, in our hands, and offer it to God as a sacrifice. Whoever carries his attachment to the present life beyond this limit, destroys his life; that is, he consigns it to everlasting ruin. For the word destroy (ἀπολέσει) does not signify to lose, or to sustain the loss of something valuable, but to devote it to destruction.

His soul It frequently happens that the word ψυχή, soul, is put for life. Some consider it as denoting, in this passage, the seat of the affections; as if Christ had said, “tie who too much indulges the (desires of his flesh destroys his soul.” But that is a forced interpretation, and the other is more natural, that he who disregards his own life takes the best method of enjoying it eternally.

In this world To make the meaning still more clear, the phrase in this world, which is but once expressed, ought to be twice repeated, so that the meaning may be, “They do not take the proper method of preserving their life who love it in this world, but, on the other hand, they truly know how to preserve their life who despise it in this world. ” And, indeed, whoever is attached to the world does, of his own accord, deprive himself of the heavenly life, of which we cannot be heirs in any other way than by being strangers and foreigners in the world. The consequence is, that the more anxious any person is about his own safety, the farther does he remove himself from the kingdom of God, that is, from the true life.

He who hateth his soul 22 I have already suggested that this expression is used comparatively; because we ought to despise life, so far as it hinders us from living to God; for if meditation on the heavenly life were the prevailing sentiment in our hearts:. the world would have no influence in detaining us. Hence, too, we obtain a reply to an objection that might be urged. “Many persons, through despair, or for other reasons, and chiefly from weariness of life, kill themselves; and yet we will not say that such persons provide for their own safety, while others are hurried to death by ambition, who also rush down to ruin.” 23 But here Christ speaks expressly of that hatred or contempt of this fading life, which believers derive: from the contemplation of a better life. Consequently, whoever does not look to heaven, has not yet learned in what way life must be preserved. Besides, this latter clause was added by Christ, in order to strike terror into those who are too desirous of the earthly life; for if we are overwhelmed by the love of the world, so that we cannot easily forget it, it is impossible for us to go to heaven. But since the Son of God 24 arouses us so violently, it would be the height of folly to sleep a mortal sleep.

Calvin: Joh 12:26 - If any, man serve me // And where I am, there shall also my servant be 26.If any, man serve me. That death may not be exceedingly bitter and disagreeable to us, Christ invites us by his example to submit to it cheerfully...

26.If any, man serve me. That death may not be exceedingly bitter and disagreeable to us, Christ invites us by his example to submit to it cheerfully; and certainly we shall be ashamed to refuse the honor of being his disciples. But on no other condition does he admit us into their number, except that we follow the path which he points out. He leads the way to us to suffer death. The bitterness of death is therefore mitigated, and is in some measure rendered agreeable, when we have in common with the Son of God the condition of submitting to it. So far is it from being proper that we should shrink from Christ on account of the cross, that we ought rather to desire death for his sake. To the same purpose. pose is the statement which immediately follows:

And where I am, there shall also my servant be For he demands that his servants should not refuse to submit to death, to which they see him go before them as an example; for it is not right that; the servant should have any thing separate from his lord.. The future tense, shall be, (ἔσται) is put for let him be, according to the custom of the Hebrew language. Others regard it as a consolation, as if Christ promised to those who should not be unwilling to die along with him, that they would be partakers of his resurrection. But the former view, as I have said, is more probable; for he afterwards adds the consolation, that the Father will not leave without reward the servants of Christ who shall have been his companions both in life and in death.

Calvin: Joh 12:27 - Now is my soul troubled // And what shall I, say? // For this cause came I into this hour // Father, save me 27.Now is my soul troubled This statement appears at first to differ widely from the preceding discourse. He had displayed extraordinary courage and ...

27.Now is my soul troubled This statement appears at first to differ widely from the preceding discourse. He had displayed extraordinary courage and magnanimity by exhorting his disciples not only to suffer death, but willingly and cheerfully to desire it, whenever it is necessary; and now, by shrinking from death, he confesses his cowardice. Yet there is nothing in this passage that is not in perfect harmony, as every believer knows by his own experience. If scornful men laugh at it, we need not wonder; for it cannot be understood but by practice.

Besides, it was highly useful, and even necessary for our salvation, that the Son of God should have experience of such feelings, In his death we ought chiefly to consider his atonement, by which he appeased the wrath and curse of God, which he could not have done, without taking upon himself our guilt. The death which he underwent must therefore have been full of horror, because he could not render satisfaction for us, without feeling, in his own experience, the dreadful judgment of God; and hence we come to know more fully the enormity of sin, for which the Heavenly Father exacted so dreadful a punishment from his only-begotten Son. Let us therefore know, that death was not a sport and amusement to Christ, but that he endured the severest torments on our account.

Nor was it unsuitable that the Son of God should be troubled in this manner; for the Divine nature, being concealed, and not exerting its force, may be said to have reposed, in order to give an opportunity of making expiation. But Christ himself was clothed, not only with our flesh, but with human feelings. In him, no doubt, those feelings were voluntary; for he feared, not through constraint, but because he had, of his own accord, subjected himself to fear. And yet we ought to believe, that it was not in pretense, but in reality, that he feared; though he differed from other men in this respect, that he had all his feelings regulated in obedience to the righteousness of God, as we have said elsewhere.

There is also another advantage which it yields to us. If the dread of death had occasioned no uneasiness to the Son of God, 25 which of us would have thought that his example was applicable to our case? For it has not been given to us to die without, feeling of regret; but when we learn that He had not within him a hardness like stone or iron, 26 we summon courage to follow him, and the weakness of the flesh, which makes us tremble at death, does not hinder us from becoming the companions of our General in struggling with it.

And what shall I, say? Here we see, as it were, before our eyes, how much our salvation cost the Son of God, when he was reduced to such extremity of distress, that he found neither words to express the intensity of his sorrow, nor yet resolution as man. He betakes himself to prayer, which is his only remaining resource, and asks to be delivered from death. Again, perceiving also that, by the eternal purpose of God, he has been appointed to be a sacrifice for sins, he suddenly corrects that wish which his prodigious sorrow had wrung from him, and puts forth his hand, as it were, to pull himself back, that he may entirely acquiesce in the will of his Father.

In this passage we ought to observe five steps. For, first, there is the complaint, which breaks out from vehement sorrow. Secondly, he feels that he needs a remedy, and, in order that he may not be overwhelmed with fear, he puts the question to himself, what he ought to do. Thirdly, he goes to the Father, and entreats him to deliver him. Fourthly, he recalls the wish which he knows to be inconsistent with his calling, and chooses rather to suffer anything than not to fulfill what his Father has enjoined upon him. Lastly, he is satisfied with the glory of God alone, forgets all things else, and reckons them of no value.

But it may be thought, that it is unbecoming in the Son of God rashly to utter a wish which he must immediately retract, in order to obey his Father. I readily admit, that this is the folly of the cross, which gives offense to proud men; but the more the Lord of glory humbled himself, so much the more illustrious is the manifestation of his vast love to us. Besides, we ought to recollect what I have already stated, that the human feelings, from which Christ was not exempt, were in him pure and free from sin. The reason is, that they were guided and regulated in obedience to God; for there is nothing to prevent Christ from having a natural dread of death, and yet desiring to obey God. This holds true in various respects: and hence he corrects himself by saying,

For this cause came I into this hour For though he may lawfully entertain a dread of death, yet, considering why he was sent, and what his office as Redeemer demands from him, he presents to his Father the dread which arose out of his natural disposition, in order that it may be subdued, or rather, having subdued it, he prepares freely and willingly to execute the command of God. Now, if the feelings of Christ, which were free from all sin, needed to be restrained in this manner, how earnestly ought we to apply to this object, since the numerous affections which spring from our flesh are so many enemies to God in us! Let the godly, therefore, persevere in doing violence to themselves, until they have denied themselves.

It must also be observed, that we ought to restrain not only those affections which are directly contrary to the will of God, but those which hinder the progress of our calling, though, in other respects, they are not wicked or sinful. To make this more fully evident, we ought to place in the first rank the will of God; in the second, the will of man pure and entire, such as God gave to Adam, and such as was in Christ: and, lastly, our own, which is infected by the contagion of sin. The will of God is the rule, to which every thing that is inferior ought to be subjected. Now, the pure will of nature will not of itself rebel against God; but man, though he were wholly formed to righteousness, would meet with many obstructions, unless he subject his affections to God. Christ, therefore, had but one battle to fight, which was, to cease to fear what he naturally feared, as soon as he perceived that the pleasure of God was otherwise. We, on the other hand, have a twofold battle; for we must struggle with the obstinacy of the flesh. The consequence is, that the most valiant combatants never vanquish without being wounded.

Father, save me This is the order which ought to be maintained, whenever we are either distressed by fear, or oppressed with grief. Our hearts ought instantly to be raised up to God. For there is nothing worse, or more injurious, than to nourish inwardly what torments us; as we see a great part of the world consumed by hidden torments, and all who do not rise to God are justly punished for their indolence by never receiving any alleviation.

Calvin: Joh 12:28 - Father, glorify thy name // I have both glorified it 28.Father, glorify thy name By these words he testifies, that he prefers the glory of the Father to all things else, and even neglects and disreg...

28.Father, glorify thy name By these words he testifies, that he prefers the glory of the Father to all things else, and even neglects and disregards his own life. And the true regulation of all our desires is, to seek the glory of God in such a manner that all other things shall give way to it; for it ought to be reckoned by us an abundant recompense, leading us to endure patiently all that is vexatious or irksome.

I have both glorified it. It is as if he had said, I will finish what I have begun; for God never leaveth the work of his hands imperfect as it is said, Psa 138:8. But as it is the purpose of God to prevent the offense of the cross, he not only promises that the death of Christ will be glorious, but also mentions with commendation the numerous ornaments with which he had already adorned it.

Calvin: Joh 12:29 - That it thundered 29.That it thundered It was truly monstrous, that the assembled multitude were unmoved by so evident a miracle. Some are so deaf, that they hear as a...

29.That it thundered It was truly monstrous, that the assembled multitude were unmoved by so evident a miracle. Some are so deaf, that they hear as a confused sound what God had distinctly pronounced. Others are less dull of caring, but yet take away much from the majesty of the Divine voice, by pretending that it was an angel who spoke. But the same thing is practiced every day; for God speaks plainly enough in the Gospel, in which is also displayed the power and energy of the Spirit, which ought to shake heaven and earth; but many are as little affected by the doctrine, as if it only proceeded from a mortal man, and others consider the word of God to be confused and barbarous, as if it were nothing else than thunder.

But a question arises: Did that voice sound from heaven without any profit or advantage? I reply, what the Evangelist here ascribes to the multitude belongs only to a part of them; for there were some besides the Apostles who did not interpret it so badly. But the Evangelist intended to point out briefly what is commonly done in the world; and that is, that the greater part of men, while they hear God, do not hear him though he speak plainly and distinctly.

Calvin: Joh 12:30 - This voice came not for my sake 30.This voice came not for my sake Had Christ no need of being strengthened, or did the Father care less for him than for us? But we must attend to t...

30.This voice came not for my sake Had Christ no need of being strengthened, or did the Father care less for him than for us? But we must attend to this principle. As it was on our account that Christ clothed himself with flesh, so all the blessings which he received from the Father were bestowed on our account. Again, it is also true, that the voice came from heaven for the sake of the people; for he had no need of an outward miracle. Besides, there is here an indirect reproof, that the Jews are deaf like stones to the voice of God; for since God speaks for their sake, there can be no excuse for their ingratitude, when they do not lend their ears.

Calvin: Joh 12:31 - Now is the judgment of this world // Now shall the prince of this world be cast out; 31.Now is the judgment of this world The Lord now, as if he had already succeeded in the contest, boasts of having obtained a victory not only over f...

31.Now is the judgment of this world The Lord now, as if he had already succeeded in the contest, boasts of having obtained a victory not only over fear, but over death; for he describes, in lofty terms, the advantage of his death, which might have struck his disciples with consternation. Some view the word, judgment (πρίσις) as denoting reformation, and others, as denoting condemnation. I rather agree with the former who explain it to mean, that the world must be restored to a proper order; for the Hebrew word משפט , mishpat, which is translated judgment, means a well-ordered state. Now we know, that out of Christ there is nothing but confusion in the world; and though Christ had already begun to erect the kingdom of God, yet his death was the commencement of a well-regulated condition, and the full restoration of the world.

Yet it must also be observed, that this proper arrangement cannot be established in the world, until the kingdom of Satan be first destroyed, until the flesh, and every thing opposed to the righteousness of God, be reduced to nothing. Lastly, the renovation of the world must be preceded by mortification. Accordingly, Christ declares:

Now shall the prince of this world be cast out; for the confusion and deformity arise from this, that while Satan usurps tyrannical dominion, iniquity everywhere abounds. When Satan has been cast out, therefore, the world is brought back from its revolt, and placed under obedience to the government of God. It may be asked, how was Satan cast out by the death of Christ, since he does not cease to make war continually? I reply, this casting out must not be limited to any short period of time, but is a description of that remarkable effect of the death of Christ which is daily manifested.

Calvin: Joh 12:32 - If I be lifted up // I will draw all men to myself 32.If I be lifted up. Next follows the method by which the judgment shall be conducted; namely, Christ, being lifted up on the cross, shall gathe...

32.If I be lifted up. Next follows the method by which the judgment shall be conducted; namely, Christ, being lifted up on the cross, shall gather all men to himself, in order that he may raise them from earth to heaven. The Evangelist says, that Christ pointed out the manner of his death; and, therefore, the meaning undoubtedly is, that the cross will be, as it were, a chariot, by which he shall raise all men, along with himself, to his Father. It might have been thought, that at that time he was carried away from the earth, so as no longer to have any interests in common with men; but he declares, that he will go in a very different manner, so as to draw upwards to himself those who were fixed on the earth. Now, though he alludes to the form of his death, yet he means generally, that his death will not be a division to separate him from men, but that it will be an additional means of drawing earth upwards towards heaven.

I will draw all men to myself The word all, which he employs, must be understood to refer to the children of God, who belong to his flock. Yet I agree with Chrysostom, who says that Christ used the universal term, all, because the Church was to be gathered equally from among Gentiles and Jews, according to that saying,

There shall be one shepherd, and one sheepfold,
(Joh 10:16.)

The old Latin translation has, I will draw all things to me; and Augustine maintains that we ought to read it in that manner; but the agreement of all the Greek manuscripts ought to have greater weight with us.

Calvin: Joh 12:34 - We have heard from the law // Who is that Son of man? 34.We have heard from the law Their intention undoubtedly was, to carp malignantly at the words of Christ; and therefore their malice blinds them, so...

34.We have heard from the law Their intention undoubtedly was, to carp malignantly at the words of Christ; and therefore their malice blinds them, so that they perceive nothing amidst the clearest light. They say that Jesus ought not to be regarded as the Christ, because he said that he would die, while the Law ascribes perpetuity to the Messiah; as if both statements had not been expressly made in the Law that Christ will die, and that afterwards his kingdom will flourish to the end of the world. But they seize on the second clause, and make it a ground of calumny. The origin of their error was, that they judged of the splendor of Messiah’s kingdom according to their carnal views; in consequence of which, they reject Christ because he does not correspond to their foolish notion. Under the term the Law they embrace also the Prophets, and the present tense — remaineth — -is used, agreeably to the Hebrew idiom, instead of the future tense, will remain

Who is that Son of man? This is a reproachful question, as if that short refutation vanquished Christ so completely that he had nothing more to say. 27 This shows how haughty their ignorance was; for it is as if they had said, “Go now, and boast that thou art the Christ, since thine own confession proves that thou hast nothing to do with the Messiah.”

Calvin: Joh 12:35 - Yet a little while the light is with you // Walk while you have the light lest darkness overtake you // And he who walketh in darkness knoweth not where he goeth 35.Yet a little while the light is with you Though in this reply the Lord gently admonishes them, yet at the same time he reproves them sharply; for ...

35.Yet a little while the light is with you Though in this reply the Lord gently admonishes them, yet at the same time he reproves them sharply; for he charges them with shutting their eyes against the light, and at the same time threatens that ere long the light will be taken away from them. When he says that yet a little while there is some remaining light, he confirms what he had already said about his death; for though by the light he does not mean his bodily presence, but his Gospel, yet he alludes to his departure; as if he had said, When I shall have gone away, I will not cease to be the light, and thus my glory will not be diminished through your darkness. When he says that the light is with them, he indirectly reproves them for closing their eyes and shutting out the light; and thus he declares that they do not deserve an answer to their objection, because of their own accord they seek an opportunity of falling into error.

Walk while you have the light lest darkness overtake you This statement, that the light does not continue to shine on them but for a little while, Applies equally to all unbelievers; for Scripture promises that to the children of God the Sun of righteousness (Mal 4:2) will rise, and will never go down.

The sun shall no longer be your light by day, nor the moon by night, but the Lord shall be your everlasting light,
(Isa 60:19.)

But all ought to walk cautiously, because contempt of the light is followed by darkness. This, too, is the reason why night so thick and dark sat down on the world for many centuries. It was because there were few who deigned to walk in the brightness of heavenly wisdom; for Christ enlightens us by his Gospel, in order that we may follow the way of salvation, which he points out to us. For this reason, they who do not avail themselves of the grace of God extinguish, as far as lies in their power, the light which is offered to them.

And he who walketh in darkness knoweth not where he goeth To strike them with still deeper alarm, he reminds them how wretched is the condition of those who, being destitute of light, do nothing but wander throughout the whole course of, their life. For they cannot move a step without the risk of falling or even of destruction. But now Christ declares that we are in darkness, unless he shine upon us. Hence infer what is the value of the sagacity of the human mind, when it is the sole guide and instructor, apart from Christ.

Calvin: Joh 12:36 - Believe in the light // These things spoke Jesus 36.Believe in the light He exhorts them to retain by faith the possession of the light, for he gives the appellation, children of light, to those wh...

36.Believe in the light He exhorts them to retain by faith the possession of the light, for he gives the appellation, children of light, to those who, like true heirs, enjoy it to the end.

These things spoke Jesus We might have wondered why he withdrew himself from them, when they were so eager to receive him; but from the other Evangelists it may easily be inferred that what is here said relates to adversaries, who burned with envy on account of the godly zeal of good and sincere disciples. For the strangers, who had gone out to meet Christ, followed him even to the temple, where he met with the saints and with the multitude of the inhabitants of the town.

Calvin: Joh 12:37 - And though he had done so many signs 37.And though he had done so many signs That no man may be disturbed or perplexed at seeing that Christ was despised by the Jews, the Evangelist remo...

37.And though he had done so many signs That no man may be disturbed or perplexed at seeing that Christ was despised by the Jews, the Evangelist removes this offense, by showing that he was supported by clear and undoubted testimonies, which proved that credit was due to him and to his doctrine; but that the blind did not behold the glory and power of God, which were openly displayed in his miracles. First, therefore, we ought to believe that it was not owing to Christ that the Jews did not place confidence in him, because by many miracles he abundantly testified who he was, and that it was therefore unjust and highly unreasonable that their unbelief should diminish his authority. But as this very circumstance might lead many persons to anxious and perplexing inquiry how the Jews came to be so stupid, that the power of God, though visible, produced no effect upon them, John proceeds further, and shows that faith does not proceed from the ordinary faculties of men, but is an uncommon and extraordinary gift of God, and that this was anciently predicted concerning Christ, that very few would believe the Gospel.

Calvin: Joh 12:38 - That the saying of Isaiah the prophet might be fulfilled // Lord, who hath believed? // To whom hath the arm of the Lord been revealed? 38.That the saying of Isaiah the prophet might be fulfilled John does not mean that the prediction laid a necessity on the Jews; for Isaiah (Isa 53:1...

38.That the saying of Isaiah the prophet might be fulfilled John does not mean that the prediction laid a necessity on the Jews; for Isaiah (Isa 53:1; Rom 10:16) uttered nothing but what the Lord revealed to him from the secret treasures of his purpose. Indeed, it must have happened, though the prophet had not spoken of it; but as men would not have known what should take place, if God had not testified by the mouth of the prophet, the Evangelist places before our eyes in the prediction, as in a mirror, what would otherwise have appeared to men obscure and almost incredible.

Lord, who hath believed? This sentence contains two clauses. In the former, Isaiah, having begun to speak of Christ, fore-seeing that all that he proclaims concerning Christ, and all that shall afterwards be made known by the Apostles, will be generally rejected by the Jews, exclaims, as if in astonishment at something strange and monstrous, Lord, who shall believe our report, or, our speech ? 29

To whom hath the arm of the Lord been revealed? In this second clause he assigns the reason why they are few; and that reason is, that men do not attain it by their own strength, and God does not illuminate all without distinction, but bestows the grace of his Holy Spirit on very few, 30 And if among the Jews the obstinate unbelief of many ought not to have been an obstacle to believers, though they were few in number, the same argument ought to persuade us, at the present day, not to be ashamed of the Gospel, though it has few disciples. But we ought first to observe the reason which is added, that what makes men believers is not their own sagacity, but the revelation of God. The word arm, it is well known, denotes power. The prophet declares that the arm of God, which is contained in the doctrine of the Gospel, lies hid until it is revealed, and at the same time testifies that all are not indiscriminately partakers of this revelation. Hence it follows, that many are left in their blindness destitute of inward light, because hearing they do not hear, (Mat 13:13.)

Calvin: Joh 12:39 - Therefore they could not believe 39.Therefore they could not believe This is somewhat more harsh; because, if the words be taken in their natural meaning, the way was shut up against...

39.Therefore they could not believe This is somewhat more harsh; because, if the words be taken in their natural meaning, the way was shut up against the Jews, and the power of believing was taken from them, because the prediction of the prophet adjudged them to blindness, before they determined what choice they should make. I reply, there is no absurdity in this, if nothing could happen different from what God had foreseen. But it ought to be observed, that the mere foreknowledge of God is not in itself the cause of events; though, in this passage, we ought to consider not so much the foreknowledge of God as his justice and vengeance. For God declares not what he beholds from heaven that men will do, but what He himself will do; and that is, that he will strike wicked men with giddiness and stupidity, and thus will take vengeance on their obstinate wickedness. In this passage he points out the nearer and inferior cause why God intends that his word, which is in its own nature salutary and quickening, shall be destructive and deadly to the Jews. It is because they deserved it by their obstinate wickedness.

This punishment it was impossible for them to escape, because God had once decreed to give them over to a reprobate mind, and to change the light of his word, so as to make it darkness to them. For this latter prediction differs from the former in this respect, that in the former passage the prophet testifies that none believe but those whom God, of his free grace, enlightens for his own good pleasure, the reason of which does not appear; for since all are equally ruined, God, of his mere good pleasure, distinguishes from others those whom he thinks fit to distinguish. But, in the latter passage, he speaks of the hardness by which God has punished the wickedness of an ungrateful people. They who do not attend to these steps mistake and confound passages of Scripture, which are quite different from each other.

Calvin: Joh 12:40 - He hath blinded their eyes, and hardened their heart // The heart // Lest they should see with their eyes // And I should heal them 40.He hath blinded their eyes, and hardened their heart The passage is taken from Isa 6:9, where the Lord forewarns the prophet, that the labor which...

40.He hath blinded their eyes, and hardened their heart The passage is taken from Isa 6:9, where the Lord forewarns the prophet, that the labor which he spends in instructing will lead to no other result than to make the people worse. First then he says, Go, and tell this people, Hearing, hear and do not hear; as if he had said, “I send thee to speak to the deaf.” He afterwards adds, Harden the heart of this people, &c. By these words he means, that he intends to make his word a punishment to the reprobate, that it may render them more thoroughly blind, and that their blindness may be plunged in deeper darkness. It is indeed a dreadful judgment of God, when He overwhelms men by the light of doctrine, in such a manner as to deprive them of all understanding; and when, even by means of that which is their only light, he brings darkness upon them.

But it ought to be observed, that it is accidental to the word of God, that it blinds men; for nothing can be more inconsistent than that there should be no difference between truth and falsehood, that the bread of life should become a deadly poison, and that medicine should aggravate a disease. But this must be ascribed to the wickedness of men, which turns life into death. It ought also to be observed, that sometimes the Lord, by himself, blinds the minds of men, by depriving them of judgment and understanding; sometimes by Satan and false prophets, when he maddens them by their impostures; sometimes. too by his ministers, when the doctrine of salvation is injurious and deadly to them. But provided that prophets labor faithfully in the work of instruction, and commit to the Lord the result of their labor, though they may not succeed to their wish, they ought not to give way or despond. Let them rather be satisfied with knowing that God approves of their labor, though it be useless to men’ and that even the savor of doctrine, which wicked men render deadly to themselves elves, is good and pleasant to God, as Paul testifies, (2Co 2:15.)

The heart is sometimes in Scripture put for the seat of the affections; but here, as in many other passages, it denotes what is called the intellectual part of the soul. To the same purpose Moses speaks:

God hath not given you a heart to understand,
(Deu 29:4.)

Lest they should see with their eyes Let us remember that the prophet speaks of unbelievers who had already rejected the grace of God. It is certain that all would continue to be such by nature, if The Lord did not form to obedience to him those whom he has elected. At first, therefore, the condition of men is equal and alike, but when reprobate men have, of their own accord, and by their own wickedness, rebelled against God, they subject themselves to this vengeance, by which, being given up to a reprobate mind, they continually rush forward more and more to their own destruction. It is their own fault, therefore, if God does not choose to convert them, because they were the cause of their own despair. We are briefly instructed also, by these words of the prophet, what is the beginning of our conversion to God. It is when he enlightens the hearts, which must have been turned away from him, so long as they were held by the darkness of Satan; but, on the contrary, such is the power of Divine light, that it attracts us to itself, and forms us to the image of God.

And I should heal them He next adds the fruit of conversion, that is, healing. By this word the prophet means the blessing of God and a prosperous condition, and likewise deliverance from all the miseries which spring from the wrath of God. Now, if this happens to the reprobate, contrary to the nature of the word, we ought to attend to the contrast implied in the, opposite use of it; namely, that the purpose for which the word of God is preached is, to enlighten us in the true knowledge of God, to turn us to God, and reconcile us to him, that we may be happy and blessed.

Calvin: Joh 12:41 - These things spoke Jesus 41.These things spoke Jesus Lest readers should think that this prediction was inappropriately quoted, John expressly states, that the prophet was no...

41.These things spoke Jesus Lest readers should think that this prediction was inappropriately quoted, John expressly states, that the prophet was not sent as a teacher to a single age, but, on the contrary, that the glory of Christ was exhibited to him, that he might be a witness of those things which should take place under his reign. Now the Evangelist takes for granted, that Isaiah saw the glory of Christ; and hence he infers, that Isaiah accommodates his instruction to the future state of Christ’s kingdom.

Calvin: Joh 12:42 - Lest they should be thrown out of the synagogue Nevertheless, many even of the rulers believed on Him. The murmuring and fierceness of the Jews, in rejecting Christ, having risen to such a height o...

Nevertheless, many even of the rulers believed on Him. The murmuring and fierceness of the Jews, in rejecting Christ, having risen to such a height of insolence, it might have been thought that all the people, without exception, conspired against him. But the Evangelist says that, amidst the general madness of the nation, there were many who were of a sound mind. A striking instance, truly, of the grace of God; for, when ungodliness has once prevailed, it is a sort of universal plague, which infects with its contagion every part of the body. It is therefore a remarkable gift, and special grace of God, when, amidst a people so corrupt, there are some who remain untainted. And yet we now perceive in the world the same grace of God; for though ungodliness and contempt of God abound everywhere, and though a vast multitude of men make furious attempts to exterminate utterly the doctrine of the Gospel, yet it always finds some places of retreat; and thus faith has — what may be called — its harbors or places of refuge, that it may not be entirely banished from the world.

The word even is emphatic; for in the order of the rulers, there existed so deep and inveterate a hatred of the Gospel, that it could scarcely be believed that a single believer could be found amongst them. So much the greater admiration was due to the power of the Spirit of God, which entered where no opening was made; though it was not a vice, peculiar to a single age, that rulers were rebellious and disobedient to Christ; for honor, and wealth, and high rank, are usually accompanied by pride. The consequence is, that they who, swelled with arrogance, scarcely acknowledge themselves to be men, are not easily subdued by voluntary humility. Whoever, then, holds a high station in the world, will, if he is wise, look with suspicion on his rank, that it may not stand in his way. When the Evangelist says that there were many, this must not be understood as if they were the majority or the half; for, as compared with others who were vastly numerous, they were few, but yet they were many, when viewed in themselves.

On account of the Pharisees. It may be thought that he speaks incorrectly, when he separates faith from confession; for

with the heart we believe to righteousness,
and with the mouth confession is made unto salvation,
(Rom 10:10)

and it is impossible that the faith, which has been kindled in the heart, shall not put forth its flame. I reply, he points out here how weak was the faith of those men who were so lukewarm, or rather cold. In short, John means that they embraced the doctrine of Christ, because they knew that it had come from God, but that they have not a lively faith, or a faith so vigorous as it ought to have been; for Christ does not grant to his followers a spirit of fear, but of firmness, that they may boldly and fearlessly confess what they have learned from him. Yet I do not think that they were altogether silent; but as their confession was not sufficiently open, the Evangelist, in my opinion, simply declares that they did not make profession of their faith; for the proper kind of profession was, openly to declare that they were the disciples of Christ. Let no man, therefore, flatter himself who, in any respect, conceals or dissembles his faith for fear of incurring the hatred of men; for however hateful the name of Christ may be, that cowardice which compels us to turn aside, in the smallest degree, from the confession of him, admits of no excuse.

It must also be observed, that rulers have less rigor and firmness, because ambition almost always reigns in them, which is the most slavish of all dispositions; and, to express it in a single word, earthly honors may be said to be golden fetters, which bind a man, so that he cannot perform his duty with freedom. On this account, persons who are placed in a low and mean condition ought to bear their lot with the greater patience, for they are, at least, delivered from many very bad snares. Yet the great and noble ought to struggle against their high rank, that it may not hinder them from submitting to Christ.

John says that they were afraid of the Pharisees; not that the other scribes and priests freely permitted any man to call himself a disciple of Christ, but because, under the semblance of zeal, cruelty burned in them with greater fierceness. Zeal, in defending religion, is, indeed, an excellent virtue; but if hypocrisy be added to it, no plague can be more dangerous. So much the more earnestly ought we to entreat the Lord to guide us by the unerring rule of his Spirit.

Lest they should be thrown out of the synagogue This was what hindered them, the fear of disgrace; for they would have been thrown out of the synagogue. Hence we see how great is the perversity of men, which not only corrupts and debases the best of God’s ordinances, but turns them into destructive tyranny. Excommunication ought to have been the sinew of holy discipline, that punishment might be ready to be inflicted, if any person despised the Church. But matters had come to such a pitch, that any one who confessed that he belonged to Christ was banished from the society of believers. In like manner, at the present day, the Pope, in order to exercise the same kind of tyranny, falsely pretends to a right of excommunicating, and not only thunders with blind rage against all the godly, but endeavors to cast down Christ from his heavenly throne; and yet he does not hesitate impudently to hold out the right of sacred jurisdiction, with which Christ has adorned his Church.

Calvin: Joh 12:43 - For they loved the glory of men // To love the glory of men 43.For they loved the glory of men The Evangelist expressly states that those men were not guided by any superstition, but only endeavored to avoid d...

43.For they loved the glory of men The Evangelist expressly states that those men were not guided by any superstition, but only endeavored to avoid disgrace among men; for if ambition had greater influence over them than the fear of God, it follows, that it was no vain scruple of conscience that gave them uneasiness. Now, let the reader observe how great ignominy is incurred before God, by the cowardice of those who, from the fear of being hated, dissemble their faith before men. Can any thing be more foolish, or rather, can any thing be more beastly, than to prefer the silly applause of men to the judgment of God? But he declares that all who shrink from the hatred of men, when the pure faith ought to be confessed, are seized with this kind of madness. And justly; for the apostle, in applauding the unshaken steadiness of Moses, says that

he remained firm, as if he had seen him who is invisible,
(Heb 11:27.)

By these words he means that, when any person has fixed his eyes on God, his heart will be invincible, and utterly incapable of being moved.

Whence, therefore, comes the effeminacy 31, which causes us to give way to treacherous hypocrisy, but because, at the sight of the world, all our senses grow dull? For a true sight of God would instantly chase away all the mists of wealth and honors. Away with those who look upon an indirect denial of Christ as some trivial offense, or, as they call it, a venial sin! For, on the contrary, the Holy Spirit declares that it is more base and monstrous than if heaven and earth were mingled.

To love the glory of men means, in this passage, to desire to enjoy reputation among men. The Evangelist, therefore, means, that those men were so much devoted to the world, that they were more desirous to please men than to please God. Besides, when he accuses of this crime those who denied Christ, he, at the same time, shows that the excommunication, which the priests abused, contrary to all that was right and lawful, had no value or efficacy. Let us know, therefore, that all the excommunications which the Pope now mutters against us are mere bugbears to frighten children, 32 since we are fully convinced, in our own consciences, that he aims at nothing else than to lead us away from Christ.

Calvin: Joh 12:44 - And Jesus cried // He that believeth on me believeth not on me, but on him that sent me. Believers 44.And Jesus cried The object of Christ, in this statement, is to encourage his followers to a proper and unshaken steadfastness of faith; but it con...

44.And Jesus cried The object of Christ, in this statement, is to encourage his followers to a proper and unshaken steadfastness of faith; but it contains also an implied reproof, by which he intended to correct that perverse fear. The cry is expressive of vehemence; for it is not a simple doctrine, but an exhortation intended to excite them more powerfully. The statement amounts to this, that faith in Christ does not rely on any mortal man, but on God; for it finds in Christ nothing but what is divine, or rather, it beholds God in his face. Hence he infers, that it is foolish and unreasonable for faith to be wavering or doubtful; for it is impossible to offer a greater insult to God, than not to rely on his truth. Who is it then that has duly profited by the Gospel? It is he who, relying or this confidence, that he does not believe men but God, quietly and steadily contends against all the machinations of Satan. If, then, we would render to God the honor due to him, we must learn to remain firm in faith, not only though the world were shaken, but even though Satan should disturb and overturn all that is under heaven.

He that believeth on me believeth not on me, but on him that sent me. Believers are said not to believe on Christ, when they do not fix their whole attention on his human countenance. Comparing himself with the Father, he bids us look at the power of God; for the weakness of the flesh has no firmness in

itself. When we shall, afterwards, find him exhorting the disciples to believe on him, it will be in a different sense; for, in that passage, God is not contrasted with man, but Christ is brought forward with all his gifts and graces 33 which ought to be sufficient for upholding our faith.

Calvin: Joh 12:45 - And he who seeth me 45.And he who seeth me The word see is here taken for knowledge; for, in order to give true and thorough tranquillity to our consciences, which wo...

45.And he who seeth me The word see is here taken for knowledge; for, in order to give true and thorough tranquillity to our consciences, which would otherwise have been constantly liable to various agitations, he sends us to the Father. The reason why the stability of faith is firm and secure is, that it is stronger than the world, and is above the world. 34 Now, when Christ is truly known, the glory of God shines in him, that we may be fully persuaded that the faith which we have in him does not depend on man, but that it is founded on the eternal God; for it rises from the flesh of Christ to his Divinity. And, if it be so, not only must it be fixed perpetually in our hearts, but it must likewise show itself boldly in the tongue, when it is necessary.

Calvin: Joh 12:46 - I am come into the worm as a light 46.I am come into the worm as a light In order to render his disciples more bold and persevering, he proceeds still farther in maintaining the certai...

46.I am come into the worm as a light In order to render his disciples more bold and persevering, he proceeds still farther in maintaining the certainty of faith. And, first, he testifies that he came into the world to be a light, by which men might be delivered from darkness and errors; and, at the same time, he points out the means of obtaining so great a benefit, when he says, that whosoever believeth in me may not remain in darkness. Besides, he accuses of ingratitude all who, after having been taught by the Gospel, do not separate themselves from unbelievers; for the higher the excellence of this benefit, of being called from darkness to light, the less excusable are they who, through their indolence or carelessness, quench the light that had been kindled in them.

The words, I am come into the world as a light, are highly emphatic; for though Christ was a light from the beginning, yet there is a good reason why he adorns himself with this title, that he has come to perform the part of a light. That we may perceive distinctly the various steps, he shows, first, that he is a light to others rather than to himself; secondly, that he is a light, not only to angels, but also to men; thirdly, that he was manifested in the flesh, in order that he might shine with full brightness.

The term, whosoever, appears to have been added on purpose, partly, that all believers, without exception, may enjoy this benefit ill common, and partly, to show that the reason why unbelievers perish in darkness is, that, of their own accord, they forsake the light. Now, if the whole wisdom of the world were collected into one mass, not a single ray of the true light would be found in that vast heap; but, contrary, it will be a confused chaos; for it belongs to Christ alone to deliver us from darkness.

Calvin: Joh 12:47 - If any man hear my words 47.If any man hear my words After having spoken concerning his grace, and exhorted his disciples to steady faith, he now begins to strike the rebelli...

47.If any man hear my words After having spoken concerning his grace, and exhorted his disciples to steady faith, he now begins to strike the rebellious, though even here he mitigates the severity due to the wickedness of those who deliberately — as it were — reject God; for he delays to pronounce judgment on them, because, on the contrary, he has come for the salvation of all. In the first place, we ought to understand that he does not speak here of all unbelievers without distinction, but of those who, knowingly and willingly, reject the doctrine of the Gospel which has been exhibited to them. Why then does Christ not choose to condemn them? It is because he lays aside for a time the office of a judge, and offers salvation to all without reserve, and stretches out his arms to embrace all, that all may be the more encouraged to repent. And yet there is a circumstance of no small moment, by which he points out the aggravation of the crime, if they reject an invitation so kind and gracious, for it is as if he had said, “Lo, I am here to invite all, and, forgetting the character of a judge, I have this as my single object, to persuade all, and to rescue from destruction those who are already twice ruined.” No man, therefore, is condemned on account of having despised the Gospel, except he who, disdaining the lovely message of salvation, has chosen of his own accord to draw down destruction on himself.

The word judge, as is evident from the word save, which is contrasted with it, here signifies to condemn. Now this ought to be understood as referring to the office which properly and naturally belongs to Christ; for that unbelievers are not more severely condemned on account of the Gospel is accidental, and does not arise from its nature, as we have said on former occasions.

Calvin: Joh 12:48 - He who rejecteth me // And receiveth not my words // The word which I speak shall judge you at the last day 48.He who rejecteth me That wicked men may not flatter themselves as if their unbounded disobedience to Christ would pass unpunished, he, adds here a...

48.He who rejecteth me That wicked men may not flatter themselves as if their unbounded disobedience to Christ would pass unpunished, he, adds here a dreadful threatening, that though he were to do nothing in this matter, yet his doctrine alone would be sufficient to condemn them, as he says elsewhere, that there would be no need of any other judge than Moses, in whom they boasted, (Joh 5:45.) The meaning, therefore, is: “Burning with ardent desire to promote your salvation, I do indeed abstain from exercising my right to condemn you, and am entirely employed in saving what is lost; but do not think that you have escaped out of the hands of God; for though I should altogether hold my peace, the word alone, which you have despised, is sufficient to judge you.”

And receiveth not my words This latter clause is an explanation of the former; for since hypocrisy is natural to men, nothing is easier for them than to boast in words that they are ready to receive Christ; and we see how common this boasting is even amongst the most wicked men. We must therefore attend to this definition, that Christ is rejected when we do not embrace the pure doctrine of the Gospel.

Loudly do the Papists, indeed, proclaim this word which Christ uttered; but as soon as his pure truth is brought forward, nothing is more hateful to them. Such persons kiss Christ in the same manner as Judas kissed him, (Mat 26:49.) Let us therefore learn to receive him along with his word, and to render to him that homage and obedience which he demands as his sole right.

The word which I speak shall judge you at the last day It is impossible to give a nobler or more magnificent title to the Gospel than to, ascribe to it the power of judging; for, according to these words, the last judgment shall be nothing else than an approbation or ratification 36 of the doctrine of the Gospel. Christ himself will indeed ascend the tribunal, but he declares that he will pronounce the sentence according to the word which is now preached. This threatening ought to strike deep? terror into the ungodly, since they cannot escape the judgment of that doctrine which they now so haughtily disdain.

But when Christ mentions the last judgment, he means that they are now destitute of understanding; for he reminds them that the punishment which they now treat with mockery will then be openly displayed. On the other hand, it yields to the godly an invaluable consolation, that to whatever extent. they may be now condemned by the world, still they do not doubt that they are already acquitted in heaven; for, wherever the faith of the Gospel has its seat, the tribunal of God is erected to save. Relying on this right, we need not trouble ourselves about Papists or their absurd decisions; for our faith rises even above angels.

Calvin: Joh 12:49 - For I do not speak from myself 49.For I do not speak from myself That the outward appearance of man may not lessen the majesty of God, Christ frequently sends us to the Father. Thi...

49.For I do not speak from myself That the outward appearance of man may not lessen the majesty of God, Christ frequently sends us to the Father. This is the reason why he so often mentions the Father; and, indeed, since it would be unlawful to transfer to another a single spark of the Divine glory, the word, to which judgment is ascribed, must have proceeded from God. Now Christ here distinguishes himself from the Father, not simply as to his Divine Person, but rather as to his flesh; lest the doctrine should be judged after the manner of men, and, therefore, should have less weight. But if consciences were subject to the laws and doctrine of men, this argument of Christ would not apply, “My word (he says) will judge, because it has not proceeded from man;” according to that saying,

There is one lawgiver, who is able to save and to destroy,
(Jas 4:12.)

We may likewise infer from it, how monstrous, is the sacrilege of the Pope in daring to bind souls by his inventions; for in this way he claims more for himself than the Son of God does, who declares that he does not speak but by the commandment of his Father.

Calvin: Joh 12:50 - And I know that his commandment is eternal life 50.And I know that his commandment is eternal life He again applauds the fruit of his doctrine, that all may more willingly yield to it; and it is re...

50.And I know that his commandment is eternal life He again applauds the fruit of his doctrine, that all may more willingly yield to it; and it is reasonable that wicked men should feel the vengeance of God, whom they now refuse to have as the Author of life.

Defender: Joh 12:3 - very costly The cost of the ointment was almost equal to the annual wages of a laborer. Mary poured it first on Jesus' head (Mat 26:7) and then on His feet.

The cost of the ointment was almost equal to the annual wages of a laborer. Mary poured it first on Jesus' head (Mat 26:7) and then on His feet.

Defender: Joh 12:3 - the feet of Jesus This act was similar to that of the sinful woman recorded in Luk 7:37, Luk 7:38. However, the time and place were quite different, as was the unnamed ...

This act was similar to that of the sinful woman recorded in Luk 7:37, Luk 7:38. However, the time and place were quite different, as was the unnamed woman. Mary's act of devotion is also described in Mat 26:6-13 and Mar 14:3-9, though her name was not given in these. The dinner was actually held in the house of Simon the leper (Mar 14:3). It is unlikely that Mary Magdalene (that is, Mary of Magdala, or Mary the Magdalene) could have either been Mary of Bethany or the unnamed woman of Luk 7:37, Luk 7:38 (Mary Magdalene appears immediately after in Luk 8:2)."

Defender: Joh 12:6 - he was a thief Thus, Judas was dishonest and a false disciple all along. His act of betrayal, in return for money, was fully in character. He had evidently gone alon...

Thus, Judas was dishonest and a false disciple all along. His act of betrayal, in return for money, was fully in character. He had evidently gone along with the disciples thinking he would profit when Jesus established His kingdom and overthrew the Romans. When he finally saw this was not going to happen, he decided to get what he could for his trouble and betrayed Jesus for thirty pieces of silver."

Defender: Joh 12:8 - poor always This could be taken as a fulfilled prophecy. No matter what scheme of government or economics has been tried throughout history, poverty has never bee...

This could be taken as a fulfilled prophecy. No matter what scheme of government or economics has been tried throughout history, poverty has never been eliminated; this is as true today as in the days of Jesus."

Defender: Joh 12:11 - went away, and believed It is noteworthy that the miracles of Jesus, especially that of the raising of Lazarus, were never doubted by the generation living at the time becaus...

It is noteworthy that the miracles of Jesus, especially that of the raising of Lazarus, were never doubted by the generation living at the time because the people had seen them. Skeptics in later generations have said the miracles could not have happened, but the opponents of Jesus in His own generation, since they could not question the reality of His miracles, decided simply to slay Him, preventing Him from doing any more."

Defender: Joh 12:14 - as it is written See the prophecy in Zec 9:9. On the various implications of this "triumphal entry," see the parallel accounts in Mat 21:4-9; Mar 11:7-10; and Luk 19:3...

See the prophecy in Zec 9:9. On the various implications of this "triumphal entry," see the parallel accounts in Mat 21:4-9; Mar 11:7-10; and Luk 19:35-38."

Defender: Joh 12:23 - hour is come Jesus had frequently responded to certain pressures before this, by merely saying that His hour had not yet come (Joh 2:4; Joh 7:6). However, this was...

Jesus had frequently responded to certain pressures before this, by merely saying that His hour had not yet come (Joh 2:4; Joh 7:6). However, this was His final week, and He proceeded to stress that fact."

Defender: Joh 12:24 - die Before He could be glorified, Christ had to die, be buried, then rise again. This is similar to a corn of wheat planted and seeming to die before spri...

Before He could be glorified, Christ had to die, be buried, then rise again. This is similar to a corn of wheat planted and seeming to die before springing up from the ground to produce life-giving bread."

Defender: Joh 12:25 - shall lose it The importance of this principle is indicated by the fact that Christ cites it more than any other of His teachings (Mat 10:39; Mat 16:25; Mar 8:35; L...

The importance of this principle is indicated by the fact that Christ cites it more than any other of His teachings (Mat 10:39; Mat 16:25; Mar 8:35; Luk 9:24; Luk 17:33). In slightly different form, it is also enunciated frequently by Paul (Rom 12:1, Rom 12:2; 2Co 5:14, 2Co 5:15; 2Co 6:9, 2Co 6:10; Gal 2:20; Phi 2:5-11; 2Ti 2:11, 2Ti 2:12)."

Defender: Joh 12:26 - where I am Where is Jesus? "Where two or three are gathered together in my name, there am I in the midst of them" (Mat 18:20). Such an assembly would usually (bu...

Where is Jesus? "Where two or three are gathered together in my name, there am I in the midst of them" (Mat 18:20). Such an assembly would usually (but not necessarily) be in an organized local church.

Defender: Joh 12:26 - my servant In this verse, the two occurrences of "serve" should be read in the sense of "minister to." The word "servant", however, means "bondslave."

In this verse, the two occurrences of "serve" should be read in the sense of "minister to." The word "servant", however, means "bondslave."

Defender: Joh 12:26 - my father honour That is, when Christ returns (1Pe 1:7)."

That is, when Christ returns (1Pe 1:7)."

Defender: Joh 12:28 - voice from heaven The Father had also spoken audibly from heaven in behalf of the Son at His baptism and on the mount of transfiguration (Mat 3:17; Mat 17:5)."

The Father had also spoken audibly from heaven in behalf of the Son at His baptism and on the mount of transfiguration (Mat 3:17; Mat 17:5)."

Defender: Joh 12:31 - prince of this world The "prince of this world" (Joh 14:30; Joh 16:11) is Satan (2Co 4:4; 1Jo 5:18; Eph 2:2). The "now" of which Christ speaks refers to the assurance of u...

The "prince of this world" (Joh 14:30; Joh 16:11) is Satan (2Co 4:4; 1Jo 5:18; Eph 2:2). The "now" of which Christ speaks refers to the assurance of ultimate victory over Satan that would be won at the cross (Col 2:14, Col 2:15) and empty tomb (Rev 1:18; Mat 16:18)."

Defender: Joh 12:32 - draw all men Here is another amazing claim (as in Mat 24:35; Joh 8:12; etc.) that seems absurd yet has been a remarkably fulfilled prophecy. How could "all kinds o...

Here is another amazing claim (as in Mat 24:35; Joh 8:12; etc.) that seems absurd yet has been a remarkably fulfilled prophecy. How could "all kinds of men" be drawn to a local, relatively unknown itinerant teacher who was crucified as a criminal on a Roman cross? Yet that is exactly what has been happening for the almost two thousand years since He died."

Defender: