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Teks -- Isaiah 43:1-28 (NET)

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Konteks
The Lord Will Rescue His People
43:1 Now, this is what the Lord says, the one who created you, O Jacob, and formed you, O Israel: “Don’t be afraid, for I will protect you. I call you by name, you are mine. 43:2 When you pass through the waters, I am with you; when you pass through the streams, they will not overwhelm you. When you walk through the fire, you will not be burned; the flames will not harm you. 43:3 For I am the Lord your God, the Holy One of Israel, your deliverer. I have handed over Egypt as a ransom price, Ethiopia and Seba in place of you. 43:4 Since you are precious and special in my sight, and I love you, I will hand over people in place of you, nations in place of your life. 43:5 Don’t be afraid, for I am with you. From the east I will bring your descendants; from the west I will gather you. 43:6 I will say to the north, ‘Hand them over!’ and to the south, ‘Don’t hold any back!’ Bring my sons from distant lands, and my daughters from the remote regions of the earth, 43:7 everyone who belongs to me, whom I created for my glory, whom I formed– yes, whom I made!
The Lord Declares His Sovereignty
43:8 Bring out the people who are blind, even though they have eyes, those who are deaf, even though they have ears! 43:9 All nations gather together, the peoples assemble. Who among them announced this? Who predicted earlier events for us? Let them produce their witnesses to testify they were right; let them listen and affirm, ‘It is true.’ 43:10 You are my witnesses,” says the Lord, “my servant whom I have chosen, so that you may consider and believe in me, and understand that I am he. No god was formed before me, and none will outlive me. 43:11 I, I am the Lord, and there is no deliverer besides me. 43:12 I decreed and delivered and proclaimed, and there was no other god among you. You are my witnesses,” says the Lord, “that I am God. 43:13 From this day forward I am he; no one can deliver from my power; I will act, and who can prevent it?”
The Lord Will Do Something New
43:14 This is what the Lord says, your protector, the Holy One of Israel: “For your sake I send to Babylon and make them all fugitives, turning the Babylonians’ joyful shouts into mourning songs. 43:15 I am the Lord, your Holy One, the one who created Israel, your king.” 43:16 This is what the Lord says, the one who made a road through the sea, a pathway through the surging waters, 43:17 the one who led chariots and horses to destruction, together with a mighty army. They fell down, never to rise again; they were extinguished, put out like a burning wick: 43:18 “Don’t remember these earlier events; don’t recall these former events. 43:19 “Look, I am about to do something new. Now it begins to happen! Do you not recognize it? Yes, I will make a road in the desert and paths in the wilderness. 43:20 The wild animals of the desert honor me, the jackals and ostriches, because I put water in the desert and streams in the wilderness, to quench the thirst of my chosen people, 43:21 the people whom I formed for myself, so they might praise me.”
The Lord Rebukes His People
43:22 “But you did not call for me, O Jacob; you did not long for me, O Israel. 43:23 You did not bring me lambs for your burnt offerings; you did not honor me with your sacrifices. I did not burden you with offerings; I did not make you weary by demanding incense. 43:24 You did not buy me aromatic reeds; you did not present to me the fat of your sacrifices. Yet you burdened me with your sins; you made me weary with your evil deeds. 43:25 I, I am the one who blots out your rebellious deeds for my sake; your sins I do not remember. 43:26 Remind me of what happened! Let’s debate! You, prove to me that you are right! 43:27 The father of your nation sinned; your spokesmen rebelled against me. 43:28 So I defiled your holy princes, and handed Jacob over to destruction, and subjected Israel to humiliating abuse.”
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Babylon a country of Babylon in lower Mesopotamia
 · Egypt descendants of Mizraim
 · Ethiopia a country south of Egypt
 · Israel a citizen of Israel.,a member of the nation of Israel
 · Jacob the second so of a pair of twins born to Isaac and Rebeccaa; ancestor of the 12 tribes of Israel,the nation of Israel,a person, male,son of Isaac; Israel the man and nation
 · sea the Dead Sea, at the southern end of the Jordan River,the Mediterranean Sea,the Persian Gulf south east of Babylon,the Red Sea
 · Seba son of Raamah son of Cush son of Ham son of Noah,son of Joktan of Shem,son of Jokshan son of Abraham and Keturah,a town that belonged to the tribe of Simeon,son of Bichri (Benjamin) who led a revolt against David,a country in southern Arabia whose queen visited Solomon (OS),son of Abihail; a founding father of one of the clans of Gad


Topik/Tema Kamus: MARK, THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO, 2 | SAVIOUR | Isaiah, The Book of | TRUTH | Isaiah | Condescension of God | God | Church | GOD, 2 | OMNISCIENCE | Babylon | Gospel | Seba | DESERT | FAITHFUL; FAITHFULNESS | Dragon | Faith | Sin | ISAIAH, 8-9 | Worship | selebihnya
Daftar Isi

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Wesley , JFB , Clarke , Calvin , Defender , TSK

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Poole , Haydock , Gill

Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki
NET Notes , Geneva Bible

Catatan Rentang Ayat
Maclaren , MHCC , Matthew Henry , Keil-Delitzsch , Constable , Guzik

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per frasa)

Wesley: Isa 43:1 - But Notwithstanding thy gross insensibleness, I will deal mercifully with thee.

Notwithstanding thy gross insensibleness, I will deal mercifully with thee.

Wesley: Isa 43:1 - Created That made thee his people, and that in so miraculous a manner as if he had created thee a second time.

That made thee his people, and that in so miraculous a manner as if he had created thee a second time.

Wesley: Isa 43:1 - Redeemed From the Egyptians.

From the Egyptians.

Wesley: Isa 43:1 - Called thee By the name of God's people, which was as proper and peculiar to them, as the name of Israel.

By the name of God's people, which was as proper and peculiar to them, as the name of Israel.

Wesley: Isa 43:3 - I gave Egypt This was fulfilled when the king of Assyria, Esar - haddon, who designed to revenge his father's disgrace, upon the Jews, was diverted and directed by...

This was fulfilled when the king of Assyria, Esar - haddon, who designed to revenge his father's disgrace, upon the Jews, was diverted and directed by God to employ his forces against Egypt, and Ethiopia, and Seba.

Wesley: Isa 43:3 - Seba The Sabaeans were confederate with the Ethiopians.

The Sabaeans were confederate with the Ethiopians.

Wesley: Isa 43:4 - Since From the time that I chose thee for my people, I have had an affection for thee.

From the time that I chose thee for my people, I have had an affection for thee.

Wesley: Isa 43:4 - Men As I gave up the Egyptians, so I am ready to give up others to save thee, as occasion requires.

As I gave up the Egyptians, so I am ready to give up others to save thee, as occasion requires.

Wesley: Isa 43:7 - For my glory And therefore I will glorify my power and goodness, and faithfulness in delivering them.

And therefore I will glorify my power and goodness, and faithfulness in delivering them.

Wesley: Isa 43:7 - Formed I have not only created them out of nothing, but I have also formed and made them my peculiar people.

I have not only created them out of nothing, but I have also formed and made them my peculiar people.

Wesley: Isa 43:8 - Bring O ye idolatrous Gentiles, bring forth your false gods, which have eyes but see not, and ears but hear not.

O ye idolatrous Gentiles, bring forth your false gods, which have eyes but see not, and ears but hear not.

Wesley: Isa 43:9 - Assembled To plead the cause of their idols with me.

To plead the cause of their idols with me.

Wesley: Isa 43:9 - This This wonderful work of mine in bringing my people out of captivity.

This wonderful work of mine in bringing my people out of captivity.

Wesley: Isa 43:9 - Former things Such things as shall happen long before the return from the captivity, which yet your blind idols cannot foresee.

Such things as shall happen long before the return from the captivity, which yet your blind idols cannot foresee.

Wesley: Isa 43:9 - Witnesses Who can testify the truth of any such predictions of theirs, that they may be owned for true gods; or if they can produce no evidence of any such thin...

Who can testify the truth of any such predictions of theirs, that they may be owned for true gods; or if they can produce no evidence of any such thing, let them confess, that what I say is truth, that I only am the true God.

Wesley: Isa 43:10 - Ye You my people are able to witness for me, that I have given you plain demonstrations of my certain knowledge of future events.

You my people are able to witness for me, that I have given you plain demonstrations of my certain knowledge of future events.

Wesley: Isa 43:10 - My servant Cyrus who is an eminent instance and proof of God's foreknowledge: or, the Messiah, who is the most eminent witness in this cause.

Cyrus who is an eminent instance and proof of God's foreknowledge: or, the Messiah, who is the most eminent witness in this cause.

Wesley: Isa 43:10 - Understand That I am the true God.

That I am the true God.

Wesley: Isa 43:10 - Nor after me The gods of the Heathens neither had a being before me nor shall continue after me: whereas the Lord is God from everlasting to everlasting; but these...

The gods of the Heathens neither had a being before me nor shall continue after me: whereas the Lord is God from everlasting to everlasting; but these pretenders are but of yesterday. And withal he calls them formed gods, in a way of contempt, and to shew the ridiculousness of their pretence.

Wesley: Isa 43:12 - I I first foretold your deliverance, and then effected it.

I first foretold your deliverance, and then effected it.

Wesley: Isa 43:12 - When And this I did when you did not worship any idols.

And this I did when you did not worship any idols.

Wesley: Isa 43:13 - Yea Before all time; from all eternity, I am God.

Before all time; from all eternity, I am God.

Wesley: Isa 43:14 - Sent I have sent Cyrus against Babylon, to this very end, that he might deliver you out of captivity.

I have sent Cyrus against Babylon, to this very end, that he might deliver you out of captivity.

Wesley: Isa 43:14 - Chaldeans The common people of Chaldea, who make fearful outcries, as they flee away from the Persians in ships.

The common people of Chaldea, who make fearful outcries, as they flee away from the Persians in ships.

Wesley: Isa 43:17 - The chariot Pharaoh and his chariots and horses, and army.

Pharaoh and his chariots and horses, and army.

Wesley: Isa 43:17 - Lay down In the bottom of the sea. They never rose again to molest the Israelites.

In the bottom of the sea. They never rose again to molest the Israelites.

Wesley: Isa 43:17 - Quenched As the wick of a candle when it is put into the water, is extinguished.

As the wick of a candle when it is put into the water, is extinguished.

Wesley: Isa 43:18 - Remember not Tho' your former deliverance out of Egypt was glorious: yet in comparison of that inestimable mercy of sending the Messiah, all your former deliveranc...

Tho' your former deliverance out of Egypt was glorious: yet in comparison of that inestimable mercy of sending the Messiah, all your former deliverances are scarce worthy of your remembrance and consideration.

Wesley: Isa 43:19 - A new thing Such a work as was never yet done in the world.

Such a work as was never yet done in the world.

Wesley: Isa 43:19 - Now The scripture often speaks of things at a great distance of time, as if they were now at hand; to make us sensible of the inconsiderableness of time, ...

The scripture often speaks of things at a great distance of time, as if they were now at hand; to make us sensible of the inconsiderableness of time, and all temporal things, in comparison of God, and eternal things; upon which account it is said, that a thousand years are in God's sight but as one day.

Wesley: Isa 43:20 - The beast Shall have cause, if they had abilities, to praise me for their share in this mercy.

Shall have cause, if they had abilities, to praise me for their share in this mercy.

Wesley: Isa 43:20 - Dragons Which live in dry and barren deserts.

Which live in dry and barren deserts.

Wesley: Isa 43:22 - For God called to the Gentiles to be his people, because the Jews forsook him.

God called to the Gentiles to be his people, because the Jews forsook him.

Wesley: Isa 43:22 - Weary Thou hast not esteemed my service to be a privilege, but a burden and bondage.

Thou hast not esteemed my service to be a privilege, but a burden and bondage.

Wesley: Isa 43:23 - Honoured Either thou didst neglect sacrificing to me; or didst perform it merely out of custom or didst dishonour me, and pollute thy sacrifices by thy wicked ...

Either thou didst neglect sacrificing to me; or didst perform it merely out of custom or didst dishonour me, and pollute thy sacrifices by thy wicked life.

Wesley: Isa 43:23 - Although Altho' God had not laid such heavy burdens upon them, nor required such costly offerings, as might give them cause to be weary, nor such as idolaters ...

Altho' God had not laid such heavy burdens upon them, nor required such costly offerings, as might give them cause to be weary, nor such as idolaters did freely perform in the service of their idols.

Wesley: Isa 43:24 - Sweet cane This was used in the making of that precious ointment, Exo 30:34, and for the incense, Exo 30:7. Thou hast been niggardly in my service, when thou has...

This was used in the making of that precious ointment, Exo 30:34, and for the incense, Exo 30:7. Thou hast been niggardly in my service, when thou hast, spared for no cost in the service of thine idols.

Wesley: Isa 43:24 - Nor filled me Thou hast not multiplied thy thank-offerings and free - will offerings, tho' I have given thee sufficient occasion to do so.

Thou hast not multiplied thy thank-offerings and free - will offerings, tho' I have given thee sufficient occasion to do so.

Wesley: Isa 43:24 - But Thou hast made me to bear the load and burden of thy sins.

Thou hast made me to bear the load and burden of thy sins.

Wesley: Isa 43:25 - I I whom thou hast thus provoked.

I whom thou hast thus provoked.

Wesley: Isa 43:25 - Mine own sake Not for thy merits, but my own mere goodness.

Not for thy merits, but my own mere goodness.

Wesley: Isa 43:26 - Put me I remember nothing by which thou hast deserved my favour.

I remember nothing by which thou hast deserved my favour.

Wesley: Isa 43:27 - Thy father This may be put for their forefathers; and so he tells them, that as they were sinners, so also were their progenitors, yea even the best of them.

This may be put for their forefathers; and so he tells them, that as they were sinners, so also were their progenitors, yea even the best of them.

Wesley: Isa 43:27 - Teachers Thy priests and prophets; who were their intercessors with God: and if these were transgressors, the people had no reason to fancy themselves innocent...

Thy priests and prophets; who were their intercessors with God: and if these were transgressors, the people had no reason to fancy themselves innocent.

Wesley: Isa 43:28 - Therefore I have exposed them to contempt and destruction.

I have exposed them to contempt and destruction.

Wesley: Isa 43:28 - Princes The highest and best of your priests.

The highest and best of your priests.

Wesley: Isa 43:28 - Curse To utter destruction, to which persons or things accursed were devoted.

To utter destruction, to which persons or things accursed were devoted.

JFB: Isa 43:1 - -- A SUCCESSION OF ARGUMENTS WHEREIN ISRAEL MAY BE ASSURED THAT, NOTWITHSTANDING THEIR PERVERSITY TOWARDS GOD (Isa 42:25), HE WILL DELIVER AND RESTORE TH...

A SUCCESSION OF ARGUMENTS WHEREIN ISRAEL MAY BE ASSURED THAT, NOTWITHSTANDING THEIR PERVERSITY TOWARDS GOD (Isa 42:25), HE WILL DELIVER AND RESTORE THEM. (Isa. 43:1-28)

JFB: Isa 43:1 - But now Notwithstanding God's past just judgments for Israel's sins.

Notwithstanding God's past just judgments for Israel's sins.

JFB: Isa 43:1 - created Not only in the general sense, but specially created as a peculiar people unto Himself (Isa 43:7, Isa 43:15, Isa 43:21; Isa 44:2, Isa 44:21, Isa 44:24...

Not only in the general sense, but specially created as a peculiar people unto Himself (Isa 43:7, Isa 43:15, Isa 43:21; Isa 44:2, Isa 44:21, Isa 44:24). So believers, "created in Christ Jesus" (Eph 2:10), "a peculiar people" (1Pe 2:9).

JFB: Isa 43:1 - redeemed A second argument why they should trust Him besides creation. The Hebrew means to ransom by a price paid in lieu of the captives (compare Isa 43:3). B...

A second argument why they should trust Him besides creation. The Hebrew means to ransom by a price paid in lieu of the captives (compare Isa 43:3). Babylon was to be the ransom in this case, that is, was to be destroyed, in order that they might be delivered; so Christ became a curse, doomed to death, that we might be redeemed.

JFB: Isa 43:1 - called . . . by . . . name Not merely "called" in general, as in Isa 42:6; Isa 48:12; Isa 51:2, but designated as His own peculiar people (compare Isa 45:3-4; Exo 32:1; Exo 33:1...

Not merely "called" in general, as in Isa 42:6; Isa 48:12; Isa 51:2, but designated as His own peculiar people (compare Isa 45:3-4; Exo 32:1; Exo 33:12; Joh 10:3).

JFB: Isa 43:2 - rivers . . . not overflow thee So in passing Jordan, though at its "overflow," when its "swellings" were especially dangerous (Jos 3:15; Jer 12:5).

So in passing Jordan, though at its "overflow," when its "swellings" were especially dangerous (Jos 3:15; Jer 12:5).

JFB: Isa 43:2 - waters . . . fire A proverbial phrase for the extremest perils (Psa 66:12; also Psa 138:7). Literally fulfilled at the Red Sea (Exo 14:21-22), and in the case of the th...

A proverbial phrase for the extremest perils (Psa 66:12; also Psa 138:7). Literally fulfilled at the Red Sea (Exo 14:21-22), and in the case of the three youths cast into the fiery furnace for conscience' sake (Dan 3:25, Dan 3:27).

JFB: Isa 43:3 - Egypt for thy ransom Either Egypt or Israel must perish; God chose that Egypt, though so much more mighty, should be destroyed, in order that His people might be delivered...

Either Egypt or Israel must perish; God chose that Egypt, though so much more mighty, should be destroyed, in order that His people might be delivered; thus Egypt stood, instead of Israel, as a kind of "ransom." The Hebrew, kopher, means properly "that with which anything is overlaid," as the pitch with which the ark was overlaid; hence that which covers over sins, an atonement. Nebuchadnezzar had subdued Egypt, Ethiopia (Hebrew, Cush), and Saba (descended from Cush, Gen 10:7, probably Meroe of Ethiopia, a great island formed by the Astaboras and the Nile, conquered by Cambyses, successor of Cyrus). Cyrus received these from God with the rest of the Babylonian dominions, in consideration of his being about to deliver Israel. However, the reference may be to the three years' war in which Sargon overcame these countries, and so had his attention diverted from Israel (see on Isa 20:1) [VITRINGA]. But the reference is probably more general, namely, to all the instances in which Jehovah sacrificed mighty heathen nations, when the safety of Israel required it.

JFB: Isa 43:4 - Since All along from the beginning; for there was never a time when Israel was not Jehovah's people. The apodosis should be at, "I will give." "Since ever t...

All along from the beginning; for there was never a time when Israel was not Jehovah's people. The apodosis should be at, "I will give." "Since ever thou wast precious in My sight, honorable, and that I loved thee, I will give," &c. [MAURER]. GESENIUS, as English Version, takes "Since" to mean, "Inasmuch as." If the apodosis be as in English Version, "Since thou wast precious" will refer to the time when God called His people out of Egypt, manifesting then first the love which He had from everlasting towards them (Jer 31:3; Hos 11:1); "honorable" and "loved," refer to outward marks of honor and love from God.

JFB: Isa 43:4 - men . . . people Other nations for thee (so Isa 43:3).

Other nations for thee (so Isa 43:3).

JFB: Isa 43:4 - thy life Thy person.

Thy person.

JFB: Isa 43:5 - -- (Deu 30:3).

JFB: Isa 43:5 - seed Descendants scattered in all lands. VITRINGA understands it of the spiritual "seed" of the Church produced by mystical regeneration: for the expressio...

Descendants scattered in all lands. VITRINGA understands it of the spiritual "seed" of the Church produced by mystical regeneration: for the expression is, "bring," not "bring back." This sense is perhaps included, but not to the exclusion of the literal Israel's restoration (Jer 30:10-11; Amo 9:9; Zec 2:6-13).

JFB: Isa 43:6 - Give up Namely, My people.

Namely, My people.

JFB: Isa 43:6 - sons . . . daughters The feminine joined to the masculine expresses the complete totality of anything (Zec 9:17).

The feminine joined to the masculine expresses the complete totality of anything (Zec 9:17).

JFB: Isa 43:7 - called by my name Belong to Israel, whose people, as sons of God, bear the name of their Father (Isa 44:5; Isa 48:1).

Belong to Israel, whose people, as sons of God, bear the name of their Father (Isa 44:5; Isa 48:1).

JFB: Isa 43:7 - for my glory (Isa 43:21; Isa 29:23).

JFB: Isa 43:8 - -- Solemn challenge given by God to the nations to argue with Him the question of His superiority to their idols, and His power to deliver Israel (Isa 41...

Solemn challenge given by God to the nations to argue with Him the question of His superiority to their idols, and His power to deliver Israel (Isa 41:1).

JFB: Isa 43:8 - blind people The Gentiles, who also, like Israel (Isa 42:19), are blind (spiritually), though having eyes; that is, natural faculties, whereby they might know God ...

The Gentiles, who also, like Israel (Isa 42:19), are blind (spiritually), though having eyes; that is, natural faculties, whereby they might know God (Rom 1:20-21) [LOWTH]. Or else, the Jews [VITRINGA].

JFB: Isa 43:9 - who . . . can declare this Who among the idolatrous soothsayers hath predicted this; that is, as to Cyrus being the deliverer of Israel?

Who among the idolatrous soothsayers hath predicted this; that is, as to Cyrus being the deliverer of Israel?

JFB: Isa 43:9 - former Predictions, as in Isa 42:9 [MAURER]. Or, things that shall first come to pass (see on Isa 41:21-22) [BARNES].

Predictions, as in Isa 42:9 [MAURER]. Or, things that shall first come to pass (see on Isa 41:21-22) [BARNES].

JFB: Isa 43:9 - let them bring forth their witnesses As I do mine (Isa 43:10).

As I do mine (Isa 43:10).

JFB: Isa 43:9 - justified Declared veracious in their pretended prophecies.

Declared veracious in their pretended prophecies.

JFB: Isa 43:9 - or Rather, "and"; let men hear their prediction and say, from the event, It is verified (see on Isa 41:26).

Rather, "and"; let men hear their prediction and say, from the event, It is verified (see on Isa 41:26).

JFB: Isa 43:10 - Ye The Jews, to whom I have given predictions, verified by the event; and in delivering whom I have so often manifested MY power (see Isa 43:3-4; Isa 44:...

The Jews, to whom I have given predictions, verified by the event; and in delivering whom I have so often manifested MY power (see Isa 43:3-4; Isa 44:8).

JFB: Isa 43:10 - and my servant That is, the whole Jewish people (Isa 41:8).

That is, the whole Jewish people (Isa 41:8).

JFB: Isa 43:10 - believe Trust in.

Trust in.

JFB: Isa 43:10 - formed Before I existed none of the false gods were formed. "Formed" applies to the idols, not to God. Rev 1:11 uses the same language to prove the Godhead o...

Before I existed none of the false gods were formed. "Formed" applies to the idols, not to God. Rev 1:11 uses the same language to prove the Godhead of Jesus, as Isaiah here to prove the Godhead of Jehovah.

JFB: Isa 43:11 - Lord Jehovah.

Jehovah.

JFB: Isa 43:11 - saviour Temporally, from Babylon: eternally, from sin and hell (Hos 13:4; Act 4:12). The same titles as are applied to God are applied to Jesus.

Temporally, from Babylon: eternally, from sin and hell (Hos 13:4; Act 4:12). The same titles as are applied to God are applied to Jesus.

JFB: Isa 43:12 - declared Predicted the future (Isa 41:22-23).

Predicted the future (Isa 41:22-23).

JFB: Isa 43:12 - saved The nation, in past times of danger.

The nation, in past times of danger.

JFB: Isa 43:12 - showed Namely, that I was God.

Namely, that I was God.

JFB: Isa 43:12 - when . . . no strange god, &c. To whom the predictions uttered by Me could be assigned. "Strange" means foreign, introduced from abroad.

To whom the predictions uttered by Me could be assigned. "Strange" means foreign, introduced from abroad.

JFB: Isa 43:13 - before Literally, from the time of the first existence of day.

Literally, from the time of the first existence of day.

JFB: Isa 43:13 - let Old English for "hinder" (Isa 14:27). Rather, translate, "undo it" [HORSLEY].

Old English for "hinder" (Isa 14:27). Rather, translate, "undo it" [HORSLEY].

JFB: Isa 43:14 - sent Namely, the Medes and Persians (Isa 10:5-6; Isa 13:3).

Namely, the Medes and Persians (Isa 10:5-6; Isa 13:3).

JFB: Isa 43:14 - brought down "made to go down" to the sea (Isa 42:10), in order to escape the impending destruction of Babylon.

"made to go down" to the sea (Isa 42:10), in order to escape the impending destruction of Babylon.

JFB: Isa 43:14 - nobles Rather, "fugitives," namely, the foreigners who sojourned in populous Babylon (Isa 13:14), distinct from the Chaldeans [MAURER].

Rather, "fugitives," namely, the foreigners who sojourned in populous Babylon (Isa 13:14), distinct from the Chaldeans [MAURER].

JFB: Isa 43:14 - whose cry is in the ships Exulting in their ships with the joyous sailors--cry, boastingly; their joy heretofore in their ships contrasts sadly with their present panic in flee...

Exulting in their ships with the joyous sailors--cry, boastingly; their joy heretofore in their ships contrasts sadly with their present panic in fleeing to them (Isa 22:2; Zep 2:15). Babylon was on the Euphrates, which was joined to the Tigris by a canal, and flowed into the Persian Gulf. Thus it was famed for ships and commerce until the Persian monarchs, to prevent revolt or invasion, obstructed navigation by dams across the Tigris and Euphrates.

JFB: Isa 43:15 - creator of Israel (Isa 43:1).

JFB: Isa 43:15 - your Proved to be specially yours by delivering you.

Proved to be specially yours by delivering you.

JFB: Isa 43:16-17 - -- Allusion to the deliverance of Israel and overthrow of Pharaoh in the Red Sea, the standing illustration of God's unchanging character towards His peo...

Allusion to the deliverance of Israel and overthrow of Pharaoh in the Red Sea, the standing illustration of God's unchanging character towards His people (Exo 14:21-22, Exo 14:27-28).

JFB: Isa 43:17 - the power The might of the enemies host, every mighty warrior.

The might of the enemies host, every mighty warrior.

JFB: Isa 43:17 - they shall lie down together As Pharaoh's army sank "together" in a watery grave.

As Pharaoh's army sank "together" in a watery grave.

JFB: Isa 43:18 - -- So wonderful shall be God's future interpositions in your behalf, that all past ones shall be forgotten in comparison. Plainly the future restoration ...

So wonderful shall be God's future interpositions in your behalf, that all past ones shall be forgotten in comparison. Plainly the future restoration of Israel is the event ultimately meant. Thus the "former things" are such events as the destruction of Sennacherib and the return from Babylon. "Things of old" are events still more ancient, the deliverance from Egypt and at the Red Sea, and entry into Canaan [VITRINGA].

JFB: Isa 43:19 - new Unprecedented in its wonderful character (Isa 42:9).

Unprecedented in its wonderful character (Isa 42:9).

JFB: Isa 43:19 - spring forth As a germinating herb: a beautiful image of the silent but certain gradual growth of events in God's providence (Mar 4:26-28).

As a germinating herb: a beautiful image of the silent but certain gradual growth of events in God's providence (Mar 4:26-28).

JFB: Isa 43:19 - way in . . . wilderness Just as Israel in the wilderness, between the Red Sea and Canaan, was guided, and supplied with water by Jehovah; but the "new" deliverance shall be a...

Just as Israel in the wilderness, between the Red Sea and Canaan, was guided, and supplied with water by Jehovah; but the "new" deliverance shall be attended with manifestations of God's power and love, eclipsing the old (compare Isa 41:17-19). "I will open a way, not merely in the Red Sea, but in the wilderness of the whole world; and not merely one river shall gush out of the rock, but many, which shall refresh, not the bodies as formerly, but the souls of the thirsty, so that the prophecy shall be fulfilled: 'With joy shall ye draw water out of the wells of salvation'" [JEROME]. "A way" often stands for the true religion (Act 9:2; Act 18:26). "Rivers" express the influences of the Holy Spirit (Joh 7:37-39). Israel's literal restoration hereafter is included, as appears by comparing Isa 11:15-16.

JFB: Isa 43:20 - beast Image of idolaters, defiled with blood and pollutions, dwelling like dragons, &c., in the wastes of Gentile ignorance: even they shall be converted. O...

Image of idolaters, defiled with blood and pollutions, dwelling like dragons, &c., in the wastes of Gentile ignorance: even they shall be converted. Or else, literally, such copious floods of water shall be given by God in the desert, that the very beasts shall (in poetic language) praise the Lord (Psa 148:10) [JEROME].

JFB: Isa 43:20 - dragons "serpents," or else jackals (see on Isa 13:22).

"serpents," or else jackals (see on Isa 13:22).

JFB: Isa 43:20 - owls Rather, "ostriches."

Rather, "ostriches."

JFB: Isa 43:21 - This people Namely, The same as "My people, My chosen" (see Isa 43:1, Isa 43:7; Psa 102:18).

Namely, The same as "My people, My chosen" (see Isa 43:1, Isa 43:7; Psa 102:18).

JFB: Isa 43:21 - my praise On account of the many and great benefits conferred on them, especially their restoration.

On account of the many and great benefits conferred on them, especially their restoration.

JFB: Isa 43:22 - But Israel, however, is not to think that these divine favors are due to their own piety towards God. So the believer (Tit 3:5).

Israel, however, is not to think that these divine favors are due to their own piety towards God. So the believer (Tit 3:5).

JFB: Isa 43:22 - but Rather, "for."

Rather, "for."

JFB: Isa 43:22 - weary of me (Amo 8:5-6; Mal 1:13), though "I have not wearied thee" (Isa 43:23), yet "thou hast been weary of Me."

(Amo 8:5-6; Mal 1:13), though "I have not wearied thee" (Isa 43:23), yet "thou hast been weary of Me."

JFB: Isa 43:23 - small cattle Rather, the "lamb" or "kid," required by the law to be daily offered to God (Exo 29:38; Num 28:3).

Rather, the "lamb" or "kid," required by the law to be daily offered to God (Exo 29:38; Num 28:3).

JFB: Isa 43:23 - sacrifices Offered any way; whereas the Hebrew for "holocaust," or "burnt offering," denotes that which ascends as an offering consumed by fire.

Offered any way; whereas the Hebrew for "holocaust," or "burnt offering," denotes that which ascends as an offering consumed by fire.

JFB: Isa 43:23 - I have not caused thee to serve That is, to render the the service of a slave (Mat 11:30; Rom 8:15; 1Jo 4:18; 1Jo 5:3).

That is, to render the the service of a slave (Mat 11:30; Rom 8:15; 1Jo 4:18; 1Jo 5:3).

JFB: Isa 43:23 - offering Bloodless (Lev 2:1-2).

Bloodless (Lev 2:1-2).

JFB: Isa 43:23 - wearied Antithetical to Isa 43:22, "Thou hast been weary of Me." Though God in the law required such offerings, yet not so as to "weary" the worshipper, or to...

Antithetical to Isa 43:22, "Thou hast been weary of Me." Though God in the law required such offerings, yet not so as to "weary" the worshipper, or to exact them in cases where, as in the Babylonish captivity, they were physically unable to render them; God did not require them, save in subordination to the higher moral duties (Psa 50:8-14; Psa 51:16-17; Mic 6:3, Mic 6:6-8).

JFB: Isa 43:24 - bought For "sweet cane" (aromatic calamus) was not indigenous to Palestine, but had to be bought from foreign countries (Jer 6:20). It was used among the Heb...

For "sweet cane" (aromatic calamus) was not indigenous to Palestine, but had to be bought from foreign countries (Jer 6:20). It was used among the Hebrews to make the sacred ointment (Exo 30:23). It is often offered as a mark of hospitality.

JFB: Isa 43:24 - filled Satiated (Jer 31:14). God deigns to use human language to adapt Himself to human modes of thought.

Satiated (Jer 31:14). God deigns to use human language to adapt Himself to human modes of thought.

JFB: Isa 43:24 - made me to serve Though "I have not caused thee to serve" (Isa 43:23). Our sin made the Son of God to become "a servant." He served to save us from servile bondage (Ph...

Though "I have not caused thee to serve" (Isa 43:23). Our sin made the Son of God to become "a servant." He served to save us from servile bondage (Phi 2:7; Heb 2:14-15).

JFB: Isa 43:24 - wearied me Though I have "not wearied thee" (Isa 43:23; see Isa 1:14).

Though I have "not wearied thee" (Isa 43:23; see Isa 1:14).

JFB: Isa 43:25 - I, even I The God against whom your sin is committed, and who alone can and will pardon. (Isa 44:22).

The God against whom your sin is committed, and who alone can and will pardon. (Isa 44:22).

JFB: Isa 43:25 - for mine own sake (Isa 48:9, Isa 48:11). How abominable a thing sin is, since it is against such a God of grace! "Blotted out" is an image from an account-book, in whi...

(Isa 48:9, Isa 48:11). How abominable a thing sin is, since it is against such a God of grace! "Blotted out" is an image from an account-book, in which, when a debt is paid, the charge is cancelled or blotted out.

JFB: Isa 43:25 - not remember . . . sins (Jer 31:34). When God forgives, He forgets; that is, treats the sinner as if He had forgotten his sins.

(Jer 31:34). When God forgives, He forgets; that is, treats the sinner as if He had forgotten his sins.

JFB: Isa 43:26 - Put me in remembrance Remind Me of every plea which thou hast to urge before Me in thy defense. Image from a trial (Isa 1:18; Isa 41:1). Our strongest plea is to remind God...

Remind Me of every plea which thou hast to urge before Me in thy defense. Image from a trial (Isa 1:18; Isa 41:1). Our strongest plea is to remind God of His own promises. So Jacob did at Mahanaim and Peniel (Gen 32:9, Gen 32:12). God, then, instead of "pleading against us with His great power," "will put His strength" in us (Job 23:6); we thus become "the Lord's remembrancers" (Isa 62:6, Margin). "Declare God's righteousness" vindicated in Jesus Christ "that thou mayest be justified" (Rom 3:26; compare Isa 20:1-6, and Psa 143:2).

JFB: Isa 43:27 - first father Collectively for "most ancient ancestors," as the parallelism ("teachers") proves [MAURER]. Or, thy chief religious ministers or priests [GESENIUS]. A...

Collectively for "most ancient ancestors," as the parallelism ("teachers") proves [MAURER]. Or, thy chief religious ministers or priests [GESENIUS]. Adam, the common father of all nations, can hardly be meant here, as it would have been irrelevant to mention his sin in an address to the Jews specially. Abraham is equally out of place here, as he is everywhere cited as an example of faithfulness, not of "sin." However, taking the passage in its ultimate application to the Church at large, Adam may be meant.

JFB: Isa 43:27 - teachers Literally, "interpreters" between God and man, the priests (Job 33:23; Mal 2:7).

Literally, "interpreters" between God and man, the priests (Job 33:23; Mal 2:7).

JFB: Isa 43:28 - profaned the princes (Psa 89:39; Lam 2:2, Lam 2:6-7). I have esteemed, or treated, them as persons not sacred. I have left them to suffer the same treatment as the common...

(Psa 89:39; Lam 2:2, Lam 2:6-7). I have esteemed, or treated, them as persons not sacred. I have left them to suffer the same treatment as the common people, stripped of their holy office and in captivity.

JFB: Isa 43:28 - princes of the sanctuary "governors of" it (1Ch 24:5); directing its holy services; priests.

"governors of" it (1Ch 24:5); directing its holy services; priests.

JFB: Isa 43:28 - curse Hebrew, cherim, a "solemn anathema," or "excommunication."

Hebrew, cherim, a "solemn anathema," or "excommunication."

JFB: Isa 43:28 - reproaches (Psa 123:3-4).

Clarke: Isa 43:1 - I have called thee by thy name I have called thee by thy name - " קראתי בשמך karathi beshimcha . So all the versions. But it seems from the seventh verse, and from the t...

I have called thee by thy name - " קראתי בשמך karathi beshimcha . So all the versions. But it seems from the seventh verse, and from the thing itself, that we should read קראתיך בשמי karathicha bishmi , ‘ I have called thee by my name;’ for this form of speech often occurs - the other never. For Isa 45:24, concerning Cyrus, is another matter; but when God calls Jacob Israel, he calls him by the name of God. See Exo 31:2."- Secker.

Clarke: Isa 43:3 - I gave Egypt for thy ransom I gave Egypt for thy ransom - This is commonly supposed to refer to the time of Sennacherib’ s invasion; who, when he was just ready to fall up...

I gave Egypt for thy ransom - This is commonly supposed to refer to the time of Sennacherib’ s invasion; who, when he was just ready to fall upon Jerusalem, soon after his entering Judea, was providentially diverted from that design, and turned his arms against the Egyptians, and their allies the Cushean Arabians, with their neighbors the Sabeans, probably joined with them under Tirhakah. See Isa 20:1-6 and Isa 37:9. Or as there are some reasonable objections to this opinion, perhaps it may mean more generally that God has often saved his people at the expense of other nations, whom he had, as it were in their stead, given up to destruction. Vitringa explains this of Shalmaneser’ s designs upon the kingdom of Judea after he had destroyed that of Samaria, from which he was diverted by carrying the war against the Egyptians, Cusheans, and Sabeans; but of this I think he has no clear proof in history. It is not to be wondered at that many things of this kind should remain very obscure for the want of the light of history, which in regard to these times is extremely deficient

"Did not Cyrus overcome these nations? and might they not be given for releasing the Jews? It seems to have been so from Isa 45:14."- Secker

Kimchi refers all this to the deliverance of Jerusalem from the invasion of Sennacherib. Tirhakah, king of Ethiopia, had come out to war against the king of Assyria, who was there-upon obliged to raise the siege of Jerusalem. Thus the Ethiopians, Egyptians, and Sabeans were delivered into the hands of the Assyrians as a ransom for Israel. - Kimchi. I cannot help thinking this to be a very rational solution of the text.

Clarke: Isa 43:7 - Every one that is called by my name Every one that is called by my name - All who worship the true God, and are obedient to his laws

Every one that is called by my name - All who worship the true God, and are obedient to his laws

Clarke: Isa 43:7 - I have created him I have created him - בראתיו berathiv . I have produced him out of nothing

I have created him - בראתיו berathiv . I have produced him out of nothing

Clarke: Isa 43:7 - For my glory For my glory - Ten MSS., three ancient, and the Syriac and Vulgate, read לכבודי licabodi , without the conjunction ו vau , and

For my glory - Ten MSS., three ancient, and the Syriac and Vulgate, read לכבודי licabodi , without the conjunction ו vau , and

Clarke: Isa 43:7 - I have formed him I have formed him - יצרתיו yetsartiv . I have given him that particular form and shape which are best suited to his station in life

I have formed him - יצרתיו yetsartiv . I have given him that particular form and shape which are best suited to his station in life

Clarke: Isa 43:7 - I have made him I have made him - עשיתיו asithiv . I have adapted him to the accomplishment of my counsels and designs.

I have made him - עשיתיו asithiv . I have adapted him to the accomplishment of my counsels and designs.

Clarke: Isa 43:8 - -- Bring forth the blind people that have eyes "Bring forth the people, blind, although they have eyes"- I understand this of the Gentiles, as the vers...

Bring forth the blind people that have eyes "Bring forth the people, blind, although they have eyes"- I understand this of the Gentiles, as the verse following, not of the Jews. Their natural faculties, if they had made a proper use of them, must have led them to the knowledge of the being and attributes of the one true God; "for his eternal power and Godhead,"if well attended to, are clearly seen in his works, (Rom 1:20), and would have preserved them from running into the folly and absurdity of worshipping idols. They are here challenged to produce the evidence of the power and foreknowledge of their idol gods; and the Jews are just afterwards, Isa 43:10, appealed to as witnesses for God in this cause, therefore these latter cannot here be meant by the people blind with eyes and deaf with ears.

Clarke: Isa 43:9 - Who among them Who among them - Seven MSS., three ancient, and the first edition, 1486, with the Syriac and Vulgate, read בכם bechem , who among you, the prese...

Who among them - Seven MSS., three ancient, and the first edition, 1486, with the Syriac and Vulgate, read בכם bechem , who among you, the present reading is preferable.

Clarke: Isa 43:10 - Ye (the Israelites) are my witnesses, and my servant (the prophet) whom I have chosen Ye (the Israelites) are my witnesses, and my servant (the prophet) whom I have chosen - That whatever has been said before concerning Sennacherib ha...

Ye (the Israelites) are my witnesses, and my servant (the prophet) whom I have chosen - That whatever has been said before concerning Sennacherib has been literally fulfilled. The prophet had predicted it; the Israelites saw it accomplished

Clarke: Isa 43:10 - Before me there was no God formed, neither shall there be after me Before me there was no God formed, neither shall there be after me - This is a most difficult place. Was there a time when God was not? No! Yet he s...

Before me there was no God formed, neither shall there be after me - This is a most difficult place. Was there a time when God was not? No! Yet he says, before me. Will there be a time in which God will not exist? No! Yet he says, after me. Are not all these words to be referred to his creation? Before me, no god created any thing, nor was there any thing pre-existent but myself. And after me, i.e., after my creation, such as now exists, there shall be no other class of beings formed. This mode of interpretation frees the passage from all embarrassment, and the context perfectly agrees with it. The words my servant, in this verse, the Targum understands of the Messiah.

Clarke: Isa 43:12 - I have declared, and have saved I have declared, and have saved - My prophets have always predicted your deliverances before they took place; and I have fulfilled their words to th...

I have declared, and have saved - My prophets have always predicted your deliverances before they took place; and I have fulfilled their words to the uttermost.

Clarke: Isa 43:14 - -- The Chaldeans, whose cry is on the ships "The Chaldeans exulting in their ships"- Babylon was very advantageously situated both in respect to commer...

The Chaldeans, whose cry is on the ships "The Chaldeans exulting in their ships"- Babylon was very advantageously situated both in respect to commerce, and as a naval power. It was open to the Persian Gulf by the Euphrates, which was navigable by large vessels; and being joined to the Tigris above Babylon by the canal called Naharmalca or the Royal River, supplied the city with the produce of the whole country to the north of it, as far as the Euxine and Caspian seas, Herod. 1:194. Semiramis was the foundress of this part also of the Babylonian greatness. She improved the navigation of the Euphrates, Herod. 1:184; Strabo, lib. xvi.; and is said to have had a fleet of three thousand galleys, Huet, Hist. du Commerce, chap. 11. We are not to wonder that in later times we hear little of the commerce and naval power of Babylon; for, after the taking of the city by Cyrus, the Euphrates was not only rendered less fit for navigation by being on that occasion diverted from its course and left to spread over the whole country; but the Persian monarchs, residing in their own country, to prevent any invasion by sea on that part of their empire, purposely obstructed the navigation of both the rivers by making cataracts in them, Strabo, ib., that is, by raising dams across the channel, and making artificial falls in them, that no vessel of any size or force could possibly come up. Alexander began to restore the navigation of the rivers by demolishing the cataracts upon the Tigris as far up as Seleucia, Arrian, lib. vii., but he did not live to finish his great designs; those upon the Euphrates still continued. Ammianus, 24:1, mentions them as subsisting in his time

The prophet therefore might very justly speak of the Chaldeans as glorying in their naval power in his time; though afterwards they had no foundation for making any such boast.

Clarke: Isa 43:15 - The Creator The Creator - For בורא bore , "Creator,"six MSS. (two ancient) have אלהי Elohey , "God."

The Creator - For בורא bore , "Creator,"six MSS. (two ancient) have אלהי Elohey , "God."

Clarke: Isa 43:19 - Behold, I will do a new thing Behold, I will do a new thing - At Isa 43:16, the prophet had referred to the deliverance from Egypt and the passage through the Red Sea; here he pr...

Behold, I will do a new thing - At Isa 43:16, the prophet had referred to the deliverance from Egypt and the passage through the Red Sea; here he promises that the same power shall be employed in their redemption and return from the Babylonish captivity. This was to be a new prodigy.

Clarke: Isa 43:20 - -- The beast of the field shall honor me "The wild beast of the field shall glorify me"- The image is elegant and highly poetical. God will give such a...

The beast of the field shall honor me "The wild beast of the field shall glorify me"- The image is elegant and highly poetical. God will give such an abundant miraculous supply of water to his people traversing the dry desert in their return to their country, that even the wild beasts, the serpents, the ostriches, and other animals that haunt those arid regions, shall be sensible of the blessing, and shall break forth into thanksgiving and praises to him for the unusual refreshment which they receive from his so plentifully watering the sandy wastes of Arabia Deserta, for the benefit of his people passing through them.

Clarke: Isa 43:22 - But thou hast not called upon me But thou hast not called upon me - The connection is: But thou, Israel, whom I have chosen, whom I have formed for myself to be my witness against t...

But thou hast not called upon me - The connection is: But thou, Israel, whom I have chosen, whom I have formed for myself to be my witness against the false gods of the nations; even thou hast revolted from me, hast neglected my worship, and hast been perpetually running after strange gods. The emphasis of this and the following parts of the sentence, on which the sense depends, is laid on the words Me, on My Account, etc. The Jews were diligent in performing the external services of religion; in offering prayers, incense, sacrifices, oblations; but their prayers were not offered with faith; and their oblations were made more frequently to their idols than to the God of their fathers. The Hebrew idiom excludes with a general negative, in a comparative sense, one of two objects opposed to one another: thus, "I will have mercy, and not sacrifice,"Hos 6:6. "For I spoke not to your fathers, nor commanded them, concerning burnt-offerings or sacrifices; but this thing I commanded them, saying, Obey my voice,"Jer 7:22, Jer 7:23. And the meaning of this place of Isaiah seems to be much the same with that of Amos; who however has explained at large both parts of the comparison, and specified the false service opposed to the true: -

"Have ye offered unto me sacrifices and offerings

In the wilderness forty years, O house of Israel

Nay, but you have borne the tabernacle of your Moloch

And Chiun, your images

The star of your god, which you made to yourselves.

Amo 5:25, Amo 5:26

But thou hast been weary of me, O Israel "Neither on my account hast thou lahoured, O Israel"- For כי יגעת ki yagata , the Septuagint and Vulgate read ויגעת veyagata . - Houbigant. The negative is repeated or referred to by the conjunction ו vau , as in many other places. See note on Isa 23:4.

Clarke: Isa 43:25 - I, even I, am he I, even I, am he - The original is extremely abrupt: אנכי אנכי הוא anochi anochi hu , "I, I, He."Is there any mystery in this form? Does...

I, even I, am he - The original is extremely abrupt: אנכי אנכי הוא anochi anochi hu , "I, I, He."Is there any mystery in this form? Does it refer to a plurality of persons in the Godhead

Clarke: Isa 43:25 - For mine own sake For mine own sake - In the pardon of sin God can draw no reason but from his own infinite goodness.

For mine own sake - In the pardon of sin God can draw no reason but from his own infinite goodness.

Clarke: Isa 43:27 - Thy first father hath sinned Thy first father hath sinned - On this Kimchi speaks well: "How can ye say that ye have not sinned, seeing your first father, Adam, sinned; and man ...

Thy first father hath sinned - On this Kimchi speaks well: "How can ye say that ye have not sinned, seeing your first father, Adam, sinned; and man hath sin impressed on him through natural generation?"

Clarke: Isa 43:28 - -- I have profaned the princes of the sanctuary "Thy princes have profaned my sanctuary"- Instead of ואחלל שרי vaachallel sarey , read ויח...

I have profaned the princes of the sanctuary "Thy princes have profaned my sanctuary"- Instead of ואחלל שרי vaachallel sarey , read ויחללו שריך vayechalelu sareycha . So the Syriac and Septuagint, και εμιαναν οἱ αρχοντες τα ἁγια μου, "the rulers have defiled my holy things." קדשי kodshi , Houbigant. Οἱ αρχοντες σου, "thy rulers, "MSS. Pachom. and 1. D. 2 and Marchal

To reproaches "To reproach"- לגדופה ligeduphah , in the singular number; so an ancient MS. and the Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulgate. And, alas! what a curse do they still bear, and what reproach do they still suffer! No national crimes have ever equalled those of the Jewish nation, for no nation ever had such privileges to neglect, despise, sin against. When shall this severity of God towards this people have an end? Answ. Whenever, with one heart, they turn to him, and receive the doctrine of the Lord Jesus; and not till then.

Calvin: Isa 43:1 - And now thus saith Jehovah // For I have redeemed thee // I have called thee by thy name 1.And now thus saith Jehovah It is hard to say whether this is a different discourse or the same with the former; for the Prophets, whose writings ha...

1.And now thus saith Jehovah It is hard to say whether this is a different discourse or the same with the former; for the Prophets, whose writings have come down to us, did not separate their discourses into distinct chapters, so as to enable us to know what they spoke each day. For my own part, I think it is probable that this doctrine is connected with the preceding; for, having formerly spoken severely against the Jews, and threatened destruction to them, he wished to moderate that severity. The Lord always cares for the godly; and wickedness never abounds to such an extent that he does not at the same time preserve his people, and provide for their safety, that they may not be involved in similar destruction. I think, therefore, that the copulative ו (vau) should be viewed as disjunctive, “ And yet the Lord will leave some consolation to the godly who shall remain.”

This passage ought to be carefully observed; for, although it may appear as if all had leagued for our destruction, although the anger of the Lord burn fiercely, and we think that we are very near destruction; yet, if but two or three godly persons are left, we ought not to despair; for Jehovah addresses them in this manner, Fear not. The adverb Now, which is here used, has great weight; for it means a present or immediate calamity, and, in short, a time when it appeared as if all were lost and ruined; because at that very time God does not cease to comfort his people, and gently to soothe their sorrows, that amidst the utmost despair they may preserve their hope firm and unshaken.

Such is the purport of the preface, thy Creator and Maker; for otherwise the door would have been shut against the execution of these predictions. Besides, from other passages we may conclude, that the Lord does not here speak of universal creation, such as we share with the rest of men, and by which we are born mortal, but of regeneration to the hope of a heavenly life, on account of which we are also called new creatures. This is the sense in which Paul calls us “the workmanship of God,” (Eph 2:10,) as on former occasions we have fully explained. 162 In this sense also he calls himself the Maker; as if he had said, that God did not “make” his Church, in which the brightness of his glory shone conspicuously, in order to undo so excellent a work. Hence we ought to observe, that the Church has nothing that is properly her own, but everything in which she excels ought to be ascribed to the gift of God.

For I have redeemed thee This is added as the reason of the former statement, and may appropriately be viewed as referring both to the future and to the past; for the first deliverance from Egypt gave hope of another deliverance to come. Although he describes a future deliverance from the Babylonish captivity, yet the past tense is not inapplicable; for God hath redeemed us to himself before the effect of redemption reaches us; and therefore when he wishes to testify what he has decreed, namely, to redeem his Church, which appeared to have perished, he uses with propriety the past tense.

I have called thee by thy name To “call by one’s name” means here, to admit into close relationship, as when we are adopted by God to be his children. The reason of this mode of expression is, that God rejects the reprobate in such a manner that he appears to have forgotten them. Hence, also, the Scripture says, that “he knoweth them not.” (Mat 7:23; Luk 13:27.) From a contrast of this sort we learn more fully what is meant by being “called by God.” It is when he passes by others, and deigns to bestow on us a peculiar honor, and, from being strangers, to make us members of his household, and next takes us under his care and guardianship, so as to direct us and all our affairs. For the same reason he adds, Thou art mine, that believers may know that there will always be left a Church among the elect people, because God refuses to be deprived of his rightful possession. In short, he declares that they are his dear inheritance, of which he will never suffer himself to be robbed.

Calvin: Isa 43:2 - When thou shalt pass through the waters 2.When thou shalt pass through the waters This is an anticipation by which he declares that they who rely on God’s immediate assistance have no rea...

2.When thou shalt pass through the waters This is an anticipation by which he declares that they who rely on God’s immediate assistance have no reason for sinking under adversity. That is stated more fully than in the preceding verse, because while he shews that the Church will not be exempt from calamities and afflictions, but must maintain a constant warfare, he encourages to patience and courage; as if he had said, “The Lord hath not redeemed thee that thou mightest enjoy pleasures and luxuries, or that thou mightest abandon thyself to ease and indolence, but rather that thou shouldest be prepared for enduring every kind of evils.”

By fire and water he means every kind of miseries to which we are liable in this life; for we must contend not with calamities of one kind only, but with infinitely diversified calamities. At one time we must “pass through wares” and at another “through fire.” (Psa 66:12.) In like manner the Apostle James exhorts believers not to faint when they “fall into various temptations.” (Jas 1:2.) And, indeed, faith needs to be put to the trial in many ways; for it often happens that he who has been victorious in one combat has been baffled by another kind of temptation. We are therefore tried by afflictions, but are at length delivered; we are baffled by the billows, but are not swallowed up; we are even scorched by the flames, but are not consumed. We have, indeed, the same feeling of pain as other men, but we are supported by the grace of God, and fortified by the spirit of patience, that we may not faint; and at length he will stretch out his hand and lift us up on high. 163

Calvin: Isa 43:3 - For I am Jehovah thy God // I have given the price of thy redemption 3.For I am Jehovah thy God He confirms the preceding statement by the experience of the past; for the Lord had formerly assisted his people in such a...

3.For I am Jehovah thy God He confirms the preceding statement by the experience of the past; for the Lord had formerly assisted his people in such a manner that it was reasonable and proper that believers should safely rely on his grace. We must always remember what we had in the former verse, — “Fear not, for I have redeemed thee; I am thy Lord.” These ought to be read unitedly and in immediate connection, because they have the same object; for if the Lord is our God, it follows that he is on our side, and therefore we shall find that he is our Savior. But if we wish to know by experience that he is our Savior, we must be a part of Israel, not in name only, but so as to give true evidences of godliness during the whole course of our life. This is therefore the foundation of our confidence, that “Jehovah is our God;” and hence it follows that they who do not acknowledge God to be their Father, and who do not rely on his kindness, are wretched, and tremble continually. Wicked men, indeed, indulge in mirth, and even act disdainfully towards God; but their indifference is intoxication and madness of mind, by which they are the more rapidly carried headlong to their destruction. To believers alone this brings the assurance, that he who hath chosen them wishes to be continually their God, and to preserve them; and therefore hath separated them to be his inheritance.

In this sense he calls himself The Holy One of Israel, because while the whole human race is by nature estranged from him, he hath chosen his people that he might set them apart to be his own. Now, though external separation is of little moment, unless God sanctify the elect by the power of his Spirit, yet, because Israel had. openly polluted himself, God declares that still his covenant shall not be made void, because he is always like himself. Besides, it is well known that the word holy is used in an active sense for “him who sanctifies;” and therefore if we wish to be certain of God’s love towards us, let us always remember the testimony of our adoption, by which we are confirmed in our hearts, as by a sure pledge, and let us with all earnestness ask it from God.

I have given the price of thy redemption I make no remarks on those repetitions which are frequently used by the Prophet, and are customary in the Hebrew language; for the two phrases in this verse, I have given the price, and I have given instead of thee, are used by him in the same sense. We have said that the Prophet confirms believers by bringing forward earlier proofs of the grace of God; as if he had said, “You have already known by experience that God cares for your salvation; for how could it have happened that Sennacherib turned his forces against Egypt, Ethiopia, and other nations, but because the Lord spared you, and directed the attack of your enemy to another quarter? Since therefore he has hitherto manifested so great anxiety on your behalf, you have no need to be anxious about the future.” Thus if at any time doubts arise in our minds about the providence of God, or about his promises, we ought to bring to remembrance the benefits which he has already bestowed upon us; for we shall be chargeable with extreme ingratitude if, after having received from God so many benefits, we doubt of his kindness for the future.

But a question arises. In what sense does he call “Egypt and Ethiopia the price of the redemption” of the Church? for heathen men are not of so high value as to redeem the children of God. But the Prophet borrowed this mode of expression from the ordinary language of men; as if he had said, “The Egyptians, the Ethiopians, and the Sabeans came in thy room, and, as if an exchange had been made, were constrained to suffer the destruction to which thou wast exposed; for, in order to preserve thee, I destroyed them, and delivered them instead of thee into the hand of the enemy.” But we must attend to the history. While Sennacherib was rushing on with his whole might against Judea, the Lord, by throwing over him a bridle, suddenly checked him, and entangled him by other wars, so that he was constrained to withdraw his army; and thus the Egyptians and Ethiopians were signally defeated, while the people of God were allowed to breathe. (2Kg 19:28; Isa 37:8.)

We too may readily acknowledge, if we are not worse than stupid, that the same providence and infinite mercy of God have been manifested toward us, when tyrants who would have wished to destroy us, and who joined in opening their mouths with eagerness to devour us, are made by him to engage in wars against each other, and when the rage with which they burned against us is directed by him to another quarter; for by doing so he preserves us, so as to give them as the price of our redemption. When we see irreligious men, amidst the uproar and confusion of mutual wars, pause in their efforts to destroy us, while it is manifest that they do not pause of their own accord, let us lift up our eyes to heaven, and learn that God, in order to spare us, miraculously substitutes others in our room; for we were “like sheep appointed for slaughter,” (Psa 44:22;) swords were drawn on every hand, if he had not snatched them from the hands of wicked men, or given them a different direction.

Hence we ought to draw a general doctrine, that the Lord takes such care of all believers (1Pe 5:7) that he values them more highly than the whole world. Although, therefore, we are of no value, yet let us rejoice in this, that the Lord sets so high a value upon us, and prefers us to the whole world, rescues us from dangers, and thus preserves us in the midst of death. If everything were at peace with us, and if we had no troubles, we should not see this grace of God; for when a thousand deaths appear to hang over us, and when there appears no way of escape, and when he suddenly drives back the tyrants, or turns them in another direction, we then know by experience what the Prophet says, and perceive his invaluable kindness toward us.

Calvin: Isa 43:4 - Because thou wast precious // I will give a man 4.Because thou wast precious Others interpret it “Thou wast honorable, because I raised thee to honor;” but I think that God assigns the reason w...

4.Because thou wast precious Others interpret it “Thou wast honorable, because I raised thee to honor;” but I think that God assigns the reason why he gave up Egypt and Ethiopia to the enemies in their room. It was because he loved them, and because they were dear to him. It ought to be explained thus, — “Because I loved thee, therefore I gave a man for thee.” By these words he excludes all personal worth on the part of the people, that they may not boast of having obtained anything by their own merit; and, indeed, the cause of salvation, and of all the blessings which we receive, is the undeserved love of God; it is also the cause of all our excellence; for, if he judge of us according to our own qualifications, he will not value us a straw. We must therefore set aside every idea of merit, or of personal worth, of which we have none, and must ascribe everything to the grace of God alone. He means that this love is not of an ordinary kind when he says that we are “precious;” and for the same reason he calls us “his first-born,” (Exo 4:22,) and “his friends.” (Joh 15:15.)

I will give a man Here he adds nothing new, but rather explains the preceding statement, and employs the word “man” collectively for “men;” as if he had said, “There will be no man whom God will not take away and destroy, in order to preserve his people; for he sets a higher value on a single believer than on the whole world.” At the same time he reminds believers that they are redeemed at the expense of those who do not at all differ from them in origin or in nature.

Calvin: Isa 43:5 - Fear not // I will bring thy seed from the east 5.Fear not When Isaiah frequently repeats this exhortation, we ought not to look upon it as superfluous; for we know and feel how prone we are by nat...

5.Fear not When Isaiah frequently repeats this exhortation, we ought not to look upon it as superfluous; for we know and feel how prone we are by nature to distrust. Scarcely any words can express the greatness of the alarm by which the Church was at that time shaken. As soon as we begin to call in question the promises of God, our minds are distracted by various thoughts; we are alarmed and continually tormented by the greatness and diversity of the dangers, till at length we are stupified, and have no perception of the grace of God. Accordingly, before despair seize our hearts, it is not without good reason that he so frequently repeats I am with thee, in order that he may either destroy altogether or partially mitigate the fear which is seated in our hearts; for, when it has taken root, there is no method of curing it. This should lead us also to remark, that we ought not to place our safety in anything else than in the presence of God; for if he be absent, we shall either shudder with fear, or become stupid, or run headlong like drunkards. And yet it is not the will of God that we shall be so devoid of fear as to give ourselves up to slothfulness and indifference; but when we are informed that he is at hand and will assist us, cheerful confidence ought to be victorious in the midst of fears.

I will bring thy seed from the east This passage is evidently taken front the writings of Moses, as we said at the beginning of this commentary, 164 that the prophets are his interpreters, and draw their doctrine from his books; and therefore the Prophet applies this passage to that particular event which he had in view in the present discourse. Moses had thus foretold,

“The Lord thy God will turn thy captivity, and will have compassion on thee, and will turn and gather thee out of all the nations into which thy God hath scattered thee. Even if thou shalt be driven to the utmost parts of heaven, thence will thy God gather thee, and thence will he take thee.” (Deu 30:3.)

What Moses spoke in general terms the Prophet here confirms in a particular instance, and again declares with a slight change of the words. The amount of what is stated is, that it is as difficult to gather a people that is not only scattered, but driven to the most distant countries of the world, as it is to gather ashes that have been scattered here and there; but that God, by his wonderful power, will cause those dislocated members to unite again in one body.

Calvin: Isa 43:6 - I will say to the north // Bring my sons 6.I will say to the north Under these four parts he includes the whole world, which is very customary in all languages. But Isaiah speaks in somewhat...

6.I will say to the north Under these four parts he includes the whole world, which is very customary in all languages. But Isaiah speaks in somewhat loftier language than Moses, because he wished the people to view the event as if it had actually occurred; and, to such a purpose those lively descriptions which may be said to place it before our eyes, are admirably adapted. He might, indeed, have said it in a single word, but this manner of address is far more forcible; for he represents God as commanding, with supreme authority, all the creatures, and every part of the world, to set his people free.

Bring my sons He means that not all Israel shall be gathered, but only that which is the true Israel; for not all who are the descendants of Abraham according to the flesh are true Israelites, but very many of them are bastards. (Rom 9:6.) These belong to the true and lawful seed; for that vast multitude of people was not saved, but only “a remnant,” as we saw in a former chapter. (Isa 10:21.) There was a vast number of people who were carried away into captivity, but there were few who were brought back. Among them was preserved a seed; and the Lord would not suffer that seed to perish, or the covenant which he had made with their fathers to be broken. These things were very hard to be believed by the Jews, who were despised by all, and were exposed not only to the hatred but to the curses of almost the whole world, and were scarcely reckoned to belong to the number of men; and therefore they must have depended solely on the promises. They knew that Cyrus (Isa 45:1) would come, but who he was they were not yet able to conceive, for he had not yet been born; and therefore they needed to be armed with very excellent and steadfast faith, in order to wait for the Lord with unshaken confidence, while many reckoned these predictions to be fables. Let us learn also flora this example to look to God alone, so as not to doubt that he will assist us and will abide by his promises at the proper time.

Calvin: Isa 43:7 - All called // By my name; // For my glory // I have formed him, yea, I have made him 7.All called Such is my interpretation of this clause, for the Prophet has made use of the singular number instead of the plural. Interpreters have m...

7.All called Such is my interpretation of this clause, for the Prophet has made use of the singular number instead of the plural. Interpreters have mistaken the import of this mode of expression; for they explain it thus, “Whosoever have been called by my name, I have formed them to my glory.” But I understand it thus, “All called,” that is, “All shall be called by my name;” as he says in other passages, “My name shall be called upon them.” (Gen 48:16; Deu 28:10; Isa 4:1.) Why so? “Because I have created them, I have formed them, I have made them for my glory.” He pursues the subject which he formerly handled about gathering the people into one body, though they have been scattered into various and distant parts of the world; as if he had said, “If this work appears to be incredible, you ought not to judge of it by the ordinary course of nature, but you ought to look to his power.”

By my name; that is, “under my direction;” as we have also said, in expounding another passage, (Isa 41:25,) that God is reconciled to us, because by the right of adoption we are accounted his people. Now, because the Jews were to be brought back under his guidance and command, and not by the power or assistance of men, he declares that his name will be rendered illustrious in this deliverance, in order that men may learn not to form their judgments from the views of the flesh or from natural means.

For my glory The Prophet adds the reason, which contains strong ground of confirmation; that is, that he wishes his glory to be manifested in them. He therefore testifies that the salvation of his people concerns himself, that he can no more throw away the care of his people than he can expose his name to reproach and disgrace, which he will never do, and, in a word, that his glow, of which he is the continual defender, is intimately connected with the salvation of his people.

I have formed him, yea, I have made him For the sake of amplification he repeats the same thing in many forms of language, that they may be more fully convinced that he wishes to conduct to the end the work which he has begun. Such is the force of the particle אף , (aph,) which means “likewise,” or “even,” and sometimes, as we say, “for this time.” Accordingly, the meaning is generally supposed to be, “In like manner, as I have created and formed that people, so I desire to elevate them to a new rank, and to restore them to their ancient freedom.” It may also be rendered and so, and, as I have said, I prefer this rendering, so as to mean not only that the people have nothing but from his grace, but that he is deeply concerned about their salvation, because he cannot despise his own work, a work so remarkable and excellent. This passage, therefore, recommends to us the extraordinary grace of God, by which we are not only born to be men, but likewise formed anew after his image.

Calvin: Isa 43:8 - That I may bring out 8.That I may bring out The brevity of the words makes the meaning somewhat obscure. Some translate it thus, “I will bring out the blind, and him wh...

8.That I may bring out The brevity of the words makes the meaning somewhat obscure. Some translate it thus, “I will bring out the blind, and him who hath eyes,” that is, both the blind and them that see, both the deaf and them that hear. Some explain blind to mean those who have indeed eyes, but so dim that they cannot perceive the secrets of heavenly wisdom. But when I take a careful survey of the whole, I prefer to interpret those phrases separately. “I will bring out the blind, so as to restore sight to them; I will bring out the deaf, so that they shall recover their hearing.” And thus the meaning of the words is, “To bring out the blind, and they shall have eyes; and to bring out the deaf, and they shall have ears.” The people are first delivered, and then eyes and ears are restored to them.

The Lord did this when he brought his people out of Babylon; but undoubtedly the Prophet looks farther, that is, to the kingdom of Christ; for at that time believers were gathered not only out of Babylon, but out of all places of the earth. This was seen openly and singularly at Peter’s first sermon, when many persons from various countries united in the same confession of faith. (Act 2:41.) But afterwards others, who appeared to be altogether strangers, united in the same body, and shewed that they were children of Abraham. If, therefore, we wish to find the full truth of this prophecy, we must come to Christ, by whom alone we are rescued from the bondage of the devil and restored to liberty. (Joh 8:36.) It is he who restores to us eyes and ears, though formerly we were by nature both blind and deaf. Yet it is proper to remember what I have repeatedly stated on former occasious, that the return of the people is closely connected with the renewal of the Church, which was accomplished by Christ; for what God began by bringing his people out of captivity he continued till Christ, and then brought to perfection; and so it is one and the same redemption. Hence it follows that the blessings which are here mentioned ought not to be limited to a short time.

Calvin: Isa 43:9 - Let all the nations be gathered together // Who is there among them to declare this? // Let them produce their witnesses // But let them hear 9.Let all the nations be gathered together Here the Prophet, as on former occasions, speaks in the person of God, and bids defiance to all idols. It ...

9.Let all the nations be gathered together Here the Prophet, as on former occasions, speaks in the person of God, and bids defiance to all idols. It is highly necessary, and was at that time especially necessary, to distinguish between the true God and false gods. It is easy indeed to ascribe to God the glory of divinity, but it is very difficult to claim it for him so exclusively, that all false gods shall be reduced to nothing; and at that time the error regarding them had received greater confirmation, for at the ruin of the nation unbelievers applauded the gods as if they had vanquished the true God. The Prophet therefore suggests to believers the reply which they should make to the jeers of their enemies, and, although they should sally forth in crowds to defend their errors, enjoins the small number to stand firm against all their forces.

Who is there among them to declare this? We formerly said that foreknowledge and power belong to God alone; for he has all things under his eye, and governs all things according to his pleasure; and, accordingly, by these two arguments he formerly proved against all the false gods the charge of vanity, lie now repeats the same charge, not to reclaim from this error the Gentiles, who did not read those prophecies, but to confirm the faith of the Jews, who were assured that they alone knew the true God. At present, indeed, this doctrine belongs both to Gentiles and to Jews; and not only so, but when the Jews shewed themselves to be unworthy, (Act 13:46,) their privileges were extended to the Gentiles; but at that time Isaiah chiefly addressed the Jews, that, although they saw the Gentiles succeeding in everything to their wish, still they might abhor their idols and superstitions.

Let them produce their witnesses After haying summoned unbelievers to plead the cause of their gods, or rather, after having held it to be acknowledged that it was to no purpose that they spent their time in the worship of idols, because they had no power of predicting future events, he adds that there will be no witnesses to testify with truth that any prediction ever proceeded from false gods, and consequently that their cause is destitute of lawful defense. There never was a time, indeed, when there were not many fables told about idols, as we constantly hear of innumerable fables of that kind which are widely circulated, and the silliness with which unbelievers pour forth their lies is equalled by the obstinacy with which they defend them; but if we come to examine them, we shall find them to be supported by no proof, but to be absolute tricks and foolish inventions. On this account the Prophet willingly yields the victory, if they shall bring forward competent and trustworthy “witnesses.” To God alone, therefore, this glory belongs; for he has “witnessess,”

But let them hear At length, as if the matter had been fully proved, he rises more confidently, and commands the vanquished to keep silence. When he bids them hear, he means that the only obstacle to their acknowledgment of the truth is, that they are prejudiced by their error, and refuse to hear God; for this contempt causes them not to repent, but, on the contrary, to defend their error with stubbornness. Now, the Lord was ready to teach if they had only been willing to hear him with candor; and a better teacher could not be desired, but pride and haughtiness will not suffer them to see the truth or to listen to God. They are, therefore, without excuse; for they disdainfully reject his public instructions, and do not assent to his doctrine. Isaiah justly declares that, if they gave due attention, they would be constrained to acknowledge it to be true; 165 and indeed all who shall shew themselves to be obedient will readily acknowledge that the truth of God is founded on a firm and solid judgment, and not on an uncertain and doubtful opinion.

Calvin: Isa 43:10 - Ye === are my witnesses. After having summoned the Gentiles to a contest, and after having proved that the stories which they circulated concerning their idols were false and unfounded, God now separates himself from the multitude of them, and produces his “witnesses,” that he may not be thought to be of the same class with them. He justly boasts, therefore, that they are his witnesses, and that he has true witnesses; for the Jews had been instructed by heavenly oracles, as far as was necessary for attaining perfect certainty. Yet he indirectly reproaches them with ingratitude, if they do not openly declare that they know everything that is necessary for maintaining the glory of God; and, indeed, he calls them to bear witness, and adjures them not to cover with silence those predictions by which the true religion might be proved, because that would be unjustly to defraud a good cause of their support.

===And my servant // Therefore ye shall know // That I am he // Before me there was no God formed // And after me there shalt not be 10.Ye === are my witnesses. After having summoned the Gentiles to a contest, and after having proved that the stories which they circulated concerni...

10.Ye === are my witnesses. After having summoned the Gentiles to a contest, and after having proved that the stories which they circulated concerning their idols were false and unfounded, God now separates himself from the multitude of them, and produces his “witnesses,” that he may not be thought to be of the same class with them. He justly boasts, therefore, that they are his witnesses, and that he has true witnesses; for the Jews had been instructed by heavenly oracles, as far as was necessary for attaining perfect certainty. Yet he indirectly reproaches them with ingratitude, if they do not openly declare that they know everything that is necessary for maintaining the glory of God; and, indeed, he calls them to bear witness, and adjures them not to cover with silence those predictions by which the true religion might be proved, because that would be unjustly to defraud a good cause of their support.

===And my servant By the word “servant” some think that Isaiah is meant, but I prefer to take it collectively, for all the prophets; for there is a change of number. Now, this name was peculiarly bestowed on the prophets, whom the Lord chose for the purpose of maintaining his truth; and yet, in making use of the singular number, there can be no doubt that he looked chiefly to Christ, in whom all the prophecies are contained and accomplished. (Joh 1:45; Act 3:24, and 10:43; Rom 1:2; Heb 1:1.) It is also certain that by him chiefly, as the highest witness, all men are convinced. Yet we ought to observe God’s design, which I formerly mentioned, to call the Jews to be witnesses, that he might accuse them of ingratitude, if they did not freely utter what is demanded by the faith of those who, after having received proofs so numerous and so remarkable, could not be ignorant of the power and goodness of God, or call them in question without the greatest treachery. At the same time, he shows in general that the Lord hath chosen the Church, in order to bear testimony to his truth; and on that ground Paul calls the Church

“the pillar and foundation of truth.” (1Ti 3:15.)

It is therefore the duty of the Church to defend and publish the truth, that it may be honored by posterity from age to age; not that the Lord needs this assistance, but because in this way he wishes to prove and establish its truth among men. Here Isaiah includes all believers, for this office of bearing testimony is binding on all, but especially on ministers, who ought to be standard-bearers, and to set an example before others. For this reason also they are particularly mentioned; but in general no man ought to be accounted a believer, who conceals the knowledge of God within his own heart, and never makes an open confession of the truth.

Therefore ye shall know That it may not be thought that the Lord asks them to bear witness about what is unknown, he adds, “Ye shall know, ye shall believe, ye shall understand;” and by this order of the words he shews that faith goes before confession. If, therefore, confession proceed from the top of the lips, and not from the heart, it is vain and useless, and is not such as the Lord demands or approves. Yet there is still some difficulty in the order of those words, “to know, to believe, to understand;” for we do not say that all who know believe, and, in the ordinary manner of speaking, where there is knowledge, there may not be faith. Besides, it is doubtful what is meant by “understanding,” which is mentioned after faith, as if it differed from knowledge.

But in this passage the Prophet shows that there is a kind of preparation for faith, by which God procures reverence for his word, when he sees that it needs such assistance. The beginning of faith, indeed, is humility, by which we yield our senses as captives to God; but because we do not embrace the doctrine offered to us with such certainty as is needful, God confirms us by proofs, that we may fully believe. Thus John relates that he and Peter “believed the Scriptures,” (Joh 20:8,) when they beheld in the grave the tokens of Christ’s resurrection; and in another passage he says that “the disciples believed in Christ,” when that which they had heard from his mouth was accomplished. (Joh 2:22.)

We may therefore sum it up in this manner. “The Jews shall actually feel it, when their faith shall have been aided by signs to worship the true God.” At the same time, a distinction is made between true faith and that credulity which lightly carries away fickle men; and God always bestows on his elect knowledge and judgment, that they may distinguish truth from falsehood. Next follows faith and firm certainty, so that they embrace without hesitation all that the Lord hath spoken; and afterwards faith kindles in our hearts more and more the light of understanding, and even in proportion to the progress which we make in it, our knowledge grows and becomes brighter. But these things are not done by our own judgment, but by the power of the Holy Spirit, so far as we are enlightened by him.

That I am he He means here that it is requisite, in order to faith, that we know who is our God, and that it is he whom we worship, and no other; that our minds may not foolishly waver, and go astray, and admit everything that shall be supported by the opinion of men. Thus, faith is not that which frames anything according to its own fancy, or thoughtlessly assents to any assertion, or doubts and hesitates, but that which rests on firm certainty, so that, yielding obedience to the one true God, it surveys as from a lofty position, and despises all false gods, and frees and delivers their minds from the dread of error.

Hence we see what we ought to think of the perplexed faith of Papists; for they think that men who are stupid and void of understanding, who can scarcely utter a syllable about God, whom they know not, or of whom they are uncertain, are believers, provided that they profess that they believe what their holy mother, the Church, believes. But the Lord does not approve of a thing so trivial, but has united faith with understanding, that we may not imagine that the one can be separated from the other. Besides, there is no faith, unless you believe that it is God who is the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, and who spoke by the prophets and apostles; for it will not be faith, but a vain and wandering imagination, if we do not believe in that God.

Before me there was no God formed In order to confirm still more what he lately said, that he is the only God, he again adds that “there was no other God before him.” Yet לא נוצר (lo notzar) may be taken in a passive sense, so as to convey a different meaning, that of a “creature,” or “workmanship,” or “work” 166 of God; but as that appears to be a forced sense, I willingly concur with the ordinary opinion, that “no other God had been formed before him.” This contains a kind of irony, as if it had been said, that there was no other god that had not been made and formed by mortals, and consequently, that none can be compared with the eternal God.

And after me there shalt not be He adds that “there shall be none afterwards,” because God always preserves his dominion entire and unimpaired, and does not fail through old age or length of days. His object is to shew that, until we rely on him, there is no faith in us. They who know that there is some deity, but do not understand what it is, continually hesitate, and entangle themselves in strange labyrinths. Let us, therefore, believe that he alone is God, and for that reason cannot permit any one to be equal to him, or to share with him in his majesty.

Calvin: Isa 43:11 - I, I // And there is no Savior besides me 11.I, I 167 am Jehovah. Here the Lord employs lofty language, as having obtained the victory. Already he had sufficiently explained in what manner ...

11.I, I 167 am Jehovah. Here the Lord employs lofty language, as having obtained the victory. Already he had sufficiently explained in what manner he must be known, and had shewn that there is no God except himself; and now, in order to confirm this doctrine, he exclaims, “I alone am Jehovah, there is none besides me.” This shews how dangerous it is to contrive anything about God out of our own fancy; for when we make any kind of graven image, we produce an idol instead of God. We ought, therefore, to embrace nothing but what has proceeded from God, so as not to allow ourselves any liberty on this subject. After God has revealed himself to us, we ought to make progress in the knowledge of him, and to grow and be strengthened every day; for this is the meaning of the repetition, I, I. 168

And there is no Savior besides me That we may not suppose that his eternal essence only is here exhibited, but also his power and goodness, which he constantly exercises towards us, and by which he is fully revealed, he adds an epithet as a distinguishing mark, that “he is the only Savior.” The world falls into the mistake of giving a naked and empty name to God, and at the same time conveying his authority to another, as in Popery God is indeed mentioned, but is robbed of his honor, when one part of it is given to St. Peter, and another to St. Paul, and another to St. William, and another to St. George; that is, his offices are distributed into so many parts, that hardly anything is left to him but a naked and empty name. They boast, indeed, of worshipping God alone; but when we come to what it belongs to God to do, they make as many gods as they have creatures, and distribute among them his power and authority. But the Lord has determined that these shall remain entire and uninfringed, and they cannot be conveyed to another without shocking blasphemy; for he alone does good to men, he alone defends and preserves them. The last clause of the verse expresses that knowledge which is derived from experience, that we may not seek salvation in any other than in him who its the only author of it. Hence we learn that the chief part of the worship of God consists in faith, when he is acknowledged to be the beginning and the end of life, when we bestow on him the title of Savior, and do not convey to another what he declares to belong to himself and to reside in him alone.

Calvin: Isa 43:12 - I have told and have saved // And there is no strange god among // Ye are therefore my witnesses 12.I have told and have saved This verse is a sort of recapitulation (ἀνακεφαλαίωσις) of the preceding; for Jehovah again relates tha...

12.I have told and have saved This verse is a sort of recapitulation (ἀνακεφαλαίωσις) of the preceding; for Jehovah again relates that he foretold future events, and that he had actually accomplished what he foretold. To tell relates to foreknowledge, and to save relates to power and goodness. In a word, he means that he alone is God, who both knows and does all things. Although these things were spoken to the Jews, yet let us know that they belong to us also; for all the predictions that have come down to us ought to be regarded by us as so many proofs both of the knowledge and of the power of God, that we may rely on him alone.

And there is no strange god among you. That superstitions may be banished, and that he may be elevated to the throne of his heavenly doctrine, he again mentions that he displayed his power, and gave tokens of his grace, without being aided by any one; and hence it follows, that they who shall not be satisfied with him alone, will be excessively ungrateful and wicked. “At the time,” says he, “when ye worshipped no strange god, I openly and publicly displayed my power; and therefore it is unlawful to bestow on false gods what belongs to me.” And yet in these words he does not so much commend the piety or religion of the people, as he excludes all foreign aid; as if he had said, that while the Jews knew no other God, the miracles wrought by him were so numerous and so great, that it was perfectly evident that none but he is God. At the same time Isaiah remarks that our unbelief hinders God from displaying his power amongst us. Away, then, with all errors and all wavering and doubtful opinions about God, if we wish to have experience of his power! for if we turn our minds to superstitions or idols, we shall undoubtedfly render ourselves unworthy of his assistance and kindness.

Ye are therefore my witnesses At length he again summons them as witnesses, accusing them of base and shameful ingratitude, if they conceal what he had abundantly made known to them; for the greater and more numerous the testimonies by which he has manifested to us his power and might, so much the more are we bound to declare them to others.

Calvin: Isa 43:13 - Even before the day was // There is none to deliver out of my hand 13.Even before the day was He now speaks of the eternity of God; but we must attend to the Prophet’s design; for he who has a beginning and is not ...

13.Even before the day was He now speaks of the eternity of God; but we must attend to the Prophet’s design; for he who has a beginning and is not from himself, cannot rule by his dominion, or govern according to his pleasure, what he has not created. When, therefore, God declares that he is eternal, he reminds us that the world is his workmanship; for this order of nature did not spring up by chance, but proceeded from the wonderful purpose and. wisdom of God. (Gen 1:1.) In this sense he afterwards adds, —

There is none to deliver out of my hand Hence we shall clearly see that his supreme and infinite power is proved from his eternity; for if he were not eternal, he could neither exercise authority over all things, nor be the defender of his people, nor dispose of the creatures according to his pleasure; but since he is eternal, all things must be subject to his authority. To the same purpose is what he says, that no obstacle can prevent what he hath decreed to do, that the Jews may not be alarmed or dispirited by the forces or number of the enemies.

Calvin: Isa 43:14 - Thus saith Jehovah // For your sake I have sent to Babylon // And I made them come down // They are all fugitives // And a cry of the Babylonians in the ships 14.Thus saith Jehovah The Prophet shews that Cyrus will be but a hired soldier, to render his services to the Lord for delivering his people. He does...

14.Thus saith Jehovah The Prophet shews that Cyrus will be but a hired soldier, to render his services to the Lord for delivering his people. He does not indeed name Cyrus, but speaks of the army which he has under his command for subduing the Babylonians. ‘We know that this was accomplished by Cyrus and Darius, and that under the direction of God, who had foretold it long before. And not only does he speak to those who beheld the accomplishment of these things, but to all others whom the Lord wished to comfort by this hope of deliverance, of which they could not have formed the smallest conception. He addresses captives, who, having been oppressed by the cruel tyranny of the Babylonians, appeared to be beyond all hope of obtaining deliverance, and who might be apt to regard those promises as absurd, because in the opinion of men there was no visible hope of redemption. But we should yield this honor to the word, to believe what is otherwise incredible, that we may be encouraged to “hope against hope.” (Rom 4:18.) Such is the power of faith, that it must not be limited to the view of external objects, but rise above the heavens, and reach even to God himself.

For your sake I have sent to Babylon This is highly emphatic; for, while Cyrus was instigated by ambition and by an insatiable desire of power, and while there were many causes of the war, nothing was further from being generally believed, than that the destruction of that monarchy would shake the world, so that the Jews who were at that time most despicable in the eyes of men, would return to their native land. But God testifies that he will grant easy victories to the Persians, so that they shall subdue the East, because he will be reconciled to his Church.

For the same reason he begins by saying, that he is the Redeemer of his people, and the Holy One, to shew more clearly that he holds dear and precious those whom he has chosen to be his peculiar people. (Exo 19:6.) But this appears to be inconsistent with what we have formerly seen,

“We to thee who plunderest, for thou shalt be exposed to plunder,” (Isa 33:1;)

for the Lord declared that he would punish the cruelty of the Babylonians, and repay to them what they had deserved; but now he affirms that he sends the Persians to deliver his people. But these statements may easily be reconciled. Though the Lord punished the Babylonians, yet he had also a care of his people; for, as the providence of God extends throughout the whole world, so he takes a peculiar care of his Church, and, as the elect are the object of his special love, so he directs all things for their salvation. It is not without good reason, therefore, that he says that he sent, and that he was induced by undeserved favor to send, because he wished to be the Savior of his people.

And I made them come down For the same reason as before, he now adds that they shall come down at his command, because, although the Persians and Medes will have another object in view, yet their march shall be guided by heavenly impulse; and in this manner he wished to give an early testimony of his grace to the elect people, that they might not faint under many very distressing calamities. This promise ought therefore to have brought vast consolation to believers, that, although they were despised, and hated, and even abhorred by all, still they were dear to God; because he would at length assist them, and on their account would destroy the kingdom of the Babylonians.

They are all fugitives 169 By saying that “they shall be fugitives,” he shews that he will give to Cyrus such success, that the Babylonians shall tremble at his arrival, and in terror shall throw down their arms, and betake themselves to flight. It often happens that a very powerful prince, abundantly supplied with military preparations, undertakes a war, but conducts it unsuccessfully; and therefore it was not enough that Cyrus should be sent with a powerful army, if he were not also crowned with success.

And a cry of the Babylonians in the ships To describe more fully the sudden flight, he adds that there shall be “a cry or noise in the ships;” for they were unable to escape by land. They had, indeed, a very convenient river, the Euphrates, which united with the river Tigris, by which they might easily have escaped. Yet even in this respect their expectation was disappointed on account of the bed of the river being dried up.

Calvin: Isa 43:15 - I Jehovah // Your Holy One, the Creator of Israel, your King 15.I Jehovah This verse contains no statement, and only shews who it is that speaks, how great is his power and majesty, and, in a word, how warmly h...

15.I Jehovah This verse contains no statement, and only shews who it is that speaks, how great is his power and majesty, and, in a word, how warmly he loves the elect people, so as to give greater weight to the former promise. In short, it may be viewed as the seal of the preceding statement, more powerfully confirming what was formerly said, that it is God who makes these promises. But what God?

Your Holy One, the Creator of Israel, your King He is called Holy, because he has chosen and separated a people, that he might consecrate them to himself; for by this title he reminds them of the adoption by which he united them to himself in a peculiar manner, that they may understand that he will be their Father and Savior. And for the same reason we ought now to acknowledge him as our Holy One, because he has set us apart to be members of the Church, of which we are assured by our calling. The name Creator must not be viewed as referring to universal creation, by which unbelievers also are created, but to the new creation, on account of which we are also called (Eph 2:10) “his workmanship,” (τὸ ποίημα) as we have formerly stated, while expounding other passages.

Your King. This might indeed be thought to be absurd; for not even the semblance of a kingdom was visible, and nothing was to be seen among the Jews but what was covered with shame and disgrace, in consequence of their having been deprived of all aid and relief. Yet there was room for the exercise of faith, that they might hope for the restoration of the kingdom, though apparently ruined and almost extinguished, and might acknowledge God to be their King.

Calvin: Isa 43:16 - Thus saith Jehovah // Who maketh a way in the sea 16.Thus saith Jehovah He again repeats and confirms what was otherwise incredible; and, in order that this confirmation may have greater weight, he p...

16.Thus saith Jehovah He again repeats and confirms what was otherwise incredible; and, in order that this confirmation may have greater weight, he personates God himself.

Who maketh a way in the sea He reminds them of former benefits, that, having experienced his power and kindness, they may believe that he will not be less gracious for the future, nor less powerful to deliver them. As if he had said, “The Lord who speaks will actually shew how vast is the greatness of his power. Your fathers experienced it, and you will not experience it the less.” Now, we are ungrateful to God, if former benefits do not lead us to entertain hope for the future; and especially when he intended to give a sure and striking proof of continual favor towards us. He brought the Jews out of Egypt on the express condition, that the deliverance which was accomplished should never be forgotten. (Exo 13:9.)

The Prophet therefore represents God as actually present, and declares that he is the same God who surmounted every obstacle by his power, that he might be the Redeemer of his people. At that time he opened up a way through the sea, (Exo 14:21,) and afterwards through the mighty waters, that is, through Jordan, which the Lord dried up, though it was running very rapidly. (Jos 3:16.) And these prodigious miracles he expressly relates, because they might think that their return to Judea was closed up, and that all that was promised concerning it was fabulous.

Calvin: Isa 43:17 - When he bringeth out // They are quenched like flax 17.When he bringeth out He shows that no power or forces shall hinder him from delivering his people, whenever he shall think proper. The sea which l...

17.When he bringeth out He shows that no power or forces shall hinder him from delivering his people, whenever he shall think proper. The sea which lay between them could not prevent God from “bringing out” his people; but he divided its waters in the midst, and drowned the pursuing enemies, with their horses and chariots. (Exo 14:28.) This is therefore an amplification; as if he had said, “Though the whole world be leagued for your destruction, and attempt, to hinder the deliverance of my Church, yet it will gain nothing; for not only will the Lord find out a way through whirlpools, when he thinks proper, but he will overthrow and scatter all opposing efforts, and will crush them so that they shall never again raise their head.”

They are quenched like flax It is possible that he who was vanquished in one battle may renew his strength in another, and at length be victorious; but here the Lord promises a continual victory, for he declares that the enemies shall be subdued in such a manner that they shall be completely extinguished. By the metaphor of flax, he expresses more vividly the sudden destruction of the enemies; for flax may indeed burn and give light, but is immediately consumed.

Calvin: Isa 43:18 - Remember not former things 18.Remember not former things Hitherto the Prophet shewed how great was the power of God in delivering the people. He now declares that all the mirac...

18.Remember not former things Hitherto the Prophet shewed how great was the power of God in delivering the people. He now declares that all the miracles which God wrought in that first redemption were of little importance as compared with the more remarkable miracle which should soon be wrought; that is, that the glory of this second deliverance shall be so great as to throw the former into the shade. Yet he does not mean that the Jews should forget so great a benefit, which he had commanded them to publish in every age, and to inscribe on permanent records; for in his preface to the Law he begins in this manner,

“I am the Lord thy God, who brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage.” (Exo 20:2.)

He even enjoined parents to repeat it frequently to their children, and from hand to hand to deliver it to their grandchildren and to posterity. This must therefore be understood to be by comparison, like that saying’ of Jeremiah,

“Behold the days come,” saith the Lord, “that it shall no longer be said, The Lord liveth, who brought the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt; but, The Lord liveth, who led and brought out the seed of the house of Israel from the land of the north, and from all the countries into which I had driven them; and they shall dwell in their land.” (Jer 23:7.)

In short, he shews that this latter redemption, when compared with the former, shall be far more illustrious. Hence it follows, that it is improper to limit this prediction to a small number of years; for the Prophet does not separate between its commencement and its progress, but extends the blessed consequences of their return till Christ, who, by his coming, actually set up the priesthood and the kingdom.

Calvin: Isa 43:19 - Behold, === I do a new thing. This shews more clearly what the Prophet meant in the preceding verse, for he declares that there shall be “a new work,” that is, a work unheard of and uncommon, and which, on account of its greatness and excellence, shall throw into the shade the reputation of all other works; in the same manner as the brightness of the sun, when it fills heaven and earth, causes the stars to disappear.

===Now it shall arise 19.Behold, === I do a new thing. This shews more clearly what the Prophet meant in the preceding verse, for he declares that there shall be “a new...

19.Behold, === I do a new thing. This shews more clearly what the Prophet meant in the preceding verse, for he declares that there shall be “a new work,” that is, a work unheard of and uncommon, and which, on account of its greatness and excellence, shall throw into the shade the reputation of all other works; in the same manner as the brightness of the sun, when it fills heaven and earth, causes the stars to disappear.

===Now it shall arise He means that the time shall not be long. Yet these things were not so speedily accomplished; but, if we look to God, four hundred or even a thousand years are counted as a moment before him; how much less ought a delay of seventy years to wear out and discourage them? When he adds, Shall ye not know it? this question is more forcible and impressive than a bare affirmation, and this form of question is more frequently employed by Hebrew writers than in the Greek and Latin languages. When he promises a way in the wilderness, he alludes to that wilderness which lay between Judea and Babylon; for he speaks of the return of the people. Accordingly to the way he adds rivers; for in travelling through a dry country they might have been parched and died of thirst. On this account, the Lord says that he will supply them with water and everything that is necessary for the journey; as if he had said, “I will furnish you with provisions, so that under my guidance you shall return to your native land.”

But it may be thought that the Prophet is excessive, and that his language is altogether hyperbolical, when he extols this deliverance in such lofty terms; for we read that rivers were turned into blood, (Exo 7:20,) the air was covered with darkness, (Exo 10:22,) the first-born were slain, (Exo 12:29,) insects were sent forth to destroy the whole country, (Exo 10:15,) and that other prodigies of the same kind happened in Egypt, while nothing of this sort was done in Babylon. What then is meant by this new redemption? This consideration has compelled almost all Christian commentators to interpret this passage as referring absolutely to the coming of Christ, in which they are undoubtedly mistaken; and the Jews are also in the wrong, when they limit it to the redemption from Babylon. Accordingly, as I have frequently remarked, we ought here to include the whole period which followed the redemption from Babylon, down to the coming of Christ.

The redemption from Egypt may be regarded as having been the first birth of the Church; because the people were gathered into a body, and the Church was established, of which formerly there was not the semblance; but that deliverance is not limited to the time when the people went out of Egypt, but is continued down to the possession of the land of Canaan, which was delivered to the people, when the kings had been driven out. (Jos 11:23.) We ought to take the same view of this new birth, (περὶ ταύτης παλιγγενεσίας,) by which the people were rescued from Babylon, and brought back to their native land; for that restoration must not be limited to the departure from Babylon, but must be extended to Christ, during the whole of which period great and wonderful events undoubtedly happened. Was it not astonishing that a captive people, whom all despised as some contemptible slave, and who were even held to be accursed, should receive freedom and liberty to return from heathen kings; and not only so, but should be furnished with provisions, and with everything else that was necessary both for the journey and for settling at home, for rearing the city and for rebuilding the Temple? (Ezr 1:2.)

But far greater events followed, when but a few persons were willing to return, and the greater part were so discouraged as to prefer wretched bondage to blessed freedom. When, in comparison of that vast multitude which had been carried away, a few persons returned to Judea, still greater obstacles arose. Conspiracies were formed, the people formerly abhorred became the objects of keener resentments, the work was interrupted, and every method was tried for putting a full stop to the design. (Ezr 4:0.) Thus it appeared as if in vain the Lord had brought them back, for they were exposed to dangers much greater than before. When the temple had been built, they did not enjoy greater peace; for they were hedged in on all sides by very cruel and deadly enemies, from whom they often sustained great hardships. They were afterwards afflicted by distresses, and calamities, and various persecutions, so that they were supposed to be struck down and overwhelmed, and utterly ruined. And yet, in the midst of fire and sword, God wonderfully preserved them; and if we consider their wretched and miserable condition, and the grievous persecutions of tyrants, we shall wonder that even a single individual of them could survive.

In order that we may understand how great was the excellence of this latter redemption, and how far it excelled the former, we must: continue and bring it down to the time of Christ, who at length gave an immense addition to the former benefits. Thus, beyond all question, the second redemption leaves the first far behind. There is nothing forced in this interpretation, and it corresponds to the ordinary language of the prophets, who always have the Messiah for their end, and keep him constantly in their eye. But this will appear more clearly from what is related by Haggai; for, when the Temple began to be rebuilt, the old men, who had seen the glory of the ancient temple, mourned, and were not far from thinking that God had forsaken them, and that his promises had failed. But Haggai, in order to comfort them and to prove that the glory of this second would be greater than the glory of the first, though the structure of the building was far inferior, leads them to the Redeemer.

“Thus saith the Lord of hosts,” says he, “Yet once, and within a short time, I will shake the heavens, and the earth, the sea, and the continent, and all the nations; and the Desire of all nations shall come; and I will fill this house with glory, saith the Lord of hosts. The silver is mine, the gold is mine, saith the Lord of hosts. The glory of this latter house shall be greater than the glory of the former.” (Hag 2:6.)

Thus, as Haggai brings the restoration of the Temple down to Christ, and refers to him its true glory; so this deliverance (for the two things are connected, or rather they are the same) extended even to Christ. Consequently, we need not wonder if it surpassed the Egyptian deliverance in every respect.

Calvin: Isa 43:20 - The beast of the field shall honor me // My people, my chosen 20.The beast of the field shall honor me He adorns the preceding statement; for, amidst such a desperate condition of affairs, it was proper that mag...

20.The beast of the field shall honor me He adorns the preceding statement; for, amidst such a desperate condition of affairs, it was proper that magnificent language should be employed in extolling the power of God, that words might supply what seemed to be wanting in the reality. The meaning is, that the power of God will be so visible and manifest, that the very beasts, impressed with the feeling of it, shall acknowledge and worship God. This prediction corresponds to the song,

“The sea saw and fled, Jordan was driven back. The mountains leaped like rams, and the hills like lambs. At the face of the Lord the earth trembled.” (Psa 114:3.)

Isaiah here ascribes the same feeling to brute animals, because by a secret impulse they shall be constrained to retire, so as to allow his people to pass safely. And yet the cause assigned is more extensive, that they will stand still, as if in astonishment, when they see the miracles. In a word, God declares that he will not suffer his people, in their journey homeward, to be destitute of the means of subsistence, but describes in exaggerated language his love toward the Jews, that by the height of their hope they may rise above the world. When we hear these statements, let us also not measure the power of God by the nature of things, but let us be exalted by faith above all that can be seen or known.

My people, my chosen That these wretched exiles may not be driven from the hope of heavenly grace and assistance, he reminds them of their adoption; as if he had said, that amidst this ruinous and melancholy condition they still continued to be the people of God, because he who once chose them does not change his purpose. Accordingly, whenever we need to be excited to cherish favorable hope, let us remember God’s calling; for, although we are unworthy, still it ought to be reckoned enough that the Lord has deigned to bestow on us so great an honor.

Calvin: Isa 43:21 - This people have I created for myself // They shall declare my praise 21.This people have I created for myself The Prophet means that the Lord will necessarily do what he formerly said, because it concerns his glory to ...

21.This people have I created for myself The Prophet means that the Lord will necessarily do what he formerly said, because it concerns his glory to preserve the people whom he has chosen for himself; and therefore these words are intended for the consolation of the people. “Do you think that I will suffer my glory to fall to the ground? It is connected with your salvation, and therefore your salvation shall be the object of my care. In a word, know that you shall be saved, because you cannot perish, unless my glory likewise perish. Ye shall therefore survive, because I wish that you may continually proclaim my glory.”

When he says that he has created the people, let us learn that it proceeds from supernatural grace that we are the people of God; for we must remember that principle of which we have formerly spoken, that he does not now speak of the ordinary nature of men, but of spiritual regeneration, or of the adoption by which he separates the Church from the rest of the world, and that with everything that belongs to it. Let no one therefore ascribe his regeneration to himself or to any human merits; but let us acknowledge that it is entirely to the mercy of God that we owe so great a favor.

They shall declare my praise Though it is the design of the Prophet to shew what I have said, that his people shall be saved because it concerns the glory of God, yet we also learn from it, that the end of our election is, that we may shew forth the glory of God in every possible way. (Exo 14:4.) The reprobate are, indeed, the instruments of the glory of God, but it is said to shine in us in a very different manner; for “he hath chosen us,” says Paul, “that we might be holy and without blame before him through love, who predestinated us that he might adopt us to be his children through Jesus Christ, in himself, according to the good pleasure of his will, to the praise of the glory of his grace by which he hath made us accepted through the Beloved.” (Eph 1:4.) Such also is the import of the words of Peter when he says, that we were brought out of darkness into the wonderful kingdom of God, that we may declare his perfections, (1Pe 2:9;) and likewise the words of Zacharias,

“That, being delivered out of the hand of our enemies, we may serve him without fear, in holiness and righteousness, all the days of our life.” (Luk 1:74.)

This, then, is the end of our calling, that, being consecrated to God, we may praise and honor him during our whole life.

Calvin: Isa 43:22 - And thou hast not called on me // But thou hast been wearied of me 22.And thou hast not called on me He confirms by an indirect reproof what he said in the preceding verse, that it was not by any merits of his people...

22.And thou hast not called on me He confirms by an indirect reproof what he said in the preceding verse, that it was not by any merits of his people that he was induced to act so kindly towards them. This deliverance, therefore, ought to be ascribed to no other cause than to the goodness of God. In order to prove this, he says, “Thou hast not called on me.” Calling on the name of God includes the whole of the worship of God, the chief part of which is “calling upon him;” and, therefore, following the ordinary manner of Scripture, he has put a part for the whole. But in other passages the Lord plainly shews that calling upon him is the chief part of his worship; for, after having said that he despises sacrifices and outward ceremonies, he adds,

“Call upon me in the day of trouble.” (Psa 50:15.)

Hence also Scripture, when it speaks of the worship of God, chiefly mentions “calling on him;” for when Moses states that the worship of God had been restored, he says, “Then began men to call on the name of the Lord.” (Gen 4:26.)

But thou hast been wearied of me In this second clause I consider the particle כי ( ki) to be disjunctive, “But rather thou hast been wearied of me.” Others render it “Because thou hast wearied;” as if he had said, “Thou hast received with dislike what was enjoined on thee;” which amounts to nearly the same thing. As the Lord demands obedience, so he wishes all that worship him to be ready and cheerful; as Paul testifies, that “the Lord loveth a cheerful giver,” (2Co 9:7,) and they who obey reluctantly cannot be called, and are not reckoned by him, true and sincere worshippers. Thus, in order to show that the Jews have not worshipped him as they ought to have done, he says that they did it reluctantly. If any one choose rather to view it as assigning the reason, and render it thus, — “Thou hast not called on me, for thou hast rendered to me no worship without regret, and what may be said to have been extorted from thee by violence,” as it makes little difference in the meaning, I do not greatly object; but the translation which I have given appears to convey more clearly what the Prophet intends. Besides, the contrast contains within itself the assigning of a reason; and therefore, if we wish that God should accept of our service, let us obey him with a cheerful disposition.

Calvin: Isa 43:23 - Theft hast not brought to me 23.Theft hast not brought to me A question arises, “Why does the Prophet bring this reproach against the Jews, who, it is evident, were very carefu...

23.Theft hast not brought to me A question arises, “Why does the Prophet bring this reproach against the Jews, who, it is evident, were very careful to offer sacrifices according to the injunction of the Law?” Some refer this to the time of the captivity, when they could not have offered sacrifices to God though they had been willing to do so; for it was not lawful for them to offer sacrifices in any other place than Jerusalem, and therefore they could not appease God by sacrifices. (Deu 12:13.) But I rather think that it is a general reproach; for at the very time when the people were sacrificing, they could not boast of their merits or personal worth, as if they had laid God under obligations in this manner; for they were wanting in the sacrifices which God chiefly approves, that is, faith and obedience, without which nothing can be acceptable to God. There was no integrity of heart, “their hands were full of blood,” (Isa 1:15;) everything was filled with fraud and robbery, and there was no room for justice or equity. Although, therefore, they daily brought beasts to the temple, and sacrificed them, yet he justly affirms that they offered nothing to him. Sacrifices could not be accepted by God when they were separated kern truth, and were offered to another rather than to God; for he did not demand them in themselves, but so far as the people treated them as exercises of faith and obedience, Hence we infer that the Prophet says nothing new, but continues to exhibit the same doctrine, namely, that God rejects all services that are rendered in a slavish spirit, or in any other respect are defective.

Calvin: Isa 43:24 - Thou hast not bought cane for me // And thou hast not made me drunk // But thou hast made me to serve with thy sins 24.Thou hast not bought cane for me He means the cane or calamus of which the precious ointment was composed, as we are informed, (Exo 30:23;) fo...

24.Thou hast not bought cane for me He means the cane or calamus of which the precious ointment was composed, as we are informed, (Exo 30:23;) for the high priests, the tabernacle of the congregation, and the ark of the testimony, together with its vessels, were anointed with it he says, therefore, “Although thou buy cane for me with money, yet thou oughtest not to reckon that to be expense bestowed on me, as if I approved of it.” They lost their pains in all those ceremonies, because they did not look to the proper end, since they did not exercise faith, or worship God with a pure conscience.

And thou hast not made me drunk This corresponds to a mode of expression employed in the law, in which God testifies that sacrifices are pleasant and delightful feasts to him; not that he took pleasure in the slaughter of animals, but that by these exercises he wished to lead his people to true obedience. He means that here, on the contrary, the people did not offer sacrifices in a proper manner, because they polluted everything with impiety; and, consequently, that he might be said to be hungry and faint, because they offered nothing in a right manner, but everything was corrupted and was without savor.

But thou hast made me to serve with thy sins The Prophet now aggravates the heinousness of that offense, by saying that the people not only were deficient in their duty, and did not submit to God, but that they even endeavored to make God submit to them, and “to serve” their will, or rather their lust. They who explain this passage as referring to Christ torture the Prophet’s meaning, and therefore I consider this interpretation to be more natural. The Lord complains that men compelled him to carry a heavy burden, instead of submitting to him with reverence, as they ought to have done; for when we rise up against God, we treat him as a slave by our rebellion and insolence. He explains this more fully when he says, Ye have wearied me; that is, that God suffered much uneasiness on account of the wickedness of his people; for in some respects we wound and “pierce him,” as the Prophet says, (Zec 12:10,) when we reject his voice, and do not suffer ourselves to be governed by him. Apparently he alludes to what he had formerly said about the weariness or uneasiness of the people in worshipping God; for God declares, on the contrary, that the people have given him great distress.

Calvin: Isa 43:25 - I, I am he // He that blotteth out thy iniquities // Therefore I will not remember thy sins 25.I, I am he 170 He concludes the former statement by this exclamation, as if he had said, that he may boast of his right, that he blots out the ini...

25.I, I am he 170 He concludes the former statement by this exclamation, as if he had said, that he may boast of his right, that he blots out the iniquities of his people, and restores them to freedom; for they have no merits by which they could obtain it, since they deserve the severest punishment, and even destruction. The same word is twice repeated by him, that he may more sharply rebuke the ingratitude of men who are wont to rob him of that honor which belongs to him alone, or in some way to throw it into the shade.

He that blotteth out thy iniquities הוא ( hu) is the demonstrative pronoun He, used instead of a noun, as in many other passages. It is but a poor and feeble meaning that is attached to the words of the Prophet by those who think that God claims for himself the privilege and authority of pardoning sins, for he rather contrasts his mercy with all other causes, as if he declared that he is not induced by anything else to pardon sins, but is satisfied with his mere goodness, and, consequently, that it is wrong to ascribe either to merits or to any sacrifices the redemption of which he is the Author by free grace. The meaning may be summed up by saying, that the people ought to hope for their return for no other reason than because God will freely pardon their sins, and, being of his own accord appeased by his mercy, will stretch out his fatherly hand.

The present subject is the pardon of sins; we must see on what occasion it has been introduced. Undoubtedly the Prophet means that there will be a freely bestowed redemption, and therefore he mentions forgiveness rather than redemption, because, since they had received a severe punishment for their sins, they must have been pardoned before they were delivered. The cause of the disease must be taken away, if we wish to cure the disease itself; and so long as the Lord’s anger lasts, his chastisements will also last; and consequently his anger must be appeased, and we must be reconciled to God, before we are freed from punishments. And this form of expression ought to be carefully observed in opposition to the childish distinction of the Sophists, who say that God does indeed pardon guilt, but that we must make satisfaction by penances. Hence proceeded satisfactions, indulgences, purgatory, and innumerable other contrivances.

The Prophet does not only speak of guilt, but speaks expressly of punishment which is remitted, because sins have been freely pardoned. This is still more clearly expressed by the addition of the phrase for mine own sake. It is certain that this limitation is contrasted with all merits, that is, that God pays no regard to us, or to anything that is in us, in pardoning our sins, but that he is prompted to it solely by his goodness; for if he had regard to us, he would be in some respects our debtor, and forgiveness would not be of free grace. Accordingly, Ezekiel explains the contrast,

“Not for your sakes will I do this, O house of Jacob, but for mine own sake.” (Eze 36:22.)

Hence it follows that God is his own adviser, and is freely inclined to pardon sins, for he does not find any cause in men.

Therefore I will not remember thy sins The Prophet added this for the consolation of the godly, who, oppressed by the consciousness of their transgressions, might otherwise have fallen into despair. On this account he encourages them to cherish good hope, and confirms them in that confidence by saying, that although they are unworthy, yet he will pardon their sins, and will thus deliver them. Hence we ought to draw a useful doctrine, that no one can be certain of obtaining pardon, unless he rely on the absolute goodness of God. They who look to their works must continually hesitate, and at length despair, because, if they are not deceived by gross hypocrisy, they will always have before their eyes their own unworthiness, which will constrain them to remain in doubt as to the love of God.

When it is said that ministers also forgive sins, (Joh 20:23,) there is no inconsistency with this passage, for they are witnesses of this freely bestowed forgiveness. The ordinary distinction is that God forgives sins by his power, and ministers by their office; but as this distinction does not explain the Prophet’s meaning, we must keep by what I have stated, that God not only forgives sins in the exercise of his authority, but that all the blessings for which we ought to hope flow from the fountain of his absolute bounty. Thus the Lord adorned the preaching of the gospel, and its ministers, in such a manner as to reserve the full authority for himself.

Calvin: Isa 43:26 - Bring to my remembrance // That thou mayest be justified, 26.Bring to my remembrance Because the pride of men cannot be easily corrected, the Lord pursues this argument, and dwells much upon it, in order to ...

26.Bring to my remembrance Because the pride of men cannot be easily corrected, the Lord pursues this argument, and dwells much upon it, in order to lead the Jews to throw away all confidence in their works, and to make them more humble, he gives them liberty to say and argue whatever they please, in order to support their cause, if they do not acknowledge that they are vanquished. By a sort of admission in their favor, he bids them call to his remembrance; as if he had said, “If thou thinkest me to be forgetful, tell it thyself; remind me, if thou canst allege anything good; speak in thy turn, I shall be silent.” By this form of expression he taunts men more than if he had stated in the usual way how the matter stood. He shews that it is exceedingly foolish in men to claim anything for themselves; for, though he gives them liberty of boasting, they will be found utterly unable to plead, and will have nothing to say in defense of their cause.

That thou mayest be justified, that is, “In order that thou mayest gain thy cause, and carry off the victory, I allow thee to say whatever thou pleasest.” This is vehement mockery, which shuts the mouths of men more completely than if he pronounced the sentence in his own person and with the authority of a judge. Yet we must also observe the design of the Prophet; for he found it necessary to strip the Jews of the mask of personal worth, that they might humbly and meekly receive the grace of God.

Calvin: Isa 43:27 - Thy first father sinned // And thy teachers 27.Thy first father sinned This passage is almost universally understood to refer to the “first parent” Adam. (Gen 3:6.) Some prefer to interpret...

27.Thy first father sinned This passage is almost universally understood to refer to the “first parent” Adam. (Gen 3:6.) Some prefer to interpret it as relating to Abraham; as if he had said,

“You have not alone sinned, but your father Abraham himself sinned, though he was a man of eminent holiness.” 171 (Jos 24:2.)

By the teachers are understood to be meant Moses and Aaron, who were men of extraordinary holiness, and yet sinned: “how much more you who are far inferior to theme” (Num 20:12.) That would be an argument from the greater to the less. But I view the matter differently; for under the word Father he includes not one or a few of their ancestors, but many. It is an interchange of the singular and plural number, which is very frequently employed by Hebrew writers. This reproof occurs very frequently in the prophets and in the Psalms; for, knowing that God reckoned them to be “a holy people,” (Exo 19:6,) as if this honor had been due to the excellence or merits of the fathers, they rose fiercely against God himself, and swelled with pride on account of their hereditary privilege. On this account the prophets in every age expose the crimes of the fathers; and Stephen, who followed them, says, that “they always resisted the Holy Spirit;” (Act 7:51;) as if he had said, “You do not now for the first time begin to be wicked; long ago your fathers were base and infamous. From a bad crow has come a bad egg. But you are far worse, and exceed your fathers in wickedness; so that if I had looked at you alone, you would long ago have been destroyed and completely ruined.”

And thy teachers 172 He now adds the teachers, in order to shew that the blame did not lie with the people alone; for they who ought to have been the guides of others, that is, the priests and the prophets, were the first to stumble, and led others into error. In a word, he shews that no class was free from vices and corruptions. “Let them now go and boast of their virtues, and let them produce the very smallest reason why I ought to protect them, except my own goodness.” If it be objected that there is no reason why the sins of their fathers should be brought as an accusation against them, because it is written,

“The soul that hath sinned shall die, and the children shall not be punished instead of the fathers,” (Eze 18:20,)

the answer will be easy. The Lord makes the children to bear the punishment of the sins of the fathers, when they resemble their fathers; and yet they are not punished for other men’s sins, for they themselves have sinned; and when the Lord chastises the whole body, he puts the fathers and the children together, so as to involve all in the same condemnation.

Calvin: Isa 43:28 - Therefore I will pollute // And I will make Jacob a curse 28.Therefore I will pollute The copulative ו (vau) here means therefore, and the preterite tense, I have polluted, ought to have a future si...

28.Therefore I will pollute The copulative ו (vau) here means therefore, and the preterite tense, I have polluted, ought to have a future signification, though it may also be rendered in the past tense; but I have preferred the future, in order to apply it to the time of the captivity; for he directly addresses those who were to live under the captivity. If it be thought preferable to extend it to various calamities, by which God had covered his people with disgrace, and at the same time to connect with it their exile in Babylon, there will be no impropriety; and indeed it will be more appropriate to view it as a description of what frequently happened to them in former times, that they may be warned for the future, that they have no privilege which can defend them from receiving again with the deepest disgrace the punishment of their ingratitude, tie shews, therefore, the cause of this destruction. It was because the transgressions of the fathers and of the children must be punished, that is, when there was no end of sinning, but when they daily kindled the wrath of God against them, till he at length punished them.

The Lord is said to “pollute” or “profane” his Church, when he despises and throws it aside as a thing of no value. In this sense the word is used in Psa 89:39, and in many other passages. Having been set apart and sanctified by him, we dwell under his protection and guardianship, so long as we are holy; and in like manner when we are deprived of it, we are said to be “profaned,” because we cease to be sacred, and are rendered unworthy of his protection; and he exposes as a prey to enemies those whom he formerly called “his anointed,” and forbade men to “touch.” (Psa 105:15.) But it may be thought strange that the priests, who were Christ’s representatives, should be “profaned;” and the reason is, that they transgressed, while they ought to have been “teachers” of others.

And I will make Jacob a curse The Hebrew word הרם , (herem,) which we have translated a curse, signifies “destruction,” but likewise signifies “a curse;” and I have thought that the latter meaning is more appropriate to this passage, for it afterwards follows, a reproach. These statements are borrowed by the Prophet from Moses, whose description he follows so closely, that it is easy to perceive the style of Moses in these words, and to see that the prophets bring forward nothing that is new or strange. The words of Moses are:

“And thou shalt be an astonishment, a proverb, and a by-word among all the nations to which the Lord shall lead thee.” (Deu 28:37.)

He therefore threatens that he will afflict the people in such a manner as to make them “accursed” by all; so that whoever shall wish to pronounce a “curse” may take it for an example, and that it may be a form of “cursing;” that he will expose them to the ridicule of men, so that they shall serve as a proverb in the mouth of all who wish to utter scorn; just as at the present day we see that the name of a Jew, though in itself honorable, is in the highest degree ignominious and disgraceful. The Lord pronounced those dreadful threatenings by Isaiah, that they might know that a punishment sufficiently severe, as compared with the enormity of their transgressions, could not be inflicted; that when the Lord should chastise them, they might not complain that the punishments which they endured were too severe, or think that the Prophet’s reproofs were too sharp.

Defender: Isa 43:7 - for my glory Although this affirmation was especially applied to Israel, the principle is universal, answering the great question as to God's purpose in creation. ...

Although this affirmation was especially applied to Israel, the principle is universal, answering the great question as to God's purpose in creation. It was "for my glory" (Rev 4:11).

Defender: Isa 43:7 - made him Note that man is "created," "formed" and "made" (Gen 1:26, Gen 1:27; Gen 2:7)."

Note that man is "created," "formed" and "made" (Gen 1:26, Gen 1:27; Gen 2:7)."

Defender: Isa 43:11 - there is no saviour The Lord is not only the Creator, but also the Savior, and there can be no other. None but the all-holy Creator of life can redeem from death. The Lor...

The Lord is not only the Creator, but also the Savior, and there can be no other. None but the all-holy Creator of life can redeem from death. The Lord Jesus Christ is Himself Creator (Joh 1:1-3) and "the great God and our Saviour" (Tit 2:13)."

Defender: Isa 43:15 - creator of Israel The establishment of Israel as a nation among nations - in fact, God's chosen nation - was so miraculous as to be called a creation, and only God can ...

The establishment of Israel as a nation among nations - in fact, God's chosen nation - was so miraculous as to be called a creation, and only God can create!"

Defender: Isa 43:16 - a way in the sea This is evidently a reference to the supernatural parting of the waters of the Red Sea (Exo 14:21, Exo 14:22) which enabled the Israelites to escape E...

This is evidently a reference to the supernatural parting of the waters of the Red Sea (Exo 14:21, Exo 14:22) which enabled the Israelites to escape Egypt and become an independent people. This event could be called, more than any other single event, the creation of Israel."

Defender: Isa 43:27 - first father hath sinned The "first father" of Israel was not Abraham or Jacob, but Adam, and it was Adam who brought sin and death into the world upon all men (Rom 5:12). Isa...

The "first father" of Israel was not Abraham or Jacob, but Adam, and it was Adam who brought sin and death into the world upon all men (Rom 5:12). Isaiah thus, almost incidentally, affirms the historicity of the Genesis record of Adam."

TSK: Isa 43:1 - created // Fear // I have called // thou art mine created : Isa 43:7, Isa 43:15, Isa 43:21, Isa 44:2, Isa 44:21; Psa 100:3, Psa 102:18; Jer 31:3, Jer 33:24, Jer 33:26; Eph 2:10 Fear : Isa 43:14, Isa 3...

TSK: Isa 43:2 - passest // I will be // when thou walkest passest : Isa 8:7-10, Isa 11:15, Isa 11:16; Exo 14:29; Jos 3:15-17; Psa 66:10,Psa 66:12, Psa 91:3-5; Amo 9:8, Amo 9:9; Mat 7:25-27; Heb 11:29 I will b...

TSK: Isa 43:3 - the Holy One // I gave the Holy One : Isa 30:11, Isa 41:14, Isa 45:15, Isa 45:21, Isa 49:26, Isa 60:16; Hos 13:4; Tit 2:10-14; Tit 3:4-6; Jud 1:25 I gave : Exo 10:7; 2Ch 14:...

TSK: Isa 43:4 - precious // thou hast been // I Have // life precious : Exo 19:5, Exo 19:6; Deu 7:6-8, Deu 14:2, Deu 26:18, Deu 32:9-14; Psa 135:4; Mal 3:17; Tit 2:14; 1Pe 2:9 thou hast been : Gen 12:2; Psa 112:...

TSK: Isa 43:5 - Fear not // I will Fear not : Isa 43:2, Isa 41:10,Isa 41:14, Isa 44:2; Jer 30:10,Jer 30:11, Jer 46:27, Jer 46:28; Act 18:9, Act 18:10 I will : Isa 11:11, Isa 11:12, Isa ...

TSK: Isa 43:6 - bring bring : Isa 18:7; Jer 3:14, Jer 3:18, Jer 3:19; Hos 1:10,Hos 1:11; Rom 9:7, Rom 9:8, Rom 9:25, Rom 9:26; 2Co 6:17, 2Co 6:18; Gal 3:26-29

TSK: Isa 43:7 - called // for I // for my called : Isa 62:2-5, Isa 63:19; Jer 33:16; Act 11:26; Jam 2:7; Rev 3:12 for I : Isa 43:1, Isa 29:23; Psa 95:6, Psa 95:7, Psa 100:3; Joh 3:3-7; 2Co 5:1...

TSK: Isa 43:8 - -- Isa 6:9, Isa 42:18-20, Isa 44:18-20; Deu 29:2-4; Jer 5:21; Eze 12:2; 2Co 4:4-6

TSK: Isa 43:9 - all the // who among // that they may all the : Isa 45:20,Isa 45:21, Isa 48:14; Psa 49:1, Psa 49:2, Psa 50:1; Joe 3:11 who among : Isa 41:21-26, Isa 44:7-9, Isa 46:10, Isa 48:5, Isa 48:6 t...

TSK: Isa 43:10 - my witnesses // and my servant // that ye // I am he // no God formed my witnesses : Isa 43:12, Isa 44:8; Joh 1:7, Joh 1:8, Joh 15:27; Act 1:8; 1Co 15:15 and my servant : Isa 42:1, Isa 55:4; Phi 2:7; Col 1:7; Rev 1:2, Re...

my witnesses : Isa 43:12, Isa 44:8; Joh 1:7, Joh 1:8, Joh 15:27; Act 1:8; 1Co 15:15

and my servant : Isa 42:1, Isa 55:4; Phi 2:7; Col 1:7; Rev 1:2, Rev 1:5, Rev 3:14

that ye : Isa 40:21, Isa 40:22, Isa 41:20, Isa 45:6, Isa 46:8, Isa 46:9; Joh 20:31

I am he : Isa 41:4, Isa 44:6-8

no God formed : or, nothing formed of God

TSK: Isa 43:11 - -- Isa 43:3, Isa 12:2, Isa 45:21, Isa 45:22; Deu 6:4; Hos 1:7, Hos 13:4; Luk 1:47, Luk 2:11; Joh 10:28-30; Act 4:12; Tit 2:10,Tit 2:13, Tit 3:4-6; 2Pe 3:...

TSK: Isa 43:12 - declared // no strange // my witnesses declared : Isa 37:7, Isa 37:35, Isa 37:36, Isa 46:10, Isa 48:4-7 no strange : Deu 32:12; Psa 81:9, Psa 81:10 my witnesses : Isa 43:10, Isa 37:20, Isa ...

TSK: Isa 43:13 - before // none // I will work // let it before : Isa 57:15; Psa 90:2, Psa 93:2; Pro 8:23; Mic 5:2; Hab 1:12; Joh 1:1, Joh 1:2, Joh 8:58; 1Ti 1:17; Heb 13:8; Rev 1:8 none : Deu 28:31, Deu 32:...

TSK: Isa 43:14 - the Lord // For // nobles // whose cry the Lord : Isa 43:1, Isa 44:6, Isa 54:5-8; Psa 19:14; Rev 5:9 For : Isa 43:3, Isa 43:4, Isa 44:24-28, Isa 45:1-5; Jer 50:2-11, Jer 50:17, Jer 50:18, J...

TSK: Isa 43:15 - the Lord // the creator the Lord : Isa 43:3, Isa 30:11, Isa 40:25, Isa 41:14, Isa 41:16, Isa 45:11, Isa 48:17; Jer 51:5; Hab 1:12; Rev 3:7 the creator : Isa 43:1, Isa 43:7, I...

TSK: Isa 43:16 - maketh maketh : Isa 43:2, Isa 11:15, Isa 11:16, Isa 51:10,Isa 51:15, Isa 63:11-13; Exo 14:16, Exo 14:21, Exo 14:29; Jos 3:13-16; Neh 9:11; Psa 74:13, Psa 74:...

TSK: Isa 43:17 - bringeth // they shall // they are bringeth : Exo 14:4-9, Exo 14:23-28, Exo 15:4; Psa 46:8, Psa 46:9, Psa 76:5, Psa 76:6; Eze 38:8-18 they shall : Isa 14:20-22; Rev 19:17-21, Rev 20:8-9...

TSK: Isa 43:18 - -- Isa 46:9, Isa 65:17; Deu 7:18, Deu 8:2; 1Ch 16:12; Jer 16:14, Jer 16:15, Jer 23:7, Jer 23:8; 2Co 3:10

TSK: Isa 43:19 - I will do // I will even // rivers I will do : Isa 42:9, Isa 48:6; Jer 31:22; Rev 21:5 I will even : Isa 35:6-10, Isa 40:3, Isa 40:4, Isa 48:21; Luk 3:4, Luk 3:5 rivers : Isa 41:18, Isa...

TSK: Isa 43:20 - beast // owls // to give // my chosen beast : Isa 11:6-10; Psa 104:21, Psa 148:10 owls : or, ostriches, Heb. daughters of the owl to give : Isa 43:19, Isa 41:17, Isa 48:21, Isa 49:10, Isa ...

TSK: Isa 43:21 - -- Isa 50:7, Isa 60:21, Isa 61:3; Psa 4:3, Psa 102:18; Pro 16:4; Luk 1:74, Luk 1:75; 1Co 6:19, 1Co 6:20; 1Co 10:31; Eph 1:5-12, Eph 3:21; Col 1:16; Tit 2...

TSK: Isa 43:22 - thou hast not // thou hast been thou hast not : Isa 64:7; Psa 14:4, Psa 79:6; Jer 10:25; Dan 9:13; Hos 7:10-14, Hos 14:1, Hos 14:2; Jam 4:2, Jam 4:3 thou hast been : Job 21:14, Job 2...

TSK: Isa 43:23 - hast not // small cattle // honoured hast not : Amo 5:25; Mal 1:13, Mal 1:14, Mal 3:8 small cattle : Heb. lambs, or kids honoured : Isa 1:11-15, Isa 66:3; Pro 15:8, Pro 21:27; Amo 5:21, A...

hast not : Amo 5:25; Mal 1:13, Mal 1:14, Mal 3:8

small cattle : Heb. lambs, or kids

honoured : Isa 1:11-15, Isa 66:3; Pro 15:8, Pro 21:27; Amo 5:21, Amo 5:22; Zec 7:5, Zec 7:6; Mat 11:30

TSK: Isa 43:24 - no sweet // neither // filled me no sweet : Exo 30:7, Exo 30:23, Exo 30:24, Exo 30:34; Jer 6:20 neither : Lev 3:16, Lev 4:31; Psa 50:9-13 filled me : Heb. made me drunk, or, abundantl...

no sweet : Exo 30:7, Exo 30:23, Exo 30:24, Exo 30:34; Jer 6:20

neither : Lev 3:16, Lev 4:31; Psa 50:9-13

filled me : Heb. made me drunk, or, abundantly moistened, thou hast made. Isa 1:14, Isa 1:24, Isa 7:13, Isa 63:10; Psa 95:10; Eze 6:9, Eze 16:43; Amo 2:13; Mal 1:14; Mal 2:13-17

TSK: Isa 43:25 - even I // for mine // will not even I : Isa 43:11, Isa 1:18, Isa 44:22; Psa 51:9; Jer 50:20; Mic 7:18, Mic 7:19; Mar 2:7; Act 3:19; Rom 5:20 for mine : Isa 37:35, Isa 48:8-10; Psa 2...

TSK: Isa 43:26 - Put // declare Put : Isa 1:18; Gen 32:12; Job 16:21, Job 23:3-6, Job 40:4, Job 40:5; Psa 141:2; Jer 2:21-35; Eze 36:37; Rom 11:35 declare : Isa 43:9; Job 40:7, Job 4...

TSK: Isa 43:27 - first father // and thy // teachers first father : Num 32:14; Psa 78:8, Psa 106:6, Psa 106:7; Jer 3:25; Eze 16:3; Zec 1:4-6; Mal 3:7; Act 7:51; Rom 5:12 and thy : Isa 3:12, Isa 28:7, Isa...

TSK: Isa 43:28 - I have // princes // and have I have : Isa 47:6; 2Sa 1:21; Psa 89:39; Lam 2:2, Lam 2:6, Lam 2:7, Lam 4:20 princes : or, holy princes, Psa 82:6, Psa 82:7 and have : Isa 42:24, Isa 4...

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Poole: Isa 43:1 - But now thus saith the Lord // That created thee // By thy name But now thus saith the Lord but notwithstanding thy gross insensibleness under former judgments, for which I might justly send far heavier ones upon...

But now thus saith the Lord but notwithstanding thy gross insensibleness under former judgments, for which I might justly send far heavier ones upon thee, yet I will deal mercifully with thee.

That created thee that made, thee his people, and that in so miraculous a manner, as if he had created thee a second time out of nothing; and therefore he will be gracious to his own workmanship. I have redeemed thee from the Egyptians, and divers other enemies; and therefore I will redeem thee again.

By thy name by the name of God’ s people , which was as proper and peculiar to them as the name of Israel.

Poole: Isa 43:2 - -- Though I will chastise thee for thy sins, yet I will not suffer thine enemies utterly to destroy thee: compare Jer 30:11 .

Though I will chastise thee for thy sins, yet I will not suffer thine enemies utterly to destroy thee: compare Jer 30:11 .

Poole: Isa 43:3 - I gave Egypt for thy ransom I gave Egypt for thy ransom: this was fulfilled either, 1. When God smote the Egyptians, both first-born and others, in Egypt, and drowned Pharaoh a...

I gave Egypt for thy ransom: this was fulfilled either,

1. When God smote the Egyptians, both first-born and others, in Egypt, and drowned Pharaoh and his host in the Red Sea, for the safety and benefit of his people; or,

2. When the king of Assyria, either Sennacherib, as many think, or rather Esar-haddon, who designed to revenge his father’ s disgrace and loss before Jerusalem upon the Jews, but was diverted and directed by God to employ his forces against Egypt, and Ethiopia, and Seba, as it follows. See Poole "Isa 20:1" , &c. Ethiopia and Seba ; the Sabeans, who were confederate with the Ethiopians or Cushites.

Poole: Isa 43:4 - Since thou wast precious in my sight, thou hast been honourable, and I have loved thee // Therefore will I give men for thee Since thou wast precious in my sight, thou hast been honourable, and I have loved thee: so the sense is, From that time that I chose time for my prec...

Since thou wast precious in my sight, thou hast been honourable, and I have loved thee: so the sense is, From that time that I chose time for my precious and peculiar treasure and people, I have had a great esteem and affection for thee. But the words may well be, and by some are, rendered thus, Since that (or, For that ; or, Because) thou wast precious in my sight, thou wast honourable , (the same thing repeated in other words,) and I love thee .

Therefore will I give men for thee as I did give up the Egyptians, so I am ready to give up others to save thee, as occasion requires.

Poole: Isa 43:5 - -- Although the Jews shall for their sins be carried captives out of their own land northward and eastward into Babylon and the adjacent countries, and...

Although the Jews shall for their sins be carried captives out of their own land northward and eastward into Babylon and the adjacent countries, and others of them shall flee southward and westward, and shall there pine away in their iniquities, as I threatened; yet their posterity I will bring back into Canaan, from all the places where they are dispersed.

Poole: Isa 43:6 - Give up Give up thou who hast so long had and held my people in bondage, resign them to me, and permit them to return to their own land. He speaks either to ...

Give up thou who hast so long had and held my people in bondage, resign them to me, and permit them to return to their own land. He speaks either to the countries themselves by a prosopopoeia, or to the inhabitants of them. Bring my sons; do not only permit, but assist and further, their return.

Poole: Isa 43:7 - Even every one that is called by my name: They are called by my name // I have created him for my glory // I have made him Even every one that is called by my name: They are called by my name I own them for my people and children; and therefore what kindness or cruelty yo...

Even every one that is called by my name: They are called by my name I own them for my people and children; and therefore what kindness or cruelty you exercise to them I take it as done to myself. So it is an argument to move those people to let their captives go; or it is an argument to confirm the faith of God’ s people, that God would deliver them, because they are his own.

I have created him for my glory and therefore I will glorify my power, and goodness, and faithfulness in delivering them.

I have made him I have not only created them out of nothing, as I did all other people, but I have also formed and made them my peculiar people.

Poole: Isa 43:8 - -- The sense is either, 1. Bring out of captivity my people who were blind and deaf, but now have their eyes and cars opened by my grace. So this vers...

The sense is either,

1. Bring out of captivity my people who were blind and deaf, but now have their eyes and cars opened by my grace. So this verse relates to the foregoing passages. Or rather,

2. O ye idolatrous Gentiles, produce and bring forth your false gods, which have eyes, but see not; and ears, but hear not, as is said, Psa 115:5,6 . So this verse belongs to the following context, in which God reneweth his contest with idols; which in this verse he calleth blind, and in the next verse proveth them so to be.

Poole: Isa 43:9 - Let the people be assembled // Who among them can declare this? // Former things // That they may be justified Let the people be assembled to plead the cause of their idols with me. Who among them can declare this? this wonderful work of mine in bringing my ...

Let the people be assembled to plead the cause of their idols with me.

Who among them can declare this? this wonderful work of mine in bringing my people out of captivity, which I have already foretold, and shall further declare; and that so exactly, that I shall name the person by whom this work shall be begun, even Cyrus, who is yet unborn, and shall be so for above two hundred years: let any of your heathen gods do the like.

Former things not things already past, but such things as shall happen long before the return from the captivity, which yet your blind idols cannot foresee. See Poole "Isa 41:22" . Their witnesses , who can testify the truth and certainty of any such predictions of theirs.

That they may be justified that they may be owned for true gods, which in that case I allow them to expect. But of this argument see on Isa 41:22,23 . Or let them hear and say, It is truth ; or if they can produce no evidence of any such thing, as I am well assured that they cannot, let them be silent, and hear me and my witnesses, as it follows in the next verse; and let them confess that what I say is truth, that I only am the true God, and that they are but vanity and falsehood.

Poole: Isa 43:10 - Ye are my witnesses // My servant whom I have chosen Ye are my witnesses they can produce no witnesses for themselves, but you my people are able to witness for me, that I have given you many plain demo...

Ye are my witnesses they can produce no witnesses for themselves, but you my people are able to witness for me, that I have given you many plain demonstrations of my certain foreknowledge of future events, by my predictions and promises delivered to you from time to time.

My servant whom I have chosen either,

1. Isaiah, and other prophets, the singular word being put collectively: or,

2. Cyrus, who is an eminent instance and proof of God’ s foreknowledge: or,

3. The Messiah, as not only Christians, but even the Chaldee paraphrast, understands it, who is called by this very title, Isa 42:1 , who also is the most eminent witness in this cause; and that both passively, as he, and the time, and place, and other circumstances of his birth, and life, and death were particularly foretold by God in Scripture; and actively, as many future things were foretold by Christ, of which we have many examples in the New Testament. I am he ; he of whom the present dispute is, or he whom I have affirmed myself to be. That I only am that true God whom we are now seeking in this debate. Before me there was no God formed, neither shall there be after me ; the gods of the heathens neither had a being before me, nor shall continue after me: wherein more is understood than is expressed, that whereas the Lord is God from everlasting to everlasting, these false pretenders to the Deity are but of yesterday, and shall shortly be abolished. And withal he calleth them formed gods , in way of contempt, and to show the ridiculousness of their pretence to the Divinity, which are formed by the hands of men.

Poole: Isa 43:11 - -- That can and doth save his worshippers: whereby he implies that the false gods were not only weak, and unable to save their people, but also were th...

That can and doth save his worshippers: whereby he implies that the false gods were not only weak, and unable to save their people, but also were the destroyers of their people, as being the great cause of their ruin.

Poole: Isa 43:12 - I have declared, and have saved // I have showed // When there was no strange god among you I have declared, and have saved I first foretold your deliverance, and then effected it. I have showed I foretold it. This branch he repeated, beca...

I have declared, and have saved I first foretold your deliverance, and then effected it.

I have showed I foretold it. This branch he repeated, because this is the principal argument used here, and Isa 41 , to determine this controversy between God and idols.

When there was no strange god among you and this I did when you did not worship any idols, and therefore it could not be pretended that you had this knowledge from them.

Poole: Isa 43:13 - Before the day was // I am he // There is none // I will work, and who shall let it? Before the day was before all time; or, which is all one, from all eternity: or, since the day was ; since the beginning of time and things, in all ...

Before the day was before all time; or, which is all one, from all eternity: or, since the day was ; since the beginning of time and things, in all ages since the creation of the world.

I am he I am God, and I have proved myself to be so.

There is none none of those which are called gods, that can deliver out of my hand ; that can save them whom I will destroy. Therefore they are impotent, and consequently no gods.

I will work, and who shall let it? nor can they hinder me in any other work which I resolve to do.

Poole: Isa 43:14 - I have sent to Babylon // Have brought down // All their nobles // The Chaldeans // Whose cry is in the ships I have sent to Babylon I have sent Cyrus, and the Medes and Persians with him, to war against Babylon, to this very end and purpose, that he might de...

I have sent to Babylon I have sent Cyrus, and the Medes and Persians with him, to war against Babylon, to this very end and purpose, that he might deliver you out of captivity, and restore you to your land according to promise.

Have brought down from that height of power and glory to which they were advanced.

All their nobles their princes and great commanders, who as they are called shields, Psa 47:9 , so here they are called bars, for the same reason, because of that strength and defence which they give to their people.

The Chaldeans the common people of Chaldea, together with their great men who had palaces in Babylon.

Whose cry is in the ships who make fearful outcries, as they flee away from the Persians in ships; which they had opportunity to do, because of their two great and famous rivers Euphrates and Tigris, and the several branches of them.

Poole: Isa 43:15 - Your Holy One; the Holy One of Israel Your Holy One; the Holy One of Israel as he frequently styleth himself, who sanctify and glorify myself in this and such other glorious works, with r...

Your Holy One; the Holy One of Israel as he frequently styleth himself, who sanctify and glorify myself in this and such other glorious works, with respect to you, or for your benefit.

Poole: Isa 43:16 - -- Who as he formerly made a pathway for his people through the Red Sea, so he will in no less wonderful manner remove all impediments or difficulties ...

Who as he formerly made a pathway for his people through the Red Sea, so he will in no less wonderful manner remove all impediments or difficulties out of the way of his people, when they return from Babylon.

Poole: Isa 43:17 - Which bringeth forth the chariot and horse, the army and the power // They are quenched as tow Which bringeth forth the chariot and horse, the army and the power or rather, Who brought forth the chariots , &c., i.e. Pharaoh, and his chariots, ...

Which bringeth forth the chariot and horse, the army and the power or rather, Who brought forth the chariots , &c., i.e. Pharaoh, and his chariots, and homes, and army; as may be gathered from the next verse, where the things here mentioned are called former things, and things of old . They shall lie down together, they shall not rise ; or, they did lie down together , (to wit, in the bottom of the sea,) they did not rise; they sank like lead , as it is said, Exo 15:10 , and they never rose again to molest the Israelites, as God promised, Exo 14:13 . These two Hebrew verbs are of the future tense, but that seems to be put for the preter tense, because the two following verbs, which treat of the same thing, and are added to explain these, are of the preter tense.

They are quenched as tow as the wick of a candle when it is put into the water is wholly extinguished, and not the least spark of fire left, so were they utterly destroyed, and not one of them remained.

Poole: Isa 43:18 - -- But although your former deliverance out of Egypt was in itself a most glorious work, which you ought always to remember and consider; yet this othe...

But although your former deliverance out of Egypt was in itself a most glorious work, which you ought always to remember and consider; yet this other work of your deliverance out of Babylon by Cyrus, and those blessings which shall follow upon it, and particularly that inestimable mercy of sending the Messiah, shall be so transcendent a layout, that, in comparison thereof, all your former deliverances are scarce worthy of your remembrance and consideration. Which exposition is confirmed by two parallel texts, Jer 16:14,15 23:7,8 . From all which texts laid together, it appears that this latter deliverance, compared with that out of Egypt, is not to be confined to their freedom from the Babylonish captivity, but to be extended to the consequences of it, and especially to the redemption by Christ, because otherwise that Egyptian deliverance was more glorious and wonderful in many respects than the Babylonian.

Poole: Isa 43:19 - A new thing // Now // Shall ye not know it? // I will even make a way in the wilderness, and rivers in the desert A new thing such a work as was never yet done in the world, even the redemption of the world by the Messiah. Now shortly, although it was not to be...

A new thing such a work as was never yet done in the world, even the redemption of the world by the Messiah.

Now shortly, although it was not to be done till after some hundreds of years. For so the Scripture oft speaketh of things at a great distance of time as if they were now at hand, as Hag 2:6 Jam 5:9 Rev 22:20 , and elsewhere; which it doth to correct our impatience, and to make us willing to wait till God’ s time come; and to assure us that the mercy shall come as soon as ever it is fit for us, and we for it; and to make us sensible of the inconsiderableness of time, and all temporal things, in comparison of God, and of the eternal things; upon which account it is said that a thousand years are in God’ s sight but as one day , Psa 90:4 .

Shall ye not know it? certainly you Jews shall know it by experience, and shall find that I do not deceive you with vain hopes.

I will even make a way in the wilderness, and rivers in the desert I will give you direction and provision in the wilderness, where there is commonly no path, and where all necessaries are wanting; which as it literally speaks of God’ s conducting them in the way from Babylon to Jerusalem, which lay through a great desert; so it is mystically meant of those spiritual blessings which God in and through Christ will confer upon all his people, not the Jews only, but also the Gentiles, who in prophetical language are oft compared to the wilderness, as Isa 35:1 , and elsewhere.

Poole: Isa 43:20 - The beast of the field shall honour me // To give drink to my people The beast of the field shall honour me shall have cause, if they had abilities, to honour and praise me for their share in this mercy. Possibly the ...

The beast of the field shall honour me shall have cause, if they had abilities, to honour and praise me for their share in this mercy. Possibly the beast of the field may mystically signify the Gentiles, whom the Jews reputed as beasts, and who were as destitute of all saving knowledge as the beasts which perish, yet should become the Lord’ s people, as they seem to be called, Isa 43:21 . The dragons ; which live in dry and barren deserts, and are very thirsty, and therefore more sensible of this mercy.

To give drink to my people to whom these waters were principally designed, but the beasts fared better for their sakes. Thus Christ was primarily sent to the lost sheep of Israel , Mat 15:24 ; yet the Gentiles, there compared to dogs, fared better for the children, picking up some crumbs of their bread; and the Jews generally rejecting Christ, the Gentiles came in their stead.

Poole: Isa 43:21 - This people // have I formed for myself; they shall show forth my praise This people my people, as he now called them, Isa 43:20 : consisting in part of the Jews, but especially of the Gentiles; have I formed for myself; ...

This people my people, as he now called them, Isa 43:20 : consisting in part of the Jews, but especially of the Gentiles;

have I formed for myself; they shall show forth my praise I have created as it were out of nothing, I have called them into my church, that I might have glory and praise from them for so stupendous a mercy.

Poole: Isa 43:22 - But // Thou hast not called upon me // Thou hast been weary of me But or, for , as this conjunction is oft used. So this may be added as a reason why God called the Gentiles to be his people, because the Jews forso...

But or, for , as this conjunction is oft used. So this may be added as a reason why God called the Gentiles to be his people, because the Jews forsook him.

Thou hast not called upon me thou hast grossly neglected or very slightly performed the duties of my worship.

Thou hast been weary of me thou hast not esteemed my service to be a privilege, as in truth it is, but as a burden and bondage. Compare Mal 1:13 .

Poole: Isa 43:23 - Thou hast not brought me the small cattle of thy burnt offerings // Neither hast thou honoured me with thy sacrifices // I have not caused thee to serve with an offering, nor wearied thee with incense Thou hast not brought me the small cattle of thy burnt offerings either, 1. Because thou didst not offer thy sacrifices to me, but to idols. Or rath...

Thou hast not brought me the small cattle of thy burnt offerings either,

1. Because thou didst not offer thy sacrifices to me, but to idols. Or rather,

2. Because what thou didst offer was not done to me, not for my sake, not from a principle of love and obedience to me, not to please and honour me with it; but merely for thine own ends: which interpretation seems to be favoured by the following clause, and by comparing this with Zec 7:5,6 , Did ye fast unto me, even to me? And when ye did eat— did ye not eat for yourselves?

Neither hast thou honoured me with thy sacrifices because thou didst either neglect this work of sacrificing to me; or didst perform it merely out of custom or ill design, and not with a purpose to please and glorify me; or didst dishonour me, and pollute thy sacrifices by thy wicked course of life.

I have not caused thee to serve with an offering, nor wearied thee with incense: so the sense may be this, I did not require these wearisome services of thee, to wit, upon these terms, or to be offered in such a manner, as God speaks, Isa 1:11-13 . But the words may very well be rendered, although I did not cause thee to serve with offerings, nor weary thee with incense ; the particle although being here understood, as it is in many other places, as hath been formerly noted. And so this is an aggravation of their former sin, of being weary of and negligent in his service; although God hath not laid such heavy burdens upon them, nor required such hard services or costly offerings from them, as might give them cause to be weary, nor such as idolaters did freely and greedily perform in the service of their idols.

Poole: Isa 43:24 - Thou hast bought me no sweet cane // Neither hast thou filled me with the fat of thy sacrifices // Thou hast made me to serve with thy sins Thou hast bought me no sweet cane or, calamus, as this word is rendered, Exo 30:23 , which was used in the making of that precious ointment, Exo 30:3...

Thou hast bought me no sweet cane or, calamus, as this word is rendered, Exo 30:23 , which was used in the making of that precious ointment, Exo 30:34 , and as a perfume, or for the incense, Exo 30:7 : see Jer 6:20 . The meaning of this clause seems to be this, Thou hast been niggardly in my service, when thou hast spared for no cost in the service of thine idols, as is elsewhere noted.

Neither hast thou filled me with the fat of thy sacrifices thou hast offered no more sacrifices than were simply necessary; thou hast not multiplied thy thank-offerings and free-will offerings, though I have given thee sufficient occasion to do so.

Thou hast made me to serve with thy sins thou hast made me to bear the load and burden of thy sins, which are very grievous and oppressive to me, Amo 2:13 , and great exercises of my patience. Yea, thou hast made it necessary for me to take upon me the form of a servant, that I might bear and carry away thy sins. This clause and that which follows are opposed to and aggravated by what he said, Isa 43:23 . I did not make thee to serve or weary thee with offerings, though that work was honourable and beneficial to thee, as well as conducing to my service; but thou hast made me to serve in the vilest manner, with such things as are not only offensive to me, but also pernicious to thee.

Poole: Isa 43:25 - I, even I // That blotteth out thy transgressions out of my book // For mine own sake // Will not remember thy sins I, even I I whom thou hast thus despised, and wearied, and provoked to destroy thee. That blotteth out thy transgressions out of my book in which t...

I, even I I whom thou hast thus despised, and wearied, and provoked to destroy thee.

That blotteth out thy transgressions out of my book in which they were all written, and to be lead unto thee and charged upon thee another day. See Jer 17:1 Rev 20:12 . Sins are oft compared to debts, Mat 6:12,14 , &c., which are written in the Creditor’ s book; and crossed or blotted out when they are paid.

For mine own sake being moved thereunto not by thy merits, but by my own mere goodness and free mercy.

Will not remember thy sins so as to punish them, and destroy thee for them, as thou deservest.

Poole: Isa 43:26 - Put me in remembrance Put me in remembrance: I remember nothing by which thou hast deserved my favour and the pardon of thy sins; if thou knowest any such thing, bring it ...

Put me in remembrance: I remember nothing by which thou hast deserved my favour and the pardon of thy sins; if thou knowest any such thing, bring it to my mind, I allow thee free liberty to plead with me, as it follows; and if thou hast right on thy side, I will justify thee. It is an ironical speech, whereby he insulteth over those who were puffed up with an opinion of their own innocency and merit; which was the case of many Jews, as this and other prophets have oft observed.

Poole: Isa 43:27 - Thy first father // Thy teachers Thy first father either, 1. Adam, from whom the guilt and filth of sin is propagated to thee; or rather, 2. Abraham, who might well be called the ...

Thy first father either,

1. Adam, from whom the guilt and filth of sin is propagated to thee; or rather,

2. Abraham, who might well be called the first father of the Israelites, because they all descended from him, had all their right and title to God’ s ordinances and promises, and other special privileges, from God’ s covenant made with Abraham and with his seed, and who is oft emphatically called their father, as Jos 24:2 Isa 51:2 , &c; and the Jews gloried in and trusted to that relation which they had to Abraham, as we read, Mat 3:9 Joh 8:33 , and elsewhere. And this agrees well with the foregoing context. For having sufficiently intimated that they had no merits of their own, he now addeth, that even their father Abraham, to whose merits they trusted, had no merits of his own, nor any occasion of boasting; for he also was a sinful man, and hath left some instances of his failings. Or the first father may be put collectively for their forefathers; and so he tells them, that as they were sinners, so also were all their progenitors, yea, even the best of them, Abraham, and David, and others, for whose sakes they expected to be pardoned and rewarded. And this indeed is usual with God, to upbraid the Israelites with the sins of their fathers.

Thy teachers thy priests and prophets; who were their intercessors with God, and who were generally presumed to be the holiest part of that people; and therefore if these were transgressors, the people had no reason to fancy themselves to be innocent.

Poole: Isa 43:28 - I have profaned // The princes of the sanctuary // To the curse I have profaned as they have made themselves profane, so I have dealt with them as such, without any regard to the sacredness and dignity of their fu...

I have profaned as they have made themselves profane, so I have dealt with them as such, without any regard to the sacredness and dignity of their functions. I have exposed them to contempt and destruction.

The princes of the sanctuary the highest and best of your priests, whose persons were most sacred, and therefore supposed by themselves and others to be the furthest from danger.

To the curse to utter destruction, to which persons or things accursed were devoted, of which this Hebrew word is constantly used. To reproaches; to be the objects of their enemies’ scorn and reproaches.

Haydock: Isa 43:1 - Iniquities Iniquities. Thou hast shewn the greatest ingratitude. (Haydock) --- Yet I will save thee.

Iniquities. Thou hast shewn the greatest ingratitude. (Haydock) ---

Yet I will save thee.

Haydock: Isa 43:1 - And // Name And. Notwithstanding the sins of his people, God will deliver them, that they may be his witnesses, ver. 10. (Calmet) --- Name. As an intimate f...

And. Notwithstanding the sins of his people, God will deliver them, that they may be his witnesses, ver. 10. (Calmet) ---

Name. As an intimate friend, (Haydock) or slave, chap. xlix. 1. (Calmet) ---

God grants grace without any preceding merit. (Worthington) ---

Forerius explains this mostly of the Gentile church, though it regards the converted Jews. (Houbigant)

Haydock: Isa 43:2 - Waters Waters. In every emergency, God will protect thee, (Calmet) as he did the three children. [Daniel iii.] (Haydock) --- He will suffer none to peri...

Waters. In every emergency, God will protect thee, (Calmet) as he did the three children. [Daniel iii.] (Haydock) ---

He will suffer none to perish, without their own fault. Hence the Church still continues pure. (Worthington)

Haydock: Isa 43:3 - Ethiopia Ethiopia. Hebrew, "Chus," the isle of Meroe, (Grotius) or the country bordering on the Red Sea, chap. xlv. 14. These were given to indemnify Cyrus....

Ethiopia. Hebrew, "Chus," the isle of Meroe, (Grotius) or the country bordering on the Red Sea, chap. xlv. 14. These were given to indemnify Cyrus. They obtained their liberty to return home, after 40 years, Ezechiel xxix. 11.

Haydock: Isa 43:4 - Eyes // Men Eyes, by a gratuitous choice. --- Men. Chaldeans, &c.

Eyes, by a gratuitous choice. ---

Men. Chaldeans, &c.

Haydock: Isa 43:5 - East // West East. Babylon. --- West. The island beyond the Mediterranean.

East. Babylon. ---

West. The island beyond the Mediterranean.

Haydock: Isa 43:6 - North // South North. Assyria. --- South. Egypt. The captives returned from these countries under Cyrus, Alexander the Great, &c., so that before the coming of...

North. Assyria. ---

South. Egypt. The captives returned from these countries under Cyrus, Alexander the Great, &c., so that before the coming of Christ, Judea was as well peopled as ever. (Calmet)

Haydock: Isa 43:7 - Calleth Calleth. Hebrew, "is called by my name." (Protestants) (Haydock) --- My people's chastisements and liberation prove my divine perfections.

Calleth. Hebrew, "is called by my name." (Protestants) (Haydock) ---

My people's chastisements and liberation prove my divine perfections.

Haydock: Isa 43:8 - Ears Ears. Yet will not hear, (Calmet) or who are miraculously healed. (Haydock) --- It seems rather to mean idolatrous nations, (ver. 9.; Calmet) or...

Ears. Yet will not hear, (Calmet) or who are miraculously healed. (Haydock) ---

It seems rather to mean idolatrous nations, (ver. 9.; Calmet) or rebellious Jews. (Forerius) (Houbigant)

Haydock: Isa 43:9 - Former // Truth Former. The pagans were little acquainted with antiquity. Such researches lead to the knowledge of the true religion. (Haydock) --- Truth, if th...

Former. The pagans were little acquainted with antiquity. Such researches lead to the knowledge of the true religion. (Haydock) ---

Truth, if they can produce any true prophecy.

Haydock: Isa 43:10 - Witnesses Witnesses. The history of the Israelites was sufficient to shew who was God. (Calmet) --- Thus the establishment of Christianity manifests its tru...

Witnesses. The history of the Israelites was sufficient to shew who was God. (Calmet) ---

Thus the establishment of Christianity manifests its truth. (St. Augustine, City of God xxii. 6.) ---

Septuagint add, "and I am witness." (Haydock)

Haydock: Isa 43:12 - One One idol, to announce what would happen.

One idol, to announce what would happen.

Haydock: Isa 43:14 - Bars // Glorying Bars. Septuagint, "fugitives." Theodotion, "strong ones." --- Glorying. Septuagint, "shall be bound in ships," to be sent beyond the Caspian Sea...

Bars. Septuagint, "fugitives." Theodotion, "strong ones." ---

Glorying. Septuagint, "shall be bound in ships," to be sent beyond the Caspian Sea. (Calmet) ---

Cyrus was victorious for the sake of God's people; for he will not neglect his Church. (Worthington)

Haydock: Isa 43:16 - Waters Waters. of the Jordan and the Red Sea, in the latter of which Pharao perished, ver. 17.

Waters. of the Jordan and the Red Sea, in the latter of which Pharao perished, ver. 17.

Haydock: Isa 43:19 - New New. I shall work the like miracles as were seen in the wilderness.

New. I shall work the like miracles as were seen in the wilderness.

Haydock: Isa 43:20 - Chosen Chosen. We know not that rivers were found in Arabia. But the people were equally favoured. Christ facilitates the road to heaven by his example a...

Chosen. We know not that rivers were found in Arabia. But the people were equally favoured. Christ facilitates the road to heaven by his example and graces, while the most savage tempers are changed in baptism.

Haydock: Isa 43:23 - Incense Incense. My kindness is gratuitous. In a strange land, thou couldst not offer sacrifice. See chap. xlviii. 9., and xlix. 1. (Calmet)

Incense. My kindness is gratuitous. In a strange land, thou couldst not offer sacrifice. See chap. xlviii. 9., and xlix. 1. (Calmet)

Haydock: Isa 43:26 - Thyself Thyself. God condescends to act thus with men, chap. xli. 20., and Osee iv. 1.

Thyself. God condescends to act thus with men, chap. xli. 20., and Osee iv. 1.

Haydock: Isa 43:27 - First father // Teachers First father. Adam, (Lyranus) or rather Abraham sinned, by diffidence, (Genesis xv. 8.; St. Jerome) or was formerly an idolater, Josue xxiv. 2. (...

First father. Adam, (Lyranus) or rather Abraham sinned, by diffidence, (Genesis xv. 8.; St. Jerome) or was formerly an idolater, Josue xxiv. 2. (Genebrard, the year of the world 2049) (St. Augustine, City of God xvi. 12.) (Calmet) (Tirinus) ---

Teachers. Literally, "interpreters," (Haydock) Moses and Aaron, Numbers xx. 9. (Calmet) ---

All the patriarchs and teachers sinned, till Christ, the immaculate lamb, appeared. Adam engaged all in guilt. (Worthington)

Haydock: Isa 43:28 - Profaned // Slaughter Profaned, or declared such, (Haydock) Nadab, &c., (Leviticus x. 1.; Calmet) or Moses and Aaron. (Menochius) --- Septuagint, "and the princes defile...

Profaned, or declared such, (Haydock) Nadab, &c., (Leviticus x. 1.; Calmet) or Moses and Aaron. (Menochius) ---

Septuagint, "and the princes defiled my holy things. " (Haydock) ---

Slaughter. Hebrew, "anathema." Yet I will re-establish all. (Calmet)

Gill: Isa 43:1 - But now thus saith the Lord that created thee, O Jacob // and he that formed thee, O Israel // fear not: for I have redeemed thee // I have called thee by thy name // thou art mine But now thus saith the Lord that created thee, O Jacob,.... This prophecy is not concerning Cyrus, and the redemption of the Jews by him, as some have...

But now thus saith the Lord that created thee, O Jacob,.... This prophecy is not concerning Cyrus, and the redemption of the Jews by him, as some have thought; nor of Sennacherib and his army, and of their deliverance from him, as Kimchi and his father interpret it; but of the Christian church, and the state of it, when Jerusalem should be destroyed, as predicted in the preceding chapter; which goes by the name of Jacob and Israel, for the first churches chiefly consisted of Jews, and both Jews and Gentiles converted are the spiritual Israel of God:

and he that formed thee, O Israel; this creation and formation are not so much to be understood of their being the creatures of God, and the work of his hands, in a natural sense; but of their new creation and regeneration; of their being the spiritual workmanship of God, created in Christ, and formed for his glory:

fear not: for I have redeemed thee: though Jerusalem shall be destroyed, and Judea wasted, and though subject to the persecutions of wicked men in all places; yet since redeemed by Christ from sin, Satan, and the law, hell, and death, nothing is to be feared from either of them; redemption by Christ is an antidote against the fear of any enemy whatsoever:

I have called thee by thy name; with an effectual calling, which is of particular persons, and those by name, even the same that are redeemed by Christ; for whom he has redeemed by his precious blood, they are called by the grace of God to special blessings of grace, with a high, holy, and heavenly calling; and have no reason to fear anything, since they are the chosen of God; have a right to all spiritual blessings; all things work together for their good; they shall persevere to the end, and at last be brought to glory, to which they are called:

thou art mine; such as are redeemed by Christ, and called by his grace, they are his Father's gift, and his own purchase; they voluntarily give up themselves to him, under the influence of his Spirit and grace; they are his by profession and possession; they are his portion, people, sheep, and spouse; and his interest in them, and theirs in him, serve to prevent fear; such need not fear wanting anything, nor any enemy, nor perishing, or miscarrying of heaven and happiness, to which fears they are subject.

Gill: Isa 43:2 - When thou passest through the waters; I will be with thee // and through the rivers, they shall not overflow thee // when thou walkest through the fire, thou shalt not be burnt: neither shall the flame kindle upon thee When thou passest through the waters; I will be with thee,.... The Targum and Jarchi apply this to the Israelites' passage through the waters of the R...

When thou passest through the waters; I will be with thee,.... The Targum and Jarchi apply this to the Israelites' passage through the waters of the Red sea, as a thing past; and Kimchi to Sennacherib's army, compared to the waters of a river strong and many, Isa 8:7. Jerom says, that the Jewish writers by "waters" would have the Egyptians understood; by the "rivers", the Babylonians; by "fire", the Macedonians; and by the "flame", the Romans; which is not amiss; but rather the afflictions of God's people in general are meant by waters, as by rivers also, in the next clause:

and through the rivers, they shall not overflow thee; because of the variety and multitude of them, as persecutions from men, those proud waves that go over them; the temptations of Satan, that enemy who comes in like a flood, and various others; and because of the rapidity and force of them, and their overflowing and overwhelming nature: now there are paths through which the people of God pass: their way lies through them to eternal glory; and though they are of some continuance, yet have an end, as paths have; and having a good guide, and sufficient strength given them, they wade through them safely; for they do not and shall not "overflow" them, so as to cause their faith utterly to fail, or to separate them from the love of God, or so as to destroy them; for though they come nigh them, and upon them, and may greatly affect and distress them, yet shall not hurt them, but turn to their advantage; for their God is with them, to sympathize with them, to comfort and revive them, to teach and instruct them by their afflictions, and to sanctify them to them, as well as to support and bear them up under them, and to deliver out of them:

when thou walkest through the fire, thou shalt not be burnt: neither shall the flame kindle upon thee; afflictions are compared to fire and flames, because very grievous and troublesome to the flesh; and because of the apprehensions of God's wrath in them sometimes; and because of their trying nature; grace is tried by them as gold and silver in the fire; but yet the saints are not consumed by them, they lose nothing but their dross; their principles and profession are tried, and they are supported through all; which has been abundantly verified in the martyrs of Jesus; see Psa 66:12.

Gill: Isa 43:3 - For I am the Lord thy God, the Holy One of Israel, thy Saviour // I gave Egypt for thy ransom // Ethiopia and Seba for thee For I am the Lord thy God, the Holy One of Israel, thy Saviour,.... The Lord is the covenant God of his people, holy in himself, and the sanctifier of...

For I am the Lord thy God, the Holy One of Israel, thy Saviour,.... The Lord is the covenant God of his people, holy in himself, and the sanctifier of them, and their Saviour in time of trouble; and therefore need no doubt of his presence and support amidst all their afflictions; and besides they should call to mind past experiences of his goodness, to encourage their faith in him, as to present help and assistance:

I gave Egypt for thy ransom; he sacrificed the Egyptians instead of the Israelites; he destroyed the firstborn of Egypt, and saved Israel his firstborn; he drowned the Egyptians in the Red sea, when the Israelites passed safely through it; and the destruction of the former was to make way for the salvation of the latter, and so said to be a ransom for them; see Pro 11:8,

Ethiopia and Seba for thee; this refers either to the rumour brought to Sennacherib of Tirhakah king of Ethiopia coming against him to war, which diverted him from the siege of Jerusalem for a time, and caused him to turn his forces upon the Ethiopians and Sabeans, whereby the Jews had a respite, 2Ki 19:9 or rather to the overthrow of the Ethiopians in the time of Asa, 2Ch 14:9 or to the king of Assyria, perhaps Shalmaneser's being diverted from Palestine and Judea, and turning his forces upon Egypt and Ethiopia, as in Isa 20:1 and the Lord, by putting his people in mind of these instances, suggests hereby that he will sacrifice all their enemies, rather than they shall be destroyed, and therefore they need not fear.

Gill: Isa 43:4 - Since thou wast precious in my sight // thou hast been honourable // and I have loved thee // therefore will I give men for thee, and people for thy life Since thou wast precious in my sight,.... As the saints are; not that they are valuable in themselves; they have no intrinsic worth in them; they are ...

Since thou wast precious in my sight,.... As the saints are; not that they are valuable in themselves; they have no intrinsic worth in them; they are in no wise better than others; they are of the same mass and lump with others; they are of the fallen race of Adam, and are earthly and simple as he was; nor are they precious in their own sight, and much less in the eyes of the world; they are mean and despicable: but they are precious in the sight of God and Christ; in the sight of God the Father, who has chosen them, and taken them into his family, and blessed them with all spiritual blessings; and in the sight of Christ, who desired them, and betrothed them to himself, and undertook for them in eternity, and died for them in time; hence they are compared to things of value, to gold, to jewels, and precious stones, to a pearl of great price, to rich treasure; and are reckoned by Christ as his portion, and are as dear to him as the apple of his eye:

thou hast been honourable; ever since precious, and that was from all eternity; for though they became dishonourable in themselves, through the fall of Adam, and their own transgressions, and are dishonourable in the esteem of men, yet honourable in the esteem of God and Christ; they appear to be so, by their birth, by regeneration, being born of God; by their marriage to the Son of God, the Lord of the whole earth; by their characters of kings and priests unto God; and by their clothing, the robe of righteousness, and garments of salvation clothing of wrought gold; and by their being favoured with the presence of God and Christ, and their nearness to them:

and I have loved thee; which is the source and spring of all; hence they became precious and honourable; this is a past act, an act in eternity; it is an act of complacency and delight; a continued one, God rests in his love; and it is an act of undeserved grace and layout, and unchangeably the same; it never alters:

therefore will I give men for thee, and people for thy life: as, of old, the Egyptians, Ethiopians, and Sabeans, were given for the people of Israel, as in the preceding verse; so, in New Testament times, the enemies of God's people should be given for them; that is, their enemies should be destroyed, and they should be spared and saved; so that all Jews that rejected Christ, and persecuted his people, were given up to destruction. The Pagan empire was demolished, and so will Rome Papal too be destroyed, and the church of God will be preserved, and his interest revive, and all the kingdoms of the world become his; of which the conversions among the Gentiles in the first ages of Christianity were a pledge, prophesied of in the next words. The Talmudists g, by "Adam", rendered "man", understand "Edom", by which Rome is often meant in Jewish writings.

Gill: Isa 43:5 - Fear not, for I am with thee // I will bring thy seed from the east, and gather thee from the west Fear not, for I am with thee,.... With thy ministers that preach the everlasting Gospel, to make it effectual to the conversion of many everywhere, as...

Fear not, for I am with thee,.... With thy ministers that preach the everlasting Gospel, to make it effectual to the conversion of many everywhere, as well as to bear thee up under all trials, and to cause thee to stand against all opposition:

I will bring thy seed from the east, and gather thee from the west; which is to be understood not literally of the return of the Jews from the Babylonish captivity; for these several quarters, east, west, north, and south, will hardly agree with that, though it may be supposed they were scattered in several countries; but spiritually of the gathering in of God's elect, whether Jews or Gentiles, which were scattered abroad throughout the world, called the "seed" of the church, because born to her, and brought up in her, and of which she consists; and therefore she herself is said to be gathered, converts being brought in from all quarters; from the "east", even from India, where the Apostle Thomas is said to preach the Gospel, and from other "eastern" countries; and from the "west", from the European nations, good part of which lay west of Judea. Our Lord seems to have respect to this passage in Mat 8:12.

Gill: Isa 43:6 - I will say to the north, give up: and to the south, keep not back // bring my sons from far, and my daughters from the ends of the earth I will say to the north, give up: and to the south, keep not back,.... That is, give up, and not retain, those that belong to the Lord; here the winds...

I will say to the north, give up: and to the south, keep not back,.... That is, give up, and not retain, those that belong to the Lord; here the winds are spoken to by a personification; or the inhabitants of the northern and southern climates are called upon to deliver up the Lord's people to him, for whose sake the Gospel was sent into these parts, to find them out, and bring them home; by the "north" may be meant the Goths, Swedes, Muscovites, and those northern isles of ours, with others; and by the "south" the Egyptians, Africans, and Ethiopians. Manasseh ben Israel h thinks the passage is thus expressed, which he supposes refers to the universal gathering of the Jews in the latter day to the holy land; because Media, Persia, and China, lie to the east of it; Tartary and Scythia to the north; the kingdom of the Abyssines to the south; and Europe to the west:

bring my sons from far, and my daughters from the ends of the earth; such whom the Lord had predestinated to the adoption of children, and had taken into his family, and whom he regenerated by his Spirit and grace, of either sex; to whom he beareth the strongest love and affection, as a parent to his children; and of whom he takes the utmost care, so that not one shall be lost; let them be in ever so distant a part of the world, he will send his Gospel to them, his ministers after them, and his Spirit shall accompany them, to bring them to himself, his Son, and his churches. Manasseh, before mentioned, understands this of America, and of the Jews there; but may be much better applied to converted Gentiles there; for God has many sons and daughters in those parts.

Gill: Isa 43:7 - Even everyone that is called by my name // for I have created him for my glory, I have formed him, yea, I have made him Even everyone that is called by my name,.... That is called by the name of God, a son or daughter of his; or by the name of Christ, a Christian; whoev...

Even everyone that is called by my name,.... That is called by the name of God, a son or daughter of his; or by the name of Christ, a Christian; whoever belongs to the Lord, whom he calls by his name; and who, being called by his grace, call upon his name, make a profession of his name, and serve and worship him:

for I have created him for my glory, I have formed him, yea, I have made him; all which is expressive of the power and grace of God, in the regeneration and conversion of his people; which is a creation, a formation, a making them for himself, for the glory of his grace, and to show forth his praise; and therefore he will gather them in, and bring them into a body together, into a church state, that this end may be answered.

Gill: Isa 43:8 - Bring forth the blind people that have eyes, and the deaf that have ears Bring forth the blind people that have eyes, and the deaf that have ears,.... The Targum applies this to the bringing of the people of Israel out of E...

Bring forth the blind people that have eyes, and the deaf that have ears,.... The Targum applies this to the bringing of the people of Israel out of Egypt; and others understand it of their deliverance from the Babylonish captivity; and some of the exclusion of them from the kingdom of heaven, and casting them into outward darkness, according to Mat 8:12, but it is rather to be understood of the conviction of them; though better of the Gentiles, and of the enlightening of them, who before were blind; and causing them to hear, who before were deaf to spiritual things, agreeably to what goes before. It seems best to consider the words as a summons to the Heathens uncalled, to the Roman Pagan empire, to come forth and appear, who were as blind and deaf as the idols they worshipped, and plead their cause, agreeably to what follows.

Gill: Isa 43:9 - Let all the nations be gathered together, and let the people be assembled // who among them can declare this, and show us former things // let them bring forth their witnesses, that they may be justified // let them hear, and say, it is truth Let all the nations be gathered together, and let the people be assembled,.... In one place, if it could be, in an open court of judicature; that thei...

Let all the nations be gathered together, and let the people be assembled,.... In one place, if it could be, in an open court of judicature; that their whole strength might be united together, and the most cogent arguments any of them are able to produce might be brought out; and that all might have an opportunity of hearing the cause fairly argued, and the point decided, and judge for themselves on which side truth lies:

who among them can declare this, and show us former things? what god or prophet of theirs can declare any future event, such as this, the redemption of the Jews by Cyrus, foretold from the mouth of the Lord by Isaiah, so long before the accomplishment of it, or anything whatever before it comes to pass? for this does not regard things past, which might be shown and declared; but the things they are challenged with are things future, to declare them first, before they come into being, which would be a proof of deity; for none but God, who is omniscient, can foretell future events with certainty:

let them bring forth their witnesses, that they may be justified; let them produce witnesses that their gods spoke of things before they came to pass, and that they came to pass just as they foretold they would; that their cause may appear a just one, and that they, their worshippers, are right in serving them:

let them hear, and say, it is truth; or let them hearken to the evidence against them, and acknowledge that what I say is true, and that I am the true God, and there is no other.

Gill: Isa 43:10 - Ye are my witnesses, saith the Lord // and my servant whom I have chosen // that ye may know and believe me, and understand that I am he // before me there was no God formed, neither shall there be after me Ye are my witnesses, saith the Lord,.... The people of Israel, who could testify that the Lord had foretold their affliction in Egypt, their coming fr...

Ye are my witnesses, saith the Lord,.... The people of Israel, who could testify that the Lord had foretold their affliction in Egypt, their coming from thence, and settling in the land of Canaan, many hundreds of years before they came to pass, and which were exactly fulfilled; and so the apostles of Christ, and ministers of the word, and all Christian people in all nations, are witnesses of the prophecies concerning Christ, his birth, miracles, obedience, sufferings, death, resurrection, ascension to heaven, and session at the right hand of God, all which are exactly accomplished, Act 1:8,

and my servant whom I have chosen; meaning either the Prophet Isaiah, or the prophets in general; or rather the Messiah. So the Targum,

"and my servant the Messiah, in whom I am well pleased;''

and who is called the faithful witness, Rev 1:5, and to whom the characters of a servant, and the Lord's chosen, well agree, Isa 42:1,

that ye may know and believe me, and understand that I am he; by which testimonies and evident proofs of deity, from the prediction of future events, and the accomplishment of them, you may have a competent knowledge, a firm persuasion, and a clear perception of this important truth, that the God of Israel, and of all true Christians, is the one only Lord God:

before me there was no God formed, neither shall there be after me; intimating that idols were formed by the hands of men, and yet none of these were formed before him, and therefore could make no pretensions to deity, or to an equality with him; nor should any be formed afterwards, that could be put in competition with him. In short, the sense is, there is no other god beside him; as the Targum, Septuagint, and Arabic versions render it.

Gill: Isa 43:11 - I, even I, am the Lord // and besides me there is no Saviour I, even I, am the Lord,.... Jehovah, the self-existing, eternal, and immutable Being; this is doubled for the confirmation of it, and to exclude all o...

I, even I, am the Lord,.... Jehovah, the self-existing, eternal, and immutable Being; this is doubled for the confirmation of it, and to exclude all others:

and besides me there is no Saviour; either in a temporal or spiritual sense; the gods of the Heathens could not save them out of their present troubles, and much less save them with an everlasting salvation; none but God can do this, and this is a proof that Christ is God, since none but God can be a Saviour.

Gill: Isa 43:12 - I have declared, and I have saved, and I have showed // when there was no strange god among you I have declared, and I have saved, and I have showed,.... The Targum is, "I have showed to Abraham your father what should come to pass; I redeemed...

I have declared, and I have saved, and I have showed,.... The Targum is,

"I have showed to Abraham your father what should come to pass; I redeemed you out of Egypt, as I swore to him between the pieces; and I caused you to hear the doctrine of the law at Sinai.''

But the sense is, that God had declared by his prophets, long before the Messiah came, that he would send him; that he should come and save his people by his obedience, sufferings, and death; accordingly he was come, and was the author of salvation; the Lord had wrought out salvation by him, as he had declared he would; and this he had shown, published, and made known by the everlasting Gospel, preached among all nations:

when there was no strange god among you; that assisted in this salvation; the arm of Christ alone wrought it out: or, "and this is not strange among you" i; this work of salvation wrought out is not strange among you; it is well known unto you, being published in the Gospel.

Gill: Isa 43:13 - Yea, before the day was I am he // and there is none can deliver out of my hand // I will work, and who shall let it // who can turn it back Yea, before the day was I am he,.... Before there was a day, before the first day of the creation; that is, before time was, or from all eternity, I a...

Yea, before the day was I am he,.... Before there was a day, before the first day of the creation; that is, before time was, or from all eternity, I am he that resolved upon and contrived this method of saving men; "and ever since that day was" k, as it may be rendered, I am he that have spoken of it by all the prophets, from the beginning of the world, and now it is accomplished:

and there is none can deliver out of my hand: either such whom the Lord determines to punish, or such whom he resolves to save; none can snatch them out of his hands, there they are safe:

I will work, and who shall let it? as when he wrought the work of creation, there was no opposition to it, or hinderance of him; and in providence all things are done as be pleases; so all his purposes and decrees, which are his works within him, are exactly accomplished according to his pleasure, and none can resist his will. The work of redemption is finished just according to the draught of it in his eternal mind; and when he works upon the heart of a sinner at conversion, whatever obstructions and difficulties are in the way, these are removed, and the work is begun, and carried on, and performed, until the day of Christ. The work of the Lord in his churches, and the setting up of his kingdom in the world, in a more visible and glorious manner, shall be done, and none will be able to hinder it:

who can turn it back? either his work, or his hand in working; his purposes cannot be disannulled; his power cannot be controlled; his work cannot be made void, or of no effect; he always succeeds, for he has no superior that can obstruct him.

Gill: Isa 43:14 - Thus saith the Lord, your Redeemer // the Holy One of Israel // for your sake I have sent to Babylon // and have brought down all their nobles // and the Chaldeans, whose cry is in their ships Thus saith the Lord, your Redeemer,.... That redeemed Israel out of Egypt, and would redeem the Jews from Babylon in a short time, and be the author o...

Thus saith the Lord, your Redeemer,.... That redeemed Israel out of Egypt, and would redeem the Jews from Babylon in a short time, and be the author of a greater redemption to his people than either of these, even a spiritual and eternal one:

the Holy One of Israel; see Isa 43:3, holy in himself, holiness to Israel, and faithful to his promises:

for your sake I have sent to Babylon: Cyrus and his army to take it, in order to deliver the Jews from their captivity in it. The Targum wrongly paraphrases it to the sense quite contrary,

"for your sins have I carried you captive unto Babylon:''

and have brought down all their nobles; from their seats of honour and glory, stripped them of all their grandeur and dignity, and reduced them to a low and mean estate. This is to be understood of the princes and nobles of Babylon, who fell with the city, as their king did: or, "their bars" l; for what bars are to houses and cities, that princes should be to the people, the defence and protection of them. Though some think this refers to the gates of Babylon, and the strong bars of them now broken; see Isa 45:2. The Septuagint, Syriac, and Arabic versions render it "fugitives"; and which some understand of the Jews, who were as such in Babylon, but now should be brought out of it; which sense is countenanced by the above versions, which render it, I will raise up, bring, or bring back, "all the fugitives" m; others of the Chaldeans, who should be forced to fly upon the taking of their city; but the first sense seems best, which distinguishes them from the common people in the next clause:

and the Chaldeans, whose cry is in their ships; who used to glory in their shipping they had in the river Euphrates, as the Vulgate Latin and Syriac versions render it; and so the Targum calls their ships, "ships of their praise"; where, and of which, they used to make their ovations and triumphs; and the word n used has the signification of shouting for joy: or rather, "whose cry is to the ships" o; as it might be, when they found Cyrus and his army had got into the city, then their cry was, to the ships, to the ships, that lay in the river hard by, in order to make their escape; or their cry was, when they were "in" the ships, even in a way of lamentation and distress, because they could not get them off, Cyrus having drained the river; or it refers to their cry, when put aboard the ships that belonged to the Medes and Persians, in order to the transporting them into other countries. Such a howling there will be when mystical Babylon is destroyed, Rev 18:17.

Gill: Isa 43:15 - I am the Lord, your Holy One // the Creator of Israel, your King I am the Lord, your Holy One,.... And therefore need not doubt of the performance of those promises: the Creator of Israel, your King; and therefor...

I am the Lord, your Holy One,.... And therefore need not doubt of the performance of those promises:

the Creator of Israel, your King; and therefore both able and willing to protect them.

Gill: Isa 43:16 - Thus saith the Lord, which maketh a way in the sea // and a path in the mighty waters Thus saith the Lord, which maketh a way in the sea,.... Who did make a way in the Red sea, when he led Israel through it as on dry land; this, with wh...

Thus saith the Lord, which maketh a way in the sea,.... Who did make a way in the Red sea, when he led Israel through it as on dry land; this, with what follows, is observed to encourage the faith of the Lord's people in the performance of what he had promised, to bring them out of Babylon; for he that had done this, and the rest that are mentioned, could easily remove all difficulties that lay in the way of their deliverance:

and a path in the mighty waters; either of the Red sea, or it may be of Jordan; through which the Israelites passed into the land of Canaan.

Gill: Isa 43:17 - Which bringeth forth the chariot and the horse, the army and the power // they shall lie down together, they shall not rise // they are extinct, they are quenched as tow Which bringeth forth the chariot and the horse, the army and the power,.... Who brought forth the chariots and horses, and the mighty army of Pharaoh,...

Which bringeth forth the chariot and the horse, the army and the power,.... Who brought forth the chariots and horses, and the mighty army of Pharaoh, out of Egypt, to pursue the Israelites into the Red sea, where they were drowned. The present tense is put for the future, as in the preceding verse; the future is put for the past tense in the next clause:

they shall lie down together, they shall not rise; they lay down in the Red sea, where they sunk to the bottom, and perished, and never rose more, at least to life, nor never will, till the general resurrection:

they are extinct, they are quenched as tow; or flax, or as the wick of a candle p, when put into water, is quenched at once; so the Egyptian, became extinct in the Red sea. Some observe an allusion to the commodity of flax, for which Egypt was famous. Kimchi interprets the whole of the army of Sennacherib, which was brought out of their own land to Jerusalem, and was destroyed in one night by an angel. Aben Ezra of the Chaldeans being brought out to fight with the Persians. But others rather of the army of the Medes and Persians being brought against them, by whom they became extinct as tow or flax.

Gill: Isa 43:18 - Remember ye not the former things // neither consider the things of old Remember ye not the former things,.... Just now referred to, the bringing of Israel out of Egypt, and through the Red sea, and the drowning of Pharaoh...

Remember ye not the former things,.... Just now referred to, the bringing of Israel out of Egypt, and through the Red sea, and the drowning of Pharaoh and his army in it; for though these things were worthy to be remembered with thankfulness and praise, and to the glory of God, and for the encouragement of faith, yet not in comparison of what was hereafter to be done; meaning, not the redemption from Babylon, unless as a type of spiritual and eternal redemption by Christ; for otherwise there were greater and more wonderful things done, when Israel were brought out of Egypt, than when they were brought out of Babylon; but the great salvation by the Messiah, which exceeds both the deliverances out of Egypt and Babylon, is meant:

neither consider the things of old; unless as figures of the new, but not to be put upon a foot with them, much less to the undervaluing of them, and indeed to be forgotten in comparison of them; see Jer 23:7. The Talmudists q, by the "former" things, understand subjection to kingdoms; and, by the "things of old", the going out of Egypt; as they do by the "new thing", in the following verse, the war of Gog and Magog.

Gill: Isa 43:19 - Behold, I will do a new thing // now it shall spring forth // shall ye not know it // I will even make a way in the wilderness // and rivers in the desert Behold, I will do a new thing,.... A wonderful and unheard of thing, and therefore introduced with a "behold", as a note of admiration; the same with ...

Behold, I will do a new thing,.... A wonderful and unheard of thing, and therefore introduced with a "behold", as a note of admiration; the same with the new thing created in the earth, Jer 31:22, the incarnation of the Son of God; who took flesh of a virgin, appeared in the likeness of sinful flesh, and was made sin and a curse for his people, in order to obtain eternal redemption for them; which blessing, though not newly thought of, resolved on, contrived, and agreed upon, that being from eternity; nor newly made known, or as to the virtue and efficacy of it, which had been from the beginning of the world, yet new as to the impetration of it by the blood and sacrifice of Christ; and may be also called "new", because excellent, it being of a spiritual nature, complete and eternal, and having so many valuable blessings in it, as justification, pardon, and eternal life:

now it shall spring forth; or bud forth as a branch, in a very short time, suddenly, and at once; one of the Messiah's names is that of the Branch; see Zec 3:8,

shall ye not know it? the Redeemer, and the redemption by him. It was known to them that looked for it, and to whom the Gospel is sent, and the Spirit reveals and applies it; these know the nature of it, own it to be of God, and know their interest in it, and know the author of it, in whom they have believed, by the characters given of him: and as this may have respect to the redemption of Christ, so to the conversion of the Gentiles, and to the grace of God dispensed through Christ to them; when old things passed away, and all things became new; a new covenant of grace was exhibited, a new church state set up, new ordinances appointed, and a new people called to partake of all this, on whom was a new face of things; and wonderful and excellent things were done for them, as follows:

I will even make a way in the wilderness; as there was a way made for the Israelites through the wilderness, which lay between Egypt and Canaan; and through another, which lay between Babylon and Judea; so the Lord would also make a way in the Gentile world, comparable to a wilderness for its barrenness and unfruitfulness, for the Gospel to enter into it, where it should run, and be glorified; where Christ, the way of salvation, should be made known; and where there should be a way for Christians to walk together, in the fellowship of the Gospel:

and rivers in the desert; the doctrines of the Gospel, and the ordinances of it, which should be preached and administered in the Gentile world, before like a desert; and the graces of the Spirit, which should be brought into the hearts of men by means of them; and the large communications of grace from Christ; and the discoveries of the love of God, with the blessings of it; compared to rivers for their abundance, and for the comforting, reviving, and fructifying nature of them.

Gill: Isa 43:20 - The beast of the field shall honour me, the dragons, and the owls // because I give waters in the wilderness, and rivers in the desert // to give drink to my people, my chosen The beast of the field shall honour me, the dragons, and the owls,.... Which is not to be understood literally of these creatures, who as they had hon...

The beast of the field shall honour me, the dragons, and the owls,.... Which is not to be understood literally of these creatures, who as they had honoured the Lord, when Israel passed through the wilderness, so would again in their way praise the Lord, when they came through the deserts from Babylon, for giving them water to drink in such dry and thirsty places, to which there may be an allusion; but spiritually of the Gentiles, compared to those creatures for the savageness, fierceness, and stupidity of them, and who were reckoned by the Jews no other than as the beasts of the field; who should honour and glorify God for the Gospel brought unto them, and for his grace and mercy bestowed on them:

because I give waters in the wilderness, and rivers in the desert; as before; See Gill on Isa 43:19; because of the plenty of divine grace, and the means of it:

to give drink to my people, my chosen; to refresh and comfort the hearts of his people, whom he had chosen out from among the Gentiles, and now would call them by his grace, and set them a thirsting after Christ, and salvation by him.

Gill: Isa 43:21 - This people have I formed for myself // they shall show forth my praise This people have I formed for myself,.... The Gentiles, compared to a desert and wilderness, wild and uncultivated, distinguished from Jacob and Israe...

This people have I formed for myself,.... The Gentiles, compared to a desert and wilderness, wild and uncultivated, distinguished from Jacob and Israel in the next verse, and the same with the chosen people before mentioned; who being chosen of God, and redeemed by Christ, are formed anew by the Spirit of Christ, made new creatures, regenerated, and transformed by the renewing of their minds, and conformed to the image of Christ, and having him formed in their souls, and principles of grace and holiness wrought in them; in consequence of which they reformed in their lives and conversation, and were also formed into a Gospel church state, and all this done by the Lord for himself, his service, and his glory. The Targum is,

"this people have I prepared for my worship:''

they shall show forth my praise; with their lips, by ascribing their formation to the power and grace of God, and even their whole salvation to it, and express their thankfulness for the same; and likewise by their actions, by a subjection to the ordinances of the Gospel, and by their lives and conversations being agreeably to it. Joseph Kimchi, as Abendana observes, interprets this people of the beasts of the field, spoken of in the preceding verse, that should honour the Lord, and here said to be formed for himself, and should show forth his praise; and which is taken notice of to aggravate the sins of the people of the Jews, who called not on the Lord, &c. as in the following verses; so the ants and conies are called a people not strong, and the locusts a people great and strong, Pro 30:25.

Gill: Isa 43:22 - But thou hast not called upon me, O Jacob // but thou hast been weary of me, O Israel But thou hast not called upon me, O Jacob,.... The Jews, though they were the posterity of Jacob, a praying person, yet did not tread in his steps, bu...

But thou hast not called upon me, O Jacob,.... The Jews, though they were the posterity of Jacob, a praying person, yet did not tread in his steps, but were more like the Heathens that called not on the name of the Lord; though there is no necessity of restraining this to prayer, it may regard the whole worship of God, which is sometimes included in the invocation of his name; and so the Targum,

"and ye come not to my worship, O ye of the house of Jacob.''

The Jews, in Christ's time, did not call upon his name, nor believe in him, nor receive his Gospel, nor submit to him and his ordinances; they rejected him and his service, therefore the Lord rejected them, and called the Gentiles, as before prophesied of:

but thou hast been weary of me, O Israel: of the word, worship, and ordinances of God; see Mal 1:13.

Gill: Isa 43:23 - Thou hast not brought me the small cattle of thy burnt offerings // neither hast thou honoured me with thy sacrifices // I have not caused thee to serve with an offering // nor wearied thee with incense Thou hast not brought me the small cattle of thy burnt offerings,.... The kids and the lambs, which, according to the law, should have been brought fo...

Thou hast not brought me the small cattle of thy burnt offerings,.... The kids and the lambs, which, according to the law, should have been brought for burnt offerings daily, morning and evening; and much less did they bring the larger cattle of burnt offerings, as oxen and bullocks. The Targum and Vulgate Latin render it, "the rams of thy burnt offerings"; the Septuagint version, "the sheep"; and the Syriac and Arabic versions, "the lambs"; and these were not brought to him, but to their idols; or, however, were not brought in a right way and manner, and from right principles, and with right views. Kimchi thinks this refers to the times of Ahaz, when the service of God ceased in the temple, and idolatry was practised at Jerusalem but it seems to respect later times, nearer the times of Christ; see Mal 1:13,

neither hast thou honoured me with thy sacrifices; what sacrifices they did offer were not offered to God, but to their idols; or they were such as were not according to the law of God; or they were not offered up in the faith of the Messiah, nor with a true spirit of devotion, and with a sincere view to the glory of God, and in the exercise of repentance for sins; but rather as an atonement for them, and that they might go on in them with ease of mind; see Isa 1:11,

I have not caused thee to serve with an offering; the "minchah", a meat offering or bread offering, which was a freewill offering, and they were not obliged to it; it was at their own option whether they would bring it or not, and which was not very chargeable to them:

nor wearied thee with incense; or frankincense, which was put upon the meat or bread offering; see Lev 2:1. Some understand this of all offerings in general, that they were not so many that were commanded them, as to be a burden to them; nor so expensive but that they were able to bear the charge of them, considering the fruitfulness of the land of Canaan, and especially the numerous and costly sacrifices of Heathen idolaters: and others think it has reference to the time of Israel's coming out of Egypt, and the covenant of God with them, when no mention was made of sacrifices, nor were they enjoined them, Jer 7:21.

Gill: Isa 43:24 - Thou hast bought me no sweet cane with money // neither hast thou filled me with the fat of thy sacrifices // but thou hast made me to serve with thy sins, thou hast wearied me with thine iniquities Thou hast bought me no sweet cane with money,.... Or "calamus" r, which was used in the anointing oil, and for the perfume or incense, Exo 30:7, this ...

Thou hast bought me no sweet cane with money,.... Or "calamus" r, which was used in the anointing oil, and for the perfume or incense, Exo 30:7, this they thought too expensive, and so left it out of the composition, or neglected the whole this being put a part for the whole. Jarchi gives it as the sense, that they had no need to buy it, since it grew in great plenty in the land of Israel, which he took to be cinnamon; though this is distinguished from calamus, or the sweet cane, Son 4:14, wherefore Kimchi much better observes, that it was not to be had in the land of Israel, but came from a land afar off; and therefore must be bought; see Jer 6:20, hence grudging to give the price for it, and to be at the expense of it, bought it not, and disused it:

neither hast thou filled me with the fat of thy sacrifices; they did not multiply their sacrifices, offered only just what the law required, if so many, and those of the leaner sort; and whereas the fat of the sacrifices was the Lord's, there was little of it for him in these:

but thou hast made me to serve with thy sins, thou hast wearied me with thine iniquities; they were so many, and so aggravated, that he could not bear with them any longer, his patience was worn out; they were an uneasiness to him, as it were a burden upon him, and therefore would ease himself, as he sometimes does, by avenging himself, Isa 1:24, but here by pardoning them, as in the following verse. Some think that these are the words of Christ, the surety of his people, who took upon him the form of a servant for the sake of them, and had all their sins laid upon him, and which he bore, and made satisfaction for; and were to the human nature a burden, and a weariness to it; see Psa 40:12. This must be understood of the remnant according to the election of grace, among these people so sadly corrupted, for whose sins of omission and commission Christ made atonement; and upon the foot of his satisfaction, remission of sins proceeds, as in the next verse: this they thought too chargeable, and so left it out of the composition, or neglected the whole this being put a part for the whole. Jarchi gives it as the sense, that they had no need to buy it, since it grew in great plenty in the land of Israel, which he took to be cinnamon; though this is distinguished from calamus, or the sweet cane, Son 4:14, wherefore Kimchi much better observes, that it was not to be had in the land of Israel, but came from a land afar off; and therefore must be bought; see Jer 6:20, hence grudging to give the price for it, and to be at the expense of it, bought it not, and disused it:

neither hast thou filled me with the fat of thy sacrifices; they did not multiply their sacrifices, offered only just what the law required, if so many, and those of the leaner sort; and whereas the fat of the sacrifices was the Lord's, there was little of it for him in these:

but thou hast made me to serve with thy sins, thou hast wearied me with thine iniquities; they were so many, and so aggravated, that he could not bear with them any longer, his patience was worn out; they were an uneasiness to him, as it were a burden upon him, and therefore would ease himself, as he sometimes does, by avenging himself, Isa 1:24, but here by pardoning them, as in the following verse. Some think that these are the words of Christ, the surety of his people, who took upon him the form of a servant for the sake of them, and had all their sins laid upon him, and which he bore, and made satisfaction for; and were to the human nature a burden, and a weariness to it; see Psa 40:12. This must be understood of the remnant according to the election of grace, among these people so sadly corrupted, for whose sins of omission and commission Christ made atonement; and upon the foot of his satisfaction, remission of sins proceeds, as in the next verse.

Gill: Isa 43:25 - I, even I am he, that blotteth out thy transgressions for mine own sake // and will not remember thy sins I, even I am he, that blotteth out thy transgressions for mine own sake,.... The same with "sins" in the next clause; original sin, and actual sins; w...

I, even I am he, that blotteth out thy transgressions for mine own sake,.... The same with "sins" in the next clause; original sin, and actual sins; which are transgressions of the law of God, of which the law accuses, for which it pronounces guilty, curses, and condemns; which are contrary to the nature of God, strike at his deity, and must be abominable to him; they are many, yea infinite, and yet all pardoned for Christ's sake; which is here expressed by a "blotting" them out, in allusion to the blotting of a debt book: sins are debts, and these are many, and which cannot be paid by the sinner; Christ has made full payment; as the surety of his people: upon this the debt book is crossed; these debts are remitted for his sake: or as a cloud is blotted out, dispelled by the wind, or scattered by the sun; see Isa 44:22, so as to be seen no more with the eye of avenging justice, or to be charged against the sinner to his condemnation. The author of this blessing of grace is the Lord, "I, even I am he"; who had been so ill used, and maltreated, as before declared; whose law had been broken in such a manner; and who is the Lawgiver that is able to save and to destroy; and who hates and abhors sin, and is strictly just; and yet, notwithstanding all this, forgives it; and which he repeats for the confirmation of it, and seems to express it with the utmost pleasure, and as glorying in it, and as if it was an honour to him, and a jewel in his crown; and indeed it is his sole prerogative; none can forgive sins but him: and this he does for his own sake; it is not procured by anything of the creature; not by riches, nor by righteousness, nor by repentance, nor by faith, nor by obedience to any ordinance; it is not for the sake of these that the Lord forgives sin, but for his own sake, and his Son's sake, which is the same; it is an instance of unmerited and distinguishing grace; it flows from the free grace of God; it is a branch of the covenant of grace; it is through the blood of Christ, and yet according to the riches of grace; and it is for the glory of all the divine perfections, justice, truth, and faithfulness, as well as grace and mercy; and after such a list of sins of omission and commission, to hear such language as this is surprising grace indeed!

and will not remember thy sins; God forgives and forgets; God will not remember the sins of his people against them; having forgiven them, he will never punish them for them, which is meant by remembering them; see Jer 14:10.

Gill: Isa 43:26 - Put me in remembrance Put me in remembrance,.... Of this gracious promise of free remission of sins, and of all others of the same kind; not that God ever forgets any of hi...

Put me in remembrance,.... Of this gracious promise of free remission of sins, and of all others of the same kind; not that God ever forgets any of his promises, but he may sometimes seem to do so; wherefore he would have his people put him in mind of them, that he may by his good Spirit make a comfortable application of them to him: "let us plead together"; or come together in judgment, as God and the sinner may upon the foot of remission of sin, through the blood, sacrifice, and satisfaction of Christ; which may be pleaded, and will be allowed, in the court of justice: declare thou, that thou mayest be justified; declare the promise before made; declare the grace that is expressed in it; plead the blood and righteousness of my Son, that thou mayest be justified by it, on which account remission of sin is: or it may be rather, these words are directed to another set of men among the Jews, who rejected the doctrine of forgiveness of sin by the grace of God, through the blood of Christ; such as were the Scribes and Pharisees in Christ's time, those self-justiciaries, who sought to be justified by the works of the law; setting at nought the grace of God and righteousness of Christ: now these the Lord calls upon in a way of derision, to put him in mind of any of their good actions they had done, and he had forgotten, for the sake of which they expected pardon, and not for his name's sake; and to come into open court and plead their own righteousness, and see whether they could carry their cause upon the foot of their own merits; and declare publicly what these merits and good works were, that they might be justified by them, if they were sufficient for such a purpose; but alas! these would not bear examination at the bar of strict justice, and would be far from justifying them in, the sight of God; and as their own works would be insufficient, it would be a vain thing to have recourse to the works and merits of their forefathers; for it follows,

Gill: Isa 43:27 - Thy first father hath sinned // and thy teachers have transgressed against me Thy first father hath sinned,.... Either Adam, as Kimchi, in whom all have sinned, and from whom all derive a sinful and corrupt nature; or Abraham, a...

Thy first father hath sinned,.... Either Adam, as Kimchi, in whom all have sinned, and from whom all derive a sinful and corrupt nature; or Abraham, as Jarchi, the father of the Jewish nation, of whom they boasted, and in whom they trusted, as being of his seed, and through whose merits and worthiness they expected great things; yet he was but a sinful man, though a good man, and a great believer; of whose infirmity and frailty many instances are on record. Some have thought Terah the father of Abraham is designed, who was an idolater; others think some particular king is meant, the father of his people; Aben Ezra supposes Jeroboam to be intended, the first king of the ten tribes who made Israel to sin; but Kimchi observes, it is better to understand it of Saul, who was the first king over all Israel; others interpret it of Ahaz; and others of Manasseh; Vitringa of Uriah the priest, in the times of Ahaz; but it seems best to take the singular for the plural, as the Arabic version does, which renders it, "your first fathers have sinned"; all their forefathers had sinned, from their coming out of Egypt to that day; and, therefore it was in vain to have respect to them, or plead any worthiness of theirs in their favour; besides, they imitated them in their sins, and were filling up the measure of their iniquities:

and thy teachers have transgressed against me; or "interpreters" s; of the law to the people, the Priests and Levites, Scribes and Pharisees; such who should have taught the people, and instructed them in the knowledge of divine things, and interceded with God for them; these were transgressors of the law themselves, as well as despisers of the Gospel; these rejected the counsel of God against themselves, disbelieved the Messiah, and dissuaded the people from receiving him; they were "orators" t, as the word is by some rendered; and they used all the oratory they were masters of against Christ, and to persuade the people into an ill opinion of him, and at last to insist upon his crucifixion.

Gill: Isa 43:28 - Therefore I have profaned the princes of the sanctuary // and have given Jacob to the curse, and Israel to reproaches Therefore I have profaned the princes of the sanctuary,.... Or will do it; the past tense for the future, common in prophetic writings; these are not ...

Therefore I have profaned the princes of the sanctuary,.... Or will do it; the past tense for the future, common in prophetic writings; these are not Moses and Aaron, or the kings, but the priests of the temple, who had the care and government of things there, and therefore called "princes"; these, when this prophecy was fulfilled, were treated as common persons, and divested of their office, and laid aside; their priesthood and the honour of it were taken from them; sacrifices were abolished, and the law concerning them; this was more especially true when Jerusalem was destroyed, the temple burnt, and the daily sacrifice made to cease, by the Romans:

and have given Jacob to the curse, and Israel to reproaches; to be cursed and reproached, as the Jews are in all places to this day, wherever they be, and that very righteously, and in just retaliation for their behaviour to Christ, and their usage of his followers; for they both hung him upon the accursed tree, and imprecated his blood on them and their children, and anathematized, or delivered to an anathema u, as the word here used signifies, and cast those who professed his name out of their synagogues, as well as reproached and blasphemed him, his person, offices, miracles, and doctrines; and therefore have been justly given up to the curse of God and man, and to be a taunt, proverb, and byword throughout the world, Jer 24:9.

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki

NET Notes: Isa 43:1 Or “redeem.” See the note at 41:14. Cf. NCV “saved you”; CEV “rescued you”; NLT “ransomed you.”

NET Notes: Isa 43:2 Heb “burn” (so NASB); NAB, NRSV, NLT “consume”; NIV “set you ablaze.”

NET Notes: Isa 43:3 Seba is not the same as Sheba in southern Arabia; cf. Gen 1:10; 1 Chr 1:9.

NET Notes: Isa 43:4 Heb “Since you are precious in my eyes and you are honored.”

NET Notes: Isa 43:7 Heb “everyone who is called by my name” (so NASB, NIV, NRSV).

NET Notes: Isa 43:9 Heb “and the former things was causing us to hear?”

NET Notes: Isa 43:10 Heb “and after me, there will not be”; NASB “there will be none after Me.”

NET Notes: Isa 43:13 Heb “hand” (so KJV, NASB, NIV, NRSV); NLT “No one can oppose what I do.”

NET Notes: Isa 43:14 The Hebrew text reads literally, “as for the Babylonians, in ships their joyful shout.” This might be paraphrased, “even the Babylon...

NET Notes: Isa 43:15 See the note on the phrase “the Holy One of Israel” in 1:4.

NET Notes: Isa 43:17 Heb “lay down”; NAB “lie prostrate together”; CEV “lie dead”; NRSV “they lie down.”

NET Notes: Isa 43:18 Heb “the former things” (so KJV, NASB, NIV, NRSV); NLT “forget all that.”

NET Notes: Isa 43:19 The Hebrew texts has “streams,” probably under the influence of v. 20. The Qumran scroll 1QIsaa has נתיבו...

NET Notes: Isa 43:21 Heb “[so] they might declare my praise.”

NET Notes: Isa 43:22 Or “strive”; KJV, ASV, NRSV “been weary of me.”

NET Notes: Isa 43:23 Heb “with.” The words “by demanding” are supplied in the translation for clarification.

NET Notes: Isa 43:24 In vv. 22-24 the Lord appears to be condemning his people for failure to bring the proper sacrifices. However, this is problematic. If this refers to ...

NET Notes: Isa 43:26 Heb “you, tell in order that you may be right”; NAB “prove your innocence.”

NET Notes: Isa 43:27 On the meaning of the term לִיץ (lits), see HALOT 590 s.v. מֵלִיץ. This may refer to the n...

NET Notes: Isa 43:28 The word “subjected” is supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.

Geneva Bible: Isa 43:1 But now thus saith the LORD ( a ) that created thee, O Jacob, and he that formed thee, O Israel, ( b ) Fear not: for I have redeemed thee, I have call...

Geneva Bible: Isa 43:2 When thou passest through the ( c ) waters, I [will be] with thee; and through the rivers, they shall not overflow thee: when thou walkest through the...

Geneva Bible: Isa 43:3 For I [am] the LORD thy God, the Holy One of Israel, thy Saviour: I gave ( d ) Egypt [for] thy ransom, Cush and Seba for thee. ( d ) I turned Sennach...

Geneva Bible: Isa 43:4 Since thou hast been precious in my sight, thou hast been honourable, and I have loved thee: therefore will I give ( e ) men for thee, and people for ...

Geneva Bible: Isa 43:5 Fear not: for I [am] with thee: I will bring thy seed from the ( f ) east, and gather thee from the west; ( f ) He prophecies of their deliverance fr...

Geneva Bible: Isa 43:7 [Even] every one that is called by my ( g ) name: for I have created him for my glory, I have formed him; verily, I have made him. ( g ) Meaning that...

Geneva Bible: Isa 43:9 Let all the nations be gathered ( h ) together, and let the people be assembled: who among them can declare this, and show us former things? let them ...

Geneva Bible: Isa 43:10 Ye ( l ) [are] my witnesses, saith the LORD, and my ( m ) servant whom I have chosen: that ye may know and believe me, and understand that I [am] he: ...

Geneva Bible: Isa 43:14 Thus saith the LORD, your redeemer, the Holy One of Israel; For your sake I have sent to Babylon, and have ( n ) brought down all their nobles, and th...

Geneva Bible: Isa 43:16 Thus saith the LORD, who maketh a way in ( p ) the sea, and a path in the mighty ( q ) waters; ( p ) When he delivered Israel from Pharaoh, (Exo 14:2...

Geneva Bible: Isa 43:17 Who bringeth ( r ) forth the ( s ) chariot and horse, the army and the power; they shall lie down together, they shall not rise: they are extinct, the...

Geneva Bible: Isa 43:19 Behold, I will do a new thing; now it shall spring forth; shall ye not know it? I will even make a way in the ( t ) wilderness, [and] rivers in the de...

Geneva Bible: Isa 43:20 The ( u ) beast of the field shall honour me, the dragons and the owls: because I give waters in the wilderness, [and] rivers in the desert, to give d...

Geneva Bible: Isa 43:22 But thou hast not ( x ) called upon me, O Jacob; but thou hast been ( y ) weary of me, O Israel. ( x ) You have not worshipped me as you ought to hav...

Geneva Bible: Isa 43:23 Thou ( z ) hast not brought me the small cattle of thy burnt offerings; neither hast thou honoured me with thy sacrifices. I have not caused thee to s...

Geneva Bible: Isa 43:24 Thou hast bought me no sweet ( a ) cane with money, neither hast thou filled me with the fat of thy sacrifices: but thou hast ( b ) burdened me with t...

Geneva Bible: Isa 43:26 Put me in ( c ) remembrance: let us plead together: declare thou, that thou mayest be justified. ( c ) If I forget anything that may make for your ju...

Geneva Bible: Isa 43:27 Thy ( d ) first father hath sinned, and thy ( e ) teachers have transgressed against me. ( d ) Your ancestors. ( e ) Your priests and your prophets....

Geneva Bible: Isa 43:28 Therefore I have ( f ) profaned the princes of the sanctuary, and have given Jacob to the curse, and Israel to reproaches. ( f ) That is, rejected, a...

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Rentang Ayat

Maclaren: Isa 43:1 - A Libation To Jehovah Thy Name: My Name I have caned thee by thy name.'--Isaiah 43:1. Every one that is called by My name.'--Isaiah 43:7. GREAT stress is laid on names in ...

MHCC: Isa 43:1-7 - --God's favour and good-will to his people speak abundant comfort to all believers. The new creature, wherever it is, is of God's forming. All who are r...

MHCC: Isa 43:8-13 - --Idolaters are called to appear in defence of their idols. Those who make them, and trust in them, are like unto them. They have the shape and facultie...

MHCC: Isa 43:14-21 - --The deliverance from Babylon is foretold, but there is reference to greater events. The redemption of sinners by Christ, the conversion of the Gentile...

MHCC: Isa 43:22-28 - --Those who neglect to call upon God, are weary of him. The Master tired not the servants with his commands, but they tired him with disobedience. What ...

Matthew Henry: Isa 43:1-7 - -- This chapter has a plain connexion with the close of the foregoing chapter, but a very surprising one. It was there said that Jacob and Israel would...

Matthew Henry: Isa 43:8-13 - -- God here challenges the worshippers of idols to produce such proofs of the divinity of their false gods as even this very instance (to go no further...

Matthew Henry: Isa 43:14-21 - -- To so low an ebb were the faith and hope of God's people in Babylon brought that there needed line upon line to assure them that they should be rele...

Matthew Henry: Isa 43:22-28 - -- This charge (and a high charge it is which is here exhibited against Jacob and Israel, God's professing people) comes in here, 1. To clear God's jus...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 43:1-2 - -- The tone of the address is now suddenly changed. The sudden leap from reproach to consolation was very significant. It gave them to understand, that...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 43:3-4 - -- Just as in Isa 43:1 , kı̄ (for), with all that follows, assigns the reason for the encouraging "Fear not;"so here a second kı̄ introduces the r...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 43:5-7 - -- The encouraging "Fear not"is here resumed, for the purpose of assigning a still further reason. "Fear not; for I am with thee: I bring thy seed fro...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 43:8-10 - -- We come now to the third turn in the second half of this prophecy. It is linked on to the commencement of the first turn ("Hear, ye deaf, and look, ...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 43:11-13 - -- The address now closes by holding up once more the object and warrant of faith. "I am Jehovah; and beside me there is no Savour. I have proclaimed ...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 43:14-15 - -- In close connection with the foregoing prophecy, the present one commences with the dissolution of the Chaldean empire. "Thus saith Jehovah, your R...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 43:16-21 - -- There now follows a second field of the picture of redemption; and the expression "for your sake"is expounded in Isa 43:16-21 : "Thus saith Jehovah...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 43:22-24 - -- It would be the praise of God, however, and not the merits of their own works, that they would have to relate; for there was nothing at all that cou...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 43:25 - -- Nevertheless, the sustaining power of divine love is greater than the gravitating force of divine wrath. "I, I alone, blot out thy transgressions f...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 43:26 - -- Jehovah now calls upon Israel, if this be not the case, to remind Him of any merit upon which it can rely. "Call to my remembrance; we will strive ...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 43:27 - -- But Israel has no such works; on the contrary, its history has been a string of sins from the very first. "Thy first forefather sinned, and thy med...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 43:28 - -- Consequently the all-holy One was obliged to do what had taken place. "Then I profaned holy princes, and gave up Jacob to the curse, and Israel to ...

Constable: Isa 40:1--55:13 - --IV. Israel's calling in the world chs. 40--55 This part of Isaiah picks up a theme from chapters 1-39 and develo...

Constable: Isa 40:1--48:22 - --A. God's grace to Israel chs. 40-48 These chapters particularly address the questions of whether God cou...

Constable: Isa 41:1--44:23 - --2. The servant of the Lord 41:1-44:22 There is an emphasis on the uniqueness of the Lord compare...

Constable: Isa 42:10--44:23 - --God's purposes for His servants 42:10-44:22 The section of Isaiah that I have titled "Go...

Constable: Isa 42:10--43:8 - --The certainty of redemption 42:10-43:7 God had not forgotten nor was He unable to deliver His people. Their redemption was certain. "This vision of wh...

Constable: Isa 43:8--44:21 - --The witness to redemption 43:8-44:20 Isaiah continued to show that Yahweh was both willing and able to deliver His people, a theme begun in 42:10. He ...

Guzik: Isa 43:1-28 - Fear Not Isaiah 43 - Fear Not A. Reasons not to fear. 1. (1) Fear not, knowing you belong to the LORD. But now, thus says the LORD, who created you, O Jaco...