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Teks -- Jeremiah 21:1-14 (NET)

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Konteks
The Lord Will Hand Jerusalem over to Enemies
21:1 The Lord spoke to Jeremiah when King Zedekiah sent to him Pashhur son of Malkijah and the priest Zephaniah son of Maaseiah. Zedekiah sent them to Jeremiah to ask, 21:2 “Please ask the Lord to come and help us, because King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon is attacking us. Maybe the Lord will perform one of his miracles as in times past and make him stop attacking us and leave.” 21:3 Jeremiah answered them, “Tell Zedekiah 21:4 that the Lord, the God of Israel, says, ‘The forces at your disposal are now outside the walls fighting against King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon and the Babylonians who have you under siege. I will gather those forces back inside the city. 21:5 In anger, in fury, and in wrath I myself will fight against you with my mighty power and great strength! 21:6 I will kill everything living in Jerusalem, people and animals alike! They will die from terrible diseases. 21:7 Then I, the Lord, promise that I will hand over King Zedekiah of Judah, his officials, and any of the people who survive the war, starvation, and disease. I will hand them over to King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon and to their enemies who want to kill them. He will slaughter them with the sword. He will not show them any mercy, compassion, or pity.’ 21:8 “But tell the people of Jerusalem that the Lord says, ‘I will give you a choice between two courses of action. One will result in life; the other will result in death. 21:9 Those who stay in this city will die in battle or of starvation or disease. Those who leave the city and surrender to the Babylonians who are besieging it will live. They will escape with their lives. 21:10 For I, the Lord, say that I am determined not to deliver this city but to bring disaster on it. It will be handed over to the king of Babylon and he will destroy it with fire.’”
Warnings to the Royal Court
21:11 The Lord told me to say to the royal court of Judah, “Listen to what the Lord says, 21:12 O royal family descended from David. The Lord says: ‘See to it that people each day are judged fairly. Deliver those who have been robbed from those who oppress them. Otherwise, my wrath will blaze out against you. It will burn like a fire that cannot be put out because of the evil that you have done. 21:13 Listen, you who sit enthroned above the valley on a rocky plateau. I am opposed to you,’ says the Lord. ‘You boast, “No one can swoop down on us. No one can penetrate into our places of refuge.” 21:14 But I will punish you as your deeds deserve,’ says the Lord. ‘I will set fire to your palace; it will burn up everything around it.’”
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Babylon a country of Babylon in lower Mesopotamia
 · David a son of Jesse of Judah; king of Israel,son of Jesse of Judah; king of Israel
 · Israel a citizen of Israel.,a member of the nation of Israel
 · Jeremiah a prophet of Judah in 627 B.C., who wrote the book of Jeremiah,a man of Libnah; father of Hamutal, mother of Jehoahaz, king of Judah,head of an important clan in eastern Manasseh in the time of Jotham,a Benjamite man who defected to David at Ziklag,the fifth of Saul's Gadite officers who defected to David in the wilderness,the tenth of Saul's Gadite officers who defected to David in the wilderness,a man from Anathoth of Benjamin; son of Hilkiah the priest; a major prophet in the time of the exile,an influential priest who returned from exile with Zerubbabel, who later signed the covenant to obey the law, and who helped dedicate Nehemiah's wall,one of Saul's Gadite officers who defected to David in the wilderness
 · Judah the son of Jacob and Leah; founder of the tribe of Judah,a tribe, the land/country,a son of Joseph; the father of Simeon; an ancestor of Jesus,son of Jacob/Israel and Leah; founder of the tribe of Judah,the tribe of Judah,citizens of the southern kingdom of Judah,citizens of the Persian Province of Judah; the Jews who had returned from Babylonian exile,"house of Judah", a phrase which highlights the political leadership of the tribe of Judah,"king of Judah", a phrase which relates to the southern kingdom of Judah,"kings of Judah", a phrase relating to the southern kingdom of Judah,"princes of Judah", a phrase relating to the kingdom of Judah,the territory allocated to the tribe of Judah, and also the extended territory of the southern kingdom of Judah,the Province of Judah under Persian rule,"hill country of Judah", the relatively cool and green central highlands of the territory of Judah,"the cities of Judah",the language of the Jews; Hebrew,head of a family of Levites who returned from Exile,a Levite who put away his heathen wife,a man who was second in command of Jerusalem; son of Hassenuah of Benjamin,a Levite in charge of the songs of thanksgiving in Nehemiah's time,a leader who helped dedicate Nehemiah's wall,a Levite musician who helped Zechariah of Asaph dedicate Nehemiah's wall
 · Ma-Aseiah a Levite worship leader in David's time,son of Adaiah; a commander who helped enthrone King Joash,a man who was a recruiting officer for King Uzziah's army,son of King Ahaz,a man who was governor of Jerusalem under King Josiah,a priest descended from Jeshua who put away his heathen wife,a priest descended from Harim who put away his heathen wife,a priest descended from Pashhur who put away his heathen wife,a layman of Pahath-Moab clan who put away his heathen wife,son of Ananiah; father of Azariah who helped repair the wall,a man who stood with Ezra when he read the law to the assembly,a Levite who helped Ezra explain the reading of the law,an chief who signed the covenant to keep the law of Moses,son of Baruch of Judah; a returned exile in Jerusalem,son of Ithiel of Benjamin,a priest who helped celebrate the completion of the wall,father of Zephaniah the priest in the time of Jeremiah,a false prophet in the time of King Zedekiah of Judah,son of Shallum, a gate keeper under King Jehoiakim
 · Nebuchadrezzar the king of Babylon who took Judah into exile
 · Pashhur son of Malchijah; a priest whose children returned from exile,a priest who signed the covenant to keep God's law,son of Immer; priest, temple chief, and Jeremiah's enemy,son of Malchiah in the time of Jeremiah
 · Zedekiah son of Chenaanah; a false prophet in the kingdom of King Ahab,son of King Josiah; made king of Judah by Nebuchadnezzar,son of King Jehoiachin,a signer of the covenant to obey the law with Nehemiah,son of Maaseiah; a false prophet in the time of King Jehoiachin,son of Hananiah; a prince of Judah in the time of Jehoiakim
 · Zephaniah the second high priest in the time of Zedekiah of Judah,son of Tahath of Kohath son of Levi,son of Cushi (Hezekiah Judah); minor prophet under King Josiah,father of Josiah, post-exile keeper of the temple treasures


Topik/Tema Kamus: ZEDEKIAH (2) | Babylon | Zedekiah | Banner | Zephaniah | Israel | Maaseiah | Pashur | Nebuchadnezzar | Melchiah | JUDAH, KINGDOM OF | Jeremiah | Arm | Anger | Nebuchadrezzar | Jerusalem | King | Rulers | Sin | Wicked | selebihnya
Daftar Isi

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Wesley , JFB , Clarke , Calvin , Defender , TSK

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Poole , Haydock , Gill

Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki
NET Notes , Geneva Bible

Catatan Rentang Ayat
MHCC , Matthew Henry , Keil-Delitzsch , Constable

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per frasa)

Wesley: Jer 21:2 - Enquire Zedekiah, as he was none of the best, so he was none of the worst of the kings of Judah. Having some reverence of God, he sends the prophet to enquire...

Zedekiah, as he was none of the best, so he was none of the worst of the kings of Judah. Having some reverence of God, he sends the prophet to enquire of the Lord.

Wesley: Jer 21:8 - Behold I tell you the way you should take, if you would save your lives.

I tell you the way you should take, if you would save your lives.

Wesley: Jer 21:9 - His life This is a proverbial expression, signifying a man's possession of his life as a prey, or booty recovered from the enemy.

This is a proverbial expression, signifying a man's possession of his life as a prey, or booty recovered from the enemy.

Wesley: Jer 21:12 - Execute judgment That is, justice, without partiality, and do it quickly.

That is, justice, without partiality, and do it quickly.

Wesley: Jer 21:13 - Of the valley The inhabitants of the city of Jerusalem are here intended. Jerusalem itself was built in part upon the rocky mountain of Zion, but a great part was i...

The inhabitants of the city of Jerusalem are here intended. Jerusalem itself was built in part upon the rocky mountain of Zion, but a great part was in the valley, and the higher mountains, about mount Zion, made that mountain itself, in comparison with them, as a valley.

Wesley: Jer 21:13 - The plain Though also a rock of the plain, that is, near to the plain. Which situation of this place, made the Jews think it to be impregnable.

Though also a rock of the plain, that is, near to the plain. Which situation of this place, made the Jews think it to be impregnable.

Wesley: Jer 21:14 - The forest By the forest he either means the forest of Lebanon or their houses, made of wood cut out of that forest.

By the forest he either means the forest of Lebanon or their houses, made of wood cut out of that forest.

Wesley: Jer 21:14 - And it And this fire shall not end in the destruction of this city, but in the total destruction of all the country round Jerusalem.

And this fire shall not end in the destruction of this city, but in the total destruction of all the country round Jerusalem.

JFB: Jer 21:1 - Zedekiah A prince having some reverence for sacred things, for which reason he sends an honorable embassy to Jeremiah; but not having moral courage to obey his...

A prince having some reverence for sacred things, for which reason he sends an honorable embassy to Jeremiah; but not having moral courage to obey his better impulses.

JFB: Jer 21:1 - Pashur Son of Melchiah, of the fifth order of priests, distinct from Pashur, son of Immer (Jer 20:1), of the sixteenth order (1Ch 24:9, 1Ch 24:14).

Son of Melchiah, of the fifth order of priests, distinct from Pashur, son of Immer (Jer 20:1), of the sixteenth order (1Ch 24:9, 1Ch 24:14).

JFB: Jer 21:1 - Zephaniah Of the twenty-fourth order. They are designated, not by their father, but by their family (1Ch 24:18).

Of the twenty-fourth order. They are designated, not by their father, but by their family (1Ch 24:18).

JFB: Jer 21:2 - Nebuchadrezzar The more usual way of spelling the name in Jeremiah than Nebuchadnezzar. From Persiac roots, meaning either "Nebo, the chief of the gods," or, "Nebo, ...

The more usual way of spelling the name in Jeremiah than Nebuchadnezzar. From Persiac roots, meaning either "Nebo, the chief of the gods," or, "Nebo, the god of fire." He was son of Nabopolassar, who committed the command of the army against Egypt, at Carchemish, and against Judea, to the Brown prince.

JFB: Jer 21:2 - according to all his wondrous works Zedekiah hopes for God's special interposition, such as was vouchsafed to Hezekiah against Sennacherib (2Ki 19:35-36).

Zedekiah hopes for God's special interposition, such as was vouchsafed to Hezekiah against Sennacherib (2Ki 19:35-36).

JFB: Jer 21:2 - he Nebuchadnezzar.

Nebuchadnezzar.

JFB: Jer 21:2 - go up from us Rise up from the siege which he sat down to lay (Jer 37:5, Jer 37:11, Margin; Num 16:24, Num 16:27; 1Ki 15:19, Margin).

Rise up from the siege which he sat down to lay (Jer 37:5, Jer 37:11, Margin; Num 16:24, Num 16:27; 1Ki 15:19, Margin).

JFB: Jer 21:4 - God of Israel Those "wondrous works" (Jer 21:2) do not belong to you; God is faithful; it is you who forfeit the privileges of the covenant by unfaithfulness. "God ...

Those "wondrous works" (Jer 21:2) do not belong to you; God is faithful; it is you who forfeit the privileges of the covenant by unfaithfulness. "God will always remain the God of Israel, though He destroy thee and thy people" [CALVIN].

JFB: Jer 21:4 - turn back the weapons I will turn them to a very different use from what you intend them. With them you now fight against the Chaldees "without the walls" (the Jewish defen...

I will turn them to a very different use from what you intend them. With them you now fight against the Chaldees "without the walls" (the Jewish defenders being as yet able to sally forth more freely, and defend the fountains outside the walls in the valley under Mount Zion; see Jer 21:13; Jer 19:6-7); but soon ye shall be driven back within the city [MAURER], and "in the midst" of it, I will cause all your arms to be gathered in one place ("I will assemble them," namely, your arms) by the Chaldean conquerors [GROTIUS], who shall slay you with those very arms [MENOCHIUS].

JFB: Jer 21:5 - -- The Jews shall have not merely the Chaldees, but Jehovah Himself in wrath at their provocations, fighting against them. Every word enhances the formid...

The Jews shall have not merely the Chaldees, but Jehovah Himself in wrath at their provocations, fighting against them. Every word enhances the formidable character of God's opposition, "I myself . . . outstretched hand . . . strong arm (no longer as in Exo 6:6, and in the case of Sennacherib, in your behalf, but) in anger . . . fury . . . great wrath."

JFB: Jer 21:7 - the people, and such Rather, explanatory, "the people," namely, "such as are left."

Rather, explanatory, "the people," namely, "such as are left."

JFB: Jer 21:7 - seek their life Content with nothing short of their death; not content with plundering and enslaving them.

Content with nothing short of their death; not content with plundering and enslaving them.

JFB: Jer 21:7 - smite with . . . sword This was the fate of Zedekiah's sons and many of the Jewish nobles. Zedekiah himself, though not put to a violent death, died of grief. Compare as to ...

This was the fate of Zedekiah's sons and many of the Jewish nobles. Zedekiah himself, though not put to a violent death, died of grief. Compare as to the accurate fulfilment, Jer 34:4; Eze 12:13; 2Ki 25:6-7.

JFB: Jer 21:8 - -- "Life," if ye surrender; "death," if ye persist in opposing the Chaldees (compare Deu 30:19). The individuality of Jeremiah's mission from God is show...

"Life," if ye surrender; "death," if ye persist in opposing the Chaldees (compare Deu 30:19). The individuality of Jeremiah's mission from God is shown in that he urges to unconditional surrender; whereas all former prophets had urged the people to oppose their invaders (Isa 7:16; Isa 37:33, Isa 37:35).

JFB: Jer 21:9 - -- (Jer 38:2, Jer 38:17-18).

JFB: Jer 21:9 - falleth to Deserts to.

Deserts to.

JFB: Jer 21:9 - life . . . a prey Proverbial, to make one's escape with life, like a valuable spoil or prey that one carries off; the narrowness of the escape, and the joy felt at it, ...

Proverbial, to make one's escape with life, like a valuable spoil or prey that one carries off; the narrowness of the escape, and the joy felt at it, are included in the idea (Jer 39:18).

JFB: Jer 21:10 - set . . . face against Determined to punish (See on Lev 17:10).

Determined to punish (See on Lev 17:10).

JFB: Jer 21:12 - house of David The royal family and all in office about the king. He calls them so, because it was the greater disgrace that they had so degenerated from the piety o...

The royal family and all in office about the king. He calls them so, because it was the greater disgrace that they had so degenerated from the piety of their forefather, David; and to repress their glorying in their descent from him, as if they were therefore inviolable; but God will not spare them as apostates.

JFB: Jer 21:12 - in the morning Alluding to the time of dispensing justice (Job 24:17; Psa 101:8); but the sense is mainly proverbial, for "with promptness" (Psa 90:14; Psa 143:8). M...

Alluding to the time of dispensing justice (Job 24:17; Psa 101:8); but the sense is mainly proverbial, for "with promptness" (Psa 90:14; Psa 143:8). MAURER translates, "every morning."

JFB: Jer 21:12 - lest my fury . . . like fire Already it was kindled, and the decree of God gone forth against the city (Jer 21:4-5), but the king and his house may yet be preserved by repentance ...

Already it was kindled, and the decree of God gone forth against the city (Jer 21:4-5), but the king and his house may yet be preserved by repentance and reformation. God urges to righteousness, not as if they can thereby escape punishment wholly, but as the condition of a mitigation of it.

JFB: Jer 21:13 - inhabitant of the valley, and rock of the plain Jerusalem personified; situated for the most part on hills, with valleys at the bottom of them, as the valley of Hinnom, &c.; and beyond the valleys a...

Jerusalem personified; situated for the most part on hills, with valleys at the bottom of them, as the valley of Hinnom, &c.; and beyond the valleys and mountains again, a position most fortified by nature, whence the inhabitants fancied themselves beyond the reach of enemies; but since God is "against" them, their position will avail nothing for them. The "valley" between Mount Zion and Moriah is called Tyropœon. ROBINSON takes, "rock of the plain" as Mount Zion, on which is a level tract of some extent. It is appropriately here referred to, being the site of the royal residence of the "house of David," addressed (Jer 21:12).

JFB: Jer 21:14 - fruit of your doings (Pro 1:31; Isa 3:10-11).

JFB: Jer 21:14 - forest thereof Namely of your city, taken from Jer 21:13. "Forest" refers to the dense mass of houses built of cedar, &c., brought from Lebanon (Jer 22:7; Jer 52:13;...

Namely of your city, taken from Jer 21:13. "Forest" refers to the dense mass of houses built of cedar, &c., brought from Lebanon (Jer 22:7; Jer 52:13; 2Ki 25:9).

Belonging to an earlier period than the twenty-first chapter, namely, the reigns of Shallum or Jehoahaz, Jehoiakim, and Jeconiah (Jer 22:10, Jer 22:13, Jer 22:20). Jeremiah often groups his prophecies, not by chronological order, but by similarity of subjects; thus Jer 22:3 corresponds to Jer 21:12. GROTIUS thinks that Jeremiah here repeats to Zedekiah what he had announced to that king's predecessors formerly (namely, his brother and brother's son), of a similar bearing, and which had since come to pass; a warning to Zedekiah. Probably, in arranging his prophecies they were grouped for the first time in the present order, designed by the Holy Spirit to set forth the series of kings of Judah, all four alike, failing in "righteousness," followed at last by the "King," a righteous Branch raised unto David, in the house of Judah, "the Lord our righteousness" (Jer 23:6). The unrighteousness of Zedekiah suggested the review of his predecessors' failure in the same respects, and consequent punishment, which ought to have warned him, but did not.

Clarke: Jer 21:1 - The word which came unto Jeremiah The word which came unto Jeremiah - The chapters in the remaining parts of this prophecy seem strangely interchanged. This subject has been mentione...

The word which came unto Jeremiah - The chapters in the remaining parts of this prophecy seem strangely interchanged. This subject has been mentioned in the introduction, and some tables given; and to these the critical reader is requested to refer. The discourse here was delivered about the ninth year or the reign of Zedekiah. This chapter, observes Dr. Blayney, contains the first of those prophecies which were delivered by Jeremiah, subsequent to the revolt of Zedekiah, and the breaking out of the war thereupon; and which are continued on to the taking of Jerusalem, related in chap. 29, in the following order: Jer 21:1-14, 34, 37, 32, 33, 38, 39

Clarke: Jer 21:1 - Pashur the son of Melchiah Pashur the son of Melchiah - There can be little doubt that this Pashur was a different person from him who was called the son of Immur in the prece...

Pashur the son of Melchiah - There can be little doubt that this Pashur was a different person from him who was called the son of Immur in the preceding chapter.

Clarke: Jer 21:2 - Inquire, I pray thee Inquire, I pray thee - See whether God intends to deliver us into or out of the hand of the Chaldeans.

Inquire, I pray thee - See whether God intends to deliver us into or out of the hand of the Chaldeans.

Clarke: Jer 21:4 - I will turn back the weapons I will turn back the weapons - Every attempt you make to repel the Chaldeans shall be unsuccessful

I will turn back the weapons - Every attempt you make to repel the Chaldeans shall be unsuccessful

Clarke: Jer 21:4 - I will assemble them into the midst of this city I will assemble them into the midst of this city - I will deliver the city into their hands.

I will assemble them into the midst of this city - I will deliver the city into their hands.

Clarke: Jer 21:6 - They shall die of a great pestilence They shall die of a great pestilence - The sword may appear to be that of man, though I have given the Chaldeans their commission; but the pestilenc...

They shall die of a great pestilence - The sword may appear to be that of man, though I have given the Chaldeans their commission; but the pestilence shall appear to be the immediate act of God.

Clarke: Jer 21:7 - Nebuchadrezzar Nebuchadrezzar - This name is spelt as above in twenty-six places of this book; and in ten places it is spelt Nebuchadnezzar, which is the common or...

Nebuchadrezzar - This name is spelt as above in twenty-six places of this book; and in ten places it is spelt Nebuchadnezzar, which is the common orthography. The difference is only a ר resh for a נ nun ; but the MSS. are various on this point. It is the same person who is intended by both names; and here all the Versions, except the Arabic, which omits the name, have it in the usual form.

Clarke: Jer 21:8 - Behold, I set before you the way of life, and the way of death Behold, I set before you the way of life, and the way of death - Meaning escape or destruction in the present instance. This is explained in the nex...

Behold, I set before you the way of life, and the way of death - Meaning escape or destruction in the present instance. This is explained in the next verse.

Clarke: Jer 21:10 - He shall burn it with fire He shall burn it with fire - What a heavy message to all; and especially to them who had any fear of God, or reverence for the temple and its sacred...

He shall burn it with fire - What a heavy message to all; and especially to them who had any fear of God, or reverence for the temple and its sacred services!

Clarke: Jer 21:12 - Execute judgment in the morning Execute judgment in the morning - Probably the time for dispensing judgment was the morning, when the people were going to their work; but the words...

Execute judgment in the morning - Probably the time for dispensing judgment was the morning, when the people were going to their work; but the words may mean, Do justice promptly, do not delay. Let justice be administered as soon as required.

Clarke: Jer 21:13 - O inhabitant of the valley, and rock of the plain O inhabitant of the valley, and rock of the plain - Dr. Blayney translates: "O thou inhabitant of the levelled hollow of a rock."With all his explan...

O inhabitant of the valley, and rock of the plain - Dr. Blayney translates: "O thou inhabitant of the levelled hollow of a rock."With all his explanation I cannot see the good sense of this translation. Jerusalem itself, though partly on two hills, was also extended in the valley; and Zion, the city of David, was properly a rock, strongly fortified both by nature and art; and by its ancient possessors, the Jebusites, was deemed impregnable

Clarke: Jer 21:13 - Who shall come down against us? Who shall come down against us? - Probably the words of those courtiers who had persuaded Zedekiah to rebel against the king of Babylon.

Who shall come down against us? - Probably the words of those courtiers who had persuaded Zedekiah to rebel against the king of Babylon.

Clarke: Jer 21:14 - I will kindle a fire in the forest thereof I will kindle a fire in the forest thereof - I will send destruction into its center, that shall spread to every part of the circumference, and so c...

I will kindle a fire in the forest thereof - I will send destruction into its center, that shall spread to every part of the circumference, and so consume the whole

The beginning of the thirty-fourth chapter should follow here. See the arrangement on Jer 34:1 (note).

Calvin: Jer 21:1 - NO PHRASE Jeremiah relates how he received the king’s messengers, who sought from him an answer, whether he could bring any comfort in a state of things so p...

Jeremiah relates how he received the king’s messengers, who sought from him an answer, whether he could bring any comfort in a state of things so perplexed and almost hopeless, he then says, that two had been sent to him; one was Pashur, not the priest mentioned in the last chapter, for he was the son of Immer but this was the son of Melchiah; and the other was Zephaniah the priest, the son of Maaseiah. But he shews that the king and his counsellors were disappointed of their hope, for they expected a favor-able answer, as though God would be propitious to Jerusalem; but the Prophet answered as he was commanded by God, that it was all over with the city, the kingdom, and the whole nation.

We shall also see from other passages that Zedekiah was not one of the worst; though he did not really fear God and was led away by false counsels, there was yet in him some regard for religion, so that he did not avowedly despise God as Epicureans do. Many such are found even at this day in the world, who think it enough to cherish a half-buried fear of God, and to retain some little regard for religion; but it is very fading, and disappears on even the least occasion. So it was with Zedekiah; he was as it were neutral, for he neither seriously worshipped God nor yet despised him.

Hence it was, that he sent messengers to Jeremiah. He knew that while God was displeased with them no safety could be hoped for; but he did not understand the way of appeasing God, nor had he any real desire to be reconciled to him; as the case is with hypocrites, who, though they wish God to be kind to them, yet when God’s mercy is offered to them, either openly reject it, or are unwilling to embrace it, because they cannot bear to surrender themselves to God. Such was the state of mind in which Zedekiah was; and hence it was, that he asked the Prophet to consult God. But we must also observe that this was an honorable message; and it hence more fully appears that Zedekiah was not one of those furious tyrants, who like the giants seek to fight with God. For by sending two messengers to the Prophet, and employing him as an advocate to seek some favor from God, he proved that religion was not wholly suppressed and extinguished in him.

And hence also it may be seen how bold and courageous was the Prophet; for he was not softened by the honor paid to him, but gave such answer as was calculated to exasperate the king, and to drive him into great rage. But we ought especially to notice, that they did not flatter the Prophet so as to induce him to give a false answer, but wished God to be consulted. It hence appears that they were convinced of Jeremiah’s integrity, that he would say nothing rashly or from himself, but would be a faithful interpreter and herald of heavenly oracles. And yet we see, and shall hereafter see in several passages, that the king was very incensed against God’s Prophet. But hypocrites, though they are forced to reverence God, are yet carried here and there, and maintain no consistency, especially when they perceive that God is against them; for they are not turned by threatenings. They cannot, therefore, but make tumult, and strive like refractory horses to shake off their rider. Such an instance we find in Zedekiah; for he acknowledged Jeremiah as God’s faithful servant; for he did not say, “Tell a lie for us, or in our favor but, inquire of God for us.

Calvin: Jer 21:2 - NO PHRASE He then adds, If Jehovah will deal with us according to all his wondrous works 19 We again see that Zedekiah had some sense of religion; but it was...

He then adds, If Jehovah will deal with us according to all his wondrous works 19 We again see that Zedekiah had some sense of religion; but it was very evanescent; for he was not influenced by any real impression, being like hypocrites who wish, as it has been said, to have peace with God, provided it be on their own terms. But as they are unwilling wholly to surrender themselves to God, they take a circuituous course, and seek to allure God to themselves, at least they come not to him except through various windings, and not in a direct way. Hence Zedekiah refers here to God’s miraculous works which had been wrought in behalf of the Israelites in all ages; as though he had said, “God has hitherto dealt; in a wonderful manner with his chosen people, and whenever he brought help to our fathers, he manifested wonderful proofs of his power; will he not deal with us at this day in the same manner?” He assumes the principle, that God’s covenant remained inviolable; and this was quite true, but the application was false; for Zedekiah and the whole people ought to have kept faith with God. For if they wished God to be propitious to them, why did they not in return worship and serve him as their God? But as they were covenant-breakers, how foolishly and vainly did they allege God’s covenant, which they themselves had rendered void? But it is usual with hypocrites to apply to themselves every favor which God shews to his own children; for they falsely assume the name as a covering, and say, that they are members of the Church because God had adopted them. This was the reason why Zedekiah asked whether God would do according to his wonderful works, as though he had said, “Surely God is ever like himself, and we are his people; and as he has so often delivered his Church, and in such various ways, his power has always been wonderfully displayed; why, then, will he not deal with us in the same manner?”

He at last, adds, that he may ascend from us, 20 that is, that the King Nebuchadnezzar may raise the siege and leave us free.

Calvin: Jer 21:3 - NO PHRASE Now follows the answer of Jeremiah, say ye to Zedekiah, etc.; he did not go to the king himself, but by way of contempt delivered the message to be...

Now follows the answer of Jeremiah, say ye to Zedekiah, etc.; he did not go to the king himself, but by way of contempt delivered the message to be borne by the messengers. The Prophet no doubt did this designedly, and through the impulse of the Holy Spirit. He did not, indeed, proudly despise his king; but it was necessary for him by his magnanimity to cast down the pride of the king, so that he might know that he had to do with the living God, whom he had very insolently treated. Say ye to Zedekiah, Thus saith Jehovah, the God of Israel, etc. He adds the words, the God of Israel, that Zedekiah might know that the wonderful works, in reliance on which he still thought that their condition was safe, did not belong to him and the people; as though the Prophet had said, “Though God did not help thee and thy people, he would not yet be inconsistent with himself, or depart from his covenant; but he would remain ever the God of Israel, though he destroyed thee and all thy people.”

Calvin: Jer 21:4 - NO PHRASE He says, Behold I, etc.; it was said before, Nebuchadnezzar is come to make war with us: now he says, “I am God;” as though he had said, “Neb...

He says, Behold I, etc.; it was said before, Nebuchadnezzar is come to make war with us: now he says, “I am God;” as though he had said, “Nebuchadnezzar may be conquered, he may change his counsel, he may leave you through weariness; but know ye that Nebuchadnezzar fights under my authority.” Behold, he says, I prohibit (for so ought מסכ to be rendered) all the warlike instruments which are in your hands, and with which ye fight against the king of Babylon and against the Chaldeans; as though he had said, “However furnished ye may be with weapons and forces, and whatever may be necessary to defend the city, I forbid the use of these weapons, that is, I will cause that they will avail you nothing.” Some, as I have said, render the word, “I will turn them against you.” But the meaning seems more suitable to the etymology of the word, when we say, that the weapons which the Jews had would avail them nothing, because God would prevent them from producing any effect. 21

He afterwards adds, the Chaldeans, who fight without the wall against you He described their state at that time, for the city was besieged by the Chaldeans; there was a wall between them, and the Jews thought that they could repel the attacks of their enemies. But God says, “the Chaldeans are this day shut out by the wall, but I will gather them, he says, into the middle of this city; that is, I will make a breach, so that the wall may not be a hinderance to prevent, the Chaldeans from occupying the very bosom of the city.” It follows, —

Calvin: Jer 21:5 - I, myself He proceeds with the subject; and though he afterwards is more diffuse, he yet confirms here what we have just seen, — even that God was the leader...

He proceeds with the subject; and though he afterwards is more diffuse, he yet confirms here what we have just seen, — even that God was the leader of the war, and that the Chaldeans were, as it were, his hired soldiers, whom he guided by his own hand, and to whom he would give the signal to fight.

I, myself he says, will fight against you He put this in opposition to the wonderful works which Zedekiah had mentioned. God, indeed, had formerly been in a wonderful way present with his Church, not only once, but a thousand times; but he says now, “whatever power I have, it shall be exercised now against you; expect, therefore, no aid from me, but know that I am armed, and shall wholly destroy you.” He adds, with an extended hand and a strong arm; as though he had said, “your fathers found wonderful works done for their safety; but you shall by experience learn how great is my power to destroy you.” In short, he means that all God’s power would be a cause of terror to the Jews, and that therefore they could not escape, as there is nothing more dreadful than to have God’s hand opposed to us. To the same purpose is what follows, in wrath, and in fury, and in great indignation 22 God intimates in these words that he would be implacable, and that hence Zedekiah was mistaken when he thought that the end of their evils was nigh at hand.

He might indeed have said briefly, “I will fight with an extended hand and with wrath;” but he mentioned wrath three times in various words. Hence what I have said appears evident, that Zedekiah was deprived of every hope, lest he should deceive himself, as though he would somehow propitiate God, who had already given up the city to final destruction. But we shall see that the Prophet had not ceased from the discharge of his office, and that he had allowed some room for repentance. But he made expressly this answer, for the king could not have been otherwise awakened. We shall see how he explained himself; but this beginning was as it were a thunderclap to lay prostrate the pride of the king and of the people. They had become first torpid in their evils, and then such was their contumacy that they sought to subject God to themselves. As then their stupidity and their obstinacy were so great, the Prophet could not, with any hope of success, have exhorted them to repent and offered them the mercy of God; it was therefore necessary for them to be so smitten as to perceive that they were wholly lost, and that God was so angry with them that they could not be saved by any human means. But we must defer the rest till to-morrow.

Calvin: Jer 21:6 - NO PHRASE Jeremiah goes on with the same discourse, even that God had resolved to destroy Jerusalem and the people, at least for a time. But he points out here...

Jeremiah goes on with the same discourse, even that God had resolved to destroy Jerusalem and the people, at least for a time. But he points out here what he intended to do, even that he would consume them by pestilence and famine, as long as they continued in the city; as though he had said, “Though these Chaldeans may not immediately take the city by means of a siege, yet its destruction shall be worse, for famine shall rage within and consume them.” We now perceive the design of the Prophet.

But we must keep in mind what I reminded you of yesterday, — that God assumes to himself what might have been ascribed to the Chaldeans, for he makes himself the author of all these calamities; I will smite, he says, the inhabitants of this city, both man and beast; by a great pestilence shall they die This was the first kind of punishment; before the enemy rushed into the city the pestilence had consumed many of the people. Now there is a circumstance mentioned which shews how dreadful would be their state, for not only men would perish, but even brute animals. It was no wonder that God’s vengeance extended to horses, and oxen, and asses; for we know that all these were created for the use of man. Hence when God manifested his wrath as to these animals, His object was to fill men with greater terrors; for they thus saw oxen and asses, though innocent, involved in the same punishment with themselves. For how can we suppose that horses and asses deserved to perish by diseases, or through want of daily food? But God sets forth such a spectacle as this, that he may more effectually touch men; for they thus see that the whole world is exposed to a curse through their sins. They are indeed constrained to know how great their sinfulness is; for on this account it is that the earth becomes dry and barren, that the elements above and below perform not their offices, so that the sterility of the ground deprives animals of their food, and the infection of the air kills them. But on this subject we have spoken elsewhere.

Calvin: Jer 21:7 - NO PHRASE He then adds, And afterwards, that is, when the pestilence had in a great measure consumed them; I will give, or deliver, he says, Zedekiah the...

He then adds, And afterwards, that is, when the pestilence had in a great measure consumed them; I will give, or deliver, he says, Zedekiah the king of Judah, and his servants, into the hand of Nebuchadnezzer He intimates that though they might suffer with courage their wants, it, would be of no avail to them. It often happens that a siege is raised, when the obstinacy of the besieged is so great, that they overcome famine and thirst, and struggle against extreme want; for they who besiege them are led to think that they contend with furious wild beasts, and so depart from them. But God declares here that the event would be different as to the Jews, for after having been nearly consumed, they would still be delivered up into the power of their enemies. Thus he shows that, their endurance would be useless. It is indeed, a most deplorable thing, that when we have endured many grievous and distressing evils, the enemy should at length gain the ascendency, and possess over us the power of life and death. But God shows here that such a calamity awaited the Jews; I will deliver, he says, Zedekiah the king of Judah, etc. He doubtless intended to show how foolish their confidence was, when they thought that they were safe under the shadow of their king: “The king himself,” he says, “shall not exempt himself from danger; what then will it avail you to have a king?” And the king is expressly mentioned, that the Jews might not deceive themselves with the foolish notion, that they had a sufficient safeguard in their king.

He then adds, And his servants, that is, his counsellors or courtiers; for servants were those called who were the chief men and ministers of the king, “and his ministers.” There was a great deal of pride in these courtiers, and they were very hostile to the Prophets; for being blinded by their own foolish wisdom, they despised what the Prophets taught and all their warnings. For this reason the Prophet says that they would be delivered into the hand of the king of Babylon.

It is further said, And the people The last copulative is to be taken exegetically, even, ואת-הנשארים , veat enesharim, “even the residue;” for he refers to none but the people, but intimates what the people would be, even a small number, a remnant. Then the words are to be thus rendered, “even those who shall remain in the city.” But Jerusalem, when this discourse was delivered, was in a flourishing state, and had a large number of inhabitants, he therefore shews, that after God diminished and reduced the people to a small number, there would not yet be an end to their evils, but that a worse thing would still happen to them, for their life would be put in the power of their enemies; he therefore says, even those who shall remain in the city; and he alludes to the last verse, for he had said that many would perish through want; nor does he refer only to famine, but, also to the sword and to the pestilence, for he says, even those who shall remain from the pestilence, and from the sword, and from the famine The famine, as it is usual, produced pestilence; and then when their enemies attacked the city with their warlike instruments, many must have been killed, as they could not repulse their enemies from the walls without a conflict. Then God shows that the Jews would have to contend with want, pestilence, and the sword, until they were overcome, and the city taken by the Chaldeans.

It is afterwards added, into the hands of their enemies, into the hand of those who seek their life This repetition is not superfluous, for God intimates what is more fully and clearly expressed by Isaiah, — that the Chaldeans would not be satisfied with plunder, that they would make no account of silver and gold, for they would burn with rage, and their object would be to shed blood. (Isa 13:17.) So the meaning is here, when he mentions those who would seek their life; for they would be led by deadly hatred, so that their anger and cruelty would not be appeased until they destroyed them. Thus he shows that it would be a bloody victory, for the Jews would not only be led captives, because their conquerors would not think it worth their while to drag them away as worthless slaves, but their object would be wholly to destroy them.

Hence he says, He will smite them There is a change of number, and the reference is made to the king, and yet the whole army is included, he will smite them with the mouth of the sword, he will not spare, he will not forgive, (the words are synonymous,) and will shew no mercy 23 God thus transferred his own inexorable wrath to the Chaldeans, who were his ministers, as though he had said, “Your enemies will be implacable, they will not be turned to mercy; for I have so commanded, and I will rouse them to execute my judgment.” Nor can this be deemed strange, because God had resolved in his implacable wrath to reduce the people to nothing. For we know how great was their perverseness in their sins.

Since then they had so often rejected the mercy of God, they had in a manner closed up the door of pardon. Hence it was that God resolved that the Chaldeans should thus rage against them without any feeling of humanity. It afterwards follows, —

Calvin: Jer 21:8 - NO PHRASE God here declares that he proposed to the people the way of life and the way of death, in order that they might surely know that all who remained in...

God here declares that he proposed to the people the way of life and the way of death, in order that they might surely know that all who remained in the city would soon meet with death, and that those who willingly surrendered to their enemies would have their life spared. Moses says in another sense that he set before them the way of life and the way of death; he spoke of the Law, which contains promises of God’s favor, and threatenings to transgressors. But the Prophet means here another thing, that is, that there was no hope of safety except the Jews submitted their neck to the yoke, and surrendered of themselves to their enemies; for if they pertinaciously defended themselves, God would be their enemy, for he had led the Chaldeans to assail them, and directed their counsels and their forces. He indeed confirms what he had said before, but at the same time he more particularly describes what was to be, that the Jews might lay aside their perverseness, and acknowledge that they could not escape the correction which they deserved.

The import of what is said is, that as the Chaldeans fought under the authority of God, they would be victorious; it was then in vain for the Jews to resist, as they could not escape, unless they overcame God himself, which was impossible. He leaves then but one hope to them, that is, humbly to acknowledge God’s just judgment by submitting of themselves to a temporal punishment, and by enduring exile with a resigned mind. This then is the meaning, and it is not different discourse, but the Prophet confirms what he had said before, and at the same time applies God’s threatenings to the state of the people, so that they might humble themselves, and not think it of any use to resist God in their obstinacy, as they would at length be constrained to succumb.

Calvin: Jer 21:9 - Thou shalt say to this people, Thus saith Jehovah, Behold I set before you the way of life and the way of death Thou shalt say to this people, Thus saith Jehovah, Behold I set before you the way of life and the way of death Which was the way of death? Whosoever...

Thou shalt say to this people, Thus saith Jehovah, Behold I set before you the way of life and the way of death Which was the way of death? Whosoever, he says, abides in this city, shall die by the sword, or by famine, or by pestilence This was incredible to the Jews, and they were no doubt inflamed with rage when they heard that they were to perish in the holy city which God protected; for there he had his sanctuary, and there his rest was. But the Prophet had already dissipated all these delusions; he could, therefore, boldly threaten them, though they still alleged their vain pretences: he had shewed reasons enough why they could hope for nothing less than exile from God, for they had so many times, and so obstinately, and in such various ways provoked him. This, then, he says, is the way of death, it is by remaining in the city. And he mentions several kinds of evils, and shews that God was armed not only with a hostile sword, but would also employ famine and pestilence, so that he would kill some with the sword, consume some with famine, and destroy some with pestilence. Hence he shews that they would be so assailed on every side, that it would be in vain to attempt to escape; for when they shunned the sword, pestilence would meet them; and when they were preserved from the pestilence, the famine would consume them.

He then adds, But he who went out to the Chaldeans, who besieged the city, etc., that is, who willingly surrendered himself; for it was a sign of obedience when the Jews with a resigned mind received correction; and it was also an evidence of repentance, for they thus confessed that they were worthy of the heaviest punishment. This is the reason why the Prophet represents it as the way of life to go out willingly, and to make a surrender of themselves of their own accord to their enemies. And by saying, who besiege you, הצרים עליכם , etserim olicam, he wished to anticipate objections which any one of the people might have alleged, — “How can I dare thus to expose myself? for the Chaldeans besiege us, and it will be all over with me as to my life if I go forth as a suppliant to them.” By no means, says the Prophet, for though they carry on a deadly war with the city, yet every one who of his own accord goes forth to them shall be safe, and shall find them ready to shew mercy. God would not have promised this had he not the Chaldeans in his own power, so that he could turn their minds as he pleased.

As to the verb נפל , nuphel, it means strictly to fall; but I consider that it signifies here to dwell, as in Gen 25:27 , where it is said that Ishmael dwelt in the sight of, or over against his brethren. They who render it “died” touch neither heaven nor earth. Some read, “his lot fell among his brethren;” but this is an unnatural rendering. There is, then, no doubt but that the verb means often to lie down, and hence to dwell; and yet I allow that the Prophet alludes to subjection; for we must remember what must have been their condition when they went over to the Chaldeans; they must have been subjected to great reproach. It was then no small humiliation; but yet we may properly render the verb to dwell. He, then, who went out to the Chaldeans and dwelt with them, 24 that is, who suffered himself to be led into exile, or who migrated according to their will from his own country to a foreign land — he, he says, shall live, and his life shall be for a prey, that is, he shall save his life, as when any one finds a prey and takes it as his own by stealth; for prey is to be taken here as an accidental gain. Whosoever, then, he says, shall not deem it too grievous a thing to submit to the Chaldeans, shall at least save his life.

In short, God intimates that the wickedness of the people had advanced so far, that it was not right to forgive them. What, then, was to be done by them? to submit with resignation and humility to a temporal punishment, and thus to cease to shut up the door of God’s mercy. He, however, teaches them at the same time that no salvation could be hoped for by them until they were chastised. And hence we may learn a useful doctrine, and that is, that whenever we provoke God’s wrath by our perverseness, we cannot be exempt from all punishment; and that we ought not to be impatient, especially when he punishes us moderately; and that provided we obtain eternal mercy, we ought submissively to bear paternal corrections. It follows, —

Calvin: Jer 21:10 - NO PHRASE He again confirms what he had said, that it would be the way of death if the Jews remained fixed in the city, for this would be to struggle against G...

He again confirms what he had said, that it would be the way of death if the Jews remained fixed in the city, for this would be to struggle against God; for God is said to set his face for evil, since he had fully determined to punish that nation. To set the face is the same as to be resolute. Then God says that what he had resolved respecting the destruction of Jerusalem could not be changed. Now, what must at length be the issue when any one thinks that he can, against the will of God, escape death? As they who violently stumble against a stone break their legs, and arms, and head, too; so they who furiously stumble against God attain for themselves final ruin. 25

We hence see why the Prophet added this verse: it was, that the Jews might not in their usual manner foster vain hopes; for to hope for any good was to contend with God himself. Delivered, he says, shall be this city into the hand of the king of Babylon, and he shall burn it with fire He intimates that Nebuchadnezzar would not only conquer the people and triumph over a taken city, but that the city itself was doomed to destruction. It is, indeed, a most grievous thing when a city is wholly demolished: cities are often taken, and the conqueror removes the inhabitants here and there, while it remains still a habitable place; but God declares here that he would act more severely towards the city of Jerusalem, for it was to perish by fire. It follows, —

Calvin: Jer 21:11 - NO PHRASE Now the Prophet tells us that he was sent to the king and his counsellors. Hitherto he has been addressing the king and the whole people indiscrimina...

Now the Prophet tells us that he was sent to the king and his counsellors. Hitherto he has been addressing the king and the whole people indiscriminately; but here a special message is committed to him to be delivered at the palace of the king; and he was to say that judgment was nigh him and his counsellors. But he is not now threatened as before, for there is a condition interposed: he exhorts them to repent, and indirectly promises them pardon, for in vain would he have spoken to them of repentance had he not given them some hopes of pardon and deliverance. He is not yet inconsistent with himself, for though the king was to be driven into exile, he might yet obtain some favor, after having submitted to a paternal correction. Though, then, the Prophet here exhorts the king and his counsellors to repent, he does yet shew that they were not to be wholly free from punishment, and yet he promises some mitigation. 26

And this passage reminds us that we ought not to rush headlong into despair when some great evil is suspended over us, and when God shews that we cannot wholly escape punishment. For there is nothing more unreasonable than that the fear by which God restores us to himself should be the cause of despair, so that we repent not; for though God’s wrath be not wholly removed, yet it is a great thing that it is mitigated, which is an alleviation accompanying the evil itself.

In short, the Prophet intimates that God’s wrath might be alleviated, though not wholly pacified, provided the king and his counsellors began to act rightly and justly. But he mentions the house of David, not for honor’s sake, but, on the contrary, by way of reproach; nor does he refer to David, as some unmeaningly assert, because he ruled justly and was a most excellent and upright king; but the Prophet had regard to God’s covenant. For we know that they deceived themselves when they thought that they were to be exempt from trouble through a peculiar privilege, because God had chosen that family, and promised that the kingdom would be perpetual. Thus hypocrites appropriate to their own advantage whatever God has promised; and at the same time they boast, though without faith and repentance, that God is bound to them. Such, then, was the presumption of the king and his counsellors; for they who were David’s descendants doubted not but that they were exempt from the common lot of men, and that they were, as they say, sacred beings. Hence the Prophet says, in contempt, The house of David! that is, “let these vain boastings now cease, for God will not spare you, though you may a hundred times boast that you are the descendants of David.” And at the same time he upbraids them with having become wholly degenerate, for God had made a covenant with David on the condition that he served him faithfully; but his posterity were become perfidious and apostates. Therefore the Prophet brought before them the name of David, in order that he might the more reproach them, because they were become wholly unlike their father, having departed from his piety.

Calvin: Jer 21:12 - Thus saith Jehovah, Thus saith Jehovah, he adds, Judge ye judgment There was no doubt a great liberty taken by the king and his courtiers in committing plunder, for the...

Thus saith Jehovah, he adds, Judge ye judgment There was no doubt a great liberty taken by the king and his courtiers in committing plunder, for the Prophet would not have here recommended justice to them had they not wholly neglected what was just and right. As, then, there was no care to administer justice, the Prophet bade them to recognize what was due to God and to his people. But it was a most grievous trial to all the godly to see that the sacred house, in which the living image of God ought to have shone forth brightly, was become a house of spoils, where robbers dwelt, who with impunity plundered all around them. When, therefore, the state of things is in such a disorder that the very judges, whom God has set over his Church, are like robbers, let us know that such a thing happened formerly; nor is there a doubt but that God thus took vengeance on the impiety and wickedness of the people, for he would have never suffered that house to be so contaminated and so filled with so many crimes, had not the people been unworthy of a good and faithful king and of upright counsellors. Let us, then, know that the Prophet exhorted the king and his counsellors to execute justice, because they had forgotten their office, and were become like rapacious wolves. 27

He specifies one act, Free ye the spoiled from the hand of his oppressor Some read, “from the hand of the fraudulent,” as though עשק , oshek, should mean to oppress by calumny and malice, or by fraudulent means; but it is to be taken otherwise here. Some distinguish between the two words עשק , oshek, and גזל , gesal, and say that the first means to retain a deposit or wages, or anything that belongs to another, and that the latter signifies to take a thing by force, to plunder. But this difference, as it appears, is not observed by the Prophet, for he says, “Free ye the plundered or the spoiled.” From whose hand? from “the hand of the oppressor.” As, then, these two words correspond, I doubt not but that גזל , gesal, means both to take by force and to plunder; and that though עשק , oshek, means often fraudulently to oppress, yet not always. However this may be, God intimates that neither the king nor his counsellors had any care for the poor, so as to repress violence, and robbery, and plunder. Then the very judges themselves were the associates of robbers, for they allowed them with impunity to rob and plunder without affording any aid to helpless men when they were thus wickedly harassed. There is, however, no doubt but that God would have them to perform their duties towards all, both rich and poor, without exception; but as injustice in this particular was especially seen, this is the reason why by stating a part for the whole he specified only one thing. 28

He then adds, Lest my indignation go forth like fire, and burn, and there be none to extinguish it Here the Prophet intimates, that except the king and his courtiers repented, it was all over with them. There is then a contrast to be understood here between that paternal correction of which he had spoken, and the destruction of which the Prophet now speaks. God’s indignation had been already kindled, nor could it be immediately extinguished; and though they had to suffer, yet the issue would have been happy and according to their wishes: but he here declares that there would be an irreconcilable war with God, except they labored to return to his favor. He adds, On account of the wickedness of their doings There is here a change of person, except we read כם , cam, “you;” but this sort of change often occurs in Scripture. The Prophet, after having addressed them, says now, “on account of the wickedness of their doings,” as though having finished his discourse, he spoke of them as being absent, or as though God, after having given orders to his Prophet, then added, “I denounce this on them, because they have so deserved.”

Calvin: Jer 21:13 - NO PHRASE Though the whole nation was corrupt in the time of the Prophet, yet Jerusalem was the head and seat of all evils, especially as there was there more ...

Though the whole nation was corrupt in the time of the Prophet, yet Jerusalem was the head and seat of all evils, especially as there was there more licentiousness; and then they thought that the Prophets had no liberty there, as though the citizens were, by a peculiar privilege, exempt from all reproof; and, lastly, the very situation of the city gave them courage, for when they regarded the height of their walls, their towers, and fortresses, they thought themselves beyond the reach of danger. Hence was the security which the Prophet now condemns; and, therefore, he calls it the inhabitant of the valley

Jerusalem, we know, was situated on small hills: the Mount Sion had two tops; and then there were hills contiguous, especially towards Lebanon; there was, however, a plain on every side. And then if we except Mount Sion, Jerusalem was in a valley; for it was surrounded, we know, by mountains. There were mountains around it, as it is said in Psa 125:2. Now, its very situation gave confidence to the citizens, as access to it was difficult. They, therefore, thought that enemies could not come into that valley, which kept them inclosed, as in a fortified place. This is the reason why the Prophet called not the city by its own name, but said that it dwelt in the valley; and afterwards he called it a rock in the plain; for ישר , isher, is straight, and hence מישור , mishur, means a level ground. The whole region was then a continued plain as far as the mountains. Jerusalem itself had also, as we have said, its small hills; it was therefore, as it were, a rock in a Plain 29

We now see for what purpose the Prophet used this circumlocution, even because the Jews gloried in the position of their city, as though it was impregnable; and also, because the vicinity of the mountains, as well as the plain, gave them great advantages. And we know how disposed men are to take to a false security when there is apparently no danger; but on the contrary, they think of various defences and aids from which they expect to derive help. It is, therefore, this false boasting that the Prophet condemns, when he calls Jerusalem the inhabitant of the valley, and then says, that it was a rock in the plain

What follows makes this more clear, Who say, Who shall come down against us? and, Who shall enter into our habitations? The verb יחת , ichet, some take in the sense of tearing, “Who shall make a breach on us?” They derive the word from חתת , chetat; but it is rather from נחת , nechat, to descend; for the first meaning would be too strained. The Prophet speaks according to the opinion of the people, who thought themselves sufficiently fortified against all the attacks of their enemies. It may have been, indeed, that they did not speak thus openly; but the Prophet had regard to the hidden thoughts of their hearts, when he ascribed to them this boasting, — that they dwelt in an impregnable place, as the access to it was formidable; for they spoke boldly, “Who shall descend to us? 30 who will enter our houses?” as though they had their nest in the clouds. They intimated that their state would be safe, because their enemies would not dare to come nigh them, or would be disgracefully repelled if they dared, as it would be enough for them to close their gates.

Calvin: Jer 21:14 - NO PHRASE But God, on the contrary, says, Behold I will come to thee, or against thee, and will visit thee. There is, indeed, a change of number; for he...

But God, on the contrary, says, Behold I will come to thee, or against thee, and will visit thee. There is, indeed, a change of number; for he says, I will visit you, for he had begun by saying, “Ye who say,” האמרים , eamrim. I will visit upon you, he says, the fruit of your doings; that is,

“I will deal with you according to what you have done, as your works deserve.” Merit is to be taken for reward. Then God threatens that he would render to the Jews what they merited, because they had not ceased to provoke his wrath.

He adds, lastly, I will kindle a fire in its forest Some take “forest” metaphorically for the neighboring towns; but this seems foreign to the Prophet’s meaning. I do not, indeed, deny but that there is a metaphor in the words; but then the word forest is not to be applied to towns and villages, but to the buildings of the city itself, according to a mode of speaking elsewhere used by the Prophets. As their houses were built of a large quantity of wood, of tall and most choice trees, the Prophet compares this mass of wood to a forest. We may, however, give a simpler explanation, and I know not whether it be more suitable that the Prophet points out Lebanon. He then means by the forest of the city the trees of Lebanon, which we know were particularly fine, for their loftiness were everywhere known; and we know also that they were very large. As, then, a part of their false glory was Mount Lebanon, the Prophet distinctly intimates that it would serve as a help to burn the city itself; for when God burned Jerusalem, he would take from the vicinity materials for the purpose. 31

Now, as we understand the meaning of the Prophet, let us learn how to apply this passage. We have said elsewhere that nothing is more hateful to God than false confidence; when men, relying on their own resources, promise to themselves a happy and a safe condition, they become torpid in their own security. Thus it comes, that they despise God, and never flee to him; they scorn his judgments, and at length are carried away by a mad impulse to every kind of insolence. This is the reason why the Prophets so often and so sharply reprove secure men, for they become presumptuous towards God when they are touched by no regard for him, and with no fear of him. They then not only dishonor God by transferring the hope of their safety to mere means or such helps as they foolishly depend on, but they also think that they are not under the authority of God. Hence it is, that they promise themselves impunity, and thus become wholly hardened in their sins. Now follows —

Defender: Jer 21:2 - Inquire Such a request was extremely presumptuous. God had already spoken repeatedly; Zedekiah's brother, King Jehoiachin, had already been taken captive to B...

Such a request was extremely presumptuous. God had already spoken repeatedly; Zedekiah's brother, King Jehoiachin, had already been taken captive to Babylon, and Jeremiah had warned the people for years; yet neither Zedekiah nor the people as a whole had repented for their evil ways. Yet, now Zedekiah still wanted Jeremiah to have him excused."

TSK: Jer 21:1 - The word // when // Pashur // Zephaniah am cir, 3415, bc cir, 589 The word : This discourse was delivered about the ninth year of the reign of Zedekiah. This chapter, observes Dr. Blayney, ...

am cir, 3415, bc cir, 589

The word : This discourse was delivered about the ninth year of the reign of Zedekiah. This chapter, observes Dr. Blayney, contains the first of those prophecies which were delivered by Jeremiah subsequent to the revolt of Zedekiah, and the breaking out of the war thereupon; and which are continued on to the taking of Jerusalem, related in Jer 39:1, in the following ordercaps1 . caps0 Jer 21:1-14; 34; 32; 33; 38; 39.

when : Jer 32:1-3, Jer 37:1, Jer 52:1-3; 2Ki 24:17, 2Ki 24:18; 1Ch 3:15; 2Ch 36:10-13

Pashur : Jer 38:1; 1Ch 9:12; Neh 11:12

Zephaniah : Jer 29:25, Jer 37:3, Jer 52:24; 2Ki 25:18-21

TSK: Jer 21:2 - Inquire // for // according Inquire : Jer 37:3, Jer 37:7, Jer 38:14-27, Jer 42:4-6; Jdg 20:27; 1Sa 10:22, 1Sa 28:6, 1Sa 28:15; 1Ki 14:2, 1Ki 14:3, 1Ki 22:3-8; 2Ki 1:3, 2Ki 3:11-1...

TSK: Jer 21:4 - Behold // and I Behold : Jer 32:5, Jer 33:5, Jer 37:8-10, Jer 38:2, Jer 38:3, Jer 38:17, Jer 38:18, Jer 52:18; Isa 10:4; Hos 9:12 and I : Jer 39:3; Isa 5:5, Isa 13:4;...

TSK: Jer 21:5 - I // with an I : Isa 63:10; Lam 2:4, Lam 2:5 with an : Jer 32:17; Exo 6:6, Exo 9:15; Deu 4:23; Isa 5:25, Isa 9:12, Isa 9:17, Isa 9:21, Isa 10:4; Eze 20:33, Eze 20:...

TSK: Jer 21:6 - I will // they I will : Jer 7:20, Jer 12:3, Jer 12:4, Jer 33:12, Jer 36:29; Gen 6:7; Isa 6:11, Isa 24:1-6; Eze 14:13, Eze 14:17; Eze 14:19, Eze 14:21, Eze 33:27, Eze...

TSK: Jer 21:7 - I will // he shall I will : Jer 24:8-10, Jer 34:19-22, Jer 37:17, Jer 38:21-23, Jer 39:4-7, Jer 52:8-11, Jer 52:24-27; 2Ki 25:5-7, 2Ki 25:18-21; 2Ch 36:17-20; Eze 12:12-...

TSK: Jer 21:8 - I set I set : Deu 11:26, Deu 30:15, Deu 30:19; Isa 1:19, Isa 1:20

TSK: Jer 21:9 - that abideth // and his that abideth : Jer 21:7, Jer 27:13, Jer 38:2, Jer 38:17-23 and his : Jer 38:2, Jer 39:18, Jer 45:5

TSK: Jer 21:10 - I have // it shall I have : Jer 44:11, Jer 44:27; Lev 17:10, Lev 20:3-5, Lev 26:17; Psa 34:16; Eze 15:7; Amo 9:4 it shall : Jer 17:27, Jer 26:6, Jer 32:28-31, Jer 34:2, ...

TSK: Jer 21:11 - -- Jer 13:18, Jer 17:20; Mic 3:1

TSK: Jer 21:12 - house // Execute // morning // deliver // lest // none house : Isa 7:2, Isa 7:13; Luk 1:69 Execute : Heb. Judge, Jer 5:28, Jer 22:2, Jer 22:3, Jer 22:15-17, Jer 23:5; 2Sa 8:15; Psa 72:1-4, Psa 72:12-14, Ps...

TSK: Jer 21:13 - I am // inhabitant // of the valley // Who I am : Jer 21:5, Jer 23:30-32, Jer 50:31, Jer 51:25; Exo 13:8, Exo 13:20 inhabitant : Heb. inhabitress of the valley : Psa 125:2; Isa 22:1 Who : Jer 7...

TSK: Jer 21:14 - punish // according // in the // shall punish : Heb. visit upon, Jer 9:25, Jer 11:22; Isa 10:12, Isa 24:21 *marg. according : Jer 6:29, Jer 17:10, Jer 32:19; Pro 1:31; Isa 3:10,Isa 3:11; Ga...

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Poole: Jer 21:1 - Pashur // the son of Melchiah Pashur mentioned here was another from him mentioned Jer 20:1 : he was the son of Immer, of the sixteenth course of the priests, and of a more rugged...

Pashur mentioned here was another from him mentioned Jer 20:1 : he was the son of Immer, of the sixteenth course of the priests, and of a more rugged, ill temper; this was

the son of Melchiah and so of the fifth course. See 1Ch 24:9,14 .

Poole: Jer 21:2 - king of Babylon // wondrous works // if so be Zedekiah, as he was none of the best, so he was none of the worst, of the kings of Judah; be had some convictions and impressions (possibly from his...

Zedekiah, as he was none of the best, so he was none of the worst, of the kings of Judah; be had some convictions and impressions (possibly from his education) not worn off; and having some reverence of God, he sends to the prophet to inquire of the Lord , because the

king of Babylon was come up to make war against them. It is true, the greatest contemners of God and his faithful ministers will sometimes, in great straits, choose to send for them rather than those who in their prosperity pleased them. Hence we read of Saul, when he went to the witch at Endor, desiring that Samuel might be raised up. But in Zedekiah’ s whole story we read no such eminent contempt of God, but a disobedience to the commands of God, proceeding rather from his easiness to be ruled by his corrupt court, than from a stubbornness in himself. By mentioning God’ s former

wondrous works possibly he may have a respect to God’ s raising Sennacherib’ s siege in the time of his grandfather Hezekiah. The remembering of God’ s former wondrous works is of use to raise in us a hope and confidence in God for further deliverances, supposing ourselves under the same circumstances of obedience to God’ s will; otherwise not, as we shall see in the case of Judah and its king at this time; therefore Zedekiah saith,

if so be Guilt of sin hinders confidence and holy boldness in the best: but as the guilt is greater, so the hope or confidence of any is justly less.

Poole: Jer 21:4 - the God of Israel // against the king of Babylon and the Chaldeans // I will assemble them into the midst of this city The honour that the king of Judah had put upon the prophet, in sending these special messengers to him, is no temptation to this good prophet to pro...

The honour that the king of Judah had put upon the prophet, in sending these special messengers to him, is no temptation to this good prophet to prophesy smooth and pleasing things, for which he had no warrant from God. The prophet styleth God

the God of Israel because the whole posterity of Jacob were in covenant with God; notwithstanding which, ten parts of twelve were at this time carried into a captivity from which they never returned; yet God was the God of Israel, for all were not Israel that were descended from Israel, but those only who were Israelites indeed, without guile; so that the prophet by this name given to God doth both assert God’ s faithfulness to his covenant, and also show the consistency of that faithfulness with those judgments which he was now bringing upon that remnant of Israel which yet were in their own land. Tile message which God by the prophet sendeth to Zedekiah is exceeding terrible. The sum of it is, that as they had not dealt with God according to the works of Israel, and the former generation that descended from him, or those at least who were the true Israel of God; so they must not expect that God should deal with them according to his former wondrous works, but that as he with the pure had showed himself upright , so with the froward he should show himself froward . For God had determined to turn into their own bowels, and against themselves, the weapons they had in their hands taken up

against the king of Babylon and the Chaldeans that were now besieging them (by which we may learn that this message was sent during the time of the siege, probably about the beginning of it, for it lasted eighteen months).

I will assemble them into the midst of this city God threateneth to bring the Chaldeans into the midst of the holy city, that their city should be broken up, their arms taken from them, and they killed with their own swords. There is a great emphasis in the pronoun

I It is not an enemy that is to be feared, but God’ s being our enemy.

Poole: Jer 21:5 - I will fight against you // With an outstretched hand and with a strong arm, even in anger, and in fury, and in great wrath I will fight against you ( as a prince is said to fight against a nation whose captains fight against it, though himself stirreth not from his royal p...

I will fight against you ( as a prince is said to fight against a nation whose captains fight against it, though himself stirreth not from his royal palace; yea, more than so,) animating and influencing the Babylonians and Chaldeans, whom I have sent to fight against you, and discouraging and dispiriting your armies.

With an outstretched hand and with a strong arm, even in anger, and in fury, and in great wrath with such a hand and power as I manifested for my ancient Israel, Exo 6:6 . God is here spoken of in a dialect which maketh him more intelligible to us. He hath no hands, no arms, neither are anger and fury in him considered as turbulent passions, as they are in us; but as men stretch out their hands and arms when they intend to give smart and terrible strokes, and are egged to such blows from their passions and excessive wrath, so God is set out to us by expressions proper to men, and in him significative only of his just will to be revenged severely upon a sinful people. The sense is no more, than that an end was now come, and God was resolved no longer to bear with such a provoking people, but to bring his utmost wrath upon them, and to deal with them no longer according to his wondrous works of mercy, but in wondrous works of justice, which in men would look like the effects of wrath and fury.

Poole: Jer 21:6 - -- Still God proclaimeth himself this people’ s enemy. Pestilences are but the usual consequents of long sieges, through the scantness and unwhole...

Still God proclaimeth himself this people’ s enemy. Pestilences are but the usual consequents of long sieges, through the scantness and unwholesomeness of food; but God is the first cause of such sore judgments, though there be other second causes. The murrain of beasts bears proportion to the pestilence amongst men, and the beasts are threatened as well as men, not because of any sin in them, but because men are punished in them, they being part of their substance; and this is a part of that bondage of corruption from which the creature groaneth to be delivered, of that vanity to which they are subject, which maketh the irrational part of the creation to be brought in by the apostle, Rom 8:20-22 , like as a woman travailing in pain, and desiring the day of judgment.

Poole: Jer 21:7 - Afterward Afterward after that many of the people of this city shall be destroyed, some by the enemy assaulting and skirmishing with them; others by the famine...

Afterward after that many of the people of this city shall be destroyed, some by the enemy assaulting and skirmishing with them; others by the famine that shall be amongst them through a want of victuals, being all spent with the long siege; others by the pestilence. Zedekiah, who shall escape these three judgments, together with his courtiers, and the residue of the people, shall be delivered into the power of the king of Babylon, and into the power of such as will not be content with the plunder of their houses, but thirst after their blood; and these enemies (set on by Nebuchadnezzar) shall smite them with the sword, without showing them any mercy or pity. This is not to be understood of king Zedekiah himself, for God let him know, Jer 34:4 , that he should not die by the sword, but in peace, as he did afterward in Babylon, though in prison; but it was true of his sons and courtiers, and a great part of the people, Jer 49:6,8 52:10 . Those who went into captivity were only such as had revolted during the siege, and many of those that were of the poor of the land, for the rest there was little pity had of them, or mercy showed to them, as may be seen, Jer 39, Jer 52 2Ch 36:17 .

Poole: Jer 21:8 - -- I tell you the way that you should take if you would save your lives, and the course which if you take you will certainly lose your lives.

I tell you the way that you should take if you would save your lives, and the course which if you take you will certainly lose your lives.

Poole: Jer 21:9 - His life shall be given him for a prey But certainly, if ever any man spake high treason, this prophet now did it, when there was an enemy besieging them, telling them, that if they would...

But certainly, if ever any man spake high treason, this prophet now did it, when there was an enemy besieging them, telling them, that if they would save their lives, they must revolt from their king, and join with their enemies. All that can be said in excuse for the prophet is, that this was a Divine revelation to him, and a message sent to the king himself.

His life shall be given him for a prey appeareth to have been a proverbial expression, either signifying.

1. A man’ s possession of his life, as a prey or booty recovered from death, or the hand of the enemy; or,

2. A man’ s rejoicing in the saving of his life, as if he had got some notable booty.

Poole: Jer 21:10 - I have set my face against this city for evil, and not for good I have set my face against this city for evil, and not for good that is, I will set myself against it, I will be an enemy to it. See the like phrase ...

I have set my face against this city for evil, and not for good that is, I will set myself against it, I will be an enemy to it. See the like phrase Lev 17:10 20:5 . It is a phrase signifying not only God’ s aversion from them, and the taking his affection off them, but his determination to bring ruin upon them, and choosing methods of providence tending and conducive thereunto; and so it is opened in the following words, which are rather to be understood of the structure of the city than of the inhabitants, for that not the people were burnt with fire, though probably many of the people perished in so great burnings.

Poole: Jer 21:11 - the house of the king of Judah By the house of the king of Judah he means the house of Zedekiah, the court, or those (as appeareth by the next verse) who were the magistrates. T...

By

the house of the king of Judah he means the house of Zedekiah, the court, or those (as appeareth by the next verse) who were the magistrates. These, how great soever, are not excused from the common obligation upon all to listen to and to obey the revelations of the Divine will.

Poole: Jer 21:12 - house of David // to execute judgment in the morning He calls these the house of David either checking them, who were indeed so in a lineal descent, or minding them what they ought to be in imitation...

He calls these the

house of David either checking them, who were indeed so in a lineal descent, or minding them what they ought to be in imitation of their father, David. The only way they had to keep off those Divine judgments which now hanged over their heads was to

execute judgment that is, justice , without partiality; the prophet’ s advice to them

to execute judgment in the morning either lets them know they must do it quickly, or else it hath respect to the time when the courts of justice sat. One species of justice was the deliverance of the oppressed from the hands, that is, from the power and malice, of the oppressors; which if it were not done, God threateneth certain ruin and destruction to them, which none should be able to hinder or avoid. The cause of which was, their wicked doings; for that God who doth people good, and showeth them favour, not for their sake, but for his own name’ s sake, yet never punisheth them but for a cause found in them.

Poole: Jer 21:13 - Inhabitant of the valley // And rock of the plain // Who shall Inhabitant of the valley the inhabitants of the city of Jerusalem are those here intended, Psa 125:2 . The mountains were round about Jerusalem, yea,...

Inhabitant of the valley the inhabitants of the city of Jerusalem are those here intended, Psa 125:2 . The mountains were round about Jerusalem, yea, Jerusalem itself was builded in part upon the rocky mountain of Zion; but a great part was in the valley, and the higher mountains about Mount Zion made that mountain itself, in comparison with them, as a valley.

And rock of the plain though also a rock of the plain, that is, near to the plain. Which situation of this place made the Jews think it to be impregnable, and to mock at dangers, or threats of enemies, saying,

Who shall that is, Who can or who will , dare to come against us? or, Who will be able to enter into our city? Saith the Lord, I am against you ; I will come down against you, and I, by such as I shall employ, will enter into your habitations. No natural position or situation of places, no artificial fortifications, are sufficient against an almighty God.

Poole: Jer 21:14 - I will punish you // I will kindle a fire in the forest thereof // And it shall devour all things round about it I will punish you in the Hebrew it is, I will visit upon you . God’ s visitations are either of mercy , Psa 80:14 106:4 , or of judgment ; th...

I will punish you in the Hebrew it is, I will visit upon you . God’ s visitations are either of mercy , Psa 80:14 106:4 , or of judgment ; therefore the sense is here rightly given by our translators punish. According to the fruit of your doings ; the fruit of men’ s doings is the product of their actions; God punisheth the fruit of our doings. In showing mercy, he acts from prerogative; in punishments, he doth but fill men with their own ways, and give them according to the fruit of their doings; so Jer 21:12 .

I will kindle a fire in the forest thereof by the forest he either meaneth the forest of Lebanon, or their houses made up of wood cut out of that forest, or their idolatrous groves.

And it shall devour all things round about it and this fire he saith should not determine in the destruction only of this city, but in the total destruction of all the country adjacent to Jerusalem.

Haydock: Jer 21:1 - Sent // Phassur // Sophonias, the second priest Sent, after Nabuchodonosor had returned from Egypt. (The year of the world 3415.) This consultation should be placed after chap. xxxvii. (Calmet) ...

Sent, after Nabuchodonosor had returned from Egypt. (The year of the world 3415.) This consultation should be placed after chap. xxxvii. (Calmet) ---

Phassur, specified above, and chap. xxxviii. 1., (Calmet) or a different person. (St. Jerome) (Piscator) ---

Sophonias, the second priest, (chap. xxxvii. 3., and lii. 24.) of the 24th class, (1 Paralipomenon xxiv. 18.) who was slain at Reblatha. (Calmet) ---

Jeremias threatens the great ones to chap. xxix. and is persecuted. He spoke this when Nabuchodonosor invaded the country. (Worthington)

Haydock: Jer 21:4 - City City. The people shall turn their arms against each other; or rather the Chaldeans shall use their weapons to destroy them. (Calmet)

City. The people shall turn their arms against each other; or rather the Chaldeans shall use their weapons to destroy them. (Calmet)

Haydock: Jer 21:6 - Pestilence Pestilence. Septuagint, "death;" the sword, and various diseases. (Haydock)

Pestilence. Septuagint, "death;" the sword, and various diseases. (Haydock)

Haydock: Jer 21:7 - To them To them. This was verified, chap. lii., and 4 Kings xxiv.

To them. This was verified, chap. lii., and 4 Kings xxiv.

Haydock: Jer 21:8 - Death Death; the former if they submit, the latter if they fight, ver. 9. (Calmet) --- God's grace is ever ready, that sinners may be converted. (Worthi...

Death; the former if they submit, the latter if they fight, ver. 9. (Calmet) ---

God's grace is ever ready, that sinners may be converted. (Worthington)

Haydock: Jer 21:9 - Spoil Spoil. He shall be happy to escape naked, chap. xxxviii. 3. (Calmet)

Spoil. He shall be happy to escape naked, chap. xxxviii. 3. (Calmet)

Haydock: Jer 21:13 - Valley Valley. He speaks to Jerusalem, confiding in the strength of her situation, upon rocks, surrounded with a deep valley. (Challoner) --- Literally, ...

Valley. He speaks to Jerusalem, confiding in the strength of her situation, upon rocks, surrounded with a deep valley. (Challoner) ---

Literally, "valley, solid and in a plain." (Haydock) ---

Isaias (xxii. 1.) styles it ironically, "the valley of vision." (Calmet) ---

Jerusalem was situated on many rocks. (Josephus, Jewish Wars vi. 6.)

Haydock: Jer 21:14 - Doings // Forest Doings. Hebrew, "studies." So "Your studious pursuits" occurs, ver. 12, in many Hebrew manuscripts, though the printed copy have, "their;" and "spo...

Doings. Hebrew, "studies." So "Your studious pursuits" occurs, ver. 12, in many Hebrew manuscripts, though the printed copy have, "their;" and "spoiled" for apprised. (Kennicott) ---

Forest, the temple, which is called Libanus, (Zacharias xi. 21.) and the houses built of cedar-wood, (4 Kings xxv. 9.; Calmet) particularly the royal palace of the forest, 3 Kings vii. (Haydock)

Gill: Jer 21:1 - The word which came unto Jeremiah from the Lord // when King Zedekiah sent unto him Pashur the son of Melchiah // and Zephaniah the son of Maaseiah the priest // saying The word which came unto Jeremiah from the Lord,.... This prophecy stands out of its proper place, being made in the times of Zedekiah, and when Jerus...

The word which came unto Jeremiah from the Lord,.... This prophecy stands out of its proper place, being made in the times of Zedekiah, and when Jerusalem was besieged by the king of Babylon; whereas, after this, there are prophecies which were delivered in the times of Jehoiakim and Jeconiah, who both reigned before Zedekiah; see Jer 22:11, &c.

when King Zedekiah sent unto him Pashur the son of Melchiah; this was another Pashur from him that is spoken of in the preceding chapter, and is called "Magormissabib"; he was the son of Immer; this of Melchiah; he was of the sixteenth course of the priesthood; this of the "fifth":

and Zephaniah the son of Maaseiah the priest; who was of the "twenty fourth" course; see 1Ch 24:9; in Jer 52:24, he is called the "second priest"; he was "sagan", or deputy to the high priest: they were both priests; wherefore the Syriac version renders it in the plural number, "priests". It may be observed, that the foregoing chapter is concluded with the prophet's cursing the day of his birth; and the last clause of it expresses the "shame" he imagined his days would be consumed in; and the next account we have is of an honour done him by the king, in sending two priests to him, with a message from him; whereby he tacitly owned him to be a true prophet of the Lord; as indeed he must now be convinced by facts that he was. Princes and people, who slight the ministers of God in time of prosperity, send to them, and are desirous of their assistance in times of distress:

saying; as follows:

Gill: Jer 21:2 - Inquire, I pray thee, of the Lord for us // for Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon maketh war against us // if so be the Lord will deal with us according to all his wondrous works // that he may go up from us Inquire, I pray thee, of the Lord for us,.... Or, "seek the Lord now for us" n; seek the Lord by prayer and supplication for me and my people, for thi...

Inquire, I pray thee, of the Lord for us,.... Or, "seek the Lord now for us" n; seek the Lord by prayer and supplication for me and my people, for this city and the inhabitants of it; entreat him that he would appear for us, and deliver us out of the hands of the enemy; for this they said in the name of the king that sent them, who knew that the prophet had an interest at the throne of grace, and was a favourite of heaven; and therefore desired him to be an intercessor for them:

for Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon maketh war against us; the same that is elsewhere called Nebuchadnezzar, commonly called by the Greeks Nebuchodonosor; he was now come up to Jerusalem, and was besieging it, as had been predicted:

if so be the Lord will deal with us according to all his wondrous works; which he had done in times past for that nation; as by bringing them out of Egypt; driving out the Canaanites before them; delivering them out of the hands of their neighbours, time after time, when oppressed by them; and particularly by destroying the Assyrian army in Hezekiah's time, which was besieging the city of Jerusalem, and causing their king to depart and flee in haste; and their present case being similar to that, it is very likely that that was more especially in view:

that he may go up from us; namely, the king of Babylon; that he may rise up, and raise the siege, and depart into his own country, as Sennacherib did.

Gill: Jer 21:3 - Then said Jeremiah unto them // thus shall ye say to Zedekiah Then said Jeremiah unto them,.... The two priests, Pashur and Zephaniah, after he had sought the Lord, and knew his mind and will: thus shall ye sa...

Then said Jeremiah unto them,.... The two priests, Pashur and Zephaniah, after he had sought the Lord, and knew his mind and will:

thus shall ye say to Zedekiah; by whom they were sent.

Gill: Jer 21:4 - Thus saith the Lord God of Israel // behold, I will turn back the weapons of war that are in your hands // wherewith ye fight against the king of Babylon, and against the Chaldeans which besiege you without the walls // and I will assemble them into the midst of this city Thus saith the Lord God of Israel,.... Who had been, still was, and would be, Israel's God, even the God of such who are Israelites indeed; though he ...

Thus saith the Lord God of Israel,.... Who had been, still was, and would be, Israel's God, even the God of such who are Israelites indeed; though he should, as he would, give up the present generation to ruin and destruction; they having by their sins forfeited his care and protection of them; and therefore it was in vain to hope for it from this character which they bore:

behold, I will turn back the weapons of war that are in your hands; so that they should do no hurt to the enemy, but recoil upon themselves. The meaning is, that they should be useless and unserviceable; that they should neither be defensive to them, nor offensive to their enemies; but rather hurtful to themselves. It seems to suggest, as if they should fall out with one another; and, like the Midianites, turn their swords upon one another, and destroy each other:

wherewith ye fight against the king of Babylon, and against the Chaldeans which besiege you without the walls; by shooting arrows at them from within the city; or by sallying out unto them with sword in hand: this, shows that the Chaldean army, under the command of the king of Babylon, was now without the walls of Jerusalem besieging it:

and I will assemble them into the midst of this city; either the weapons of war, as Jarchi and others; which the Chaldeans, breaking into the city, should cause to be brought in to them in the middle of the city, and there slay them with them: or rather the Chaldeans, as Kimchi; who, though now without the walls, and which the Jews thought a sufficient security for them; yet should not be long there, but the walls would be broken down, and they should enter the city, and rendezvous their whole army in the midst of it.

Gill: Jer 21:5 - And myself will fight against you // with an outstretched hand, and with a strong arm // even in anger, and in fury, and in great wrath And myself will fight against you,.... So far from being entreated to do for them according to his wondrous works in times past, as their friend; that...

And myself will fight against you,.... So far from being entreated to do for them according to his wondrous works in times past, as their friend; that he will set himself against them as their enemy; and sad it is to have God for an enemy: if God be for a people, none can be against them to do them any hurt; but if he is against them, it signifies nothing who is for them: this must be much more terrible to them than the whole Chaldean army, and the king of Babylon at the head of them:

with an outstretched hand, and with a strong arm; such as he had used formerly in delivering Israel out of Egypt, but now in delivering them into the hands of their enemies; and out of the reach of such a hand there is no getting; and under the weight of such an arm there is no supporting; see Exo 6:6;

even in anger, and in fury, and in great wrath; because of their sins and iniquities. This heap of words is used to show the greatness of his indignation: this was not the chastisement of a father, but the rebuke of an enemy; not a correction in love, but in hot displeasure; a punishment inflicted in vindictive wrath by a righteous Judge, appearing in a warlike manner.

Gill: Jer 21:6 - And I will smite the inhabitants of this city // both man and beast // they shall die of a great pestilence And I will smite the inhabitants of this city,.... With one or other of his arrows after mentioned: or, "them that abide in this city" o; that do not ...

And I will smite the inhabitants of this city,.... With one or other of his arrows after mentioned: or, "them that abide in this city" o; that do not go out of it, and surrender themselves to the king of Babylon; see Jer 21:9;

both man and beast; the latter for the sin of the former; particularly such beasts as were fit for food are meant, whereby the famine would be increased, and so the greater destruction of men:

they shall die of a great pestilence; both man and beast; a disease which comes immediately from the hand of God; hence Hippocrates used to call it το θειον, "the divine disease": here it denotes a very uncommon one, which should sweep away large numbers; called great, both for quality, or the nature of it, and for the quantity of persons that died of it.

Gill: Jer 21:7 - And afterwards, saith the Lord God // I will deliver Zedekiah king of Judah, and his servants // and the people, and such as are left in this city from the pestilence // from the sword, and from the famine // into the hand of Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon // and into the hand of their enemies, and into the hand of those that seek their life // he shall smite them with the edge of the sword // he shall not spare them, neither have pity, nor have mercy And afterwards, saith the Lord God,.... After there should be so great a mortality among men and beasts: I will deliver Zedekiah king of Judah, and...

And afterwards, saith the Lord God,.... After there should be so great a mortality among men and beasts:

I will deliver Zedekiah king of Judah, and his servants; the king himself shall not escape; though he shall not die by the pestilence, or famine, or sword, yet he shall fall into the hands of the Chaldeans, and also "his servants", his courtiers, and counsellors:

and the people, and such as are left in this city from the pestilence,

from the sword, and from the famine; such of the inhabitants of the city, as well as those at court, that died not by the sword, famine, and pestilence: these should be delivered

into the hand of Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon; who was now with his army without the walls of the city besieging it:

and into the hand of their enemies, and into the hand of those that seek their life; the Chaldeans, who were their implacable enemies, and cruel, and whom nothing would satisfy but their lives:

he shall smite them with the edge of the sword; that is, Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon, or, however, the army under his command; for what was done by the one is ascribed to the other: this is to be understood of such that fell into their hands upon taking the city, and who endeavoured to make their escape; see Jer 39:4;

he shall not spare them, neither have pity, nor have mercy; they had no regard to rank or figure, to age or sex; the sons of the king were slain before his eyes, and then his eyes were put out; princes were hanged up by the hand; and no compassion shown to old or young, man or maiden; see Jer 52:10. This verse is remarkably long.

Gill: Jer 21:8 - And unto the people thou shalt say, thus saith the Lord // behold, I set before you the way of life, and the way of death And unto the people thou shalt say, thus saith the Lord,.... These are the words, not of the prophet to the messengers of the king, ordering or advisi...

And unto the people thou shalt say, thus saith the Lord,.... These are the words, not of the prophet to the messengers of the king, ordering or advising them what they each of them should say to the people; for the message by them is finished; but they are the words of the Lord to the prophet, directing him what he should say to the people at this critical juncture:

behold, I set before you the way of life, and the way of death; the way how to preserve their lives; and which, if they did not choose to take, would be inevitable death. The allusion seems to be to a phrase used by Moses, when he gave the law; obedience to which would issue in life, and disobedience in death, Deu 30:15.

Gill: Jer 21:9 - He that abideth in this city // shall die by the sword, and by the famine, and by the pestilence // but he that goeth out, and falleth to the Chaldeans that besiege you // he shall live // and his life shall be unto him for a prey He that abideth in this city,.... Imagining himself safe there; not fearing its being taken by the king of Babylon; though it was so often foretold by...

He that abideth in this city,.... Imagining himself safe there; not fearing its being taken by the king of Babylon; though it was so often foretold by the prophet of the Lord that it should:

shall die by the sword, and by the famine, and by the pestilence: by the first of these, in sallying out against the enemy; and by the other two, which raged within the city:

but he that goeth out, and falleth to the Chaldeans that besiege you,

he shall live; not fall upon them, as the words may be literally rendered; so it would describe such that went out of the city and sallied upon them; whereas it designs such who should go out of the city, and surrender themselves unto the Chaldeans; submit to them, so as to obey them, as the Targum adds; such shall have their lives spared:

and his life shall be unto him for a prey; it shall be like a spoil or booty taken out of an enemy's hands; it shall be with difficulty obtained, and with joy possessed, as a prey or spoil is.

Gill: Jer 21:10 - For I have set my face against this city // for evil, and not for good, saith the Lord // it shall be given into the hand of the king of Babylon // and he shall burn it with fire For I have set my face against this city,.... Or "my fury", as the Targum; their sins had provoked the eyes of his glory; he was wroth with them, and ...

For I have set my face against this city,.... Or "my fury", as the Targum; their sins had provoked the eyes of his glory; he was wroth with them, and determined to cut them off; his mind was set against them, and upon their ruin; and there was no turning him from it:

for evil, and not for good, saith the Lord; to bring the evil of punishment upon them for the evil of their sins, and not do any good unto them, they were so ill deserving of:

it shall be given into the hand of the king of Babylon; come under his power and dominion, by the will of the Lord; for it was he that gave it into his hands, because of the sins of the inhabitants of it:

and he shall burn it with fire; as he did, both the house of the Lord in it, the temple, the king's house or palace, the stately houses of the princes and nobles, and even the houses of all the people; see Jer 52:13.

Gill: Jer 21:11 - And touching the house of the king of Judah, say // hear ye the word of the Lord And touching the house of the king of Judah, say,.... Or "to the house of the king of Judah" p; that is, his palace, as Calvin understands it; go to ...

And touching the house of the king of Judah, say,.... Or "to the house of the king of Judah" p; that is, his palace, as Calvin understands it; go to it, and there say as follows, as in Jer 22:1; and some think that this part of the chapter belongs to that, and was not delivered at the time the former part of it was; but before the peremptory decree was gone forth, to deliver the city into the hand of the king of Babylon to be burned with fire; since, upon a reformation, some hope of pardon and salvation is yet given. The Syriac version joins this clause to Jer 21:10; "and he shall burn it with fire, and the house of the king of Judah"; burn the city of Jerusalem, and particularly the king's palace; but by "the house of the king" is not meant his dwelling house, but his family, himself, his sons, his servants, his courtiers and nobles, to whom the following speech is directed:

hear ye the word of the Lord; and obey it; for not bare hearing is meant, but a reverent attention to, and a cheerful and ready performance of, what is heard.

Gill: Jer 21:12 - O house of David, thus saith the Lord // execute judgment in the morning // and deliver him that is spoiled out of the hand of the oppressor // lest my fury go out like fire, and burn that none can quench it // because of the evil of your doings O house of David, thus saith the Lord,.... This appellation is made use of to put them in mind of their descent, and to observe to them how much it be...

O house of David, thus saith the Lord,.... This appellation is made use of to put them in mind of their descent, and to observe to them how much it became them to follow the example of so illustrious an ancestor, from whom they had the honour to descend; by doing judgment and justice as he did, 2Sa 8:15; or, otherwise, their being his seed would not secure them from ruin and destruction:

execute judgment in the morning; be at it early, and dispatch it speedily; show a hearty regard for it; prefer it to eating and drinking; and do not delay it to the prejudice of persons concerned. The power of judgment with the Jews belonged to the king; he was supreme judge in their courts; they judged, and were judged, the Jews say q; by whom judgment was executed in a morning, and not in any other part of the day; and the case judged ought, as they say, to be as clear as the morning r:

and deliver him that is spoiled out of the hand of the oppressor; that had anything taken from him by force or fraud; that was either robbed or cheated of his substance; or was refused what he had lent to or entrusted another with; or was by any ways and means wronged and injured by another in his person or property. This suggests that things of this kind were not done, and were the reason why the Lord would deliver them up into the hands of their enemies, or cause his judgments to fall upon them:

lest my fury go out like fire, and burn that none can quench it; or put a stop to it, by all their prayers and entreaties, or by all that they can say or do:

because of the evil of your doings; it is a sad thing when princes set bad examples; it is highly provoking to God, whose deputies they are; and it becomes them to begin a reformation, and lead it on, or they cannot expect safety for themselves and their people.

Gill: Jer 21:13 - Behold, I am against thee // O inhabitant of the valley, and rock of the plain, saith the Lord // which say, who shall come down against us? who shall enter into our habitations Behold, I am against thee,.... Or, "behold, I unto thee" s; to be supplied either thus, "behold, I say unto thee" t; what follows; and therefore take...

Behold, I am against thee,.... Or, "behold, I unto thee" s; to be supplied either thus, "behold, I say unto thee" t; what follows; and therefore take notice of it, attend unto it: or, "behold, I come unto thee" u; who bid defiance to all their enemies to come near them, as in the latter part of the verse. The Targum is,

"lo, I send my fury against thee;''

and the phrase denotes the Lord's opposition to them; his setting himself against them, and coming out unto them in his great wrath:

O inhabitant of the valley, and rock of the plain, saith the Lord; a description of Jerusalem; between the lower and higher part of which lay a valley, called Tyropaeon, which divided the two hills, on which the city was built w; yea, the whole city was on high, on a rock, and around it a valley or plain; and because it was built upon a rock, and fortified with hills and mountains, the inhabitants of it thought themselves safe and secure, and even impregnable; hence it follows:

which say, who shall come down against us? who shall enter into our habitations? who of our neighbours dare to make a descent upon us? or are so weak and foolish as to attempt to break through our fortifications, natural and artificial, and enter into our houses, and take away our persons, and spoil us of our goods? we defy them.

Gill: Jer 21:14 - But I will punish you according to the fruit of your doings // saith the Lord // and I will kindle a fire in the forest thereof // and it shall devour all things round about it But I will punish you according to the fruit of your doings, saith the Lord,.... The situation of their city, and the strength of its fortification...

But I will punish you according to the fruit of your doings,

saith the Lord,.... The situation of their city, and the strength of its fortifications, however sufficient they might be thought to keep out an enemy from annoying them; yet it was impossible to hinder the Lord's coming among them, as he here threatens to do; and "visit" them, as the word signifies, in a way of wrath and justice, according to the demerit of their sins, expressed by "the fruit of their doings"; their punishment was the reward of their unrighteousness, the effect of their sinful practices; and, though this was dreadful and terrible, they could not but own it was just and equitable:

and I will kindle a fire in the forest thereof; not in the forest of Lebanon, but in the city of Jerusalem; whose houses stood as thick as trees in a forest, and which many of them, at least the most stately, might be built or ceiled with cedars from Mount Lebanon and its forest; though some understand this of the cities and towns about Jerusalem; and so the Targum renders it, "in its cities"; and the Syriac version, "its towns"; but these seem rather meant in the following clause:

and it shall devour all things round about it; the mountains and trees upon them, the cities and towns adjacent.

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki

NET Notes: Jer 21:1 Heb “sent to him…Maaseiah, saying,….”

NET Notes: Jer 21:2 The miracles that they may have had in mind would have included the Exodus, the conquest of Jericho, the deliverance of Jehoshaphat (2 Chr 20:1-30), e...

NET Notes: Jer 21:4 The structure of the Hebrew sentence of this verse is long and complex and has led to a great deal of confusion and misunderstanding. There are two pr...

NET Notes: Jer 21:5 The phrases in this order are unique but a very similar phrase “by strong hand and outstretched arm” are found several times with referenc...

NET Notes: Jer 21:6 For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

NET Notes: Jer 21:7 Heb “oracle of the Lord.”

NET Notes: Jer 21:8 Heb “Behold I am setting before you the way of life and the way of death.”

NET Notes: Jer 21:9 Spoil was what was carried off by the victor (see, e.g., Judg 5:30). Those who surrendered to the Babylonians would lose their property, their freedom...

NET Notes: Jer 21:10 Heb “he will burn it with fire.”

NET Notes: Jer 21:11 Heb “house” or “household.” It is clear from 22:1-6 that this involved the King, the royal family, and the court officials.

NET Notes: Jer 21:12 Heb “Lest my wrath go out like fire and burn with no one to put it out because of the evil of your deeds.”

NET Notes: Jer 21:13 What is being expressed here is the belief in the inviolability of Zion/Jerusalem carried to its extreme. Signal deliverances of Jerusalem such as tho...

NET Notes: Jer 21:14 Heb “I will set fire in its forest and it will devour its surroundings.” The pronouns are actually third feminine singular going back to t...

Geneva Bible: Jer 21:2 ( a ) Enquire, I pray thee, of the LORD for us; for Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon maketh war against us; it may be that the LORD will deal with us ac...

Geneva Bible: Jer 21:4 Thus saith the LORD God of Israel; Behold, I will ( b ) turn back the weapons of war that [are] in your hands, with which ye fight against the king of...

Geneva Bible: Jer 21:8 And to this people thou shalt say, Thus saith the LORD; Behold, I set before you the ( c ) way of life, and the way of ( d ) death. ( c ) By yielding...

Geneva Bible: Jer 21:9 He that abideth in this city shall die by the sword, and by the famine, and by the pestilence: but he that goeth out, and falleth to the Chaldeans tha...

Geneva Bible: Jer 21:12 O house of David, thus saith the LORD; Execute judgment ( f ) in the morning, and deliver [him that is] made desolate out of the hand of the oppressor...

Geneva Bible: Jer 21:13 Behold, I [am] against thee, ( g ) O inhabitant of the valley, [and] rock of the plain, saith the LORD; who say, Who shall come down against us? or wh...

Geneva Bible: Jer 21:14 But I will punish you according to the fruit of your doings, saith the LORD: and I will kindle a fire ( h ) in its forest, and it shall devour all thi...

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Rentang Ayat

MHCC: Jer 21:1-10 - --When the siege had begun, Zedekiah sent to ask of Jeremiah respecting the event. In times of distress and danger, men often seek those to counsel and ...

MHCC: Jer 21:11-14 - --The wickedness of the king and his family was the worse because of their relation to David. They were urged to act with justice, at once, lest the Lor...

Matthew Henry: Jer 21:1-7 - -- Here is, I. A very humble decent message which king Zedekiah, when he was in distress, sent to Jeremiah the prophet. It is indeed charged upon this ...

Matthew Henry: Jer 21:8-14 - -- By the civil message which the king sent to Jeremiah it appeared that both he and the people began to have a respect for him, which it would have be...

Keil-Delitzsch: Jer 21:1 - -- The Taking of Jerusalem by the Chaldeans. - Jer 21:1 and Jer 21:2. The heading specifying the occasion for the following prediction. "The word of t...

Keil-Delitzsch: Jer 21:3-14 - -- The Lord's reply through Jeremiah consists of three parts: a . The answer to the king's hope that the Lord will save Jerusalem from the Chaldeans (...

Constable: Jer 2:1--45:5 - --II. Prophecies about Judah chs. 2--45 The first series of prophetic announcements, reflections, and incidents th...

Constable: Jer 2:1--25:38 - --A. Warnings of judgment on Judah and Jerusalem chs. 2-25 Chapters 2-25 contain warnings and appeals to t...

Constable: Jer 15:10--26:1 - --3. Warnings in view of Judah's hard heart 15:10-25:38 This section of the book contains several ...

Constable: Jer 21:1--23:40 - --A collection of Jeremiah's denunciations of Judah's kings and false prophets chs. 21-23 ...

Constable: Jer 21:1-10 - --Zedekiah's request and Jeremiah's response 21:1-10 This passage probably dates from the Babylonian siege of Jerusalem in 588-586 B.C. (vv. 2, 4; cf. 2...

Constable: Jer 21:11--22:10 - --Messages about the duties of the kings of Judah 21:11-22:9 This group of prophecies begins and ends with oracles concerning the kings' duties (21:11-1...

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Pendahuluan / Garis Besar

JFB: Jeremiah (Pendahuluan Kitab) JEREMIAH, son of Hilkiah, one of the ordinary priests, dwelling in Anathoth of Benjamin (Jer 1:1), not the Hilkiah the high priest who discovered the ...

JFB: Jeremiah (Garis Besar) EXPOSTULATION WITH THE JEWS, REMINDING THEM OF THEIR FORMER DEVOTEDNESS, AND GOD'S CONSEQUENT FAVOR, AND A DENUNCIATION OF GOD'S COMING JUDGMENTS FOR...

TSK: Jeremiah 21 (Pendahuluan Pasal) Overview Jer 21:1, Zedekiah sends to Jeremiah to enquire the event of Nebuchadnezzar’s war; Jer 21:3, Jeremiah foretells a hard seige and misera...

Poole: Jeremiah (Pendahuluan Kitab) BOOK OF THE PROPHET JEREMIAH THE ARGUMENT IT was the great unhappiness of this prophet to be a physician to, but that could not save, a dying sta...

Poole: Jeremiah 21 (Pendahuluan Pasal) CHAPTER 21 King Zedekiah in the siege sendeth to Jeremiah to inquire of the event, Jer 21:1,2 . He foretelleth a hard siege and miserable captivity...

MHCC: Jeremiah (Pendahuluan Kitab) Jeremiah was a priest, a native of Anathoth, in the tribe of Benjamin. He was called to the prophetic office when very young, about seventy years afte...

MHCC: Jeremiah 21 (Pendahuluan Pasal) (Jer 21:1-10) The only way of deliverance is to be surrendering to the Babylonians. (Jer 21:11-14) The wickedness of the king and his household.

Matthew Henry: Jeremiah (Pendahuluan Kitab) An Exposition, with Practical Observations, of The Book of the Prophet Jeremiah The Prophecies of the Old Testament, as the Epistles of the New, are p...

Matthew Henry: Jeremiah 21 (Pendahuluan Pasal) It is plain that the prophecies of this book are not placed here in the same order in which they were preached; for there are chapters after this w...

Constable: Jeremiah (Pendahuluan Kitab) Introduction Title The title of this book derives from its writer, the late seventh an...

Constable: Jeremiah (Garis Besar) Outline I. Introduction ch. 1 A. The introduction of Jeremiah 1:1-3 B. T...

Constable: Jeremiah Jeremiah Bibliography Aharoni, Yohanan, and Michael Avi-Yonah. The Macmillan Bible Atlas. Revised ed. London: C...

Haydock: Jeremiah (Pendahuluan Kitab) THE PROPHECY OF JEREMIAS. INTRODUCTION. Jeremias was a priest, a native of Anathoth, a priestly city, in the tribe of Benjamin, and was sanct...

Gill: Jeremiah (Pendahuluan Kitab) INTRODUCTION TO JEREMIAH The title of the book in the Vulgate Latin version is, "the Prophecy of Jeremiah"; in the Syriac and Arabic versions, "the...

Gill: Jeremiah 21 (Pendahuluan Pasal) INTRODUCTION TO JEREMIAH 21 This chapter contains Jeremiah's answer to King Zedekiah's message to him; in which he assures him of the destruction o...

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