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Teks -- Luke 20:1-47 (NET)

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Konteks
The Authority of Jesus
20:1 Now one day, as Jesus was teaching the people in the temple courts and proclaiming the gospel, the chief priests and the experts in the law with the elders came up 20:2 and said to him, “Tell us: By what authority are you doing these things? Or who it is who gave you this authority?” 20:3 He answered answered them, “I will also ask you a question, and you tell me: 20:4 John’s baptism– was it from heaven or from people?” 20:5 So they discussed it with one another, saying, “If we say, ‘From heaven,’ he will say, ‘Why did you not believe him?’ 20:6 But if we say, ‘From people,’ all the people will stone us, because they are convinced that John was a prophet.” 20:7 So they replied that they did not know where it came from. 20:8 Then Jesus said to them, “Neither will I tell you by whose authority I do these things.”
The Parable of the Tenants
20:9 Then he began to tell the people this parable: “A man planted a vineyard, leased it to tenant farmers, and went on a journey for a long time. 20:10 When harvest time came, he sent a slave to the tenants so that they would give him his portion of the crop. However, the tenants beat his slave and sent him away empty-handed. 20:11 So he sent another slave. They beat this one too, treated him outrageously, and sent him away empty-handed. 20:12 So he sent still a third. They even wounded this one, and threw him out. 20:13 Then the owner of the vineyard said, ‘What should I do? I will send my one dear son; perhaps they will respect him.’ 20:14 But when the tenants saw him, they said to one another, ‘This is the heir; let’s kill him so the inheritance will be ours!’ 20:15 So they threw him out of the vineyard and killed him. What then will the owner of the vineyard do to them? 20:16 He will come and destroy those tenants and give the vineyard to others.” When the people heard this, they said, “May this never happen!” 20:17 But Jesus looked straight at them and said, “Then what is the meaning of that which is written: ‘The stone the builders rejected has become the cornerstone’? 20:18 Everyone who falls on this stone will be broken to pieces, and the one on whom it falls will be crushed.” 20:19 Then the experts in the law and the chief priests wanted to arrest him that very hour, because they realized he had told this parable against them. But they were afraid of the people.
Paying Taxes to Caesar
20:20 Then they watched him carefully and sent spies who pretended to be sincere. They wanted to take advantage of what he might say so that they could deliver him up to the authority and jurisdiction of the governor. 20:21 Thus they asked him, “Teacher, we know that you speak and teach correctly, and show no partiality, but teach the way of God in accordance with the truth. 20:22 Is it right for us to pay the tribute tax to Caesar or not?” 20:23 But Jesus perceived their deceit and said to them, 20:24 “Show me a denarius. Whose image and inscription are on it?” They said, “Caesar’s.” 20:25 So he said to them, “Then give to Caesar the things that are Caesar’s, and to God the things that are God’s.” 20:26 Thus they were unable unable in the presence of the people to trap him with his own words. And stunned by his answer, they fell silent.
Marriage and the Resurrection
20:27 Now some Sadducees (who contend that there is no resurrection) came to him. 20:28 They asked him, “Teacher, Moses wrote for us that if a man’s brother dies leaving a wife but no children, that man must marry the widow and father children for his brother. 20:29 Now there were seven brothers. The first one married a woman and died without children. 20:30 The second 20:31 and then the third married her, and in this same way all seven died, leaving no children. 20:32 Finally the woman died too. 20:33 In the resurrection, therefore, whose wife will the woman be? For all seven had married her.” 20:34 So Jesus said to them, “The people of this age marry and are given in marriage. 20:35 But those who are regarded as worthy to share in that age and in the resurrection from the dead neither marry nor are given in marriage. 20:36 In fact, they can no longer die, because they are equal to angels and are sons of God, since they are sons of the resurrection. 20:37 But even Moses revealed that the dead are raised in the passage about the bush, where he calls the Lord the God of Abraham and the God of Isaac and the God of Jacob. 20:38 Now he is not God of the dead, but of the living, for all live before him.” 20:39 Then some of the experts in the law answered, “Teacher, you have spoken well!” 20:40 For they did not dare any longer to ask him anything.
The Messiah: David’s Son and Lord
20:41 But he said to them, “How is it that they say that the Christ is David’s son? 20:42 For David himself says in the book of Psalms, ‘The Lord said to my lord, “Sit at my right hand, 20:43 until I make your enemies a footstool for your feet.”’ 20:44 If David then calls him ‘Lord,’ how can he be his son?”
Jesus Warns the Disciples against Pride
20:45 As all the people were listening, Jesus said to his disciples, 20:46 “Beware of the experts in the law. They like walking around in long robes, and they love elaborate greetings in the marketplaces and the best seats in the synagogues and the places of honor at banquets. 20:47 They devour widows’ property, and as a show make long prayers. They will receive a more severe punishment.”
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Abraham a son of Terah; the father of Isaac; ancestor of the Jewish nation.,the son of Terah of Shem
 · Caesar a title held by Roman emperors
 · David a son of Jesse of Judah; king of Israel,son of Jesse of Judah; king of Israel
 · Isaac the only son of Abraham and Sarah; father of Jacob and Esau
 · Jacob the second so of a pair of twins born to Isaac and Rebeccaa; ancestor of the 12 tribes of Israel,the nation of Israel,a person, male,son of Isaac; Israel the man and nation
 · John a son of Zebedee; younger brother of James; the beloved disciple of Christ,a relative of Annas the high priest,a son of Mary the sister of Barnabas, and surnamed Mark,the father of Simon Peter
 · Moses a son of Amram; the Levite who led Israel out of Egypt and gave them The Law of Moses,a Levite who led Israel out of Egypt and gave them the law
 · Psalm an O.T. book name and/or one of the Psalms comprising the book
 · Sadducee a group/sect of the Jews


Topik/Tema Kamus: MARK, THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO, 1 | JESUS CHRIST, 4E1 | Jesus, The Christ | Resurrection | Instruction | Sadducees | Reproof | God | Lease | Land | Debtor | Capital and Labor | Renting | Misconduct in Office | MONEY | Quotations and Allusions | Death | PSALMS, BOOK OF | Citizenship | Heaven | selebihnya
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Robertson , Vincent , Wesley , JFB , Clarke , Calvin , Defender , TSK

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Poole , Lightfoot , Haydock , Gill

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Maclaren , MHCC , Matthew Henry , Barclay , Constable , College , McGarvey , Lapide

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Evidence

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per frasa)

Robertson: Luk 20:1 - On one of the days On one of the days ( en miāi tōn hēmerōn ). Luke’ s favourite way of indicating time. It was the last day of the temple teaching (Tuesda...

On one of the days ( en miāi tōn hēmerōn ).

Luke’ s favourite way of indicating time. It was the last day of the temple teaching (Tuesday). Luke 20:1-19 is to be compared with Mark 11:27-12:12; Matthew 21:23-46.

Robertson: Luk 20:1 - There came upon him There came upon him ( epestēsan ). Second aorist active indicative, ingressive aorist of ephistēmi , old and common verb, stood up against him, w...

There came upon him ( epestēsan ).

Second aorist active indicative, ingressive aorist of ephistēmi , old and common verb, stood up against him, with the notion of sudden appearance. These leaders (cf. Luk 19:47) had determined to attack Jesus on this morning, both Sadducees (chief priests) and Pharisees (scribes), a formal delegation from the Sanhedrin.

Robertson: Luk 20:2 - Tell us Tell us ( eipon hēmin ). Luke adds these words to what Mark and Matthew have. Second aorist active imperative for the old form eipe and with endi...

Tell us ( eipon hēmin ).

Luke adds these words to what Mark and Matthew have. Second aorist active imperative for the old form eipe and with ending -on of the first aorist active. Westcott and Hort punctuate the rest of the sentence as an indirect question after eipon , but the Revised Version puts a semicolon after "us"and retains the direct question. The Greek manuscripts have no punctuation.

Robertson: Luk 20:3 - Question Question ( logon ). Literally, word. So in Mar 11:29; Mat 21:24.

Question ( logon ).

Literally, word. So in Mar 11:29; Mat 21:24.

Robertson: Luk 20:5 - They reasoned with themselves They reasoned with themselves ( sunelogisanto ). First aorist middle of sullogizomai , to bring together accounts, an old word, only here in the N.T....

They reasoned with themselves ( sunelogisanto ).

First aorist middle of sullogizomai , to bring together accounts, an old word, only here in the N.T. Mark and Matthew have dielogizonto (imperfect middle of dialogizomai , a kindred verb, to reckon between one another, confer). This form (dielogizonto ) in Luk 20:14 below.

Robertson: Luk 20:5 - If we shall say If we shall say ( ean eipōmen ). Third-class condition with second aorist active subjunctive. Suppose we say! So in Luk 20:6.

If we shall say ( ean eipōmen ).

Third-class condition with second aorist active subjunctive. Suppose we say! So in Luk 20:6.

Robertson: Luk 20:6 - Will stone us Will stone us ( katalithasei ). Late verb and here only in the N.T. Literally, will throw stones down on us, stone us down, overwhelm us with stones.

Will stone us ( katalithasei ).

Late verb and here only in the N.T. Literally, will throw stones down on us, stone us down, overwhelm us with stones.

Robertson: Luk 20:6 - They be persuaded They be persuaded ( pepeismenos estin ). Periphrastic perfect passive indicative of peithō , to persuade, a settled state of persuasion, "is persua...

They be persuaded ( pepeismenos estin ).

Periphrastic perfect passive indicative of peithō , to persuade, a settled state of persuasion, "is persuaded"(no reason for use of "be"here).

Robertson: Luk 20:6 - That John was a prophet That John was a prophet ( Iōanēn prophētēn einai ). Accusative and infinitive in indirect assertion.

That John was a prophet ( Iōanēn prophētēn einai ).

Accusative and infinitive in indirect assertion.

Robertson: Luk 20:7 - That they knew not That they knew not ( mē eidenai ). Accusative and infinitive in indirect assertion again with the negative mē rather than ou .

That they knew not ( mē eidenai ).

Accusative and infinitive in indirect assertion again with the negative mē rather than ou .

Robertson: Luk 20:9 - Vineyard Vineyard ( ampelōna ). Late word from ampelos (vine), place of vines. So in Mar 12:1; Mat 21:33.

Vineyard ( ampelōna ).

Late word from ampelos (vine), place of vines. So in Mar 12:1; Mat 21:33.

Robertson: Luk 20:9 - Let it out Let it out ( exedeto ). Second aorist middle of ekdidōmi , but with variable vowel e in place of o of the stem do (exedoto ). Same form in M...

Let it out ( exedeto ).

Second aorist middle of ekdidōmi , but with variable vowel e in place of o of the stem do (exedoto ). Same form in Mark and Matthew.

Robertson: Luk 20:9 - For a long time For a long time ( chronous hikanous ). Accusative of extent of time, considerable times or periods of time. Not in Mark and Matthew, though all three...

For a long time ( chronous hikanous ).

Accusative of extent of time, considerable times or periods of time. Not in Mark and Matthew, though all three have apedēmēsen (went off from home). See note on Luk 7:6 for hikanos .

Robertson: Luk 20:10 - At the season At the season ( kairōi ). The definite season for the fruit like ho kairos tōn karpōn (Mat 21:34). That they should give (hina dōsousin )....

At the season ( kairōi ).

The definite season for the fruit like ho kairos tōn karpōn (Mat 21:34). That they should give (hina dōsousin ). Future indicative with hina for purpose like the aorist subjunctive, though not so frequent.

Robertson: Luk 20:11 - He sent yet another He sent yet another ( prosetheto heteron pempsai ). Literally, he added to send another. A clear Hebraism repeated in Luk 20:12 and also in Luk 19:1...

He sent yet another ( prosetheto heteron pempsai ).

Literally, he added to send another. A clear Hebraism repeated in Luk 20:12 and also in Luk 19:11.

Robertson: Luk 20:12 - They wounded They wounded ( traumatisantes ). First aorist active participle of traumatizō . An old verb, from trauma , a wound, but in the N.T. only here and A...

They wounded ( traumatisantes ).

First aorist active participle of traumatizō . An old verb, from trauma , a wound, but in the N.T. only here and Act 19:16.

Robertson: Luk 20:13 - What shall I do? What shall I do? ( Ti poiēsō̱ ). Deliberative future indicative or aorist subjunctive (same form). This detail only in Luke. Note the variations...

What shall I do? ( Ti poiēsō̱ ).

Deliberative future indicative or aorist subjunctive (same form). This detail only in Luke. Note the variations in all three Gospels. All three have "will reverence"(entrapēsontai ) for which see Matthew and Mark.

Robertson: Luk 20:13 - It may be It may be ( isōs ). Perhaps, from isos , equal. Old adverb, but only here in the N.T.

It may be ( isōs ).

Perhaps, from isos , equal. Old adverb, but only here in the N.T.

Robertson: Luk 20:14 - That the inheritance may be ours That the inheritance may be ours ( hina hēmōn genētai hē klēronomia ). That the inheritance may become (genētai , second aorist middle su...

That the inheritance may be ours ( hina hēmōn genētai hē klēronomia ).

That the inheritance may become (genētai , second aorist middle subjunctive of ginomai ). Here Mat 21:39 has schōmen "let us get, ingressive aorist active subjunctive."Cf. echōmen , present subjunctive of the same verb echō in Rom 5:1; Mar 12:7 has "and it will be ours"(estai ).

Robertson: Luk 20:16 - God forbid God forbid ( mē genoito ). Optative of wish about the future with mē . Literally, may it not happen. No word "God"in the Greek. This was the pio...

God forbid ( mē genoito ).

Optative of wish about the future with mē . Literally, may it not happen. No word "God"in the Greek. This was the pious protest of the defeated members of the Sanhedrin who began to see the turn of the parable against themselves.

Robertson: Luk 20:17 - He looked upon them He looked upon them ( emblepsas autois ). Not in Mark and Matthew. First aorist active participle of emblepō , to look on. It was a piercing glance...

He looked upon them ( emblepsas autois ).

Not in Mark and Matthew. First aorist active participle of emblepō , to look on. It was a piercing glance. The scripture quoted is from Psa 118:22 and is in Mar 11:10; see Mat 21:42 for the inverted attraction of the case lithon (stone) to that of the relative hon (which).

Robertson: Luk 20:18 - Shall be broken to pieces Shall be broken to pieces ( sunthlasthēsetai ). Future passive indicative of sunthlaō , a rather late compound, only here in the N.T. unless Mat ...

Shall be broken to pieces ( sunthlasthēsetai ).

Future passive indicative of sunthlaō , a rather late compound, only here in the N.T. unless Mat 21:44 is genuine. It means to shatter.

Robertson: Luk 20:18 - Will scatter him as dust Will scatter him as dust ( likmēsei ). From likmaō , an old verb to winnow and then to grind to powder. Only here in the N.T. unless in Mat 21:44...

Will scatter him as dust ( likmēsei ).

From likmaō , an old verb to winnow and then to grind to powder. Only here in the N.T. unless in Mat 21:44 is genuine, which see note.

Robertson: Luk 20:19 - To lay hands on him To lay hands on him ( epibalein ep' auton tas cheiras ). Second aorist active infinitive of epiballō , an old verb and either transitively as here ...

To lay hands on him ( epibalein ep' auton tas cheiras ).

Second aorist active infinitive of epiballō , an old verb and either transitively as here or intransitively as in Mar 4:37. Vivid picture here where Mar 12:12; Mat 21:46 has "to seize"(kratēsai ).

Robertson: Luk 20:19 - In that very hour In that very hour ( en autēi tēi hōrāi ). Luke’ s favourite idiom, in the hour itself. Not in Mark or Matthew and shows that the Sanhedr...

In that very hour ( en autēi tēi hōrāi ).

Luke’ s favourite idiom, in the hour itself. Not in Mark or Matthew and shows that the Sanhedrin were angry enough to force the climax then.

Robertson: Luk 20:19 - And they feared And they feared ( kai ephobēthēsan ). Adversative use of kai = but they feared. Hence they refrained.

And they feared ( kai ephobēthēsan ).

Adversative use of kai = but they feared. Hence they refrained.

Robertson: Luk 20:19 - For they perceived For they perceived ( egnōsan gar ). The reason for their rage. Second aorist active indicative of ginōskō .

For they perceived ( egnōsan gar ).

The reason for their rage. Second aorist active indicative of ginōskō .

Robertson: Luk 20:19 - Against them Against them ( pros autous ). As in Mar 12:12. The cap fitted them and they saw it.

Against them ( pros autous ).

As in Mar 12:12. The cap fitted them and they saw it.

Robertson: Luk 20:20 - They watched him They watched him ( paratērēsantes ). First aorist active participle of paratēreō , a common Greek verb to watch on the side or insidiously or...

They watched him ( paratērēsantes ).

First aorist active participle of paratēreō , a common Greek verb to watch on the side or insidiously or with evil intent as in Luk 6:7 (paretērounto ) of the scribes and Pharisees. See note on Mar 3:2. There is no "him"in the Greek. They were watching their chance.

Robertson: Luk 20:20 - Spies Spies ( enkathetous ). An old verbal adjective from enkathiēmi , to send down in or secretly. It means liers in wait who are suborned to spy out, o...

Spies ( enkathetous ).

An old verbal adjective from enkathiēmi , to send down in or secretly. It means liers in wait who are suborned to spy out, one who is hired to trap one by crafty words. Only here in the N.T.

Robertson: Luk 20:20 - Feigned themselves Feigned themselves ( hupokrinomenous heautous ). Hypocritically professing to be "righteous"(dikaious ). "They posed as scrupulous persons with a di...

Feigned themselves ( hupokrinomenous heautous ).

Hypocritically professing to be "righteous"(dikaious ). "They posed as scrupulous persons with a difficulty of conscience"(Plummer).

Robertson: Luk 20:20 - That they might take hold of his speech That they might take hold of his speech ( hina epilabōntai autou logou ). Second aorist middle of epilambanō , an old verb for seizing hold with ...

That they might take hold of his speech ( hina epilabōntai autou logou ).

Second aorist middle of epilambanō , an old verb for seizing hold with the hands and uses as here the genitive case. These spies are for the purpose of (hina ) catching hold of the talk of Jesus if they can get a grip anywhere. This is their direct purpose and the ultimate purpose or result is also stated, "so as to deliver him up"(hōste paradounai auton ). Second aorist active infinitive of paradidōmi , to hand over, to give from one’ s side to another. The trap is all set now and ready to be sprung by these "spies."

Robertson: Luk 20:20 - Of the governor Of the governor ( tou hēgemonos ). The Sanhedrin knew that Pilate would have to condemn Jesus if he were put to death. So then all their plans focu...

Of the governor ( tou hēgemonos ).

The Sanhedrin knew that Pilate would have to condemn Jesus if he were put to death. So then all their plans focus on this point as the goal. Luke alone mentions this item here.

Robertson: Luk 20:21 - Rightly Rightly ( orthōs ). Matthew (Mat 22:16) notes that these "spies"were "disciples"(students) of the Pharisees and Mark (Mar 12:13) adds that the Hero...

Rightly ( orthōs ).

Matthew (Mat 22:16) notes that these "spies"were "disciples"(students) of the Pharisees and Mark (Mar 12:13) adds that the Herodians are also involved in the plot. These bright theologues are full of palaver and flattery and openly endorse the teaching of Jesus as part of their scheme.

Robertson: Luk 20:21 - Acceptest not the person of any Acceptest not the person of any ( ou lambaneis prosōpon ). Dost not take the face (or personal appearance) as the test. It is a Hebraism from which...

Acceptest not the person of any ( ou lambaneis prosōpon ).

Dost not take the face (or personal appearance) as the test. It is a Hebraism from which the word prosōpolempsia (Jam 2:1) comes. Originally it meant to lift the face, to lift the countenance, to regard the face, to accept the face value. See Mar 12:13-17; and Mat 22:15-22 for discussion of details here. They both have blepeis here.

Robertson: Luk 20:22 - Tribute Tribute ( phoron ). Old word for the annual tax on land, houses, etc. Mark and Matthew have kēnson . The picture on the coin may have been that of ...

Tribute ( phoron ).

Old word for the annual tax on land, houses, etc. Mark and Matthew have kēnson . The picture on the coin may have been that of Tiberius.

Robertson: Luk 20:23 - Perceived Perceived ( katanoēsas ). From katanoeō , to put the mind down on. Mark has eidōs , "knowing,"and Matthew gnous , coming to know or grasping (s...

Perceived ( katanoēsas ).

From katanoeō , to put the mind down on. Mark has eidōs , "knowing,"and Matthew gnous , coming to know or grasping (second aorist active participle of ginōskō ).

Robertson: Luk 20:23 - Craftiness Craftiness ( panourgian ). Old word for doing any deed. Matthew has "wickedness"(ponērian ) and Mark "hypocrisy"(hupokrisin ). Unscrupulous they ...

Craftiness ( panourgian ).

Old word for doing any deed. Matthew has "wickedness"(ponērian ) and Mark "hypocrisy"(hupokrisin ). Unscrupulous they certainly were. They would stoop to any trick and go the limit.

Robertson: Luk 20:26 - They were not able They were not able ( ouk ischusan ). They did not have strength. An old verb ischuō from ischus (strength). They failed "to take hold (cf. Luk ...

They were not able ( ouk ischusan ).

They did not have strength. An old verb ischuō from ischus (strength). They failed "to take hold (cf. Luk 20:20) of the saying before the people."These "crack"students had made an ignominious failure and were not able to make a case for the surrender of Jesus to Pilate. He had slipped through their net with the utmost ease.

Robertson: Luk 20:26 - Held their peace Held their peace ( esigēsan ). Ingressive aorist active of sigaō . They became silent as they went back with the "dry grins."

Held their peace ( esigēsan ).

Ingressive aorist active of sigaō . They became silent as they went back with the "dry grins."

Robertson: Luk 20:27 - There is no resurrection There is no resurrection ( anastasin mē einai ). Accusative and infinitive with negative mē in indirect assertion. The Sadducees rally after th...

There is no resurrection ( anastasin mē einai ).

Accusative and infinitive with negative mē in indirect assertion. The Sadducees rally after the complete discomfiture of the Pharisees and Herodians. They had a stock conundrum with which they had often gotten a laugh on the Pharisees. So they volunteer to try it on Jesus. For discussion of details here see Mat 22:23-33; and notes on Mar 12:18-27. Only a few striking items remain for Luke.

Robertson: Luk 20:33 - Had her Had her ( eschon ). Constative second aorist indicative of echō including all seven seriatim. So Mat 22:28; Mar 12:33.

Had her ( eschon ).

Constative second aorist indicative of echō including all seven seriatim. So Mat 22:28; Mar 12:33.

Robertson: Luk 20:33 - To wife To wife ( gunaika ). As wife, accusative in apposition with "her."

To wife ( gunaika ).

As wife, accusative in apposition with "her."

Robertson: Luk 20:36 - Equal unto the angels Equal unto the angels ( isaggeloi ). A rare and late word from isos , equal, and aggelos . Only here in the N.T. Mark and Matthew have "as angels"(ho...

Equal unto the angels ( isaggeloi ).

A rare and late word from isos , equal, and aggelos . Only here in the N.T. Mark and Matthew have "as angels"(hōs aggeloi ). Angels do not marry, there is no marriage in heaven.

Robertson: Luk 20:36 - Sons of God, being sons of the resurrection Sons of God, being sons of the resurrection ( huioi theou tēs anastaseōs huioi ontes ). This Hebraistic phrase, "sons of the resurrection"defines...

Sons of God, being sons of the resurrection ( huioi theou tēs anastaseōs huioi ontes ).

This Hebraistic phrase, "sons of the resurrection"defines "sons of God"and is a direct answer to the Sadducees.

Robertson: Luk 20:37 - Even Moses Even Moses ( kai Mōusēs ). Moses was used by the Sadducees to support their denial of the resurrection. This passage (Exo 3:6) Jesus skilfully us...

Even Moses ( kai Mōusēs ).

Moses was used by the Sadducees to support their denial of the resurrection. This passage (Exo 3:6) Jesus skilfully uses as a proof of the resurrection. See Mat 22:32 and Mar 12:26.

Robertson: Luk 20:39 - Certain of the scribes Certain of the scribes ( tines tōn grammateōn ). Pharisees who greatly enjoyed this use by Jesus of a portion of the Pentateuch against the posit...

Certain of the scribes ( tines tōn grammateōn ).

Pharisees who greatly enjoyed this use by Jesus of a portion of the Pentateuch against the position of the Sadducees. So they praise the reply of Jesus, hostile though they are to him.

Robertson: Luk 20:40 - They durst not any more They durst not any more ( ouketi etolmōn ouden ). Double negative and imperfect active of tolmaō . The courage of Pharisees, Sadducees, Herodians...

They durst not any more ( ouketi etolmōn ouden ).

Double negative and imperfect active of tolmaō . The courage of Pharisees, Sadducees, Herodians vanished.

Robertson: Luk 20:41 - How say they? How say they? ( Pōs legousiṉ ). The Pharisees had rallied in glee and one of their number, a lawyer, had made a feeble contribution to the contro...

How say they? ( Pōs legousiṉ ).

The Pharisees had rallied in glee and one of their number, a lawyer, had made a feeble contribution to the controversy which resulted in his agreement with Jesus and in praise from Jesus (Mar 12:28-34; Mat 27:34-40). Luke does not give this incident which makes it plain that by "they say"(legousin ) Jesus refers to the Pharisees (rabbis, lawyers), carrying on the discussion and turning the tables on them while the Pharisees are still gathered together (Mat 22:41). The construction with legousin is the usual infinitive and the accusative in indirect discourse. By "the Christ"(ton Christon ) "the Messiah"is meant.

Robertson: Luk 20:42 - For David himself For David himself ( autos gar Daueid ). This language of Jesus clearly means that he treats David as the author of Psa 110:1-7. The inspiration of th...

For David himself ( autos gar Daueid ).

This language of Jesus clearly means that he treats David as the author of Psa 110:1-7. The inspiration of this Psalm is expressly stated in Mar 12:36; Mat 22:43 (which see) and the Messianic character of the Psalm in all three Synoptics who all quote the lxx practically alike. Modern criticism that denies the Davidic authorship of this Psalm has to say either that Jesus was ignorant of the fact about it or that he declined to disturb the current acceptation of the Davidic authorship. Certainly modern scholars are not agreed on the authorship of Psa 110:1-7. Meanwhile one can certainly be excused for accepting the natural implication of the words of Jesus here, "David himself."

Robertson: Luk 20:42 - In the book of the Psalms In the book of the Psalms ( en biblōi Psalmōn ). Compare Luk 3:4 "in the book of the words of Isaiah the prophet."

In the book of the Psalms ( en biblōi Psalmōn ).

Compare Luk 3:4 "in the book of the words of Isaiah the prophet."

Robertson: Luk 20:44 - David therefore David therefore ( Daueid oun ). Without ei as in Mat 22:45. On the basis of this definite piece of exegesis (oun , therefore) Jesus presses the pro...

David therefore ( Daueid oun ).

Without ei as in Mat 22:45. On the basis of this definite piece of exegesis (oun , therefore) Jesus presses the problem (pōs , how) for an explanation. The deity and the humanity of the Messiah in Psa 110:1-7 are thus set forth, the very problems that disturbed the rabbis then and that upset many critics today.

Robertson: Luk 20:45 - In the hearing of all the people In the hearing of all the people ( akouontos pantos tou laou ). Genitive absolute, "while all the people were listening"(present active participle). ...

In the hearing of all the people ( akouontos pantos tou laou ).

Genitive absolute, "while all the people were listening"(present active participle). That is the time to speak. The details in this verse and Luk 20:47 are precisely those given in Mar 12:38., which see notes for discussion of details. Matthew 23:1-39 has a very full and rich description of this last phase of the debate in the temple where Jesus drew a full-length portrait of the hypocrisy of the Pharisees and scribes in their presence. It was a solemn climax to this last public appearance of Christ in the temple when Jesus poured out the vials of his indignation as he had done before (Mat 16:2; Luk 11:12, Luk 11:15-18).

Vincent: Luk 20:5 - They reasoned They reasoned ( συνελογίσαντο ) Only here in New Testament. The preposition, σύν , together, and the additional with themse...

They reasoned ( συνελογίσαντο )

Only here in New Testament. The preposition, σύν , together, and the additional with themselves, denote a very close conference.

Vincent: Luk 20:6 - Will stone Will stone ( καταλιθάσει ) Only here in New Testament. " Stone us down " (κατά ); i.e., stone us to death.

Will stone ( καταλιθάσει )

Only here in New Testament. " Stone us down " (κατά ); i.e., stone us to death.

Vincent: Luk 20:6 - They be persuaded They be persuaded ( πεπεισμένος ἐστιν ) Lit., It (the people collectively) is hawing been persuaded. Denoting a long-stan...

They be persuaded ( πεπεισμένος ἐστιν )

Lit., It (the people collectively) is hawing been persuaded. Denoting a long-standing and settled persuasion.

Vincent: Luk 20:9 - Let it out Let it out See on Mat 21:33.

Let it out

See on Mat 21:33.

Vincent: Luk 20:9 - Went into a far country Went into a far country Not necessarily far , but as Rev., another country. See on Mar 13:34.

Went into a far country

Not necessarily far , but as Rev., another country. See on Mar 13:34.

Vincent: Luk 20:9 - A long time A long time ( ἱκανούς ) See on ch. Luk 7:6.

A long time ( ἱκανούς )

See on ch. Luk 7:6.

Vincent: Luk 20:10 - Of the fruit Of the fruit See on Mar 12:2.

Of the fruit

See on Mar 12:2.

Vincent: Luk 20:11 - He sent yet He sent yet ( προσέθετο πέμψαι ) Lit., he added to send. A Hebrew form of expression.

He sent yet ( προσέθετο πέμψαι )

Lit., he added to send. A Hebrew form of expression.

Vincent: Luk 20:12 - Wounded Wounded ( τραυματίσαντες ) Only here and Act 19:16.

Wounded ( τραυματίσαντες )

Only here and Act 19:16.

Vincent: Luk 20:13 - It may be It may be ( ἴσως ) Only here in New Testament. The adverb of ἴσος , equal. It expresses more than perhaps, implying rather a s...

It may be ( ἴσως )

Only here in New Testament. The adverb of ἴσος , equal. It expresses more than perhaps, implying rather a strong probability. Compare the phrase, it is an even chance that .

Vincent: Luk 20:13 - Reverence Reverence See on Mat 21:37.

Reverence

See on Mat 21:37.

Vincent: Luk 20:16 - Destroy Destroy See on Mat 21:41.

Destroy

See on Mat 21:41.

Vincent: Luk 20:16 - God forbid God forbid ( μὴ γένοιτο ) Lit., may it not be.

God forbid ( μὴ γένοιτο )

Lit., may it not be.

Vincent: Luk 20:17 - The stone, etc The stone, etc See on 1Pe 2:4-7.

The stone, etc

See on 1Pe 2:4-7.

Vincent: Luk 20:18 - Shall be broken Shall be broken ( συνθλασθήσεται ) Rev., rightly, broken to pieces. See on Mat 21:44.

Shall be broken ( συνθλασθήσεται )

Rev., rightly, broken to pieces. See on Mat 21:44.

Vincent: Luk 20:18 - Grind him to powder Grind him to powder ( λικμήσει ) See on Mat 21:44

Grind him to powder ( λικμήσει )

See on Mat 21:44

Vincent: Luk 20:20 - Watched Watched See on Mar 3:2.

Watched

See on Mar 3:2.

Vincent: Luk 20:20 - Spies Spies ( ἐγκαθέτους ) Only here in New Testament. From ἐγκαθίμηι , to send in, as a garrison into a city. Hence of per...

Spies ( ἐγκαθέτους )

Only here in New Testament. From ἐγκαθίμηι , to send in, as a garrison into a city. Hence of persons sent in for the purpose of espionage.

Vincent: Luk 20:20 - Which should feign Which should feign ( ὑποκρινομένους ) Lit., feigning. Rev., which feigned. Only here in New Testament. See on hypocr ites,...

Which should feign ( ὑποκρινομένους )

Lit., feigning. Rev., which feigned. Only here in New Testament. See on hypocr ites, Mat 23:13.

Vincent: Luk 20:20 - The power and authority The power and authority ( τῇ ἀρχῇ καὶ τῇ ἐξουσίᾳ ) The former, the Roman power in general; the latter, th...

The power and authority ( τῇ ἀρχῇ καὶ τῇ ἐξουσίᾳ )

The former, the Roman power in general; the latter, the specific authority of the official.

Vincent: Luk 20:21 - Acceptest not the person Acceptest not the person See on Jam 2:1.

Acceptest not the person

See on Jam 2:1.

Vincent: Luk 20:22 - Tribute Tribute ( φόρον ) From φέρω , to bring. Something, therefore, which is brought in by way of payment. Luke uses the Greek word in...

Tribute ( φόρον )

From φέρω , to bring. Something, therefore, which is brought in by way of payment. Luke uses the Greek word instead of the Latin κῆνσον , census , in Matthew and Mark.

Vincent: Luk 20:23 - Perceived Perceived See on considerest, Mat 7:3.

Perceived

See on considerest, Mat 7:3.

Vincent: Luk 20:23 - Craftiness Craftiness ( πανουργίαν ) From πᾶν , every , and ἔργον , deed. Readiness for every and any deed. Hence unscrupulousn...

Craftiness ( πανουργίαν )

From πᾶν , every , and ἔργον , deed. Readiness for every and any deed. Hence unscrupulousness, and so, generally, knavery.

Vincent: Luk 20:24 - Penny Penny See on Mat 20:2.

Penny

See on Mat 20:2.

Vincent: Luk 20:24 - Image and superscription Image and superscription See on Mat 22:20.

Image and superscription

See on Mat 22:20.

Vincent: Luk 20:26 - His words His words ( ῥήματος ) Singular number. Rev., properly, saying. See on Luk 1:37.

His words ( ῥήματος )

Singular number. Rev., properly, saying. See on Luk 1:37.

Vincent: Luk 20:27 - Asked Asked See on Mar 12:18.

Asked

See on Mar 12:18.

Vincent: Luk 20:36 - Equal unto the angels Equal unto the angels ( ἰσάγγελοι ) Only here in New Testament.

Equal unto the angels ( ἰσάγγελοι )

Only here in New Testament.

Vincent: Luk 20:37 - Shewed Shewed ( ἐμήνυσεν ) Originally to disclose something secret. Hence, generally, to make known.

Shewed ( ἐμήνυσεν )

Originally to disclose something secret. Hence, generally, to make known.

Vincent: Luk 20:37 - At the bush At the bush ( ἐπὶ τῆς βάτου ) Wrong. Render as Rev., in the place concerning the bush. See on Mar 12:26.

At the bush ( ἐπὶ τῆς βάτου )

Wrong. Render as Rev., in the place concerning the bush. See on Mar 12:26.

Vincent: Luk 20:43 - Of thy feet Of thy feet ( τῶν ποδῶν σου ) A. V. omits.

Of thy feet ( τῶν ποδῶν σου )

A. V. omits.

Vincent: Luk 20:46 - Chief rooms Chief rooms Rev., correctly, chief places. See on Mar 12:39.

Chief rooms

Rev., correctly, chief places. See on Mar 12:39.

Vincent: Luk 20:47 - Widows' houses Widows' houses See on Mar 12:40.

Widows' houses

See on Mar 12:40.

Wesley: Luk 20:1 - -- Mat 21:23; Mar 11:27.

Wesley: Luk 20:9 - A long time It was a long time from the entrance of the Israelites into Canaan to the birth of Christ. Mat 21:33; Mar 12:1.

It was a long time from the entrance of the Israelites into Canaan to the birth of Christ. Mat 21:33; Mar 12:1.

Wesley: Luk 20:16 - He will destroy these husbandmen Probably he pointed to the scribes, chief priests, and elders: who allowed, he will miserably destroy those wicked men, Mat 21:41; but could not bear ...

Probably he pointed to the scribes, chief priests, and elders: who allowed, he will miserably destroy those wicked men, Mat 21:41; but could not bear that this should be applied to themselves. They might also mean, God forbid that we should be guilty of such a crime as your parable seems to charge us with, namely, rejecting and killing the heir. Our Saviour answers, But yet will ye do it, as is prophesied of you.

Wesley: Luk 20:17 - He looked on them To sharpen their attention. Psa 118:22.

To sharpen their attention. Psa 118:22.

Wesley: Luk 20:18 - -- Mat 21:45.

Wesley: Luk 20:20 - Just men Men of a tender conscience.

Men of a tender conscience.

Wesley: Luk 20:20 - To take hold of his discourse If he answered as they hoped he would. Mat 22:16; Mar 12:12.

If he answered as they hoped he would. Mat 22:16; Mar 12:12.

Wesley: Luk 20:21 - Thou speakest In private, and teachest - In public.

In private, and teachest - In public.

Wesley: Luk 20:24 - Show me a penny A Roman penny, which was the money that was usually paid on that occasion.

A Roman penny, which was the money that was usually paid on that occasion.

Wesley: Luk 20:26 - They could not take hold of his words before the people As they did afterward before the sanhedrim, in the absence of the people, Luk 22:67, &c.

As they did afterward before the sanhedrim, in the absence of the people, Luk 22:67, &c.

Wesley: Luk 20:27 - -- Mat 22:23; Mar 12:18.

Wesley: Luk 20:28 - -- Deu 25:5.

Wesley: Luk 20:34 - The children of this world The inhabitants of earth, marry and are given in marriage - As being all subject to the law of mortality; so that the species is in need of being cont...

The inhabitants of earth, marry and are given in marriage - As being all subject to the law of mortality; so that the species is in need of being continually repaired.

Wesley: Luk 20:35 - But they who obtain that world Which they enter into, before the resurrection of the dead.

Which they enter into, before the resurrection of the dead.

Wesley: Luk 20:36 - They are the children of God In a more eminent sense when they rise again.

In a more eminent sense when they rise again.

Wesley: Luk 20:37 - That the dead are raised, even Moses, as well as the other prophets showed, when he calleth That is, when he recites the words which God spoke of himself, I am the God of Abraham, Mat 22:32. It cannot properly be said, that God is the God of ...

That is, when he recites the words which God spoke of himself, I am the God of Abraham, Mat 22:32. It cannot properly be said, that God is the God of any who are totally perished. Exo 3:6.

Wesley: Luk 20:38 - He is not a God of the dead, or, there is no God of the dead That is, tho term God implies such a relation, as cannot possibly subsist between him and the dead; who in the Sadducees' sense are extinguished spiri...

That is, tho term God implies such a relation, as cannot possibly subsist between him and the dead; who in the Sadducees' sense are extinguished spirits; who could neither worship him, nor receive good from him.

Wesley: Luk 20:38 - So that all live to him All who have him for their God, live to and enjoy him. This sentence is not an argument for what went before; but the proposition which was to be prov...

All who have him for their God, live to and enjoy him. This sentence is not an argument for what went before; but the proposition which was to be proved. And the consequence is apparently just. For as all the faithful are the children of Abraham, and the Divine promise of being a God to him and his seed is entailed upon them, it implies their continued existence and happiness in a future state as much as Abraham's. And as the body is an essential part of man, it implies both his resurrection and theirs; and so overthrows the entire scheme of the Sadducean doctrine.

Wesley: Luk 20:40 - They durst not ask him any question The Sadducees durst not. One of the scribes did, presently after.

The Sadducees durst not. One of the scribes did, presently after.

Wesley: Luk 20:41 - -- Mat 22:41; Mar 12:35.

Wesley: Luk 20:42 - -- Psa 110:1.

Wesley: Luk 20:46 - -- Mat 23:5.

Wesley: Luk 20:47 - -- Mat 23:14.

JFB: Luk 20:2 - these things Particularly the clearing of the temple.

Particularly the clearing of the temple.

JFB: Luk 20:4 - baptism of John His whole ministry and mission, of which baptism was the seal.

His whole ministry and mission, of which baptism was the seal.

JFB: Luk 20:5 - Why then believed ye him not? That is, in his testimony to Jesus, the sum of his whole witness.

That is, in his testimony to Jesus, the sum of his whole witness.

JFB: Luk 20:7 - could not tell Crooked, cringing hypocrites! No wonder Jesus gave you no answer (Mat 7:6). But what dignity and composure does our Lord display as He turns their que...

Crooked, cringing hypocrites! No wonder Jesus gave you no answer (Mat 7:6). But what dignity and composure does our Lord display as He turns their question upon themselves!

JFB: Luk 20:9-13 - vineyard (See on Luk 13:6). In Mat 21:33 additional points are given, taken literally from Isa 5:2, to fix down the application and sustain it by Old Testament...

(See on Luk 13:6). In Mat 21:33 additional points are given, taken literally from Isa 5:2, to fix down the application and sustain it by Old Testament authority.

JFB: Luk 20:9-13 - husbandmen The ordinary spiritual guides of the people, under whose care and culture the fruits of righteousness might be yielded.

The ordinary spiritual guides of the people, under whose care and culture the fruits of righteousness might be yielded.

JFB: Luk 20:9-13 - went, &c. Leaving it to the laws of the spiritual husbandry during the whole length of the Jewish economy. (See on Mar 4:26.)

Leaving it to the laws of the spiritual husbandry during the whole length of the Jewish economy. (See on Mar 4:26.)

JFB: Luk 20:10 - beat, &c. (Mat 21:35); that is, the prophets, extraordinary messengers raised up from time to time. (See on Mat 23:37.)

(Mat 21:35); that is, the prophets, extraordinary messengers raised up from time to time. (See on Mat 23:37.)

JFB: Luk 20:13 - my beloved son Mark (Mar 12:6) still more affectingly, "Having yet therefore one son, his well-beloved"; our Lord thus severing Himself from all merely human messeng...

Mark (Mar 12:6) still more affectingly, "Having yet therefore one son, his well-beloved"; our Lord thus severing Himself from all merely human messengers, and claiming Sonship in its loftiest sense. (Compare Heb 3:3-6.)

JFB: Luk 20:13 - it may be "surely"; implying the almost unimaginable guilt of not doing so.

"surely"; implying the almost unimaginable guilt of not doing so.

JFB: Luk 20:14 - reasoned among themselves (Compare Gen 37:18-20; Joh 11:47-53).

JFB: Luk 20:14 - the heir Sublime expression of the great truth, that God's inheritance was destined for, and in due time to come into the possession of, His Son in our nature ...

Sublime expression of the great truth, that God's inheritance was destined for, and in due time to come into the possession of, His Son in our nature (Heb 1:2).

JFB: Luk 20:14 - inheritance . . . ours And so from mere servants we may become lords; the deep aim of the depraved heart, and literally "the root of all evil."

And so from mere servants we may become lords; the deep aim of the depraved heart, and literally "the root of all evil."

JFB: Luk 20:15 - cast him out of the vineyard (Compare Heb 13:11-13; 1Ki 21:13; Joh 19:17).

JFB: Luk 20:16 - He shall come, &c. This answer was given by the Pharisees themselves (Mat 21:41), thus pronouncing their own righteous doom. Matthew alone (Mat 21:43) gives the naked ap...

This answer was given by the Pharisees themselves (Mat 21:41), thus pronouncing their own righteous doom. Matthew alone (Mat 21:43) gives the naked application, that "the kingdom of God should be taken from them, and given to a nation bringing forth the fruits thereof"--the great evangelical community of the faithful, chiefly Gentiles.

JFB: Luk 20:16 - God forbid His whole meaning now bursting upon them.

His whole meaning now bursting upon them.

JFB: Luk 20:17-19 - written (in Psa 118:22-23. See on Luk 19:38). The Kingdom of God is here a Temple, in the erection of which a certain stone, rejected as unsuitable by the spi...

(in Psa 118:22-23. See on Luk 19:38). The Kingdom of God is here a Temple, in the erection of which a certain stone, rejected as unsuitable by the spiritual builders, is, by the great Lord of the House, made the keystone of the whole. On that Stone the builders were now "falling" and being "broken" (Isa 8:15), "sustaining great spiritual hurt; but soon that Stone should fall upon them and grind them to powder" (Dan 2:34-35; Zec 12:3) --in their corporate capacity in the tremendous destruction of Jerusalem, but personally, as unbelievers, in a more awful sense still.

JFB: Luk 20:19 - the same hour Hardly able to restrain their rage.

Hardly able to restrain their rage.

JFB: Luk 20:20-26 - sent forth After consulting (Mat 22:15) on the best plan.

After consulting (Mat 22:15) on the best plan.

JFB: Luk 20:20-26 - spies "of the Pharisees and Herodians" (Mar 12:13). See Mar 3:6.

"of the Pharisees and Herodians" (Mar 12:13). See Mar 3:6.

JFB: Luk 20:21 - we know, &c. Hoping by flattery to throw Him off His guard.

Hoping by flattery to throw Him off His guard.

JFB: Luk 20:22 - tribute (See on Mat 17:24).

(See on Mat 17:24).

JFB: Luk 20:25 - things which be Cæsar's Putting it in this general form, it was impossible for sedition itself to dispute it, and yet it dissolved the snare.

Putting it in this general form, it was impossible for sedition itself to dispute it, and yet it dissolved the snare.

JFB: Luk 20:25 - and unto God How much there is in this profound but to them startling addition to the maxim, and how incomparable is the whole for fulness, brevity, clearness, wei...

How much there is in this profound but to them startling addition to the maxim, and how incomparable is the whole for fulness, brevity, clearness, weight!

JFB: Luk 20:27-34 - no resurrection "nor angel nor spirit" (Act 23:8); the materialists of the day.

"nor angel nor spirit" (Act 23:8); the materialists of the day.

JFB: Luk 20:34 - said unto them In Mat 22:29, the reply begins with this important statement:--"Ye do err, not knowing the Scriptures," regarding the future state, "nor the power of ...

In Mat 22:29, the reply begins with this important statement:--"Ye do err, not knowing the Scriptures," regarding the future state, "nor the power of God," before which a thousand such difficulties vanish (also Mar 12:24).

JFB: Luk 20:36 - neither . . . die any more Marriage is ordained to perpetuate the human family; but as there will be no breaches by death in the future state, this ordinance will cease.

Marriage is ordained to perpetuate the human family; but as there will be no breaches by death in the future state, this ordinance will cease.

JFB: Luk 20:36 - equal Or "like."

Or "like."

JFB: Luk 20:36 - unto the angels That is, in the immortality of their nature.

That is, in the immortality of their nature.

JFB: Luk 20:36 - children of God Not in respect of character but nature; "being the children of the resurrection" to an undecaying existence (Rom 8:21, Rom 8:23). And thus the childre...

Not in respect of character but nature; "being the children of the resurrection" to an undecaying existence (Rom 8:21, Rom 8:23). And thus the children of their Father's immortality (1Ti 6:16).

JFB: Luk 20:37-38 - even Moses Whom they had just quoted to entangle Him.

Whom they had just quoted to entangle Him.

JFB: Luk 20:38 - not . . . of the dead, . . . for all, &c. To God, no human being is dead, or ever will be; but all sustain an abiding conscious relation to Him. But the "all" here meant "those who shall be ac...

To God, no human being is dead, or ever will be; but all sustain an abiding conscious relation to Him. But the "all" here meant "those who shall be accounted worthy to obtain that world." These sustain a gracious covenant relation to God, which cannot be dissolved. In this sense our Lord affirms that for Moses to call the Lord the "God" of His patriarchal servants if at that moment they had no existence, would be unworthy of Him. He "would be ashamed to be called their God, if He had not prepared for them a city" (Heb 11:16). How precious are these glimpses of the resurrection state!

JFB: Luk 20:39 - scribes . . . well said Enjoying His victory over the Sadducees.

Enjoying His victory over the Sadducees.

JFB: Luk 20:39 - they durst not Neither party, both for the time utterly foiled.

Neither party, both for the time utterly foiled.

JFB: Luk 20:41 - said, &c. "What think ye of Christ [the promised and expected Messiah]? Whose son is He [to be]? They say unto Him, The son of David. He saith unto them, How th...

"What think ye of Christ [the promised and expected Messiah]? Whose son is He [to be]? They say unto Him, The son of David. He saith unto them, How then doth David in spirit [by the Holy Ghost, Mar 12:36] call Him Lord?" (Mat 22:42-43). The difficulty can only be solved by the higher and lower--the divine and human natures of our Lord (Mat 1:23). Mark the testimony here given to the inspiration of the Old Testament (compare Luk 24:44).

JFB: Luk 20:46-47 - Beware, &c. (See on Mat 23:5; and Luk 14:7).

(See on Mat 23:5; and Luk 14:7).

JFB: Luk 20:47 - devour, &c. Taking advantage of their helpless condition and confiding character, to obtain possession of their property, while by their "long prayers" they made ...

Taking advantage of their helpless condition and confiding character, to obtain possession of their property, while by their "long prayers" they made them believe they were raised far above "filthy lucre." So much "the greater damnation" awaits them. What a lifelike description of the Romish clergy, the true successors of "the scribes!"

Clarke: Luk 20:1 - One of those days One of those days - Supposed to have been one of the four last days of his life, mentioned Luk 19:47, probably Tuesday before the passover.

One of those days - Supposed to have been one of the four last days of his life, mentioned Luk 19:47, probably Tuesday before the passover.

Clarke: Luk 20:2 - By what authority, etc. By what authority, etc. - See the note on Mat 21:23-27 (note).

By what authority, etc. - See the note on Mat 21:23-27 (note).

Clarke: Luk 20:9 - A certain man planted a vineyard, etc. A certain man planted a vineyard, etc. - See this parable largely explained, Mat 21:33-46 (note). See also on Mar 12:4-9 (note).

A certain man planted a vineyard, etc. - See this parable largely explained, Mat 21:33-46 (note). See also on Mar 12:4-9 (note).

Clarke: Luk 20:10 - That they should give him of the fruit That they should give him of the fruit - The Hindoo corn-merchants, that have lent money to husbandmen, send persons in harvest-time to collect thei...

That they should give him of the fruit - The Hindoo corn-merchants, that have lent money to husbandmen, send persons in harvest-time to collect their share of the produce of the ground.

Clarke: Luk 20:16 - God forbid God forbid - Or, Let it not be, μη γενοιτο . Our phrase, God forbid, answers pretty well to the meaning of the Greek, but it is no transla...

God forbid - Or, Let it not be, μη γενοιτο . Our phrase, God forbid, answers pretty well to the meaning of the Greek, but it is no translation.

Clarke: Luk 20:18 - Grind him to powder Grind him to powder - See on Mat 21:44 (note).

Grind him to powder - See on Mat 21:44 (note).

Clarke: Luk 20:20 - They watched him They watched him - Παρατηρησαντες, Insidiously watching. See on Luk 14:1 (note)

They watched him - Παρατηρησαντες, Insidiously watching. See on Luk 14:1 (note)

Clarke: Luk 20:20 - Spies Spies - Εγκαθετους, from εν, in, and καθιημι, I let down, to set in ambush. One who crouches in some secret place to spy, list...

Spies - Εγκαθετους, from εν, in, and καθιημι, I let down, to set in ambush. One who crouches in some secret place to spy, listen, catch, or hurt. Hesychius explains the word by ενεδρευοντες, those who lie in wait, or in ambush, to surprise and slay. Josephus uses the word to signify a person bribed for a particular purpose. See War, b. ii. c. ii. s. 5, and b. vi. c. v. s. 2. No doubt the persons mentioned in the text were men of the basest principles, and were hired by the malicious Pharisees to do what they attempted in vain to perform.

Clarke: Luk 20:22 - Is it lawful for us to give tribute unto Caesar Is it lawful for us to give tribute unto Caesar - See this insidious but important question considered at large on Mat 22:16-22 (note).

Is it lawful for us to give tribute unto Caesar - See this insidious but important question considered at large on Mat 22:16-22 (note).

Clarke: Luk 20:29 - There were therefore seven brethren There were therefore seven brethren - See on Mat 22:23-33 (note).

There were therefore seven brethren - See on Mat 22:23-33 (note).

Clarke: Luk 20:34 - The children of this world The children of this world - Men and women in their present state of mortality and probation; procreation being necessary to restore the waste made ...

The children of this world - Men and women in their present state of mortality and probation; procreation being necessary to restore the waste made by death, and to keep up the population of the earth.

Clarke: Luk 20:36 - Equal unto the angels Equal unto the angels - Who neither marry nor die. See the Jewish testimonies to the resurrection of the human body quoted at length on 1Co 15:42 (n...

Equal unto the angels - Who neither marry nor die. See the Jewish testimonies to the resurrection of the human body quoted at length on 1Co 15:42 (note).

Clarke: Luk 20:38 - All live unto him All live unto him - There is a remarkable passage in Josephus’ s account of the Maccabees, chap. xvi., which proves that the best informed Jews...

All live unto him - There is a remarkable passage in Josephus’ s account of the Maccabees, chap. xvi., which proves that the best informed Jews believed that the souls of righteous men were in the presence of God in a state of happiness. "They who lose their lives for the sake of God, Live unto God, as do Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and the rest of the patriarchs."And one not less remarkable in Shemoth Rabba, fol. 159. "Rabbi Abbin saith, The Lord said unto Moses, Find me out ten righteous persons among the people, and I will not destroy thy people. Then said Moses, Behold, here am I, Aaron, Eleazar, Ithamar, Phineas, Caleb, and Joshua; but God said, Here are but seven, where are the other three? When Moses knew not what to do, he said, O Eternal God, do those live that are dead! Yes, saith God. Then said Moses, If those that are dead do live, remember Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob."So the resurrection of the dead, and the immortality and immateriality of the soul, were not strange or unknown doctrines among the Jews.

Clarke: Luk 20:40 - They durst not ask They durst not ask - Or, did not venture to ask any other question, for fear of being again confounded, as they had already been.

They durst not ask - Or, did not venture to ask any other question, for fear of being again confounded, as they had already been.

Clarke: Luk 20:41 - How say they How say they - See the note on Mat 22:42-46 (note).

How say they - See the note on Mat 22:42-46 (note).

Clarke: Luk 20:43 - Thy footstool Thy footstool - Literally, the footstool of thy feet. They shall not only be so far humbled that the feet may be set on them; but they shall be actu...

Thy footstool - Literally, the footstool of thy feet. They shall not only be so far humbled that the feet may be set on them; but they shall be actually subjected, and put completely under that Christ whom they now despise, and are about to crucify.

Clarke: Luk 20:46 - Beware of the scribes Beware of the scribes - Take heed that ye be not seduced by those who should show you the way of salvation. See on Mat 23:4-14 (note) 1.  ...

Beware of the scribes - Take heed that ye be not seduced by those who should show you the way of salvation. See on Mat 23:4-14 (note)

1.    How it can be supposed that the ancient Jewish Church had no distinct notion of the resurrection of the dead is to me truly surprising. The justice of God, so peculiarly conspicuous under the old covenant, might have led the people to infer that there must be a resurrection of the dead, if even the passage to which our Lord refers had not made a part of their law. As the body makes a part of the man, justice requires that not only they who are martyrs for the testimony of God, but also all those who have devoted their lives to his service, and died in his yoke, should have their bodies raised again. The justice of God is as much concerned in the resurrection of the dead, as either his power or mercy. To be freed from earthly incumbrances, earthly passions, bodily infirmities, sickness; and death, to be brought into a state of conscious existence, with a refined body and a sublime soul, both immortal, and both ineffably happy - how glorious the privilege! But of this, who shall be counted worthy in that day? Only those who have washed their robes, and made them white in the blood of the Lamb, and who, by patient continuing in well doing, have sought for glory and honor and immortality

2.    A bad example, supported by the authority, reputation, and majesty of religion, is a very subtle poison, from which it is very difficult for men to preserve themselves. It is a great misfortune for any people to be obliged to beware of those very persons who ought to be their rule and pattern. This is a reflection of pious Father Quesnel; and, while we admire its depth, we may justly lament that the evil he refers to should be so prevalent as to render the observation, and the caution on which it is founded, so necessary. But let no man imagine that bad and immoral ministers are to be found among one class of persons only. They are to be found in the branches as well as in the root: in the different sects and parties as well as in the mother or national Churches, from which the others have separated. On either hand there is little room for glorying. - Professors and ministers may change, but the truth of the Lord abideth for ever!

Calvin: Luk 20:37 - But that the dead shall rise Luk 20:37.But that the dead shall rise After having refuted the objection brought against him, Christ confirms, by the testimony of Scripture, the doc...

Luk 20:37.But that the dead shall rise After having refuted the objection brought against him, Christ confirms, by the testimony of Scripture, the doctrine of the final resurrection. And this is the order which must always be observed. Having repelled the calumnies of the enemies of the truth, we must make them understand that they oppose the word of God; for until they are convicted by the testimony of Scripture, they will always be at liberty to rebel. Christ quotes a passage from Moses, because he was dealing with the Sadducees, who had no great faith in the prophets, or who, at least, held them in no higher estimation than we do the Book of Ecclesiasticus, or the History of the Maccabees. Another reason was, that, as they had brought forward Moses, he chose rather to refer to the same writer than to quote any of the prophets. Besides, he did not aim at collecting all the passages of Scripture, as we see that the apostles do not always make use of the same proofs on the same subject.

And yet we must not imagine that there were no good reasons why Christ seized on this passage (Exo 3:6) in preference to others; but he selected it with the best judgment — though it might appear to be some what obscure — because it ought to have been well known and distinctly remembered by the Jews, being a declaration that they were redeemed by God, because they were the children of Abraham. There, indeed, God declares that he is come down to deliver an afflicted people, but at the same time adds, that he acknowledges that people as his own, in respect of adoption, on account of the covenant which he had made with Abraham. How comes it that God regards the dead rather than the living, but because he assigns the first rank of honor to the fathers, in whose hands he had placed his covenant? And in what respect would they have the preference, if they had been extinguished by death? This is clearly expressed also by the nature of the relation; for as no man can be a father without children, nor a king without a people, so, strictly speaking, the Lord cannot be called the God of any but the living.

Christ’s argument, however, is drawn not so much from the ordinary form of expression as from the promise which is contained in these words. For the Lord offers himself to be our God on the condition of receiving us, on the other hand, as his people, which alone is sufficient for the assurance of perfect happiness. Hence that saying of the Church by the prophet Habakkuk, (Hab 1:12,)

Thou art our God from the beginning: we shall not die

Since, therefore, the Lord promises salvation to all to whom he declares that he is their God, and since he says this respecting Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, it follows that there remains for the dead a hope of life. If it be objected, that souls may continue to exist, though there be no resurrection of the dead, I replied, a little before, that those two are connected, because souls aspire to the inheritance laid up for them, though they do not yet reach that condition.

Calvin: Luk 20:38 - For all live to him 38.For all live to him This mode of expression is employed in various senses in Scripture; but here it means that believers, after that they have die...

38.For all live to him This mode of expression is employed in various senses in Scripture; but here it means that believers, after that they have died in this world, lead a heavenly life with God; as Paul says that Christ, after having been admitted to the heavenly glory, liveth to God, (Rom 6:10) because he is freed from the infirmities and afflictions of this passing life. But here Christ expressly reminds us, that we must not form a judgment of the life of the godly according to the perceptions of the flesh, because that life is concealed under the secret keeping of God. For if, while they are pilgrims in the world, they bear a close resemblance to dead men, much less does any appearance of life exist in them after the death of the body. But God is faithful to preserve them alive in his presence, beyond the comprehension of men.

Calvin: Luk 20:39 - And some of the scribes answering 39.And some of the scribes answering As it is probable that all of them were actuated by evil dispositions towards him, this confession was extorted,...

39.And some of the scribes answering As it is probable that all of them were actuated by evil dispositions towards him, this confession was extorted, by a secret exercise of divine power, from some of them, that is, from the Pharisees. It may be that, though they could have wished that Christ had been disgracefully vanquished and silenced, when they perceived that his reply has fortified them against the opposite sect, 69 ambition led them to congratulate him on having obtained a victory. Perhaps, too, they burned with envy, and did not wish that Christ should be put down by the Sadducees. 70 Meanwhile, it was brought about by the wonderful providence of God, that even his most deadly enemies assented to his doctrine. Their insolence, to was restrained, not only because they saw that Christ was prepared to sustain every kind of attack, but because they feared that they would be driven back with disgrace, which already had frequently occurred; and because they were ashamed of allowing him, by their silence, to carry off the victory, by which his influence over the people would be greatly increased. When Matthew says that all were astonished at his doctrine, we ought to observe that the doctrine of religion was at that time corrupted by so many wicked or frivolous opinions, that it was justly regarded as a miracle that the hope of the resurrection was so ably and appropriately proved from the Law.

Defender: Luk 20:9 - a long time Mat 21:33-46 and Mar 12:1-12 both report this same parable, representing the dealings of Christ with Israel as shown by the relations of a man and the...

Mat 21:33-46 and Mar 12:1-12 both report this same parable, representing the dealings of Christ with Israel as shown by the relations of a man and the caretakers of his vineyard. Only Luke, however, indicates that the owner of the vineyard would be in the "far country for a long time." God was longsuffering with Israel and her rejection of His prophets. When they also rejected His Son, He finally "gave their vineyard to others" (Luk 20:16)."

Defender: Luk 20:25 - unto Caesar "Caesar" was the name of the Roman emperor, but here his name is used to mean governmental authority in general. This well-known saying was the answer...

"Caesar" was the name of the Roman emperor, but here his name is used to mean governmental authority in general. This well-known saying was the answer given by Christ to the "spies, which should feign themselves just men" (Luk 20:20) sent by the hypocritical chief priests and scribes looking for an excuse to accuse Him of subversive teachings against the Romans. Jesus not only silenced them (Luk 20:26), but also confirms the fact that Christians should pay legitimate taxes to support the legitimate government (Rom 13:6, Rom 13:7)."

Defender: Luk 20:27 - Sadducees This encounter with the Sadducees, who were trying to trap Jesus, is given also in Matthew 22 and Mark 12. The same is true for most of the other even...

This encounter with the Sadducees, who were trying to trap Jesus, is given also in Matthew 22 and Mark 12. The same is true for most of the other events and conversations here in Luke 20."

TSK: Luk 20:1 - that // the chief that : Luk 19:47, Luk 19:48; Mar 11:27; Joh 18:20 the chief : 1Chr. 24:1-31

that : Luk 19:47, Luk 19:48; Mar 11:27; Joh 18:20

the chief : 1Chr. 24:1-31

TSK: Luk 20:2 - Tell // who Tell : Luk 19:35-40,Luk 19:45, Luk 19:46; Mat 21:23-27; Mar 11:28-33 who : Exo 2:14; Joh 2:18, Joh 5:22-27; Act 4:7-10, Act 7:27, Act 7:35-39, Act 7:5...

TSK: Luk 20:3 - I will I will : Luk 22:68; Mat 15:2, Mat 15:3; Col 4:6

TSK: Luk 20:4 - baptism // from baptism : Luk 7:28-35; Mat 11:7-19, Mat 17:11, Mat 17:12, Mat 21:25-32; Joh 1:6, Joh 1:19-28 from : Luk 15:18; Dan 4:25, Dan 4:26

TSK: Luk 20:5 - Why Why : Joh 1:15-18, Joh 1:30,Joh 1:34, Joh 3:26, Joh 3:36, Joh 3:26, Joh 3:36, Joh 5:33-35; Act 13:25

TSK: Luk 20:6 - all // for all : Mat 21:26, Mat 21:46, Mat 26:5; Mar 12:12; Act 5:26 for : Luk 1:76, Luk 7:26-29; Mat 14:5, Mat 21:26; Joh 10:41

TSK: Luk 20:7 - that that : Isa 6:9, Isa 6:10, Isa 26:11, Isa 29:9-12, Isa 29:14, Isa 41:28, Isa 42:19, Isa 42:20, Isa 44:18; Jer 8:7-9; Zec 11:15, Zec 11:17; Mal 2:7-9; J...

TSK: Luk 20:8 - -- Luk 22:68; Job 5:12, Job 5:13; Pro 26:4, Pro 26:5; Mat 15:14, Mat 16:4, Mat 21:27; Mar 11:33

TSK: Luk 20:9 - this // planted // and let // husbandmen // went this : Mat 21:33-46; Mar 12:1-12 planted : Psa 80:8-14; Isa 5:1-7; Jer 2:21; Joh 15:1-8; 1Co 3:6-9 and let : Son 8:11, Son 8:12 husbandmen : Deu 1:15-...

TSK: Luk 20:10 - the season // sent // beat the season : Psa 1:3; Jer 5:24; Mat 21:34-36; Mar 12:2-5 sent : Jdg 6:8-10; 2Ki 17:13; 2Ch 36:15, 2Ch 36:16; Neh 9:30; Jer 25:3-7, Jer 26:2-6; Jer 35:...

TSK: Luk 20:11 - entreated // and sent entreated : Mat 23:30-37; Act 7:52; 1Th 2:2; Heb 11:36, Heb 11:37 and sent : Hos 10:1

TSK: Luk 20:13 - What // I will // it may What : Isa 5:4; Hos 6:4, Hos 11:8 I will : Luk 9:35; Mat 3:17, Mat 17:5; Joh 1:34, Joh 3:16, Joh 3:17, Joh 3:35, Joh 3:36; Rom 8:3; Gal 4:4; 1Jo 4:9-1...

TSK: Luk 20:14 - reasoned // the heir // let reasoned : Luk 20:5; Mat 16:7, Mat 21:25 the heir : Psa 2:1-6, Psa 2:8, Psa 89:27; Mat 2:2-16; Rom 8:17; Heb 1:2 let : Luk 20:19, Luk 19:47, Luk 22:2;...

TSK: Luk 20:15 - they // What they : Heb 13:12 What : Mat 21:37-40; Mar 12:6-9

TSK: Luk 20:16 - destroy // shall give destroy : Luk 19:27; Psa 2:8, Psa 2:9, Psa 21:8-10; Mat 21:41, Mat 22:7; Act 13:46 shall give : Neh 9:36, Neh 9:37

TSK: Luk 20:17 - beheld // What // The stone beheld : Luk 19:41, Luk 22:61; Mar 3:5, Mar 10:23 What : Luk 22:37, Luk 24:44; Joh 15:25 The stone : Psa 118:22; Isa 28:16; Zec 3:9; Mat 21:42; Mar 12...

TSK: Luk 20:18 - shall fall shall fall : This is an allusion to the Jewish mode of stoning. ""The place of stoning was twice as high as a man. From the top of this one of the w...

shall fall : This is an allusion to the Jewish mode of stoning. ""The place of stoning was twice as high as a man. From the top of this one of the witnesses struck the culprit on the loins, and felled him to the groundcaps1 . icaps0 f he died of this, well; if not, the other witness threw a stone upon his heart,""etc. Our Lord seems to refer not only to the dreadful crushing of the Jews by the Romans, but also to their general dispersion to the present day. Isa 8:14, Isa 8:15; Dan 2:34, Dan 2:35, Dan 2:44, Dan 2:45; Zec 12:3; Mat 21:34; 1Th 2:16

TSK: Luk 20:19 - the same the same : Luk 20:14, Luk 19:47, Luk 19:48; Mat 21:45, Mat 21:46, Mat 26:3, Mat 26:4; Mar 12:12

TSK: Luk 20:20 - they watched // feign // they might deliver they watched : Psa 37:32, Psa 37:33, Psa 38:12; Isa 29:20,Isa 29:21; Jer 11:19, Jer 18:18, Jer 20:10; Mat 22:15, Mat 22:18; Mar 12:13, Mar 12:15 feign...

TSK: Luk 20:21 - Master // sayest // acceptest // truly Master : Psa 12:2, Psa 55:21; Jer 42:2, Jer 42:3; Mat 22:16, Mat 26:49, Mat 26:50; Mar 12:14; Joh 3:2 sayest : 2Co 2:17; Gal 1:10; 1Th 2:4, 1Th 2:5 ac...

TSK: Luk 20:22 - -- Deu 17:15; Ezr 4:13, Ezr 4:19-22, Ezr 9:7; Neh 5:4, Neh 9:37; Mat 22:17-21; Mar 12:14-17; Act 5:37

TSK: Luk 20:23 - he // Why he : Luk 5:22, Luk 6:8, Luk 11:17; Joh 2:24, Joh 2:25; 1Co 3:19; Heb 4:13 Why : Luk 20:20, Luk 11:16, Luk 11:53, Luk 11:54; Psa 95:9; Mat 16:1, Mat 22...

TSK: Luk 20:24 - a penny // image // Caesar’ s a penny : Mat 18:28, Mat 20:2 image : This was the head of the emperor; the superscription his titles. Julius Cesar was the first who caused his imag...

a penny : Mat 18:28, Mat 20:2

image : This was the head of the emperor; the superscription his titles. Julius Cesar was the first who caused his image to be struck on the Roman coin; and Tiberius was emperor at this time. This therefore was a denarius of Cesar, דינרא קיסר אנה , as it is termed in the Talmud; and consequently this was respecting the tribute required by the Roman government.

Caesar’ s : Luk 20:22, Luk 2:1, Luk 3:1, Luk 23:2; Act 11:28, Act 25:8-12, Act 26:32; Phi 4:22

TSK: Luk 20:25 - Render // unto God Render : Pro 24:21; Mat 17:27, Mat 22:21; Mar 12:17; Rom 13:6, Rom 13:7; 1Pe 2:13-17 unto God : Act 4:19, Act 4:20, Act 5:29; 1Co 10:31; 1Pe 4:11

TSK: Luk 20:26 - they could // and they marvelled they could : Luk 20:20,Luk 20:39, Luk 20:40; Job 5:12, Job 5:13; Pro 26:4, Pro 26:5; 2Ti 3:8, 2Ti 3:9 and they marvelled : Luk 13:17; Mat 22:12, Mat 2...

TSK: Luk 20:27 - the Sadducees the Sadducees : Mat 16:1, Mat 16:6, Mat 16:12, Mat 22:23-33; Mar 12:18-27; Act 4:1, Act 4:2, Act 5:17, Act 23:6-8; 1Co 15:12; 2Ti 2:17, 2Ti 2:18

TSK: Luk 20:28 - -- Gen 38:8, Gen 38:11, Gen 38:26; Deu 25:5-10; Rth 1:11, Rth 1:12

TSK: Luk 20:29 - and died and died : Lev 20:20; Jer 22:30

and died : Lev 20:20; Jer 22:30

TSK: Luk 20:32 - died died : Jdg 2:10; Ecc 1:4, Ecc 9:5; Heb 9:27

TSK: Luk 20:33 - -- Mat 22:24-28; Mar 12:19-23

TSK: Luk 20:34 - The children // marry The children : Luk 16:8 marry : Luk 17:27; 1Co 7:2-16; Eph 5:31; Heb 13:4

The children : Luk 16:8

marry : Luk 17:27; 1Co 7:2-16; Eph 5:31; Heb 13:4

TSK: Luk 20:35 - accounted // to // neither accounted : Luk 21:36; Act 5:41; 2Th 1:5; Rev 3:4 to : Dan 12:2, Dan 12:3; Joh 5:29; Act 24:15; Heb 11:35 neither : Mat 22:29; Mar 12:24

TSK: Luk 20:36 - can // they are // the children of God can : Isa 25:8; Hos 13:14; 1Co 15:26, 1Co 15:42, 1Co 15:53, 1Co 15:54; Phi 3:21; 1Th 4:13-17; Rev 20:6, Rev 21:4, Rev 22:2-5 they are : Zec 3:7; Mat 2...

TSK: Luk 20:37 - even // when even : Exo 3:2-6; Deu 33:16; Act 7:30-32 when : There is a remarkable passage in Josephus, which proves that the best informed among the Jews believed...

even : Exo 3:2-6; Deu 33:16; Act 7:30-32

when : There is a remarkable passage in Josephus, which proves that the best informed among the Jews believed in the immateriality and immortality of the soul, and that the souls of righteous men were in the presence of God in a state of happiness. ""They who lose their lives for the sake of God, live unto God, as do Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and the rest of the patriarchs.""Not less remarkable is a passage in Shemoth Rabba, ""Why doth Moses say (Exo 32:13) Remember Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob? R. Abin saith, The Lord said unto Moses, I look for ten men from thee, as I looked for that number in Sodom. Find me out ten righteous persons among the people, and I will not destroy thy people. Then saith Moses, Behold, here am I, and Aaron, Eleazar, and Ithamar, Phinehas, and Caleb, and Joshua; but, saith God, there are but sevencaps1 . wcaps0 here are the other three? When Moses knew not what to do, he saith, O Eternal God, חיים הם המתים , do those live who are dead? Yes, saith God. Then saith Moses, If those that are dead do live, remember Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.""Gen 17:7, Gen 28:13, Gen 28:21, Gen 32:9; Matt. 22:3-33; Mar 12:26, Mar 12:27

TSK: Luk 20:38 - a God // for all a God : Psa 16:5-11, Psa 22:23-26, Psa 145:1, Psa 145:2; Heb 11:16 for all : Joh 6:57, Joh 11:25, Joh 11:26, Joh 14:19; Rom 6:10,Rom 6:11, Rom 6:22, R...

TSK: Luk 20:39 - thou thou : Mat 22:34-40; Mar 12:28-34; Act 23:9

TSK: Luk 20:40 - -- Pro 26:5; Mat 22:46; Mar 12:34

TSK: Luk 20:41 - How // Christ How : Mat 22:41, Mat 22:42; Mar 12:35-37 Christ : Luk 18:38, Luk 18:39; Isa 9:6, Isa 9:7, Isa 11:1, Isa 11:2; Jer 23:5, Jer 23:6, Jer 33:15, Jer 33:16...

TSK: Luk 20:42 - himself // the Lord himself : Luk 24:44; 2Sa 23:1, 2Sa 23:2; Mat 22:43; Mar 12:36, Mar 12:37; Act 1:20, Act 13:33-35; Heb 3:7 the Lord : Psa 110:1; Mat 22:44, Mat 22:45; ...

TSK: Luk 20:43 - -- Luk 19:27; Psa 2:1-9, Psa 21:8-12, Psa 72:9, 109:4-20, Psa 110:5, Psa 110:6; Rev 19:14-21

TSK: Luk 20:44 - how how : Luk 1:31-35, Luk 2:11; Isa 7:14; Mat 1:23; Rom 9:5; Gal 4:4; 1Ti 3:16; Rev 22:16

TSK: Luk 20:45 - -- Mat 15:10, Mat 23:1; Mar 8:34, Mar 12:38; 1Ti 5:20

TSK: Luk 20:46 - Beware // which Beware : Luk 12:1; Mat 16:6; Mar 8:15; 2Ti 4:15 which : Luk 11:43, Luk 14:7; Pro 29:23; Mat 23:5-7; Mar 12:38, Mar 12:39; Rom 12:10; Phi 2:3-5; 3Jo 1:...

TSK: Luk 20:47 - devour // for // the same devour : Isa 10:2; Jer 7:6-10; Eze 22:7; Amo 2:7, Amo 8:4-6; Mic 2:2, Mic 2:8, Mic 3:2; Mat 23:14; Mar 12:40; 2Ti 3:6 for : Luk 12:1; Eze 33:31; Mat 2...

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Poole: Luk 20:1 - -- Luk 20:1-8 Christ silences those who questioned his authority. Luk 20:9-18 The parable of the vineyard let out to wicked husbandmen. Luk 20:19-26...

Luk 20:1-8 Christ silences those who questioned his authority.

Luk 20:9-18 The parable of the vineyard let out to wicked husbandmen.

Luk 20:19-26 The chief priests and scribes seek matter against

him: his reply to their insidious question

concerning: paying tribute to Caesar.

Luk 20:27-40 He confuteth the Sadducees concerning the resurrection.

Luk 20:41-44 He propounds a difficulty concerning the character of Christ.

Luk 20:45-47 He warns his disciples against the ambition and

hypocrisy of the scribes.

Ver. 1,2. We have along the history of the gospel observed, that the scribes and Pharisees took all advantages imaginable against our Saviour: failing in all their acts, they now come to question his authority, which seemeth not so much to have respect to his preaching, as to his act in casting of the buyers and sellers out of the temple; for as to preaching, they seem, by the history of Scripture, to have given a great liberty, especially if any had the repute of a prophet.

Poole: Luk 20:3-8 - -- Ver. 3-8. See Poole on "Mat 21:24" , and following verses to Mat 21:27 . See Poole on "Mar 11:29" , and following verses to Mar 11:33 . The substan...

Ver. 3-8. See Poole on "Mat 21:24" , and following verses to Mat 21:27 . See Poole on "Mar 11:29" , and following verses to Mar 11:33 . The substance of our Saviour’ s answer is this: From whence had John his authority? He preached and baptized; who gave him his authority? They had sent much such another message to John, Joh 1:19-22 . Was John’ s authority ordinary or extraordinary? It is plain that he had no authority from them, for then they would not have sent to him to know who he was. He must therefore have it from heaven. Now if they had allowed John’ s call extraordinary, why should not they allow Christ’ s to be such, to whom John gave so large a testimony, and who confirmed his extraordinary mission by miraculous operations, which we do not read that John ever did? Besides, the Pharisees saw that if they allowed John’ s mission to be extraordinary, and from heaven, they had obviously exposed themselves to a check for not believing what he said; they therefore refuse to make any answer, and Christ refuseth also to satisfy them.

Poole: Luk 20:9-18 - -- Ver. 9-18. We met with this parable at large both in Mat 21:33-41 , and in Mar 12:1-11 . Its obvious scope is to let them know, that God in righteous...

Ver. 9-18. We met with this parable at large both in Mat 21:33-41 , and in Mar 12:1-11 . Its obvious scope is to let them know, that God in righteous judgment, for the Jews’ abusing the Lord’ s prophets, John the Baptist, and himself, who was in a few days to be killed by them, would unchurch and destroy them, and raise up to himself a church amongst the Gentiles; and that this was no more than was prophesied of, Psa 118:22 .

Poole: Luk 20:19-20 - -- Ver. 19,20. There is nothing in these verses, but what we before met with, and is opened in the notes on Mat 21:45,46 , or Mar 12:12,13 . They let us...

Ver. 19,20. There is nothing in these verses, but what we before met with, and is opened in the notes on Mat 21:45,46 , or Mar 12:12,13 . They let us see as in a glass the spirit and genius of wicked men filled with malice against the gospel. They are continually seeking to destroy such as have any relation to Christ, and, to effect their ends, they will judge no means unfair; and their great art is to represent them as dangerous persons to the civil government: so as if good men find the same things still, they have this to comfort them, that the disciple is not above his master, nor the servant above his lord.

Poole: Luk 20:21-26 - -- Ver. 21-26 This piece of history we have likewise met with, both in Mat 22:16-22 , and Mar 12:14-17 .

Ver. 21-26 This piece of history we have likewise met with, both in Mat 22:16-22 , and Mar 12:14-17 .

Poole: Luk 20:27-38 - -- Ver. 27-38. See Poole on "Mat 22:23" , and following verses to Mat 22:32 , See Poole on "Mar 12:18" , and following verses to Mar 12:27 , where all...

Ver. 27-38. See Poole on "Mat 22:23" , and following verses to Mat 22:32 , See Poole on "Mar 12:18" , and following verses to Mar 12:27 , where all the passages in this piece of history are fully opened. By

equal unto the angels in Luk 20:36 , we must not understand in all things, but in the thing mentioned:

1. The number of the elect shall be perfect, so there shall be no need of marrying, or giving in marriage, to multiply the number of men.

2. There shall be no more marriages amongst men than amongst angels; all live unto God Luk 20:38 . Though Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob were dead at the speaking of those words, yet they were not so in God’ s eye, who was determined to raise them up in the last day, and who with the same eye beholds things past, present, and to come. But see more in the notes before mentioned.

Poole: Luk 20:39-40 - -- Ver. 39,40 The scribes were the Jewish doctors of the Pharisees faction, and enemies to the Sadducees; they applaud our Saviour’ s answer: thus ...

Ver. 39,40 The scribes were the Jewish doctors of the Pharisees faction, and enemies to the Sadducees; they applaud our Saviour’ s answer: thus as the Herodians before, (in the case of the tribute), so the Sadducees here, are put to silence. He will now put the scribes and Pharisees to silence.

Poole: Luk 20:41-44 - No man was able to answer him a word, neither durst any man from that day forth ask him any more questions Ver. 41-44. The answer had been easy if the scribes and Pharisees, who (Matthew saith) were there also, had owned Christ to be the Son of God. But th...

Ver. 41-44. The answer had been easy if the scribes and Pharisees, who (Matthew saith) were there also, had owned Christ to be the Son of God. But this they did not own, and so, as Mat 22:46 tells us,

No man was able to answer him a word, neither durst any man from that day forth ask him any more questions Thus Christ nonplussed all his adversaries.

Poole: Luk 20:45-47 - -- Ver. 45-47. We have met with all this before, See Poole on "Luk 11:43" . See Poole on "Mat 23:6" . See Poole on "Mat 23:7" . See Poole on "Mar 12...

Ver. 45-47. We have met with all this before, See Poole on "Luk 11:43" . See Poole on "Mat 23:6" . See Poole on "Mat 23:7" . See Poole on "Mar 12:38" , and following verses to Mar 12:40 .

Lightfoot: Luk 20:1 - The chief priests and the scribes with the elders And it came to pass, that on one of those days, as he taught the people in the temple, and preached the gospel, the chief priests and the scribe...

And it came to pass, that on one of those days, as he taught the people in the temple, and preached the gospel, the chief priests and the scribes came upon him with the elders.   

[The chief priests and the scribes with the elders.] So it is in Mar 11:27; but in Mat 21:23; it is the chief priests and elders of the people. Now the question is, who these elders should be, as they are distinguished from the chief priests and the scribes. The Sanhedrim consisted chiefly of priests, Levites, and Israelites, although the original precept was for the priests and Levites only. "The command is, that the priests and Levites should be of the great council; as it is said, Thou shalt go unto the priests and Levites: but if such be not to be found, although they were all Israelites, behold, it is allowed."  

None will imagine that there ever was a Sanhedrim wherein there were Israelites only, and no priests or Levites; nor, on the other hand, that there ever was a Sanhedrim wherein there were only priests and Levites, and no Israelites. The scribes; therefore, seem in this place to denote either the Levites; or else, together with the Levites, those inferior ranks of priests who were not the chief priests; and then the elders; may be the Israelites, or those elders of the laity that were not of the Levitical tribe. Such a one was Gamaliel the present president of the Sanhedrim, and Simeon his son, of the tribe of Judah.

Lightfoot: Luk 20:37 - He calleth the Lord the God of Abraham, etc. Now that the dead are raised, even Moses showed at the bush, when he calleth the Lord the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Ja...

Now that the dead are raised, even Moses showed at the bush, when he calleth the Lord the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob.   

[He calleth the Lord the God of Abraham, etc.] "Why doth Moses say (Exo 32:13), Remember Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob? R. Abin saith, The Lord said unto Moses, 'I look for ten men from thee, as I looked for that number in Sodom: find me out ten righteous persons among the people, and I will not destroy thy people.' Then said Moses, 'Behold, here am I, and Aaron, and Eleazar, and Ithamar, and Phineas, and Caleb, and Joshua.' 'But' saith God, 'these are but seven; where are the other three?' When Moses knew not what to do, he saith, 'O eternal God, do those live that are dead? ' 'Yes,' saith God. Then saith Moses, 'If those that are dead do live, remember Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.'"

Lightfoot: Luk 20:42 - The Lord said unto my Lord, etc. And David himself saith in the book of Psalms, The LORD said unto my Lord, Sit thou on my right hand,   [The Lord said unto my Lord, etc....

And David himself saith in the book of Psalms, The LORD said unto my Lord, Sit thou on my right hand,   

[The Lord said unto my Lord, etc.] whereas St. Matthew tells us, That "no man was able to answer him a word" to that argument, whereby he asserted the divinity of the Messias, it is plain that those evasions were not yet thought of, by which the Jews have since endeavoured to shift off this place. For the Talmudists apply the psalm to Abraham; the Targumist (as it seems) to David; others (as Justin Martyr tells us) to Hezekiah; which yet I do not remember I have observed in the Jewish authors. His words are in his Dialogue with Tryphon: I am not ignorant, that you venture to explain this psalm (when he had recited the whole psalm) as if it were to be understood of king Hezekiah.  

The Jewish authors have it thus: "Sem the Great said unto Eliezer [Abraham's servant], 'When the kings of the east and of the west came against you, what did you?' He answered and said, 'The Holy Blessed God took Abraham, and made him to sit on his right hand.' " And again: "The Holy Blessed God had purposed to have derived the priesthood from Shem; according as it is said, Thou art the priest of the most high God: but because he blessed Abraham before he blessed God, God derived the priesthood from Abraham. For so it is said, And he blessed him and said, Blessed be Abraham of the most high God, possessor of heaven and earth, and blessed be the most high God. Abraham saith unto him, Who useth to bless the servant before his Lord? Upon this God gave the priesthood to Abraham, according as it is said, The Lord said unto my Lord, Sit thou on my right hand. And afterward it is written, The Lord sware and will not repent, Thou art a priest for ever for the speaking of Melchizedek." Midras Tillin and others also, in the explication of this psalm, refer it to Abraham. Worshipful commentators indeed!

Lightfoot: Luk 20:46 - Which desire to walk in long robes Beware of the scribes, which desire to walk in long robes, and love greetings in the markets, and the highest seats in the synagogues, and the ch...

Beware of the scribes, which desire to walk in long robes, and love greetings in the markets, and the highest seats in the synagogues, and the chief rooms at feasts;   

[Which desire to walk in long robes.] In garments to the feet; in long robes; which their own Rabbins sufficiently testify. "R. Jochanan asked R. Banaah, What kind of garment is the inner garment of the disciple of the wise men? It is such a one, that the flesh may not be seen underneath him." The Gloss is, It is to reach to the very sole of the foot, that it may not be discerned when he goes barefoot. " What is the 'talith,' that the disciple of the wise wears? That the inner garment may not be seen below it to a handbreadth."  

What is that, Luk 15:22; the first robe? [the best robe; AV]. Is it the former robe; that is, that which the prodigal had worn formerly? Or the first; i.e. the chief and best robe? It may be queried, whether it may not be particularly understood the talith as what was in more esteem than the chaluk; and that which is the first garment in view to the beholders. "I saw amongst the spoils a Babylonish garment; Joshua_7. Rabh saith, A long garment called melotes." The Gloss is, " a 'talith' of purest wool."

Haydock: Luk 20:1 - In one of the days In one of the days. This happened on the last week (on the Tuesday) two or three days before Christ suffered. See the contents of this chapter, Mat...

In one of the days. This happened on the last week (on the Tuesday) two or three days before Christ suffered. See the contents of this chapter, Matthew xxi. and xxii. and Mark xi. and xii. (Witham)

Haydock: Luk 20:2 - Authority? Authority? By what authority do you make yourself a teacher of the people, a censor of the priests, a reformer of the laws and customs? If Jesus Ch...

Authority? By what authority do you make yourself a teacher of the people, a censor of the priests, a reformer of the laws and customs? If Jesus Christ had not publicly given undeniable proofs of his mission, by his miracles, the Pharisees would have had a right to demand an answer to this question; but, after what had been done in their own sight, it was no longer excusable to oppose the preaching of the Son of God. (Calmet) ---

Our Saviour himself teaches, that if he had not proved the divinity of his mission by his doctrine and works, it had been no sin to disbelieve or reject him. (John v. 31. and 36. and also x. 25, 37, and xv. 22, 24.

Haydock: Luk 20:4 - -- Jesus does not gratify them by a direct answer; they did not deserve it, because they only interrogated him through captious and improper motives. He...

Jesus does not gratify them by a direct answer; they did not deserve it, because they only interrogated him through captious and improper motives. He only replies by casting on them the very difficulties with which they sought to entangle him. (Calmet) ---

Our divine Redeemer proposes to the chief priests a question concerning St. John the Baptist, to shew them how inconsistent was their uniform opposition to the ways of God. Because, though they believed in what was preached by St. John, (at least outwardly, through fear of the Jews) yet they would not believe him, or his doctrines, to whom St. John had given testimony, "That he was the Lamb of God, that had come to take away the sins of the world." (Theophylactus)

Haydock: Luk 20:9 - A long time A long time. Not that God (who is here represented by the man that planted a vineyard) confines himself to any particular place, either distant or n...

A long time. Not that God (who is here represented by the man that planted a vineyard) confines himself to any particular place, either distant or near; but he only seems to absent himself in order that when he comes to receive the fruit of the vineyard, he may punish the negligent more severely, and reward the diligent with greater liberality. Likewise God is more intimately present with the good, by continually showering down upon them his special graces; and less so with the wicked, by refusing them, on account of their indispositions, any of his favours. (St. Ambrose)

Haydock: Luk 20:15 - -- As this whole parable may be applied exactly to the Jews, to the prophets and Christ; so may this last part, with no less accuracy, be applied to our ...

As this whole parable may be applied exactly to the Jews, to the prophets and Christ; so may this last part, with no less accuracy, be applied to our Saviour. The husbandmen, before they killed the lord's beloved son, first cast him out of the vineyard. So the Jews did not kill the Son of God immediately themselves: they first cast him out from themselves, into the hands of Pilate, a Gentile, and then procured his death. (Theophylactus) ---

Thus sinners likewise act, by casting Christ out of their hearts, and crucifying him by sin. (Ven. Bede) ---

To reconcile St. Matthew and St. Luke, we must observe, says St. Augustine that this parable was not only spoken to those who questioned his authority, but to the people themselves; as St. Luke tells us.

Haydock: Luk 20:18 - Fall upon Fall upon. That is, whosoever sins against God, yet believes, will be spared by God for a short time to repent, though he kills his own soul by mort...

Fall upon. That is, whosoever sins against God, yet believes, will be spared by God for a short time to repent, though he kills his own soul by mortal sin: but, upon whomsoever it shall fall, that is, he who denies Christ, and continues on hardened in his sin, upon him the fury of God shall fall, and he shall be utterly destroyed. It will grind him to powder, like the dust which the wind driveth from the face of the earth. (Psalm i.) (Ven. Bede)

Haydock: Luk 20:19 - Lay hands on him Lay hands on him. Thus they themselves proved him to be the Lord's beloved Son, as he had just described himself in the preceding parable. (Ven. Bed...

Lay hands on him. Thus they themselves proved him to be the Lord's beloved Son, as he had just described himself in the preceding parable. (Ven. Bede)

Haydock: Luk 20:20 - Of the governor Of the governor, &c. Of the governor, Pilate, who in the name of the Romans, exercised absolute authority in the country: for the Jews had lost the ...

Of the governor, &c. Of the governor, Pilate, who in the name of the Romans, exercised absolute authority in the country: for the Jews had lost the power of life and death, which was put into the hands of their presidents. (Calmet)

Haydock: Luk 20:22 - -- If our divine Saviour had returned them for answer, that they ought to give tribute to Cæsar, they would have accused him of being an enemy to the la...

If our divine Saviour had returned them for answer, that they ought to give tribute to Cæsar, they would have accused him of being an enemy to the law; but if, on the contrary, he said it was not lawful, they would have accused him to Pilate as an enemy of the state. (Theophylactus) ---

For there was then a great misunderstanding among the Jews: some, who wished to keep peace with the Romans, said that it was lawful; but the Pharisees denied it, and said: "The people of God ought to be exempt from such a tax. They were bound by the law to give tithes and first-fruits to God; therefore they ought not to be bound by human laws to give likewise tax to men who were heathens." (St. Jerome)

Haydock: Luk 20:26 - -- We may here be astonished at the incredulity of the chiefs of the Jews, who, though they ought to have admired his wisdom, as something divine, and be...

We may here be astonished at the incredulity of the chiefs of the Jews, who, though they ought to have admired his wisdom, as something divine, and believed in him, are only surprised that he should have escaped their duplicity and snares. (Ven. Bede) ---

Their pride must have been a good deal hurt, to have been thus publicly refuted and confused by the wisdom of our Saviour's answer. (Theophylactus)

Haydock: Luk 20:36 - The children of resurrection The children of resurrection; i.e. of the just, who shall rise to a happy resurrection: not but that the wicked shall also rise, but to their condemn...

The children of resurrection; i.e. of the just, who shall rise to a happy resurrection: not but that the wicked shall also rise, but to their condemnation and greater misery. (Witham) ---

Jesus Christ begins with stating the wide difference between the state of things in this mortal life and in that which is to come: that marriage necessary here, will be unnecessary hereafter. For, in this life, they are children of men, subject to death, and therefore under the necessity of continuing their race by generation; but in the next life, they shall be children of resurrection, living for eternity, never to die, and consequently sons of God, and immortal. Resurrection is a kind of regeneration to immortality. Hence St. Paul explains to our Saviour's rising again, these words of the 2nd Psalm: Thou art my Son, this day have I begotten thee. (Calmet)

Haydock: Luk 20:39 - -- The Scribes, seeing the Sadducees thus silenced, seemed to side entirely with our Saviour saying: Master, thou hast said well. And, apprehensive of b...

The Scribes, seeing the Sadducees thus silenced, seemed to side entirely with our Saviour saying: Master, thou hast said well. And, apprehensive of being exposed to a similar disgrace and discomfiture themselves, they were afraid to ask him any more questions. But this was only an apparent and false conformity; for they afterwards procured him to be put to death by the Romans. Thus mortal hatred or envy may indeed be smothered for a time, but can hardly ever be extinguished. (Theophylactus)

Haydock: Luk 20:44 - -- Christ indeed is both the Lord and Servant of David. He is Servant, according to the flesh, being a descendant of David; and he is Lord, according to...

Christ indeed is both the Lord and Servant of David. He is Servant, according to the flesh, being a descendant of David; and he is Lord, according to the spirit, being Lord of all. (St. John Chrysostom) ---

We hear in our times of a new sect of Pharisees, who neither believed that Christ is the true Son of God, nor that he is God born of a pure virgin. To such we object this question: How is he the Son of David, and his Lord? Not by human, but by divine dominion. (St. Cyril) ---

He has two natures: the nature of man, according to which, David was his father; and the nature of God, according to which, he was Son of God, and Lord of David. Thus is the difficulty solved.

Haydock: Luk 20:45 - -- How forcible are our divine Redeemer's reasonings, when he uses any text out of the prophets. When he performs the most stupendous miracles, his enem...

How forcible are our divine Redeemer's reasonings, when he uses any text out of the prophets. When he performs the most stupendous miracles, his enemies generally have something to reply; when he cites a text of Scripture, they have nothing to say. All are silent. (St. John Chrysostom)

Haydock: Luk 20:46 - -- The reproach he makes the Scribes in this place, is similar to that he had objected against the Pharisees. (St. Matthew xxiii. 5.) Both these sects w...

The reproach he makes the Scribes in this place, is similar to that he had objected against the Pharisees. (St. Matthew xxiii. 5.) Both these sects were filled with the same spirit of pride and vanity, which shewed itself in their dress, in their exterior, and in every part of their conduct. If our Saviour here attacks them upon their long trains, or other affected forms of their dress, he does not pronounce an absolute condemnation of things, which in themselves are indifferent, but their abuse of them, making them serve only the purpose of vanity and affectation. (Calmet)

Haydock: Luk 20:47 - -- These shall receive a greater condemnation, because they not only commit ordinary evil actions, but also make their prayers, and virtue itself, a cloa...

These shall receive a greater condemnation, because they not only commit ordinary evil actions, but also make their prayers, and virtue itself, a cloak to their hypocrisy and vanity, and the cause of their greater depravity, famishing the widows whom themselves ought to compassionate and relieve. (Theophylactus) ---

Or, the greater honours and rewards they received for their wickedness, the greater punishment must they endure to expiate it. (Ven. Bede) ---

Jesus Christ seems in this place to allude to the avaricious practice of the Jews, draining the purses of widows by their stipulated long prayers for their departed husbands, (see Matthew xxiii. 14.; Mark xii. 40.) and thus abusing so holy a thing as prayer, merely to gratify their avarice.

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Gill: Luk 20:1 - And it came to pass, that on one of those days // as he taught the people in the temple, and preached the Gospel // The chief priests, and the Scribes, came upon him, with the elders And it came to pass, that on one of those days,.... According to the account of the Evangelist Mark, it must be the second day, or two days after his ...

And it came to pass, that on one of those days,.... According to the account of the Evangelist Mark, it must be the second day, or two days after his public entrance into Jerusalem; for on the evening of the day he made his entry, he went out to Bethany with his disciples; the next morning, as he returned from thence, he cursed the barren fig tree; and when he came to the temple cast out the buyers and sellers; at evening he went out again, either to Bethany, or the Mount of Olives; and the next morning, as he and his disciples returned, the fig tree was observed to be dried up; and when they were come to Jerusalem, as he was walking in the temple, he was attacked by the sanhedrim, and had the following discourse with them:

as he taught the people in the temple, and preached the Gospel; for he taught them by preaching that, and which he did most clearly, faithfully, and publicly, being abundantly anointed and qualified for it, and sent to do it.

The chief priests, and the Scribes, came upon him, with the elders. The whole sanhedrim being purposely convened together, came upon him in a body; and it may be suddenly, and at an unawares, and came open mouthed against him, and attacked him with great warmth and vehemency.

Gill: Luk 20:2 - And spoke unto him, saying, tell us by what authority doest thou these things // or who is he that gave thee this authority And spoke unto him, saying, tell us by what authority doest thou these things?.... The Arabic and Ethiopic versions read, "this thing"; as if the sanh...

And spoke unto him, saying, tell us by what authority doest thou these things?.... The Arabic and Ethiopic versions read, "this thing"; as if the sanhedrim only referred to his preaching the Gospel, which is mentioned in the preceding verse, and was what he was about when they came to him: but the Persic version reads, "all these things"; not only preaching, but working miracles; and particularly driving the buyers and sellers out of the temple, which especially affected them, they losing their rents thereby:

or who is he that gave thee this authority? God or man? See Gill on Mat 21:23.

Gill: Luk 20:3 - And he answered and said unto them // I will also ask you one thing, and answer me And he answered and said unto them,.... That is, Jesus replied to them, as the Vulgate Latin, Syriac, and Persic versions express it: I will also a...

And he answered and said unto them,.... That is, Jesus replied to them, as the Vulgate Latin, Syriac, and Persic versions express it:

I will also ask you one thing, and answer me; when he also promised, that if they would give him an answer to his question, he would satisfy them in the point they interrogated him about: and as this was a prudent decline to avoid the snare they laid for him, so it was not an impertinent reply to them; since it led on to a proper answer to their question, as appears by the case proposed; See Gill on Mat 21:24.

Gill: Luk 20:4 - The baptism of John, was it from heaven, or of men? The baptism of John, was it from heaven, or of men? This was a new ordinance, and John must have his authority for administering it either from God, o...

The baptism of John, was it from heaven, or of men? This was a new ordinance, and John must have his authority for administering it either from God, or from men; and Christ is desirous to know from which he derived it in their opinion; suggesting, that by the same authority John, his forerunner, came baptizing, he himself came preaching and working miracles; See Gill on Mat 21:25.

Gill: Luk 20:5 - And they reasoned with themselves // saying, if we shall say from heaven // he will say, why then believed ye him not And they reasoned with themselves,.... Or "they thought with themselves", as the Syriac version; or "within themselves", as the Vulgate Latin, though ...

And they reasoned with themselves,.... Or "they thought with themselves", as the Syriac version; or "within themselves", as the Vulgate Latin, though they did not express it; or "one with another", as the Arabic version; they took counsel together, and debated the matter among themselves, and reasoned after this manner:

saying, if we shall say from heaven; which was what, in their own consciences, they believed to be true,

he will say, why then believed ye him not? in what he said concerning the Messiah; which if they had, as they should, there would have been no reason for such a question they had put; See Gill on Mat 21:25.

Gill: Luk 20:6 - But and if we say of men // all the people will stone us // for they be persuaded that John was a prophet But and if we say of men,..... Which they had a good will to, against the dictates of their own consciences: all the people will stone us; meaning ...

But and if we say of men,..... Which they had a good will to, against the dictates of their own consciences:

all the people will stone us; meaning the common people, that were then in the temple about Christ, hearing him preach; who would be so enraged at such an answer, that without any regard to their character and office, they would rise and stone them. The Ethiopic version adds, "whom we fear"; see Mat 21:26 for it seems that they had not so behaved as to have the good will and esteem of the people, at least they did not pin their faith on their sleeve:

for they be persuaded that John was a prophet; they were fully assured of it; and the sentiments and authority of the chief priests could have no weight and influence upon them to weaken their faith in this point; the evidence was so strong, and their faith so firm and sure.

Gill: Luk 20:7 - -- Whether from heaven, or of men; in this, no doubt, they told an untruth: but they chose rather to sacrifice their consciences than their interest, and...

Whether from heaven, or of men; in this, no doubt, they told an untruth: but they chose rather to sacrifice their consciences than their interest, and pretend ignorance rather than profess the truth, when they saw they should be put to confusion, or be exposed to the resentments of the people.

Gill: Luk 20:8 - And Jesus said unto them // neither tell I you by what authority I do these things And Jesus said unto them,.... Since they would not give him a direct answer to his question: neither tell I you by what authority I do these things...

And Jesus said unto them,.... Since they would not give him a direct answer to his question:

neither tell I you by what authority I do these things; nor was there any need of it; they might easily perceive by what he had said, from whence he professed to have received his authority, from God, and not men; See Gill on Mat 21:27.

Gill: Luk 20:9 - Then began he to speak to the people this parable // a certain man planted a vineyard // and let it forth to husbandmen // and went into a far country for a long time Then began he to speak to the people this parable,.... According to the other evangelists it seems to be spoken to the chief priests, Scribes, and eld...

Then began he to speak to the people this parable,.... According to the other evangelists it seems to be spoken to the chief priests, Scribes, and elders; and certain it is, that they looked upon themselves as struck at in it; it might be spoken to both. Christ having silenced the sanhedrim, turned himself to the people, and delivered the parable of the vineyard to them, though his principal view was to the priests:

a certain man planted a vineyard; the people of the Jews are designed by the vineyard, and the "certain man", or "householder", as Matthew calls him, Mat 21:28 is the Lord of hosts; and the planting of it is to be understood of his bringing and settling the people Israel in the land of Canaan. Luke omits certain things which the other evangelists relate, as setting an hedge about it, digging a winepress, and building a tower in it; and the Persic version here adds, "and planted trees, and set a wall about it"; all which express the care that was taken to cultivate and protect it; and signify the various blessings and privileges the Jew's enjoyed under the former dispensation; see Gill on Mat 21:33 and See Gill on Mar 12:1.

and let it forth to husbandmen; put the people of the Jews under the care not only of civil magistrates, but of ecclesiastical governors, who were to dress this vine, or instruct these people in matters of religion, that they might be fruitful in good works:

and went into a far country for a long time; for a long time it was, from the times of Moses and Joshua, when the first settlement, both of the civil and ecclesiastical state of the Jews, was made, to the time of Christ; it was fourteen or fifteen hundred years; see the notes, as above.

Gill: Luk 20:10 - And at the season // he sent a servant to the husbandmen // that they should give him of the fruit of the vineyard // but the husbandmen beat him, and sent him away empty And at the season,.... Or "when it the time of fruit", as the Ethiopic version renders it, agreeably to See Gill on Mat 21:34, he sent a servant to...

And at the season,.... Or "when it the time of fruit", as the Ethiopic version renders it, agreeably to See Gill on Mat 21:34,

he sent a servant to the husbandmen; or servants, as in Mat 21:34; the prophets of the Lord, his messengers, whom he sent to them, to exhort them to bring forth the fruits of righteousness, as follows:

that they should give him of the fruit of the vineyard; that is, that they, bringing forth good fruit in their lives and conversations, whereby it might appear that they were trees of righteousness, and the planting of the Lord; he, or they observing them, might give an account of them to the Lord, to the glory of his name:

but the husbandmen beat him, and sent him away empty; the Jews not only mocked these messengers of the Lord, and despised their words, but misused them, 2Ch 36:15 they beat them with their fists, smote them on the cheek, and scourged them with scourges; so that they had no account to give of their fruitfulness in good works, but the contrary; See Gill on Mat 21:35 and See Gill on Mar 12:3.

Gill: Luk 20:11 - And again he sent another servant // and they beat him also // and entreated him shamefully // and sent him away empty And again he sent another servant,.... Or set of prophets in after times, and yet before the Babylonish captivity: and they beat him also; as they ...

And again he sent another servant,.... Or set of prophets in after times, and yet before the Babylonish captivity:

and they beat him also; as they had done the other; they continued in their malpractices, yea increased in them:

and entreated him shamefully; putting him to open shame, using him in a very ignominious and shameful manner, which it was a shame to relate, and which was shameful for them to do:

and sent him away empty; as they had done the other.

Gill: Luk 20:12 - And again he sent the third // and they wounded him also // and cast him out And again he sent the third,.... Perhaps after the return of the Jews from captivity, and between that time and the coming of Christ, in which interva...

And again he sent the third,.... Perhaps after the return of the Jews from captivity, and between that time and the coming of Christ, in which interval many good men were used in a very inhuman manner, Heb 11:37

and they wounded him also; by casting stones at him; see Mar 12:4

and cast him out; of the vineyard.

Gill: Luk 20:13 - Then said the Lord of the vineyard // what shall I do // I will send my beloved Son // it may be they will reverence him, when they see him Then said the Lord of the vineyard,.... Who planted it, and let it out to husbandmen, and expected fruit from it, and sent his servants from time to t...

Then said the Lord of the vineyard,.... Who planted it, and let it out to husbandmen, and expected fruit from it, and sent his servants from time to time for it:

what shall I do? or what can be done more than has been done? Isa 5:4 who else can be sent that is likely to do any good with such an ungrateful and unfruitful people?

I will send my beloved Son; the Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, who lay in his bosom, was the darling of his soul, and the delight of his heart; him he determined to send, and him he did send to the lost sheep of the house of Israel:

it may be they will reverence him, when they see him: it might be thought after the manner of men, that considering the greatness of his person, as the Son of God, the nature of his office, as the Redeemer and Saviour of men, the doctrines which he preached, the miracles which he wrought, and the holiness and harmlessness of his conversation, and the great good he did both to the bodies and souls of men, that he would have been had in great esteem and veneration with the men, to whom he was sent, and among whom he conversed: but, alas! when they saw him, they saw no beauty, comeliness, and excellency in him, and nothing on account of which he should be desired by them.

Gill: Luk 20:14 - But when the husbandmen saw him // they reasoned among themselves // saying, this is the heir // come, let us kill him, that the inheritance may be ours But when the husbandmen saw him,.... In human nature, heard him preach, and observed the miracles done by him: they reasoned among themselves; as t...

But when the husbandmen saw him,.... In human nature, heard him preach, and observed the miracles done by him:

they reasoned among themselves; as the Scribes and Pharisees, and elders of the people often did:

saying, this is the heir; the heir of God, being his Son; and so the Ethiopic version; "this Son is his heir", or the heir of the vineyard; being, by appointment, heir of all things, and by his descent from David heir to the kingdom of Israel;

come, let us kill him, that the inheritance may be ours. The Arabic and Persic versions render it, "and his inheritance shall be ours": the nation, city, temple, and all the emoluments and benefits thereof. The word "come" is left out in the Alexandrian copy, and in the Gothic and Vulgate Latin versions.

Gill: Luk 20:15 - So they cast him out of the vineyard // and killed him // what therefore shall the Lord of the vineyard do unto them So they cast him out of the vineyard,.... Rejected him as the Messiah, even denied that he was of the Jewish nation; said he was a Samaritan, and deli...

So they cast him out of the vineyard,.... Rejected him as the Messiah, even denied that he was of the Jewish nation; said he was a Samaritan, and delivered him to the Gentiles that were without, and were aliens from the commonwealth of Israel; and at last had him without their city, and put him to death, as follows:

and killed him; the Prince of life, the Lord of glory, and heir of all things; see Act 2:23

what therefore shall the Lord of the vineyard do unto them? the husbandmen, the chief priests, elders, Scribes, and Pharisees; at whose solicitations the life of his Son, and heir, was taken away; by which he must be greatly provoked and incensed.

Gill: Luk 20:16 - He shall come and destroy these husbandmen // and shall give the vineyard to others // and when they heard it, they said, God forbid He shall come and destroy these husbandmen,.... Which had its accomplishment at the destruction of Jerusalem: according to the other evangelists, thes...

He shall come and destroy these husbandmen,.... Which had its accomplishment at the destruction of Jerusalem: according to the other evangelists, these words are the answer of the chief priests, Scribes, and elders, to the above questions put to them by Christ, after he had delivered the parable; but here they seem to be the words of Christ, who also said the same, and confirmed what they had observed, and could not but own, that it was just and right, and what might be expected, with what follows:

and shall give the vineyard to others; the land of Judea to the Romans in particular, and the church state, with the Gospel and ordinances of it, to the Gentiles in general, sometimes called "others"; See Gill on Luk 5:29 and See Gill on Luk 18:11.

and when they heard it, they said, God forbid; though they were their own words, yet repeated and confirmed by Christ, and perceiving that they were the persons intended, deprecate the fulfilment of them; at least so far as they understood they related to the killing of the Messiah, and to the destruction of their nation, city, and temple.

Gill: Luk 20:17 - And he beheld them // and said, what is this then that is written // the stone which the builders rejected, the same is become the head of the corner And he beheld them,.... Looked very earnestly and wistly at them, speaking as it were by his looks, signifying, that verily so it would be, as he had ...

And he beheld them,.... Looked very earnestly and wistly at them, speaking as it were by his looks, signifying, that verily so it would be, as he had said; that they would reject the Messiah, and put him to death, and bring utter ruin upon themselves, and deprive their posterity of many advantages and privileges:

and said, what is this then that is written; that is, what else is the meaning of such a Scripture? is not the sense of that perfectly agreeable to what has been said, that the Messiah shall be rejected by the principal men among the Jews in church and state, and yet he shall be exalted, who will then take vengeance on them?

the stone which the builders rejected, the same is become the head of the corner? The passage is in Psa 118:22. See Gill on Mat 21:42.

Gill: Luk 20:18 - Whosoever shall fall on that stone, shall be broken // but on whomsoever it shall fall // it will grind him to powder Whosoever shall fall on that stone, shall be broken,.... Not who shall fall upon Christ by faith, and build upon him as the foundation stone, for such...

Whosoever shall fall on that stone, shall be broken,.... Not who shall fall upon Christ by faith, and build upon him as the foundation stone, for such shall be saved; but that stumble at him, and are offended with him, and fall by unbelief and hardness of heart; such do themselves much hurt and mischief and expose themselves to danger and ruin; they bid very fair for destruction:

but on whomsoever it shall fall; as it did with its full weight upon the Jews at their destruction, and as it will upon all Christless sinners at the last day:

it will grind him to powder; the ruin of such will be unavoidable, and there will be no recovery; See Gill on Mat 21:44.

Gill: Luk 20:19 - And the chief priests, and the Scribes, that same hour // sought to lay hands on him // and they feared the people // for they perceived that he had spoken this parable against them And the chief priests, and the Scribes, that same hour,.... As soon as he had delivered the above parable, together with that of the two sons: soug...

And the chief priests, and the Scribes, that same hour,.... As soon as he had delivered the above parable, together with that of the two sons:

sought to lay hands on him; they had a good will to it, being exceedingly gravelled with the question he put to them concerning John's baptism, which confounded them, and put them to silence; and with the parables he delivered, in which they were so manifestly pointed at:

and they feared the people; lest they should rise and stone them, as in Luk 20:6 or rescue him out of their hands;

for they perceived that he had spoken this parable against them: and that they were the husbandmen that had used the servants of God so ill, and would put to death the son of God, the Messiah; and who would at length be destroyed themselves, and the kingdom of God be taken from them, though they seem to detest and deprecate it, saying in Luk 20:16 God forbid; that we should kill the heir, or that we should be destroyed, and the vineyard given to others: these things grievously nettled them, and exasperated them against him; but they knew not how to help themselves at present.

Gill: Luk 20:20 - And they watched him // and sent forth spies which should feign themselves just men // that might take hold of his words // that so they might deliver him unto the power and authority of the governor And they watched him,.... What he said, and what he did, and where he went, that they might take an advantage against him, or know where he was, to se...

And they watched him,.... What he said, and what he did, and where he went, that they might take an advantage against him, or know where he was, to send to him, as they should think fit, and take the best opportunity of so doing. The Syriac and Persic versions leave out this clause:

and sent forth spies which should feign themselves just men: of virtue and religion, conscientious men, that would do nothing but what was just and right, and were desirous of being exactly informed of the truth of things, that they might act right in every punctilio:

that might take hold of his words; improve them, and form a charge upon them, of sedition and treason:

that so they might deliver him unto the power and authority of the governor; the Roman governor, and by him be put to death. These men were some of them the disciples of the Pharisees, and others were Herodians; see Mat 22:16.

Gill: Luk 20:21 - And they asked him, saying, master // we know that thou sayest and teachest rightly // neither acceptest thou the person of any // but teachest the way of God truly And they asked him, saying, master,.... Rabbi, or doctor; hoping, by this flattering title, and the flattering words used by them, to work him up to a...

And they asked him, saying, master,.... Rabbi, or doctor; hoping, by this flattering title, and the flattering words used by them, to work him up to an openness and freedom of conversation with them:

we know that thou sayest and teachest rightly; rightly dividest the word of God, and deliverest out sound doctrine according to it: and this he certainly did, though they spoke these words hypocritically, not believing what they themselves said; at least, they did not care that others should believe this of him:

neither acceptest thou the person of any. The Persic version very wrongly renders it, "and lookest not upon the countenance, and heart of any one whomsoever"; for though Christ did not look upon the countenances of men, and judge according to the outward appearance, nor regard men on account of outward circumstances, as riches, honours, learning, &c. yet he looked upon the heart, and knew what was in it, and respected sincerity and uprightness wherever he found it, and which were wanting in these men:

but teachest the way of God truly; the way of worshipping God, and of enjoying him, both in this world, and in that to come; See Gill on Mat 22:16.

Gill: Luk 20:22 - Is it lawful for us to give tribute unto Caesar, or no? Is it lawful for us to give tribute unto Caesar, or no? The Syriac and Persic versions here, as in the other evangelists, render it, "head money". The...

Is it lawful for us to give tribute unto Caesar, or no? The Syriac and Persic versions here, as in the other evangelists, render it, "head money". The phrase, "for us", is here added, and on it lies the emphasis, and stress of the question; for the doubt pretended, was not whether it was lawful for the Romans to pay tribute to Caesar, but whether it was lawful for them who were Jews, were Abraham's seed, and, as they boasted, were never in bondage, but were the Lord's free people, to pay tribute to an Heathen emperor, or no.

Gill: Luk 20:23 - But he perceived their craftiness // and said unto them, why tempt ye me But he perceived their craftiness,.... Knowing what was in them, and being a discerner of the thoughts and intents of their hearts, he clearly saw tha...

But he perceived their craftiness,.... Knowing what was in them, and being a discerner of the thoughts and intents of their hearts, he clearly saw that their view was either, that they might have a charge against him to the Roman governor, should he declare against payment of tribute; or that they might expose him to the people of the Jews, should he assert the lawfulness of it:

and said unto them, why tempt ye me? with this ensnaring question.

Gill: Luk 20:24 - Show me a penny // whose image and superscription hath it // they answered and said, Caesar's Show me a penny,.... A Roman denarius, value seven pence halfpenny of our money. The Persic version adds, "they showed it, he asked of them"; and the ...

Show me a penny,.... A Roman denarius, value seven pence halfpenny of our money. The Persic version adds, "they showed it, he asked of them"; and the Ethiopic version, "and they brought it, and he said unto them", as follows;

whose image and superscription hath it? for the penny had an head upon it, with something written, as the name of the emperor, whose image it was, his titles, the date of the coin, or some motto on it:

they answered and said, Caesar's; very likely Tiberius Caesar's, who was at that time emperor of Rome; See Gill on Mat 22:20 and See Gill on Mat 22:21.

Gill: Luk 20:25 - And he said unto them, render therefore unto Caesar the things which be Caesar's // and unto God the things which be God's And he said unto them, render therefore unto Caesar the things which be Caesar's,.... The Arabic version renders it, "give to the king what is the kin...

And he said unto them, render therefore unto Caesar the things which be Caesar's,.... The Arabic version renders it, "give to the king what is the king's"; the tribute that was due to him; since they were under his government, and were protected by him, and traded with his money; the currency of which among them was an acknowledgment of him as their sovereign:

and unto God the things which be God's; which relate to his worship, honour, interest, and kingdom; See Gill on Mat 22:21.

Gill: Luk 20:26 - And they could not take hold of his words before the people // and they marvelled at his answer // and held their peace And they could not take hold of his words before the people,.... Which was what they wanted; that if he had dropped any seditious and treasonable expr...

And they could not take hold of his words before the people,.... Which was what they wanted; that if he had dropped any seditious and treasonable expressions against the government, they might be witnesses against him; or if he had not vindicated the liberties of the people, and the rights of the Jewish nation, these might be exasperated against him, and leave him:

and they marvelled at his answer; which was so formed, as to give them no handle against him either way:

and held their peace; they were silenced, and had nothing to say to him, nor against him, but left him, and went their way.

Gill: Luk 20:27 - which deny that there is any resurrection // and they asked him That is, "to Jesus", as the Persic version expresses it; and it was the same day, as Matthew says, on which the disciples of the Pharisees, and the He...

That is, "to Jesus", as the Persic version expresses it; and it was the same day, as Matthew says, on which the disciples of the Pharisees, and the Herodians, had been with him, putting the question about tribute to him: Mat 22:16

which deny that there is any resurrection; that is, of the dead; that there ever was any instance of it, or ever will be: this was the distinguishing tenet of that sect; see Act 23:8

and they asked him, the following question, after they had put a case to him.

Gill: Luk 20:28 - Saying, master, Moses wrote unto us // if any man's brother die, having a wife, and he die without children, that his brother should take his wife, and raise up seed unto his brother Saying, master, Moses wrote unto us,.... In Deu 25:5 where the substance of what follows is contained, though not in express words: if any man's br...

Saying, master, Moses wrote unto us,.... In Deu 25:5 where the substance of what follows is contained, though not in express words:

if any man's brother die, having a wife, and he die without children, that his brother should take his wife, and raise up seed unto his brother; the meaning of which is, that if a man died without issue, and left a wife behind him, his next brother, if unmarried, was to marry his wife, and the first child born of her, was to be reckoned the deceased's, and to inherit his estate; See Gill on Mat 22:24.

Gill: Luk 20:29 - There were therefore seven brethren // and the first took a wife, and died without children There were therefore seven brethren,.... In the place where these Sadducees dwelt; or, however, that were known by them; at least they supposed such a...

There were therefore seven brethren,.... In the place where these Sadducees dwelt; or, however, that were known by them; at least they supposed such a case, and it might be fact:

and the first took a wife, and died without children; son or daughter, and so had none to keep up his name, and to possess his inheritance.

Gill: Luk 20:30 - And the second took her to wife // and he died childless And the second took her to wife,.... As he was obliged by the above law, or pluck off the shoe: and he died childless: as his eldest brother before...

And the second took her to wife,.... As he was obliged by the above law, or pluck off the shoe:

and he died childless: as his eldest brother before him.

Gill: Luk 20:31 - And the third took her // and in like manner the seven also // and they left no children, and died And the third took her,.... To wife, by virtue of the same law: and in like manner the seven also; the other four, one after another, when all seve...

And the third took her,.... To wife, by virtue of the same law:

and in like manner the seven also; the other four, one after another, when all seven married her:

and they left no children, and died; or they died, leaving no children behind them.

Gill: Luk 20:32 - Last of all the woman died also. Last of all the woman died also. Having had no children by either of her seven husbands.

Last of all the woman died also. Having had no children by either of her seven husbands.

Gill: Luk 20:33 - Therefore in the resurrection // whose wife of them is she // for seven had her to wife Therefore in the resurrection,.... At the time of the resurrection of the dead, in that state, supposing there will be such an one, which they denied;...

Therefore in the resurrection,.... At the time of the resurrection of the dead, in that state, supposing there will be such an one, which they denied;

whose wife of them is she? the first, or the last, or any of the intermediate ones?

for seven had her to wife; and she had no child by either of them; so that their claim seems to be alike; this they thought unanswerable, and sufficient to set aside the notion of a resurrection.

Gill: Luk 20:34 - And Jesus answering, said unto them // the children of this world marry, and are given in marriage And Jesus answering, said unto them,.... After he had observed that their error arose from ignorance of the Scriptures, and the power of God: the c...

And Jesus answering, said unto them,.... After he had observed that their error arose from ignorance of the Scriptures, and the power of God:

the children of this world marry, and are given in marriage that is, such who live in this world, in the present mortal and imperfect state, being mortal men, and die, and leave their estates and possessions: these marry, and have wives given them in marriage; and it is very right, and fit, that so it should be, in order to keep up a succession of men, and that they may have heirs to enjoy their substance when they are gone.

Gill: Luk 20:35 - But they which shall be accounted worthy to obtain that world // and the resurrection from the dead // these neither marry, nor are given in marriage But they which shall be accounted worthy to obtain that world,.... The world to come, eternal life and happiness; not by their own works and merits, b...

But they which shall be accounted worthy to obtain that world,.... The world to come, eternal life and happiness; not by their own works and merits, but through the blood, sacrifice, and righteousness of the Messiah;

and the resurrection from the dead; that is, the first resurrection, the resurrection unto life, which only the dead in Christ will enjoy; otherwise all will be raised: but some to the resurrection of damnation:

these neither marry, nor are given in marriage; there will be no need of any such practice, for the reasons that follow.

Gill: Luk 20:36 - Neither can they die any more // for they are equal unto the angels // and are the children of God // being the children of the resurrection Neither can they die any more,.... Therefore there will be no need of marrying to procreate children, to keep up a succession of men, any more than th...

Neither can they die any more,.... Therefore there will be no need of marrying to procreate children, to keep up a succession of men, any more than there is among the angels:

for they are equal unto the angels; in spirituality, purity and immortality; See Gill on Mat 22:30.

and are the children of God: as they are now by adopting grace; but, as yet, it does not appear as it will then, what they are and will be:

being the children of the resurrection; as Christ was declared to be the son of God by his resurrection, so will they appear to be the children of God by their resurrection to eternal life; for though others will rise, yet not to everlasting life, and thus appearing to be children of God, they will also be heirs of God, and enjoy the inheritance, which they will always live to possess in their persons; and therefore the case being different with them from the children of the world, they will not marry, nor be given in marriage, as they are.

Gill: Luk 20:37 - Now that the dead are raised // even Moses showed at the bush // when he calleth the Lord the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob Now that the dead are raised,.... Or that there will be a resurrection of the dead, this is a proof of it: even Moses showed at the bush: when the ...

Now that the dead are raised,.... Or that there will be a resurrection of the dead, this is a proof of it:

even Moses showed at the bush: when the Lord appeared to him out of it, and he saw it burning with fire, and not consumed; when the Lord called to him out of it by the following name, as he has recorded it in Exo 3:6. Hence it is said,

when he calleth the Lord the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob; for though the Lord called himself so, yet Moses likewise calls him by these names, when he gives an account of this affair, and when he went from him to the children Israel; See Gill on Mat 22:32.

Gill: Luk 20:38 - For he is not a God of the dead, but of the living // for all live unto him For he is not a God of the dead, but of the living,.... See Gill on Mat 22:32. for all live unto him. The Persic version, reads, "all these live un...

For he is not a God of the dead, but of the living,.... See Gill on Mat 22:32.

for all live unto him. The Persic version, reads, "all these live unto him"; namely, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob; for though they are dead to men, they are not to God; their souls live with him, and their bodies will be raised by him: he reckons of them, as if they were now alive, for he quickens the dead, and calls things that are not, as though they were; and this is the case of all the saints that are dead, as well as of those patriarchs. The Ethiopic reads, "all live with him"; as the souls of all departed saints do; the Arabic version reads, all live in him; so all do now, Act 17:28.

Gill: Luk 20:39 - Then certain of the Scribes, answering said // master, thou hast well said Then certain of the Scribes, answering said,.... Who believed the doctrine of the resurrection, which the Sadducees denied, and so were pleased with o...

Then certain of the Scribes, answering said,.... Who believed the doctrine of the resurrection, which the Sadducees denied, and so were pleased with our Lord's reasoning on this subject:

master, thou hast well said; thou hast spoken in a beautiful manner, reasoned finely upon this head, and set this matter in a fair and clear light; See Gill on Mar 12:28

Gill: Luk 20:40 - And after that, they durst not ask him any question at all. And after that, they durst not ask him any question at all. Neither the Pharisees, Sadducees, Scribes, nor Herodians.

And after that, they durst not ask him any question at all. Neither the Pharisees, Sadducees, Scribes, nor Herodians.

Gill: Luk 20:41 - And he said unto them // how say they // that Christ is David's son And he said unto them,.... The Ethiopic version reads, "to the Pharisees"; and so it appears, that it was to them he spoke, from Mat 22:41 how say ...

And he said unto them,.... The Ethiopic version reads, "to the Pharisees"; and so it appears, that it was to them he spoke, from Mat 22:41

how say they? The Syriac version reads, "how say the Scribes?" as in Mar 12:35 and the Persic version, how say the wise men, the doctors in Israel,

that Christ is David's son? that which nothing was more common among the Jews.

Gill: Luk 20:42 - And David himself saith in the book Psalms // the Lord said to my Lord, sit thou on my right hand And David himself saith in the book Psalms,.... In Psa 110:1 the Lord said to my Lord, sit thou on my right hand; which words were delivered by Dav...

And David himself saith in the book Psalms,.... In Psa 110:1

the Lord said to my Lord, sit thou on my right hand; which words were delivered by David, as inspired by the Spirit of God; and contain a speech of God the Father to his son Jesus Christ, upon his ascension to heaven, after his sufferings, death, and resurrection from the dead; when he was bid to sit down in human nature, at the right hand of God, in token of having done his work on earth to full satisfaction; and in the relation of which David calls Christ his Lord; and is the reason of their being mentioned.

Gill: Luk 20:43 - Until I make thine enemies thy footstool. Until I make thine enemies thy footstool. Which words are a continuation of the citation out of the above Psalm Psa 110:1; and for the application of ...

Until I make thine enemies thy footstool. Which words are a continuation of the citation out of the above Psalm Psa 110:1; and for the application of these words, with the preceding, to the Messiah; see Gill on Mat 22:44.

Gill: Luk 20:44 - David therefore called him Lord // how is he then his son David therefore called him Lord,.... Or, "my Lord", as the Syriac and Ethiopic versions read; or, "his Lord", as the Arabic version. This is the infer...

David therefore called him Lord,.... Or, "my Lord", as the Syriac and Ethiopic versions read; or, "his Lord", as the Arabic version. This is the inference from the words before cited Psa 110:1, upon which the following question is asked,

how is he then his son? how can these things be reconciled? in what sense can he be both his Lord and son? See Gill on Mat 22:45.

Gill: Luk 20:45 - Then in the audience of all the people // he said unto his disciples Then in the audience of all the people,.... Whilst they were about him, and hearing him, and for their sakes too; he said unto his disciples; yea, ...

Then in the audience of all the people,.... Whilst they were about him, and hearing him, and for their sakes too;

he said unto his disciples; yea, he spake to the multitude, as well as to the disciples, as appears from Mat 23:1.

Gill: Luk 20:46 - Beware of the Scribes // which desire to walk in long robes // and love greetings in the markets // and the highest seats in the synagogues // and the chief rooms at feasts Beware of the Scribes,.... And also of the Pharisees; for they are joined together in Matthew: which desire to walk in long robes: the rule for the...

Beware of the Scribes,.... And also of the Pharisees; for they are joined together in Matthew:

which desire to walk in long robes: the rule for the length of a scholar's garment was this a;

"his flesh must not appear under his garments, as the light linen garments, and the like, they make in Egypt; nor must his garments be drawn upon the ground, as the garments of proud men, but must reach to his heel, and his glove must reach the top of his fingers.''

According to this rule, the garments of the doctors were to be so long as to cover the whole body, even down to their heels, but were not to be any longer; and by this it appears their garments were very long; but they did not always go by this rule; some had their garments so long as to have a train after them; See Gill on Mat 23:5.

and love greetings in the markets; or in courts of judicature; they loved to be saluted with the titles of Rabbi, Master, and the like:

and the highest seats in the synagogues; which were next to the place where the book of the law was read and expounded, and where they might be seen by the people:

and the chief rooms at feasts; the uppermost; See Gill on Mat 23:6 and See Gill on Mat 23:7.

Gill: Luk 20:47 - Which devour widows' houses // and for a show make long prayers // the same shall receive greater damnation Which devour widows' houses,.... As the characters of them, in the preceding verse, expose their pride, this shows their avarice; they were very vorac...

Which devour widows' houses,.... As the characters of them, in the preceding verse, expose their pride, this shows their avarice; they were very voracious and cruel; they did not spare widows, but devoured their substance:

and for a show make long prayers; to cover their wickedness, pretending great devotion and religion;

the same shall receive greater damnation: than openly profane sinners; doing such wickedness under a cloak of religion, will aggravate their condemnation; See Gill on Mat 23:14.

buka semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki

NET Notes: Luk 20:1 The chief priests and the experts in the law with the elders came up. The description is similar to Luke 19:47. The leaders are really watching Jesus ...

NET Notes: Luk 20:2 The leadership is looking back to acts like the temple cleansing (19:45-48). How could a Galilean preacher do these things?

NET Notes: Luk 20:3 Grk “answering, he said to them.” This is redundant in English and has been simplified in the translation.

NET Notes: Luk 20:4 The question is whether John’s ministry was of divine or human origin.

NET Notes: Luk 20:5 Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of Jesus’ question.

NET Notes: Luk 20:7 Very few questions could have so completely revealed the wicked intentions of the religious leaders. Jesus’ question revealed the motivation of ...

NET Notes: Luk 20:8 On this phrase, see BDAG 844 s.v. ποῖος 2.a.γ. This is exactly the same phrase as in v. 2.

NET Notes: Luk 20:9 The leasing of land to tenant farmers was common in this period.

NET Notes: Luk 20:10 The image of the tenants beating up the owner’s slave pictures the nation’s rejection of the prophets and their message.

NET Notes: Luk 20:11 The slaves being sent empty-handed suggests that the vineyard was not producing any fruit – and thus neither was the nation of Israel.

NET Notes: Luk 20:12 Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the tenants’ mistreatment of the first t...

NET Notes: Luk 20:13 The owner’s decision to send his one dear son represents God sending Jesus.

NET Notes: Luk 20:15 Throwing the heir out of the vineyard pictures Jesus’ death outside of Jerusalem.

NET Notes: Luk 20:16 May this never happen! Jesus’ audience got the point and did not want to consider a story where the nation would suffer judgment.

NET Notes: Luk 20:17 The stone the builders rejected has become the cornerstone. The use of Ps 118:22-23 and the “stone imagery” as a reference to Christ and h...

NET Notes: Luk 20:18 This proverb basically means that the stone crushes, without regard to whether it falls on someone or someone falls on it. On the stone as a messianic...

NET Notes: Luk 20:19 Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.

NET Notes: Luk 20:20 This word is often translated “authority” in other contexts, but here, in combination with ἀρχή (arch), it refers to...

NET Notes: Luk 20:21 Teach the way of God in accordance with the truth. Very few comments are as deceitful as this one; they did not really believe this at all. The questi...

NET Notes: Luk 20:22 Or “to the emperor” (“Caesar” is a title for the Roman emperor).

NET Notes: Luk 20:23 Or “craftiness.” The term always has negative connotations in the NT (1 Cor 3:19; 2 Cor 4:2; 11:3; Eph 4:14).

NET Notes: Luk 20:24 Grk “whose likeness and inscription does it have?”

NET Notes: Luk 20:25 Jesus’ answer to give to Caesar the things that are Caesar’s and to God the things that are God’s was a both/and, not the questioner...

NET Notes: Luk 20:26 Or “amazed.”

NET Notes: Luk 20:27 This remark is best regarded as a parenthetical note by the author.

NET Notes: Luk 20:28 A quotation from Deut 25:5. Because the OT quotation does not include “a wife” as the object of the verb, it has been left as normal type....

NET Notes: Luk 20:29 Grk “took a wife” (an idiom for marrying a woman).

NET Notes: Luk 20:30 Most mss (A W Θ Ψ Ë1,13 33 Ï lat) have the words, “took the wife and this one died childless” after “the second....

NET Notes: Luk 20:33 Grk “For the seven had her as wife.”

NET Notes: Luk 20:34 Grk “sons of this age” (an idiom, see L&N 11.16). The following clause which refers to being “given in marriage” suggests ...

NET Notes: Luk 20:35 Life in the age to come is different than life here (they neither marry nor are given in marriage). This means Jesus’ questioners had made a fal...

NET Notes: Luk 20:36 Or “people.” The noun υἱός (Juios) followed by the genitive of class or kind (“sons of…”) denotes a...

NET Notes: Luk 20:37 A quotation from Exod 3:6.

NET Notes: Luk 20:38 On this syntax, see BDF §192. The point is that all live “to” God or “before” God.

NET Notes: Luk 20:39 Teacher, you have spoken well! The scribes, being Pharisees, were happy for the defense of resurrection and angels, which they (unlike the Sadducees) ...

NET Notes: Luk 20:40 The attempt to show Jesus as ignorant had left the experts silenced. At this point they did not dare any longer to ask him anything.

NET Notes: Luk 20:41 It was a common belief in Judaism that Messiah would be David’s son in that he would come from the lineage of David. On this point the Pharisees...

NET Notes: Luk 20:42 The Lord said to my Lord. With David being the speaker, this indicates his respect for his descendant (referred to as my Lord). Jesus was arguing, as ...

NET Notes: Luk 20:43 A quotation from Ps 110:1.

NET Notes: Luk 20:44 Grk “David thus calls him ‘Lord.’ So how is he his son?” The conditional nuance, implicit in Greek, has been made explicit in ...

NET Notes: Luk 20:45 Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

NET Notes: Luk 20:46 See the note on synagogues in 4:15.

NET Notes: Luk 20:47 Grk “houses,” “households”; however, the term can have the force of “property” or “possessions” as wel...

Geneva Bible: Luk 20:1 And ( 1 ) it came to pass, [that] on one of those days, as he taught the people in the temple, and preached the gospel, the chief priests and the scri...

Geneva Bible: Luk 20:9 ( 2 ) Then began he to speak to the people this parable; A certain man planted a vineyard, and let it forth to husbandmen, and went into a far country...

Geneva Bible: Luk 20:20 ( 3 ) And they ( a ) watched [him], and sent forth ( b ) spies, which should feign themselves just men, ( c ) that they might take hold of his words, ...

Geneva Bible: Luk 20:21 And they asked him, saying, Master, we know that thou sayest and teachest rightly, neither acceptest thou the ( e ) person [of any], but teachest the ...

Geneva Bible: Luk 20:23 But he perceived their ( f ) craftiness, and said unto them, Why tempt ye me? ( f ) Craftiness is a certain diligence and subtle knowledge to do evil...

Geneva Bible: Luk 20:27 ( 4 ) Then came to [him] certain of the Sadducees, which deny that there is any resurrection; and they asked him, ( 4 ) The resurrection of the flesh...

Geneva Bible: Luk 20:34 And Jesus answering said unto them, The ( g ) children of this world marry, and are given in marriage: ( g ) "The children of this world" refers here...

Geneva Bible: Luk 20:36 Neither can they die any more: for they are equal unto the angels; and are the children of God, being the ( h ) children of the resurrection. ( h ) T...

Geneva Bible: Luk 20:38 For he is not a God of the dead, but of the living: for all ( i ) live unto him. ( i ) That is, before him: a saying to take note of, for the godly d...

Geneva Bible: Luk 20:41 ( 5 ) And he said unto them, How say they that Christ is David's son? ( 5 ) Even though Christ is the son of David according to the flesh he is also ...

Geneva Bible: Luk 20:46 ( 6 ) Beware of the scribes, which desire to walk in long robes, and love greetings in the markets, and the highest seats in the synagogues, and the c...

Geneva Bible: Luk 20:47 Which devour widows' ( k ) houses, and for a shew make long prayers: the same shall receive greater damnation. ( k ) By the figure of speech metonymy...

buka semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Rentang Ayat

Maclaren: Luk 20:9-19 - A Libation To Jehovah Tenants Who Wanted To Be Owners Then began He to speak to the people this parable; A certain man planted a vineyard, and let it forth to husbandmen, ...

Maclaren: Luk 20:24 - A Libation To Jehovah Whose Image And Superscription? Whose image and superscription hath it? '--Luke 20:24. IT is no unusual thing for antagonists to join forces in order...

MHCC: Luk 20:1-8 - --Men often pretend to examine the evidences of revelation, and the truth of the gospel, when only seeking excuses for their own unbelief and disobedien...

MHCC: Luk 20:9-19 - --Christ spake this parable against those who resolved not to own his authority, though the evidence of it was so full. How many resemble the Jews who m...

MHCC: Luk 20:20-26 - --Those who are most crafty in their designs against Christ and his gospel, cannot hide them. He did not give a direct answer, but reproved them for off...

MHCC: Luk 20:27-38 - --It is common for those who design to undermine any truth of God, to load it with difficulties. But we wrong ourselves, and wrong the truth of Christ, ...

MHCC: Luk 20:39-47 - --The scribes commended the reply Christ made to the Sadducees about the resurrection, but they were silenced by a question concerning the Messiah. Chri...

Matthew Henry: Luk 20:1-8 - -- In this passage of story nothing is added here to what we had in the other evangelists; but only in the first verse, where we are told, I. That he w...

Matthew Henry: Luk 20:9-19 - -- Christ spoke this parable against those who were resolved not to own his authority, though the evidence of it was ever so full and convincing; and i...

Matthew Henry: Luk 20:20-26 - -- We have here Christ's evading a snare which his enemies laid for him, by proposing a question to him about tribute. We had this passage before, both...

Matthew Henry: Luk 20:27-38 - -- This discourse with the Sadducees we had before, just as it is here, only that the description Christ gives of the future state is somewhat more ful...

Matthew Henry: Luk 20:39-47 - -- The scribes were students in the law, and expositors of it to the people, men in reputation for wisdom and honour, but the generality of them we...

Barclay: Luk 20:1-8 - "BY WHAT AUTHORITY?" This chapter describes what is usually called the Day of Questions. It was a day when the Jewish authorities, in all their different sections, came...

Barclay: Luk 20:9-18 - "A PARABLE WHICH WAS A CONDEMNATION" This is a parable whose meaning is crystal clear. The vineyard stands for the nation of Israel (compare Isa 5:1-7). The tenants are the rulers of Is...

Barclay: Luk 20:19-26 - "CAESAR AND GOD" Here the emissaries of the Sanhedrin returned to the attack. They suborned men to go to Jesus and ask a question as if it was really troubling their ...

Barclay: Luk 20:27-40 - "THE SADDUCEES' QUESTION" When the emissaries of the Sanhedrin had been finally silenced, the Sadducees appeared on the scene. The whole point of their question depends on tw...

Barclay: Luk 20:41-44 - "THE WARNINGS OF JESUS" It is worth while taking this little passage by itself for it is very difficult to understand. The most popular title of the Messiah was Son of David...

Barclay: Luk 20:45-47 - "THE LOVE OF HONOUR AMONG MEN" The honours which the scribes and Rabbis expected to receive were quite extraordinary. They had rules of precedence all carefully drawn up. In the c...

Constable: Luk 19:28--22:1 - --VI. Jesus' ministry in Jerusalem 19:28--21:38 Luke's account of Jesus' passion highlights Jesus' entry into Jeru...

Constable: Luk 20:1--21:5 - --C. Jesus' teachings in the temple 20:1-21:4 Luke presented Jesus' teachings in the temple as beginning w...

Constable: Luk 20:1-8 - --1. The controversy over authority 20:1-8 (cf. Matt. 21:23-27; Mark 11:27-33) Jesus' authority was crucial not only for the Jewish leaders who opposed ...

Constable: Luk 20:9-19 - --2. The parable of the wicked tenant farmers 20:9-19 (cf. Matt. 21:33-46; Mark 12:1-12) This parable taught that Israel's religious leaders who had aut...

Constable: Luk 20:20-26 - --3. The question of tribute to Caesar 20:20-26 (cf. 22:15-22; Mark 12:13-17) Luke showed how the religious leaders' antagonism was intensifying against...

Constable: Luk 20:27-40 - --4. The problem of the resurrection 20:27-40 (cf. Matt. 22:23-33; Mark 12:18-27) This incident was also relevant for Luke's original Greek readers. The...

Constable: Luk 20:41-44 - --5. Jesus' question about David's son 20:41-44 (cf. Matt. 22:41-46; Mark 12:35-37) Jesus' questioners having fallen silent, He now took the offensive a...

Constable: Luk 20:45-47 - --6. Jesus' condemnation of the scribes 20:45-47 (cf. Matt. 23:1-39; Mark 12:38-40) Luke and Mark ...

College: Luk 20:1-47 - --LUKE 20 C. THE AUTHORITY OF JESUS QUESTIONED (20:1-8) 1 One day as he was teaching the people in the temple courts and preaching the gospel, the chi...

McGarvey: Luk 20:1-8 - -- CVIII. IN REPLY TO THE QUESTIONS AS TO HIS AUTHORITY, JESUS GIVES THE THIRD GREAT GROUP OF PARABLES. (In the Court of the Temple. Tuesday, April 4, A...

McGarvey: Luk 20:9-19 - -- CVIII. IN REPLY TO THE QUESTIONS AS TO HIS AUTHORITY, JESUS GIVES THE THIRD GREAT GROUP OF PARABLES. (In the Court of the Temple. Tuesday, April 4, A...