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Teks -- Exodus 25:1-40 (NET)

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Konteks
The Materials for the Sanctuary
25:1 The Lord spoke to Moses: 25:2 “Tell the Israelites to take an offering for me; from every person motivated by a willing heart you are to receive my offering. 25:3 This is the offering you are to accept from them: gold, silver, bronze, 25:4 blue, purple, scarlet, fine linen, goat’s hair, 25:5 ram skins dyed red, fine leather, acacia wood, 25:6 oil for the light, spices for the anointing oil and for fragrant incense, 25:7 onyx stones, and other gems to be set in the ephod and in the breastpiece. 25:8 Let them make for me a sanctuary, so that I may live among them. 25:9 According to all that I am showing you– the pattern of the tabernacle and the pattern of all its furnishings– you must make it exactly so.
The Ark of the Covenant
25:10 “They are to make an ark of acacia wood– its length is to be three feet nine inches, its width two feet three inches, and its height two feet three inches. 25:11 You are to overlay it with pure gold– both inside and outside you must overlay it, and you are to make a surrounding border of gold over it. 25:12 You are to cast four gold rings for it and put them on its four feet, with two rings on one side and two rings on the other side. 25:13 You are to make poles of acacia wood, overlay them with gold, 25:14 and put the poles into the rings at the sides of the ark in order to carry the ark with them. 25:15 The poles must remain in the rings of the ark; they must not be removed from it. 25:16 You are to put into the ark the testimony that I will give to you. 25:17 “You are to make an atonement lid of pure gold; its length is to be three feet nine inches, and its width is to be two feet three inches. 25:18 You are to make two cherubim of gold; you are to make them of hammered metal on the two ends of the atonement lid. 25:19 Make one cherub on one end and one cherub on the other end; from the atonement lid you are to make the cherubim on the two ends. 25:20 The cherubim are to be spreading their wings upward, overshadowing the atonement lid with their wings, and the cherubim are to face each other, looking toward the atonement lid. 25:21 You are to put the atonement lid on top of the ark, and in the ark you are to put the testimony I am giving you. 25:22 I will meet with you there, and from above the atonement lid, from between the two cherubim that are over the ark of the testimony, I will speak with you about all that I will command you for the Israelites.
The Table for the Bread of the Presence
25:23 “You are to make a table of acacia wood; its length is to be three feet, its width one foot six inches, and its height two feet three inches. 25:24 You are to overlay it with pure gold, and you are to make a surrounding border of gold for it. 25:25 You are to make a surrounding frame for it about three inches broad, and you are to make a surrounding border of gold for its frame. 25:26 You are to make four rings of gold for it and attach the rings at the four corners where its four legs are. 25:27 The rings are to be close to the frame to provide places for the poles to carry the table. 25:28 You are to make the poles of acacia wood and overlay them with gold, so that the table may be carried with them. 25:29 You are to make its plates, its ladles, its pitchers, and its bowls, to be used in pouring out offerings; you are to make them of pure gold. 25:30 You are to set the Bread of the Presence on the table before me continually.
The Lampstand
25:31 “You are to make a lampstand of pure gold. The lampstand is to be made of hammered metal; its base and its shaft, its cups, its buds, and its blossoms are to be from the same piece. 25:32 Six branches are to extend from the sides of the lampstand, three branches of the lampstand from one side of it and three branches of the lampstand from the other side of it. 25:33 Three cups shaped like almond flowers with buds and blossoms are to be on one branch, and three cups shaped like almond flowers with buds and blossoms are to be on the next branch, and the same for the six branches extending from the lampstand. 25:34 On the lampstand there are to be four cups shaped like almond flowers with buds and blossoms, 25:35 with a bud under the first two branches from it, and a bud under the next two branches from it, and a bud under the third two branches from it, according to the six branches that extend from the lampstand. 25:36 Their buds and their branches will be one piece, all of it one hammered piece of pure gold. 25:37 “You are to make its seven lamps, and then set its lamps up on it, so that it will give light to the area in front of it. 25:38 Its trimmers and its trays are to be of pure gold. 25:39 About seventy-five pounds of pure gold is to be used for it and for all these utensils. 25:40 Now be sure to make them according to the pattern you were shown on the mountain.
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Israel a citizen of Israel.,a member of the nation of Israel
 · Moses a son of Amram; the Levite who led Israel out of Egypt and gave them The Law of Moses,a Levite who led Israel out of Egypt and gave them the law


Topik/Tema Kamus: Tabernacle | Gold | Badger | Israel | EZEKIEL, 2 | CRAFTS | FOUR | Revelation | TABERNACLE, A | PENTATEUCH, 2A | LAW IN THE OLD TESTAMENT | WANDERINGS OF ISRAEL | BEAUTY | TABERNACLE, B | EXODUS, THE BOOK OF, 1 | COLOR; COLORS | TANNER | LEVITICUS, 2 | LEVITICUS, 1 | EXODUS, THE BOOK OF, 2 | selebihnya
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Catatan Kata/Frasa
Wesley , JFB , Clarke , Calvin , Defender , TSK

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Poole , Haydock , Gill

Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki
NET Notes , Geneva Bible

Catatan Rentang Ayat
Maclaren , MHCC , Matthew Henry , Keil-Delitzsch , Constable , Guzik

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per frasa)

Wesley: Exo 25:1 - -- Doubtless when Moses went into the midst of the cloud, and abode there so long, he saw and heard glorious things, but they were things which were not ...

Doubtless when Moses went into the midst of the cloud, and abode there so long, he saw and heard glorious things, but they were things which were not lawful or possible to utter; and therefore, in the records he kept of the transactions there, he saith nothing to satisfy curiosity, but writes that only which he was to speak to the children of Israel. Probably there never was any house or temple built for sacred uses, before this tabernacle was erected by Moses. In this God kept his court, as Israel's king, and it was intended for a sign or token of his presence, that while they had that in the midst of them they might never again ask, Is the Lord among us or not? And because in the wilderness they dwelt in tents, even this royal palace was ordered to be a tabernacle too, that it might move with them. And these holy places made with hands were the figures of the true, Heb 9:24.

Wesley: Exo 25:1 - The gospel church is the true tabernacle which the Lord pitched, and not man, Heb 8:2. The body of Christ, in and by which he made atonement, was the greater and...

church is the true tabernacle which the Lord pitched, and not man, Heb 8:2. The body of Christ, in and by which he made atonement, was the greater and more perfect tabernacle, Heb 9:11. The Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us, as in a tabernacle.

Wesley: Exo 25:2 - Speak unto the children of Israel that they bring me an offering This offering was to be given willingly, and with the heart. It was not prescribed to them what or how much they must give, but it was left to their g...

This offering was to be given willingly, and with the heart. It was not prescribed to them what or how much they must give, but it was left to their generosity, that they might shew their good - will to the house of God, and the offices thereof.

Wesley: Exo 25:4 - Blue, and purple, and scarlet Materials of those colours.

Materials of those colours.

Wesley: Exo 25:5 - Shittim wood - A kind of wood growing in Egypt and the deserts of Arabia, very durable and precious.

wood - A kind of wood growing in Egypt and the deserts of Arabia, very durable and precious.

Wesley: Exo 25:8 - A sanctuary A place of public and solemn worship; that I may dwell among them. Not by my essence, which is everywhere; but by my grace and glorious operations.

A place of public and solemn worship; that I may dwell among them. Not by my essence, which is everywhere; but by my grace and glorious operations.

Wesley: Exo 25:9 - According to all that I shew thee God shewed him an exact plan of it in little, which he must conform to in all points. And God did not only shew him the model, but gave him also parti...

God shewed him an exact plan of it in little, which he must conform to in all points. And God did not only shew him the model, but gave him also particular directions how to frame the tabernacle, according to that model, in all the parts of it. When Moses was to describe the creation of the world, tho' it be such a stately and curious fabrick, yet he gave a very short and general account of it; but when he comes to describe the tabernacle, he doth it with the greatest niceness and accuracy imaginable: for God's church and instituted religion is more precious to him than all the rest of the world. And the scriptures were written not to describe to us the works of nature, (a general view of which is sufficient to lead us to the knowledge of the Creator,) but to acquaint us with the methods of grace, and those things which are purely matters of revelation.

Wesley: Exo 25:10 - -- The ark was a chest or coffer, in which the two tables of the law, written with the finger of God, were to be deposited. If the Jewish cubit was, as s...

The ark was a chest or coffer, in which the two tables of the law, written with the finger of God, were to be deposited. If the Jewish cubit was, as some learned men compute three inches longer than our half - yard, (twenty one inches in all) this chest or cabinet was about fifty - two inches long, thirty - one broad and thirty one deep; it was overlaid within and without with thin plates of gold; it had a crown, or cornish of gold round it; rings and staves to carry it with; and in it he must put the testimony. The tables of the law are called the testimony, because God did in them testify his will; his giving them that law was in token of his favour to them, and their acceptance of it was in token of their subjection to him. This law was a testimony to them to direct them in their duty, and would be a testimony against them if they transgressed. The ark is called the ark of the testimony, Exo 30:6, and the tabernacle, the tabernacle of the testimony, Num 10:11. The tables of the law were carefully preserved in the ark, to teach us to make much of the word of God, and to hide it in our inmost thoughts, as the ark was placed in the holy of holies. It intimates likewise the care which divine providence ever did, and ever will take to preserve the records of divine revelation in the church, so that even in the latter days there shall be seen in his temple the ark of his testament. See Rev 11:19.

Wesley: Exo 25:17 - The mercy seat was the covering of the ark, made exactly to fit the dimensions of it. This propitiatory covering, as it might well be translated, was a type of ...

seat was the covering of the ark, made exactly to fit the dimensions of it. This propitiatory covering, as it might well be translated, was a type of Christ the great propitiation, whose satisfaction covers our transgressions, and comes between us and the curse we deserve.

Wesley: Exo 25:18 - The cherubim (Cherubim is the plural of Cherub, not Cherubims) were fixed to the mercy seat, and of a piece with it, and spread their wings over it. It is supposed these were designed to represent the holy angels, (who always attend the ...

seat, and of a piece with it, and spread their wings over it. It is supposed these were designed to represent the holy angels, (who always attend the Shechinah, or divine majesty,) not by any effigies of an angel, but some emblem of the angelical nature, probably one or more of those four faces spoken of Eze 1:10. Whatever the faces were, they looked one towards another, and both downwards towards the ark, while their wings were stretched out so as to touch one another. It notes their attendance upon the Redeemer, their readiness to do his will, their presence in the assemblies of saints, Psa 68:17; 1Co 11:10, and their desire to look into the mysteries of the gospel, which they diligently contemplate, 1Pe 1:12. God is said to dwell or sit between the cherubim, on the mercy - seat, Psa 80:1, and from thence he here promiseth for the future to meet with Moses, and to commune with him. Thus he manifests himself, willing to keep up communion with us, by the mediation of Christ.

Wesley: Exo 25:23 - -- This table was to stand not in the holy of holies, (nothing was in that but the ark with its appurtenances) but in the outer part of the tabernacle, c...

This table was to stand not in the holy of holies, (nothing was in that but the ark with its appurtenances) but in the outer part of the tabernacle, called the sanctuary or holy place.

Wesley: Exo 25:23 - This table was to be always furnished with the shew bread, or bread of faces, twelve loaves, one for each tribe, set in two rows, six in a row. As the ark signified God's being present with them, so the...

bread, or bread of faces, twelve loaves, one for each tribe, set in two rows, six in a row. As the ark signified God's being present with them, so the twelve loaves signified their being presented to God. This bread was designed to be, a thankful acknowledgment of God's goodness to them in giving them their daily bread, a token of their communion with God; this bread on God's table being made of the same corn as the bread on their own tables. And a type of the spiritual provision which is made in the church, by the gospel of Christ, for all that are made priests to our God.

Wesley: Exo 25:31 - -- This candlestick had many branches drawn from the main shaft, which had not only bowls to put the oil and the kindled wick in for necessity, but knops...

This candlestick had many branches drawn from the main shaft, which had not only bowls to put the oil and the kindled wick in for necessity, but knops made in the form of a pomegranate and flowers for ornament. The tabernacle had no windows, all its light was candle - light, which notes the comparative darkness of that dispensation, while the sun of righteousness was not as yet risen, nor had the day - star from on high visited his church. Yet God left not himself without witness, nor them without instruction; the commandment was a lamp, and the law a light, and the prophets were branches from that lamp, which gave light in their several ages. The church is still dark, as the tabernacle was, in comparison with what it will be in heaven: but the word of God is the candlestick, a light burning in a dark place.

JFB: Exo 25:1 - the Lord spake unto Moses, &c. The business that chiefly occupied Moses on the mount, whatever other disclosures were made to him there, was in receiving directions about the tabern...

The business that chiefly occupied Moses on the mount, whatever other disclosures were made to him there, was in receiving directions about the tabernacle, and they are here recorded as given to him.

JFB: Exo 25:2 - bring me an offering of every man that giveth it willingly, &c. Having declared allegiance to God as their sovereign, they were expected to contribute to His state, as other subjects to their kings; and the "offeri...

Having declared allegiance to God as their sovereign, they were expected to contribute to His state, as other subjects to their kings; and the "offering" required of them was not to be imposed as a tax, but to come from their own loyal and liberal feelings.

JFB: Exo 25:3 - this is the offering which ye shall take of them The articles of which the offerings should consist.

The articles of which the offerings should consist.

JFB: Exo 25:3 - brass Rather copper, brass being a composite metal.

Rather copper, brass being a composite metal.

JFB: Exo 25:4 - goats' hair Or leather of goats' skin.

Or leather of goats' skin.

JFB: Exo 25:5 - badgers' skins The badger was an unclean animal, and is not a native of the East--rather some kind of fish, of the leather of which sandals are made in the East. [Se...

The badger was an unclean animal, and is not a native of the East--rather some kind of fish, of the leather of which sandals are made in the East. [See on Exo 39:34 and Eze 16:10.]

JFB: Exo 25:5 - shittim wood Or Shittah (Isa 41:19), the acacia, a shrub which grows plentifully in the deserts of Arabia, yielding a light, strong, and beautiful wood, in long pl...

Or Shittah (Isa 41:19), the acacia, a shrub which grows plentifully in the deserts of Arabia, yielding a light, strong, and beautiful wood, in long planks.

JFB: Exo 25:7 - ephod A square cloak, hanging down from the shoulders, and worn by priests.

A square cloak, hanging down from the shoulders, and worn by priests.

JFB: Exo 25:8 - a sanctuary; that I may dwell among them In one sense the tabernacle was to be a palace, the royal residence of the King of Israel, in which He was to dwell among His people, receive their pe...

In one sense the tabernacle was to be a palace, the royal residence of the King of Israel, in which He was to dwell among His people, receive their petitions, and issue His responses. But it was also to be a place of worship, in which God was to record His name and to enshrine the mystic symbols of His presence.

JFB: Exo 25:9 - According to all that I show thee, after the pattern of the tabernacle The proposed erection could be, in the circumstances of the Israelites, not of a fixed and stable but of a temporary and movable description, capable ...

The proposed erection could be, in the circumstances of the Israelites, not of a fixed and stable but of a temporary and movable description, capable of being carried about with them in their various sojournings. It was made after "the pattern" shown to Moses, by which is now generally understood, not that it was an unheard-of novelty, or an entirely original structure, for it is ascertained to have borne resemblance in form and arrangements to the style of an Egyptian temple, but that it was so altered, modified, and purified from all idolatrous associations, as to be appropriated to right objects, and suggestive of ideas connected with the true God and His worship.

JFB: Exo 25:10 - an ark A coffer or chest, overlaid with gold, the dimensions of which, taking the cubit at eighteen inches, are computed to be three feet nine inches in leng...

A coffer or chest, overlaid with gold, the dimensions of which, taking the cubit at eighteen inches, are computed to be three feet nine inches in length, two feet three inches in breadth.

JFB: Exo 25:11 - a crown A rim or cornice.

A rim or cornice.

JFB: Exo 25:12 - rings Staples for the poles, with which it was to be carried from place to place.

Staples for the poles, with which it was to be carried from place to place.

JFB: Exo 25:15 - staves shall be in the rings of the ark That is, always remain in the rings, whether the ark be at rest or in motion.

That is, always remain in the rings, whether the ark be at rest or in motion.

JFB: Exo 25:16 - the testimony That is, the two tables of stone, containing the ten commandments, and called "the testimony," because by it God did testify His sovereign authority o...

That is, the two tables of stone, containing the ten commandments, and called "the testimony," because by it God did testify His sovereign authority over Israel as His people, His selection of them as the guardians of His will and worship, and His displeasure in the event of their transgressing His laws; while on their part, by receiving and depositing this law in its appointed place, they testified their acknowledgment of God's right to rule over them, and their submission to the authority of His law. The superb and elaborate style of the ark that contained "the testimony" was emblematic of the great treasure it held; in other words, the incomparable value and excellence of the Word of God, while its being placed in this chest further showed the great care which God has ever taken for preserving it.

JFB: Exo 25:17 - thou shalt make a mercy seat of pure gold To serve as a lid, covering it exactly. It was "the propitiatory cover," as the term may be rendered, denoting that Christ, our great propitiation [1J...

To serve as a lid, covering it exactly. It was "the propitiatory cover," as the term may be rendered, denoting that Christ, our great propitiation [1Jo 2:2; 1Jo 4:10], has fully answered all the demands of the law, covers our transgressions, and comes between us and the curse of a violated law.

JFB: Exo 25:18 - two cherubim The real meaning of these figures, as well as the shape or form of them, is not known with certainty--probably similar to what was afterwards introduc...

The real meaning of these figures, as well as the shape or form of them, is not known with certainty--probably similar to what was afterwards introduced into the temple, and described in Eze 10:8-22. They stretched out their wings, and their faces were turned towards the mercy seat [Exo 25:20], probably in a bowing attitude. The prevailing opinion now is, that those splendid figures were symbolical not of angelic but of earthly and human beings--the members of the Church of God interested in the dispensation of grace, the redeemed in every age--and that these hieroglyphic forms symbolized the qualities of the true people of God--courage, patience, intelligence, and activity.

JFB: Exo 25:22 - there I will meet with thee, and I will commune with thee from above the mercy seat The Shekinah, or symbol of the Divine Presence, rested on the mercy seat, and was indicated by a cloud, from the midst of which responses were audibly...

The Shekinah, or symbol of the Divine Presence, rested on the mercy seat, and was indicated by a cloud, from the midst of which responses were audibly given when God was consulted on behalf of His people. Hence God is described as "dwelling" or "sitting" between the cherubim.

JFB: Exo 25:23 - table of shittim wood Of the same material and decorations as the ark [see on Exo 25:5], and like it, too, furnished with rings for the poles on which it was carried [Exo 2...

Of the same material and decorations as the ark [see on Exo 25:5], and like it, too, furnished with rings for the poles on which it was carried [Exo 25:26]. The staves, however, were taken out of it when stationary, in order not to encumber the priests while engaged in their services at the table. It was half a cubit less than the ark in length and breadth, but of the same height. [See on Exo 25:10.]

JFB: Exo 25:24 - crown The moulding or ornamental rim, which is thought to have been raised above the level of the table, to prevent anything from falling off.

The moulding or ornamental rim, which is thought to have been raised above the level of the table, to prevent anything from falling off.

JFB: Exo 25:29 - dishes Broad platters.

Broad platters.

JFB: Exo 25:29 - spoons Cups or concave vessels, used for holding incense.

Cups or concave vessels, used for holding incense.

JFB: Exo 25:29 - covers Both for bread and incense.

Both for bread and incense.

JFB: Exo 25:29 - bowls Cups; for though no mention is made of wine, libations were undoubtedly made to God, according to JOSEPHUS and the rabbins, once a week, when the brea...

Cups; for though no mention is made of wine, libations were undoubtedly made to God, according to JOSEPHUS and the rabbins, once a week, when the bread was changed.

JFB: Exo 25:29 - to cover withal Rather, "to pour out withal."

Rather, "to pour out withal."

JFB: Exo 25:30 - showbread Literally, presence bread, so called because it was constantly exhibited before the Lord, or because the bread of His presence, like the angel of His ...

Literally, presence bread, so called because it was constantly exhibited before the Lord, or because the bread of His presence, like the angel of His presence, pointed symbolically to Christ. It consisted of twelve unleavened loaves, said traditionally to have been laid in piles of six each. This bread was designed to be a symbol of the full and never-failing provision which is made in the Church for the spiritual sustenance and refreshment of God's people.

JFB: Exo 25:31 - candlestick Literally, "a lamp bearer." It was so constructed as to be capable of being taken to pieces for facility in removal. The shaft or stock rested on a pe...

Literally, "a lamp bearer." It was so constructed as to be capable of being taken to pieces for facility in removal. The shaft or stock rested on a pedestal. It had seven branches, shaped like reeds or canes--three on each side, with one in the center--and worked out into knobs, flowers, and bowls, placed alternately [Exo 25:32-36]. The figure represented on the arch of Titus gives the best idea of this candlestick.

JFB: Exo 25:33 - knops Old spelling for "knobs"--bosses.

Old spelling for "knobs"--bosses.

JFB: Exo 25:37 - they shall light the lamps . . . that they may give light The light was derived from pure olive oil, and probably kept continually burning (compare Exo 30:7; Lev 24:2).

The light was derived from pure olive oil, and probably kept continually burning (compare Exo 30:7; Lev 24:2).

JFB: Exo 25:38 - tongs Snuffers.

Snuffers.

JFB: Exo 25:39 - a talent of pure gold In weight equivalent to 125 lbs. troy.

In weight equivalent to 125 lbs. troy.

JFB: Exo 25:40 - look that thou make them after their pattern This caution, which is repeated with no small frequency in other parts of the narrative, is an evidence of the deep interest taken by the Divine King ...

This caution, which is repeated with no small frequency in other parts of the narrative, is an evidence of the deep interest taken by the Divine King in the erection of His palace or sanctuary; and it is impossible to account for the circumstance of God's condescending to such minute details, except on the assumption that this tabernacle was to be of a typical character, and eminently subservient to the religious instruction and benefit of mankind, by shadowing forth in its leading features the grand truths of the Christian Church.

Clarke: Exo 25:2 - That they bring me an offering That they bring me an offering - The offering here mentioned is the תרומה terumah , a kind of free-will offering, consisting of any thing that...

That they bring me an offering - The offering here mentioned is the תרומה terumah , a kind of free-will offering, consisting of any thing that was necessary for the occasion. It signifies properly any thing that was lifted up, the heave-offering, because in presenting it to God it was lifted up to be laid on his altar; but see Clarke on Exo 29:27 (note). God requires that they should build him a tent, suited in some sort to his dignity and eminence, because he was to act as their king, and to dwell among them; and they were to consider themselves as his subjects, and in this character to bring him presents, which was considered to be the duty of every subject appearing before his prince. See Exo 23:15.

Clarke: Exo 25:3 - This is the offering This is the offering - There were three kinds of metals 1. Gold, זהב zahab , which may properly signify wrought gold; what was bright and resple...

This is the offering - There were three kinds of metals

1. Gold, זהב zahab , which may properly signify wrought gold; what was bright and resplendent, as the word implies. In Job 28:15, Job 28:16, Job 28:17, Job 28:19, gold is mentioned five times, and four of the words are different in the original

1.    סגור Segor , from סגר sagar , to shut up; gold in the mine, or shut up in its ore

2.    כתם Kethem , from כתם catham , to sign, seal, or stamp; gold made current by being coined; standard or sterling gold, exhibiting the stamp expressive of its value

3.    זהב Zahab , wrought gold, pure, highly polished gold; probably what was used for overlaying or gilding

4.    פז Paz , denoting solidity, compactness, and strength; probably gold formed into different kinds of plate, as it is joined in Exo 25:17 of the above chapter with כלי keley , vessels. The zahab , or pure gold, is here mentioned, because it was in a state that rendered it capable of being variously manufactured for the service of the sanctuary

2. Silver, כסף keseph , from casaph , to be pale, wan, or white; so called from its well-known color

3. Brass, נחשת nechosheth , copper; unless we suppose that the factitious metal commonly called brass is intended: this is formed by a combination of the oxide or ore of zinc, called lapis calaminaris, with copper. Brass seems to have been very anciently in use, as we find it mentioned Gen 4:22; and the preparation of copper, to transform it into this factitious metal, seems to be very pointedly referred to Job 28:2 : Iron is taken out of the earth, and brass is molten out of the stone; אבן יצוק נחושה eben yatsuk nechushah , translated by the Vulgate, Lapis, solutus calore, in aes vertitur , "The stone, liquefied by heat, is turned into brass."Is it going too far to say that the stone here may refer to the lapis calaminaris, which was used to turn the copper into brass? Because brass was capable of so fine a polish as to become exceedingly bright, and keep its lustre a considerable time, hence it was used for all weapons of war and defensive armor among ancient nations; and copper seems to have been in no repute, but for its use in making brass.

Clarke: Exo 25:4 - Blue Blue - תכלת techeleth , generally supposed to mean an azure or sky color; rendered by the Septuagint ὑακινθον, and by the Vulgate hy...

Blue - תכלת techeleth , generally supposed to mean an azure or sky color; rendered by the Septuagint ὑακινθον, and by the Vulgate hyacinthum , a sky-blue or deep violet

Clarke: Exo 25:4 - Purple Purple - ארגמן argaman , a very precious color, extracted from the purpura or murex, a species of shell-fish, from which it is supposed the fa...

Purple - ארגמן argaman , a very precious color, extracted from the purpura or murex, a species of shell-fish, from which it is supposed the famous Tyrian purple came, so costly, and so much celebrated in antiquity. See this largely described, and the manner of dyeing it, in Pliny, Hist. Nat., lib. ix., c. 60-65, edit. Bipont

Clarke: Exo 25:4 - Scarlet Scarlet - תולעת tolaath , signifies a worm, of which this colouring matter was made; and, joined with שני shani , which signifies to repea...

Scarlet - תולעת tolaath , signifies a worm, of which this colouring matter was made; and, joined with שני shani , which signifies to repeat or double, implies that to strike this color the wool or cloth was twice dipped: hence the Vulgate renders the original coccum bis tinctum , "scarlet twice dyed;"and to this Horace refers, Odar., lib. ii., od. 16, v. 35

- Te Bis Afro Muric

Tinctae Vestiunt Lanae -

"Thy robes the twice dyed purple stains.

It is the same color which the Arabs call al kermez , whence the French cramoisi , and the English crimson. On this subject much may be seen in Bochart, Calmet, and Scheuchzer

Clarke: Exo 25:4 - Fine linen Fine linen - שש shesh ; whether this means linen, cotton, or silk, is not agreed on among interpreters. Because שש shesh signifies six, the...

Fine linen - שש shesh ; whether this means linen, cotton, or silk, is not agreed on among interpreters. Because שש shesh signifies six, the rabbins suppose that it always signifies the fine linen of Egypt, in which six folds constituted one thread; and that when a single fold was meant, בד bad is the term used. See Clarke’ s note on Gen 41:42

Clarke: Exo 25:4 - Goats’ hair Goats’ hair - עזים izzim , goats, but used here elliptically for goats’ hair. In different parts of Asia Minor, Syria, Cilicia, and...

Goats’ hair - עזים izzim , goats, but used here elliptically for goats’ hair. In different parts of Asia Minor, Syria, Cilicia, and Phrygia, the goats have long, fine, and beautiful hair, in some cases almost as fine as silk, which they shear at proper times, and manufacture into garments. From Virgil, Georg. iii., v. 305-311, we learn that goats’ hair manufactured into cloth was nearly of equal value with that formed from wool

Hae quoque non cura nobis leviore tuenda

Nec minor usus erit: quamvis Milesia magn

Vellera mutentur, Tyrios incocta rubores

Nec minus interea barbas incanaque ment

Cinyphii tondent hirci, setasque comantes

Usum in castrorum, et miseris velamina nautis

"For hairy goats of equal profit ar

With woolly sheep, and ask an equal care

‘ Tis true the fleece when drunk with Tyrian juic

Is dearly sold, but not for needful use

Meanwhile the pastor shears their hoary beard

And eases of their hair the loaden herds

Their camelots, warm in tents, the soldier hold

And shield the shivering mariner from the cold.

Dryden.

||&&$

Clarke: Exo 25:5 - Rams’ skins dyed red Rams’ skins dyed red - ערת אילם מאדמים oroth eylim meoddamim , literally, the skins of red rams. It is a fact attested by many r...

Rams’ skins dyed red - ערת אילם מאדמים oroth eylim meoddamim , literally, the skins of red rams. It is a fact attested by many respectable travelers, that in the Levant sheep are often to be met with that have red or violet-coloured fleeces. And almost all ancient writers speak of the same thing. Homer describes the rams of Polyphemus as having a violet-coloured fleece

Αρσενες οΐες ησαν εΰτρεφεες, δασυμαλλοι

Καλοι τε, μεγαλοι τε, ιοδνεφες ειρος εχοντες

Odyss., lib. ix., ver. 425

"Strong were the rams, with native purple fair

Well fed, and largest of the fleecy care.

Pope

Pliny, Aristotle, and others mention the same. And from facts of this kind it is very probable that the fable of the golden fleece had its origin. In the Zetland Isles I have seen sheep with variously coloured fleeces, some white, some black, some black and white, some of a very fine chocolate color. Beholding those animals brought to my recollection those words of Virgil

- Ipse sed in pratis Aries jam suave rubent

Murice, jam croceo mutabit vellera luto

Eclog. iv., ver. 43

"No wool shall in dissembled colors shine

But the luxurious father of the fold

With native purple or unborrow’ d gold

Beneath his pompous fleece shall proudly sweat

And under Tyrian robes the lamb shall bleat.

Dryden

Badgers’ skins - ערת תחשים oroth techashim . Few terms have afforded greater perplexity to critics and commentators than this. Bochart has exhausted the subject, and seems to have proved that no kind of animal is here intended, but a color. None of the ancient versions acknowledge an animal of any kind except the Chaldee, which seems to think the badger is intended, and from it we have borrowed our translation of the word. The Septuagint and Vulgate have skins dyed a violet color; the Syriac, azure; the Arabic, black; the Coptic, violet; the modern Persic, ram-skins, etc. The color contended for by Bochart is the hysginus, which is a very deep blue. So Pliny, Coccoque tinctum Tyrio tingere, ut fieret hysginum . "They dip crimson in purple to make the color called hysginus."- Hist. Nat., lib. ix., c. 65, edit. Bipont

Clarke: Exo 25:5 - Shittim wood Shittim wood - By some supposed to be the finest species of the cedar; by others, the acacia Nilotica , a species of thorn, solid, light, and very b...

Shittim wood - By some supposed to be the finest species of the cedar; by others, the acacia Nilotica , a species of thorn, solid, light, and very beautiful. This acacia is known to have been plentiful in Egypt, and it abounds in Arabia Deserta, the very place in which Moses was when he built the tabernacle; and hence it is reasonable to suppose that he built it of that wood, which was every way proper for his purpose.

Clarke: Exo 25:6 - Oil for the light Oil for the light - This they must have brought with them from Egypt, for they could not get any in the wilderness where there were no olives; but i...

Oil for the light - This they must have brought with them from Egypt, for they could not get any in the wilderness where there were no olives; but it is likely that this and some other directions refer more to what was to be done when in their fixed and settled residence, than while wandering in the wilderness

Clarke: Exo 25:6 - Spices Spices - To make a confection for sweet incense, abounded in different parts of these countries.

Spices - To make a confection for sweet incense, abounded in different parts of these countries.

Clarke: Exo 25:7 - Onyx stones Onyx stones - We have already met with the stone called שהם shoham , Gen 2:12, and acknowledged the difficulty of ascertaining what is meant by ...

Onyx stones - We have already met with the stone called שהם shoham , Gen 2:12, and acknowledged the difficulty of ascertaining what is meant by it. Some think the onyx, some the sardine, and some the emerald, is meant. We cannot say precisely what it was; possibly it might have been that fine pale pebble, called the Egyptian pebble, several specimens of which now lie before me, which were brought from the coast of the Red Sea, and other parts in Egypt, by a particular friend of mine, on purpose to add to my collection of minerals. Stones to be set in the ephod - אבני מלאים abney milluim , stones of filling up. Stones so cut as to be proper to be set in the gold work of the breastplate

The אפד ephod - It is very difficult to tell what this was, or in what form it was made. It was a garment of some kind peculiar to the priests, and ever considered essential to all the parts of Divine worship, for without it no person attempted to inquire of God. As the word itself comes from the root אפד aphad , he tied or bound close, Calmet supposes that it was a kind of girdle, which, brought from behind the neck and over the shoulders, and so hanging down before, was put cross upon the stomach, and then carried round the waist, and thus made a girdle to the tunic. Where the ephod crossed on the breast there was a square ornament called חשן choshen , the breastplate, in which twelve precious stones were set, each bearing one of the names of the twelve sons of Jacob engraven on it. There were two sorts of ephods, one of plain linen for the priests, the other very much embroidered for the high priest. As there was nothing singular in this common sort, no particular description is given; but that of the high priest is described very much in detail Exo 28:6-8. It was distinguished from the common ephod by being composed of gold, blue, purple, scarlet, fine twisted linen, and cunning work, i.e., superbly ornamented and embroidered. This ephod was fastened on the shoulders with two precious stones, on which the twelve names of the twelve tribes of Israel were engraved, six names on each stone. These two stones, thus engraved, were different from those on the breastplate, with which they have been confounded. From Calmet’ s description the ephod seems to have been a series of belts, fastened to a collar, which were intended to keep the garments of the priest closely attached to his body: but there is some reason to believe that it was a sort of garment like that worn by our heralds; it covered the back, breast, and belly, and was open at the sides. A piece of the same kind of stuff with itself united it on the shoulders, where the two stones, already mentioned, were placed, and it was probably without sleeves. See Clarke on Exo 28:2 (note), etc.

Clarke: Exo 25:8 - Let them make me a sanctuary Let them make me a sanctuary - מקדש mikdash , a holy place, such as God might dwell in; this was that part of the tabernacle that was called th...

Let them make me a sanctuary - מקדש mikdash , a holy place, such as God might dwell in; this was that part of the tabernacle that was called the most holy place, into which the high priest entered only once a year, on the great day of atonement

Clarke: Exo 25:8 - That I may dwell among them That I may dwell among them - "This,"says Mr. Ainsworth, "was the main end of all; and to this all the particulars are to be referred, and by this t...

That I may dwell among them - "This,"says Mr. Ainsworth, "was the main end of all; and to this all the particulars are to be referred, and by this they are to be opened. For this sanctuary, as Solomon’ s temple afterwards, was the place of prayer, and of the public service of God, Lev 17:4-6; Mat 21:13; and it signified the Church which is the habitation of God through the Spirit, 2Co 6:16; Eph 2:19-22; Rev 21:2, Rev 21:3; and was a visible sign of God’ s presence and protection, Lev 26:11, Lev 26:12; Eze 37:27, Eze 37:28; 1Ki 6:12, 1Ki 6:13; and of his leading them to his heavenly glory. For as the high priest entered into the tabernacle, and through the veil into the most holy place where God dwelt; so Christ entered into the holy of holies, and we also enter through the veil, that is to say his flesh. See the use made of this by the apostle, Hebrews 9 and 10. Thus the sanctuary is to be applied as a type

1.    To Christ’ s person, Heb 8:2; Heb 9:11, Heb 9:12; Joh 2:19-21

2.    To every Christian, 1Co 6:19

3.    To the Church; both particular, Heb 3:6; 1Ti 3:15; and universal, Heb 10:21 : and it was because of the very extensive signification of this building, that the different things concerning this sanctuary are particularly set down by Moses, and so variously applied by the prophets and by the apostles."- See Ainsworth

As the dwelling in this tabernacle was the highest proof of God’ s grace and mercy towards the Israelites, so it typified Christ’ s dwelling by faith in the hearts of believers, and thus giving them the highest and surest proof of their reconciliation to God, and of his love and favor to them; see Eph 1:22; Eph 3:17.

Clarke: Exo 25:9 - After the pattern of the tabernacle After the pattern of the tabernacle - It has been supposed that there had been a tabernacle before that erected by Moses, though it probably did not...

After the pattern of the tabernacle - It has been supposed that there had been a tabernacle before that erected by Moses, though it probably did not now exist; but the tabernacle which Moses is ordered to make was to be formed exactly on the model of this ancient one, the pattern of which God showed him in the mount, Exo 25:40. The word משכן mishcan signifies literally the dwelling or habitation; and this was so called because it was the dwelling place of God; and the only place on the earth in which he made himself manifest. See Clarke’ s note on Exo 25:40, and on Exo 33:7-10.

Clarke: Exo 25:10 - They shall make an ark They shall make an ark - ארון aron signifies an ark, chest, coffer, or coffin. It is used particularly to designate that chest or coffer in w...

They shall make an ark - ארון aron signifies an ark, chest, coffer, or coffin. It is used particularly to designate that chest or coffer in which the testimony or two tables of the covenant was laid up, on the top of which was the propitiatory or mercy-seat, (see on Exo 25:17), and at the end of which were the cherubim of gold, (Exo 25:18-20), between whom the visible sign of the presence of the supreme God appeared as seated upon his throne. The ark was the most excellent of all the holy things which belonged to the Mosaic economy, and for its sake the tabernacle and the temple were built, Exo 26:33; Exo 40:18, Exo 40:21. It was considered as conferring a sanctity wherever it was fixed, 2 Chronicles 8;11; 2Sa 6:12

Clarke: Exo 25:10 - Two cubits and a half shall be the length, etc. Two cubits and a half shall be the length, etc. - About four feet five inches in length, taking the cubit as twenty-one inches, and two feet six inc...

Two cubits and a half shall be the length, etc. - About four feet five inches in length, taking the cubit as twenty-one inches, and two feet six inches in breadth and in depth. As this ark was chiefly intended to deposit the two tables of stone in, which had been written by the finger of God, we may very reasonably conjecture that the length of those tables was not less than four feet and their breadth not less than two. As to their thickness we can say nothing, as the depth of the ark was intended for other matters besides the two tables, such as Aaron’ s rod, the pot of manna, etc., etc., though probably these were laid up beside, not in, the ark.

Clarke: Exo 25:11 - A crown of gold round about A crown of gold round about - A border, or, as the Septuagint have it, κυματια χρυσα στεπτα κυκλω, waves of gold wreathed ro...

A crown of gold round about - A border, or, as the Septuagint have it, κυματια χρυσα στεπτα κυκλω, waves of gold wreathed round about.

Clarke: Exo 25:15 - The staves - shall not be taken from it The staves - shall not be taken from it - Because it should ever be considered as in readiness to be removed, God not having told them at what hour ...

The staves - shall not be taken from it - Because it should ever be considered as in readiness to be removed, God not having told them at what hour he should command them to strike their tents. If the staves were never to be taken out, how can it be said, as in Num 4:6, that when the camp should set forward, they should put in the staves thereof, which intimates that when they encamped, they took out the staves, which appears to be contrary to what is here said? To reconcile these two places, it has been supposed, with great show of probability, that besides the staves which passed through the rings of the ark, and by which it was carried, there were two other staves or poles in the form of a bier or handbarrow, on which the ark was laid in order to be transported in their journeyings, when it and its own staves, still in their rings, had been wrapped up in the covering of what is called badgers’ skins and blue cloth. The staves of the ark itself, which might be considered as its handles simply to lift it by, were never taken out of their rings; but the staves or poles which served as a bier were taken from under it when they encamped.

Clarke: Exo 25:16 - The testimony The testimony - The two tables of stone which were not yet given; these tables were called עדת eduth , from עד forward, onward, to bear witn...

The testimony - The two tables of stone which were not yet given; these tables were called עדת eduth , from עד forward, onward, to bear witness to or of a person or thing. Not only the tables of stone, but all the contents of the ark, Aaron’ s rod, the pot of manna, the holy anointing oil, etc., bore testimony to the Messiah in his prophetic, sacerdotal, and regal offices.

Clarke: Exo 25:17 - A mercy-seat A mercy-seat - כפרת capporeth , from כפר caphar , to cover or overspread; because by an act of pardon sins are represented as being covered...

A mercy-seat - כפרת capporeth , from כפר caphar , to cover or overspread; because by an act of pardon sins are represented as being covered, so that they no longer appear in the eye of Divine justice to displease, irritate, and call for punishment; and the person of the offender is covered or protected from the stroke of the broken law. In the Greek version of the Septuagint the word ιλαστηριον, hilasterion , is used, which signifies a propitiatory, and is the name used by the apostle, Heb 9:5. This mercy-seat or propitiatory was made of pure gold; it was properly the lid or covering of that vessel so well known by the name of the ark and ark of the covenant. On and before this, the high priest was to sprinkle the blood of the expiatory sacrifices on the great day of atonement: and it was in this place that God promised to meet the people, (see Exo 25:22); for there he dwelt, and there was the symbol of the Divine presence. At each end of this propitiatory was a cherub, between whom this glory was manifested; hence in Scripture it is so often said that he dwelleth between the cherubim. As the word ιλαστηριον, propitiatory or mercy-seat, is applied to Christ, Rom 3:25, whom God hath set forth to be a Propitiation ( ιλαστηριον ) through faith in his blood - for the remission of sins that are past; hence we learn that Christ was the true mercy-seat, the thing signified by the capporeth , to the ancient believers. And we learn farther that it was by his blood that an atonement was to be made for the sins of the world. And as God showed himself between the cherubim over this propitiatory or mercy-seat, so it is said, God was in Christ reconciling the world unto himself; 2Co 5:19, etc. See on Leviticus 7 (note).

Clarke: Exo 25:18 - Thou shalt make two cherubims Thou shalt make two cherubims - What these were we cannot distinctly say. It is generally supposed that a cherub was a creature with four heads and ...

Thou shalt make two cherubims - What these were we cannot distinctly say. It is generally supposed that a cherub was a creature with four heads and one body: and the animals, of which these emblematical forms consisted, were the noblest of their kinds; the lion among the wild beasts, the bull among the tame ones, the eagle among the birds, and man at the head of all; so that they might be, says Dr. Priestley, the representatives of all nature. Concerning their forms and design there is much difference of opinion among divines. It is probable that the term often means a figure of any kind, such as was ordinarily sculptured on stone, engraved on metal, carved on wood, or embroidered on cloth. See on Exo 35:8 (note). It may be only necessary to add, that cherub is the singular number; cherubim, not cherubims, the plural. See what has been said on this subject in the note on Gen 3:24 (note).

Clarke: Exo 25:22 - And there I will meet with thee And there I will meet with thee - That is, over the mercy-seat, between the cherubim. In this place God chose to give the most especial manifestatio...

And there I will meet with thee - That is, over the mercy-seat, between the cherubim. In this place God chose to give the most especial manifestations of himself; here the Divine glory was to be seen; and here Moses was to come in order to consult Jehovah, relative to the management of the people

Ainsworth has remarked that the rabbins say, "The heart of man may be likened to God’ s sanctuary; for as, in the sanctuary, the shechinah or Divine glory dwelt, because there were the ark, the tables, and the cherubim; so, in the heart of man, it is meet that a place be made for the Divine Majesty to dwell in, and that it be the holy of holies."This is a doctrine most implicitly taught by the apostles; and the absolute necessity of having the heart made a habitation of God through the Spirit, is strongly and frequently insisted on through the whole of the New Testament. See the note on Exo 25:23.

Clarke: Exo 25:23 - Thou shalt also make a table of shittim wood Thou shalt also make a table of shittim wood - The same wood, the acacia, of which the arkstaves, etc., were made. On the subject of the ark, table ...

Thou shalt also make a table of shittim wood - The same wood, the acacia, of which the arkstaves, etc., were made. On the subject of the ark, table of shew-bread, etc., Dr. Cudworth, in his very learned and excellent treatise on the Lord’ s Supper, has the following remarks: -

"When God had brought the children of Israel out of Egypt, resolving to manifest himself in a peculiar manner present among them, he thought good to dwell amongst them in a visible and external manner; and therefore, while they were in the wilderness, and sojourned in tents, he would have a tent or tabernacle built to sojourn with them also. This mystery of the tabernacle was fully understood by the learned Nachmanides, who, in few words, but pregnant, expresseth himself to this purpose: ‘ The mystery of the tabernacle was this, that it was to be a place for the shechinah, or habitation of Divinity, to be fixed in;’ and this, no doubt, as a special type of God’ s future dwelling in Christ’ s human nature, which was the True Shechinah: but when the Jews were come into their land, and had there built them houses, God intended to have a fixed dwelling-house also; and therefore his movable tabernacle was to be turned into a standing temple. Now the tabernacle or temple, being thus as a house for God to dwell in visibly, to make up the notion of dwelling or habitation complete there must be all things suitable to a house belonging to it; hence, in the holy place, there must be a table, and a candlestick, because this was the ordinary furniture of a room, as the fore-commended Nachmanides observes. The table must have its dishes, and spoons, and bowls, and covers belonging to it, though they were never used; and always be furnished with bread upon it. The candlestick must have its lamps continually burning. Hence also there must be a continual fire kept in this house of God upon the altar, as the focus of it; to which notion I conceive the Prophet Isaiah doth allude, Isa 31:9 : Whose fire is in Zion, and his furnace in Jerusalem; and besides all this, to carry the notion still farther, there must be some constant meat and provision brought into this house; which was done in the sacrifices that were partly consumed by fire upon God’ s own altar, and partly eaten by the priests, who were God’ s family, and therefore to be maintained by him. That which was consumed upon God’ s altar was accounted God’ s mess, as appeareth from Mal 1:12, where the altar is called God’ s table, and the sacrifice upon it, God’ s meat: Ye say, The table of the Lord is polluted; and the fruit thereof, even His Meat, is contemptible. And often, in the law, the sacrifice is called God’ s לחם lechem , i.e., his bread or food. Wherefore it is farther observable, that besides the flesh of the beast offered up in sacrifice, there was a minchah, i.e., a meat-offering, or rather bread-offering, made of flour and oil; and a libamen or drink-offering, which was always joined with the daily sacrifice, as the bread and drink which was to go along with God’ s meat. It was also strictly commanded that there should be salt in every sacrifice and oblation, because all meat is unsavoury without salt, as Nachmanides hath here also well observed; ‘ because it was not honorable that God’ s meat should be unsavoury, without salt.’ Lastly, all these things were to be consumed on the altar only by the holy fire which came down from heaven, because they were God’ s portion, and therefore to be eaten or consumed by himself in an extraordinary manner."See Clarke on Exo 25:22 (note).

Clarke: Exo 25:29 - The dishes thereof The dishes thereof - קערתיו kearothaiv , probably the deep bowls in which they kneaded the mass out of which they made the shew-bread

The dishes thereof - קערתיו kearothaiv , probably the deep bowls in which they kneaded the mass out of which they made the shew-bread

Clarke: Exo 25:29 - And spoons thereof And spoons thereof - כפתיו cappothaiu , probably censers, on which they put up the incense; as seems pretty evident from Num 7:14, Num 7:20, N...

And spoons thereof - כפתיו cappothaiu , probably censers, on which they put up the incense; as seems pretty evident from Num 7:14, Num 7:20, Num 7:26, Num 7:32, Num 7:38, Num 7:44, Num 7:50, Num 7:56, Num 7:62, Num 7:68, Num 7:74, Num 7:80, Num 7:86, where the same word is used, and the instrument, whatever it was, is always represented as being filled with incense

Clarke: Exo 25:29 - Covers thereof Covers thereof - קשותיו kesothaiv , supposed to be a large cup or tankard, in which pure wine was kept on the table along with the shewbread ...

Covers thereof - קשותיו kesothaiv , supposed to be a large cup or tankard, in which pure wine was kept on the table along with the shewbread for libations, which were poured out before the Lord every Sabbath, when the old bread was removed, and the new bread laid on the table

Clarke: Exo 25:29 - Bowls thereof Bowls thereof - מנקיתיו menakkiyothaiv , from נקה nakah , to clear away, remove, empty, etc.; supposed by Calmet to mean, either the sie...

Bowls thereof - מנקיתיו menakkiyothaiv , from נקה nakah , to clear away, remove, empty, etc.; supposed by Calmet to mean, either the sieves by which the Levites cleansed the wheat they made into bread, (for it is asserted that the grain, out of which the shew-bread was made, was sowed, reaped, ground, sifted, kneaded, baked, etc., by the Levites themselves), or the ovens in which the bread was baked. Others suppose they were vessels which they dipped into the kesoth, to take out the wine for libations.

Clarke: Exo 25:30 - Shew-bread Shew-bread - לחם פנים lechem panim literally, bread of faces; so called, either because they were placed before the presence or face of Go...

Shew-bread - לחם פנים lechem panim literally, bread of faces; so called, either because they were placed before the presence or face of God in the sanctuary, or because they were made square, as the Jews will have it. It is probable that they were in the form of cubes or hexaedrons, each side presenting the same appearance; and hence the Jews might suppose they were called the bread or loaves of faces: but the Hebrew text seems to intimate that they were called the bread of faces, פנים panim , because, as the Lord says, they were set לפני lephanai , before my Face. These loaves or cakes were twelve, representing, as is generally supposed, the twelve tribes of Israel. They were in two rows of six each. On the top of each row there was a golden dish with frankincense, which was burned before the Lord, as a memorial, at the end of the week, when the old loaves were removed and replaced by new ones, the priests taking the former for their domestic use

It is more difficult to ascertain the use of these, or what they represented, than almost any other emblem in the whole Jewish economy. Many have conjectured their meaning, and I feel no disposition to increase their number by any addition of my own. The note on Exo 25:23, from Dr. Cudworth, appears to me more rational than any thing else I have met with. The tabernacle was God’ s house, and in it he had his table, his bread, his wine, candlestick, etc., to show them that he had taken up his dwelling among them. See Clarke’ s note on Exo 25:23.

Clarke: Exo 25:31 - A candlestick of pure gold A candlestick of pure gold - This candlestick or chandelier is generally described as having one shaft or stock, with six branches proceeding from i...

A candlestick of pure gold - This candlestick or chandelier is generally described as having one shaft or stock, with six branches proceeding from it, adorned at equal distances with six flowers like lilies, with as many bowls and knops placed alternately. On each of the branches there was a lamp, and one on the top of the shaft which occupied the center; thus there were seven lamps in all, Exo 25:37. These seven lamps were lighted every evening and extinguished every morning

We are not so certain of the precise form of any instrument or utensil of the tabernacle or temple, as we are of this, the golden table, and the two silver trumpets

Titus, after the overthrow of Jerusalem, a.d. 70, had the golden candlestick and the golden table of the shew-bread, the silver trumpets, and the book of the law, taken out of the temple and carried in triumph to Rome; and Vespasian lodged them in the temple which he had consecrated to the goddess of Peace. Some plants also of the balm of Jericho are said to have been carried in the procession. At the foot of Mount Palatine there are the ruins of an arch, on which the triumph of Titus for his conquest of the Jews is represented, and on which the several monuments which were carried in the procession are sculptured, and particularly the golden candlestick, the table of the shew-bread and the two silver trumpets. A correct Model of this arch, taken on the spot, now stands before me; and the spoils of the temple, the candlestick, the golden table, and the two trumpets, are represented on the panel on the left hand, in the inside of the arch, in basso-relievo . The candlestick is not so ornamented as it appears in many prints; at the same time it looks much better than it does in the engraving of this arch given by Montfaucon, Antiq. Expliq., vol. iv., pl. 32. It is likely that on the real arch this candlestick is less in size than the original, as it scarcely measures three feet in height. See the Diarium Italicum, p. 129. To see these sacred articles given up by that God who ordered them to be made according to a pattern exhibited by himself, gracing the triumph of a heathen emperor, and at last consecrated to an idol, affords melancholy reflections to a pious mind. But these things had accomplished the end for which they were instituted, and were now of no farther use. The glorious personage typified by all this ancient apparatus, had about seventy years before this made his appearance. The true light was come, and the Holy Spirit poured out from on high; and therefore the golden candlestick, by which they were typified, was given up. The ever-during bread had been sent from heaven; and therefore the golden table, which bore its representative, the shew-bread, was now no longer needful. The joyful sound of the everlasting Gospel was then published in the world; and therefore the silver trumpets that typified this were carried into captivity, and their sound was no more to be heard. Strange providence but unutterable mercy of God! The Jews lost both the sign and the thing signified; and that very people, who destroyed the holy city, carried away the spoils of the temple, and dedicated them to the objects of their idolatry, were the first in the universe to receive the preaching of the Gospel, the light of salvation, and the bread of life! There is a sort of coincidence or association here, which is worthy of the most serious observation. The Jews had these significant emblems to lead them to, and prepare them for, the things signified. They trusted in the former, and rejected the latter! God therefore deprived them of both, and gave up their temple to the spoilers, their land to desolation, and themselves to captivity and to the sword. The heathens then carried away the emblems of their salvation, and God shortly gave unto those heathens that very salvation of which these things were the emblems! Thus because of their unbelief and rebellion, the kingdom of heaven, according to the prediction of our blessed Lord, was taken from the Jews, and given to a nation (the Gentiles) that brought forth the fruits thereof; Mat 21:43. Behold the Goodness and Severity of God!

Clarke: Exo 25:39 - Of a talent of pure gold shall he make it, with all these vessels Of a talent of pure gold shall he make it, with all these vessels - That is, a talent of gold in weight was used in making the candlestick, and the ...

Of a talent of pure gold shall he make it, with all these vessels - That is, a talent of gold in weight was used in making the candlestick, and the different vessels and instruments which belonged to it. According to Bishop Cumberland, a talent was three thousand shekels. As the Israelites brought each half a shekel, Exo 38:26, so that one hundred talents, one thousand seven hundred and seventy-five shekels, were contributed by six hundred and three thousand five hundred and fifty persons; by halving the number of the Israelites, he finds they contributed three hundred and one thousand seven hundred and seventy-five shekels in all. Now, as we find that this number of shekels made one hundred talents, and one thousand seven hundred and seventy-five shekels over, if we subtract one thousand seven hundred and seventy-five, the odd shekels, from three hundred and one thousand seven hundred and seventy-five, we shall have for a remainder three hundred thousand, the number of shekels in one hundred talents: and if this remainder be divided by one hundred, the number of talents, it quotes three thousand, the number of shekels in each talent. A silver shekel of the sanctuary, being equal, according to Dr. Prideaux, to three shillings English, three thousand such shekels will amount to four hundred and fifty pounds sterling; and, reckoning gold to silver as fifteen to one, a talent of gold will amount to six thousand seven hundred and fifty pounds sterling: to which add two hundred and sixty-three pounds for the one thousand seven hundred and seventy-five shekels, at three shillings each, and it makes a total of seven thousand and thirteen pounds, which immense sum was expended on the candlestick and its furniture. It is no wonder, then, (if the candlestick in the second temple was equal in value to that in the ancient tabernacle), that Titus should think it of sufficient consequence to be one of the articles, with the golden table, and silver trumpets, that should be employed to grace his triumph. Their intrinsic worth was a matter of no consequence to Him whose are the silver and gold, the earth and its fullness; they had accomplished their design, and were of no farther use, either in the kingdom of providence, or the kingdom of grace. See Clarke’ s note on Exo 25:31, and see Clarke’ s note on Exo 38:24.

Clarke: Exo 25:40 - And look that thou make, etc. And look that thou make, etc. - This verse should be understood as an order to Moses after the tabernacle, etc., had been described to him; as if he...

And look that thou make, etc. - This verse should be understood as an order to Moses after the tabernacle, etc., had been described to him; as if he had said: "When thou comest to make all the things that I have already described to thee, with the other matters of which I shall afterwards treat, see that thou make every thing according to the pattern which thou didst see in the mount."The Septuagint have it, κατα τον τυτον τον δεδειγμενον σοι· according to the Type-form or fashion, which was shown thee. It appears to me that St. Paul had this command particularly in view when he gave that to his son Timothy which we find in the second epistle, 2Ti 1:13 : Ὑποτυπωσιν εχε ὑγιαινοντων λογων, ὡν παρ εμου ηκουσας . "Hold fast the Form of sound words which thou hast heard of me."The tabernacle was a type of the Church of God; that Church is built upon the foundation of the prophets and apostles, Jesus Christ being the chief cornerstone, Eph 2:20-22 : the doctrines, therefore, delivered by the prophets, Jesus Christ, and his apostles, are essential to the constitution of this church. As God, therefore, gave the plan or form according to which the tabernacle must be constructed, so he gives the doctrines according to which the Christian Church is to be modeled; and apostles, and subordinate builders, are to have and hold fast that Form of sound words, and construct this heavenly building according to that form or pattern which has come through the express revelation of God

In different parts of this work we have had occasion to remark that the heathens borrowed their best things from Divine revelation, both as it refers to what was pure in their doctrines, and significant in their religious rites. Indeed, they seem in many cases to have studied the closest imitation possible, consistent with the adaptation of all to their preposterous and idolatrous worship. They had their Iao or Jove, in imitation of the true Jehovah; and from different attributes of the Divine Nature they formed an innumerable group of gods and goddesses. They had also their temples in imitation of the temple of God; and in these they had their holy and more holy places, in imitation of the courts of the Lord’ s house. The heathen temples consisted of several parts or divisions

1.    The area or porch

2.    The ναος or temple, similar to the nave of our churches

3.    The adytum or holy place, called also penetrale and sacrarium; and

4.    The οπισθοδομος or the inner temple, the most secret recess, where they had their mysteria, and which answered to the holy of holies in the tabernacle

And as there is no evidence whatever that there was any temple among the heathens prior to the tabernacle, it is reasonable to conclude that it served as a model for all that they afterwards built. They had even their portable temples, to imitate the tabernacle; and the shrines for Diana, mentioned Act 19:24, were of this kind. They had even their arks or sacred coffers, where they kept their most holy things, and the mysterious emblems of their religion; together with candlesticks or lamps, to illuminate their temples, which had few windows, to imitate the golden candlestick in the Mosaic tabernacle. They had even their processions, in imitation of the carrying about of the ark in the wilderness, accompanied by such ceremonies as sufficiently show, to an unprejudiced mind, that they borrowed them from this sacred original. Dr. Dodd has a good note on this subject, which I shall take the liberty to extract

Speaking of the ark, he says, "We meet with imitations of this Divinely instituted emblem among several heathen nations. Thus Tacitus, De Moribus Germanorum, cap. 40, informs us that the inhabitants of the north of Germany, our Saxon ancestors, in general worshipped Herthum or Hertham, i.e., the mother earth: Hertham being plainly derived from ארץ arets , earth, and אם am , mother: and they believed her to interpose in the affairs of men, and to visit nations: that to her, in a sacred grove in a certain island of the ocean, a vehicle covered with a vestment was consecrated, and allowed to be touched by the priests only, (compare 2Sa 6:6, 2Sa 6:7; 1Ch 13:9, 1Ch 13:10), who perceived when the goddess entered into her secret place, penetrale, and with profound veneration attended her vehicle, which was drawn by cows; see 1Sa 6:7-10. While the goddess was on her progress, days of rejoicing were kept in every place which she vouchsafed to visit; they engaged in no war, they handled no weapons; peace and quietness were then only known, only relished, till the same priest reconducted the goddess to her temple. Then the vehicle and vestment, and, if you can believe it, the goddess herself, were washed in a sacred lake.

Apuleius, De Aur. Asin., lib. ii., describing a solemn idolatrous procession, after the Egyptian mode, says, "A chest, or ark, was carried by another, containing their secret things, entirely concealing the mysteries of religion.

And Plutarch, in his treatise De Iside, etc., describing the rites of Osiris, says, "On the tenth day of the month, at night, they go down to the sea; and the stolists, together with the priest, carry forth the sacred chest, in which is a small boat or vessel of gold.

Pausanius likewise testifies, lib. vii., c. 19, that the ancient Trojans had a sacred ark, wherein was the image of Bacchus, made by Vulcan, which had been given to Dardanus by Jupiter. As the ark was deposited in the holy of holies, so the heathens had in the inmost part of their temples an adytum or penetrale, to which none had access but the priests. And it is remarkable that, among the Mexicans, Vitzliputzli, their supreme god, was represented under a human shape, sitting on a throne, supported by an azure globe which they called heaven; four poles or sticks came out from two sides of this globe, at the end of which serpents’ heads were carved, the whole making a litter which the priests carried on their shoulders whenever the idol was shown in public - Religious Ceremonies, vol. iii., p. 146

Calmet remarks that the ancients used to dedicate candlesticks in the temples of their gods, bearing a great number of lamps

Pliny, Hist. Nat., lib. xxxiv., c. 3, mentions one made in the form of a tree, with lamps in the likeness of apples, which Alexander the Great consecrated in the temple of Apollo

And Athenaeus, lib. xv., c. 19, 20, mentions one that supported three hundred and sixty-five lamps, which Dionysius the younger, king of Syracuse, dedicated in the Prytaneum at Athens. As the Egyptians, according to the testimony of Clemens Alexandrinus, Strom., lib. i., were the first who used lamps in their temples, they probably borrowed the use from the golden candlestick in the tabernacle and temple

From the solemn and very particular charge, Look that thou make them after their pattern, which was showed thee in the mount, it appears plainly that God showed Moses a model of the tabernacle and all its furniture; and to receive instructions relative to this was one part of his employment while on the mount forty days with God. As God designed that this building, and all that belonged to it, should be patterns or representations of good things to come, it was indispensably necessary that Moses should receive a model and specification of the whole, according to which he might direct the different artificers in their constructing the work

1.    We may observe that the whole tabernacle and its furniture resembled a dwelling-house and its furniture

2. That this tabernacle was the house of God, not merely for the performance of his worship, but for his residence

3.    That God had promised to dwell among this people, and this was the habitation which he appointed for his glory

4.    That the tabernacle, as well as the temple, was a type of the incarnation of Jesus Christ. See Joh 1:14, and Joh 2:19, Joh 2:21

5.    That as the glory of God was manifested between the cherubim, above the mercy-seat, in this tabernacle, so God was in Christ, and in him dwelt all the fullness of the Godhead bodily

6.    As in the tabernacle were found bread, light, etc., probably all these were emblematical of the ample provision made in Christ for the direction, support, and salvation of the soul of man. Of these, and many other things in the law and the prophets, we shall know more when mortality is swallowed up of life.

Calvin: Exo 25:2 - Speak unto the children of Israel 2.Speak unto the children of Israel If any caviller should raise a question as to the time in which I have thought fit to introduce this history, 114...

2.Speak unto the children of Israel If any caviller should raise a question as to the time in which I have thought fit to introduce this history, 114 although I would not pertinaciously contend with him, still I have not only a probable, but a sure reason for my opinion. For it appears to me that I clearly gather from Exo 33:0, that the tabernacle was already built before Moses brought down the first tables from the Mount; for it is there said, that in token of their divorce, in order that the people might know that they were repudiated by God, Moses took the tabernacle and pitched it separately for himself without the camp; not for his own peculiar use, because it is expressly said that he did not dwell there, but that he went out of the camp as often as he desired to consult God; whilst Joshua was its keeper and guardian, ( aedituus.) But there is no doubt but that this took place previous to his second ascent to bring down new tables from the Lord; it is, therefore, clear that the tabernacle was already erected. If any object that it was not set up till the end of the second year, the reply is easy, that it was placed anew in its proper position, so that being everywhere surrounded by the children of Israel, it might have all its guards, according to the twelve tribes encamped in their due order; and again, that the tables were then actually deposited in the Ark of the Covenant, and by them God represented Himself, so that without them the tabernacle was in a manner empty; finally, that the solemn dedication is there treated of, for which the due season had not arrived, until in testimony of God’s presence the covenant was deposited in the Ark, by way of pledge. In order the better to remove all ambiguity, we must briefly calculate the time. In the third month from their exodus the people reached Mount Sinai. On what day the Law was given is nowhere stated, unless we may probably conjecture that it was promulgated about the end of that month. Thus there will be eight months to be computed until the day on which the tabernacle was dedicated, and the tables deposited in the Ark of the Covenant, as Moses expressly says in the last chapter of Exodus; but, in the Book of Numbers, he relates that in the second month of that year the people removed the camp from that place, and departed to Kibroth-Hattaavah. 115 Now, since between the dedication of the tabernacle and their departure only one month intervened, we must admit that the two ascents into the mountain had preceded in order of time.

Now, the question is, whether he was called to receive the first tables in the beginning of the fourth month? If this be allowed, he could scarcely have prescribed the building of the sanctuary before the end of the eighth month; for it would have been absurd to give 116 the tables of God’s paternal favor between the two ascents, while the separation of the tabernacle was testifying of their divorce from Him. Thus, then, I establish the fact, that four whole months were employed in this long and difficult work. And surely it was wonderful that so short a time should suffice; had not incredible activity surpassed all men’s expectation, whilst they all emulously devoted themselves with unwearied labor to hasten the work. And it is probable, that after God had established His covenant, He immediately delivered the ordinances respecting the tabernacle and its adjuncts; lest the people should be without the external exercises of religion, which we have seen to be so very necessary. But after the completion of the work, Moses was again commanded to come nigh to God with Nadab, Abihu, and the seventy elders; and after the offering of sacrifices, he was taken up into the cloud to hold familiar communion with God, where he passed about a month and a half. Having returned, and being made aware of the rebellion of the people, the slaughter of the three thousand took place, and he commanded the people to mourn. How long he remained we know not, but it is probable that at least a month passed before he was recalled We have now more than nine months; and if we add the month and a half during which he was kept in the mount, we shall not be far from the end of the year. God then reconciled Himself to the people, and thus the legitimate dedication of the tabernacle soon followed, which took place in the second year at the beginning of the first month. The Passover having been celebrated, the sign of removal was given in the second month.

If any disagree with me, I would now have them answer me, how it is consistent that Moses, having detected the people’s transgression, should then have begun to exhort them to the building of the sanctuary, whereas in his whole address there is no mention made of idolatry? Surely, all things well considered, we must be ready to confess that the people were still loyal when they so heartily consecrated their property to God. But the whole question is sufficiently settled by what I have alleged on the testimony of Moses, viz., that before he came down with the first tables the tabernacle was already in being, unless, perhaps, it be objected that it was another tabernacle, and different from that which was afterwards set up by God’s command. But this is a very foolish cavil, for Moses had no authority to make an earthly dwelling-place for God, and to impose on it the sacred name whereby the sanctuary is always honored; and he expressly relates that God’s glory appeared in it, in order that the people might more surely know that they were separated from God for their uncleanness, of which matter we shall again speak in its proper place. Again, the word לקח , lakach, 117 implies that Moses took the tabernacle out of the camp, to transfer it to another place. If any one should now object that the tabernacle was arranged according to the pattern which Moses saw in the mount, the reply is easy, that Moses was not then first in the mountain instructed in the true worship of God and heavenly mysteries, when he was kept there forty days, but already before the promulgation of the Law; nor is there any doubt but that the same things were then shewn to him which he had learned before, in order that the people might be more disposed to diligent meditation on the Law. For, from the length of time, they might acknowledge that nothing was omitted which it would be useful for them to know; since, although God might have so instructed His servant in a moment that nothing should have been wanting, still He chose gradually, and as if at His ease, to form for Himself a perfect teacher; and this concession was made to the infirmity of the people. For thus we read in Exo 19:9 ,

"Behold I come unto thee in a thick cloud, that the people may hear when I speak with thee, and believe thee for ever."

And again, Exo 20:21,

"And the people stood afar off, and Moses drew near unto the thick darkness, where God was."

From whence it is plain that there is no absurdity in saying that he had already seen the pattern of the tabernacle wherein God would be worshipped.

But lest any should object that I rest upon conjectures only, Moses himself plainly shews that, before he received the tables, God gave him instructions respecting the making of the tabernacle; for twice in chapter 25 it is said, “Thou shalt put in the Ark the testimony which I shall give thee,” verses 16 and 21; from whence it is clear that the tables were not yet given, when from God’s command he described the whole structure; and thence we again infer that, when the tabernacle was set up, he went up into the mount to bring down the tables which were to be placed in the Ark. But, before he begins to treat of the construction of the tabernacle, he imposes a tribute upon the people, that each, according to his means, should contribute materials both for the tabernacle itself and for all its furniture. The heaving, or, תרומה , therumah, 118 is here put simply for an offering; and is not, as in other passages, distinguished from another kind of sacrifice, which is called תנופה , thenuphah. But the Israelites are simply commanded to bestow from their abundance what may suffice for the worship of God. It is indeed certain that all we have is God’s, and that all He bountifully gives us is polluted unless we devote it to His glory. Still in His indulgence He permits us the free use of all, if only we testify that it remains under His power, and are ready to expend it as He shall command. Thus we duly offer alms, as sacrifices of, sweet-smelling savor; although the rich may not exhaust himself to poverty, but, whilst he relieves the poor, enjoys the goods which he possesses. In sum, whatever we offer to God is like the first-fruits, whereby we testify that all we have is consecrated to His glory. Now, although He required no assistance from the people for the building and adorning of His tabernacle, since it was He who, for the maintenance of them all, daily rained down manna from heaven; yet he would have every one, from the very least to the greatest, bring together, in testimony of their piety, whatever was necessary for the sacred work. But what He then would have spent on the visible sanctuary, He now requires for the building of His spiritual temple. Properly speaking, it is He alone that builds His Church; yet He uses the work of men, and will have many builders associated with Him, that the edifice of His Church may arise in some measure by the labor of men; as also He ascribes the praise of its prosperity and success to them. Meanwhile we offer nothing which He Himself has not bestowed; just as the Israelites gave nothing but what had been derived from his bounty alone. Therefore, He distributes the gifts of His Spirit in certain measures, (1Co 12:7;) that, as each has received more or less, he may employ it on the building of the Church. But this should be the best incentive to activity, that none is so poor or humble but that his offering is acceptable and pleasing, however small it may be, and almost worthless in the eyes of men. Moreover, it must be observed, that the tribute is not demanded authoritatively, but it is declared that each should freely offer what he pleased; for, from the beginning, Paul’s word was true, that “God loveth a cheerful giver,” (2Co 4:7;) and all Scripture teaches us that no obedience is pleasing to God except what is voluntary; for, although the word ידבנו , yidbenu, 119 is variously rendered by the translators, the sum comes to this, that the gift of each would be pleasing to God according to the cheerful alacrity of his mind. The old interpreter ( i.e., the Vulgate) has it “ qui offert ultroneus, ” (he who offers voluntarily;) but this is rather paraphrastic than literal. 120 Others differ from each other: some understand the relative as referring to the offering, and translate it, “ whose heart shall have voluntarily given it;” others, “He who shall have shewn his heart liberal, or willing.” The second rendering is the right one.

Calvin: Exo 25:3 - And this is the offering 3.And this is the offering Hence, what I have before said is more fully continued, viz., that what the poor offer of their little will not be eclipse...

3.And this is the offering Hence, what I have before said is more fully continued, viz., that what the poor offer of their little will not be eclipsed by the abundance of the rich, since God deigns to reckon goats’ hair among the sacred offerings not less than gold, purple, and precious stones. Again, by the varied and manifold contributions, He would shew, as in a glass, that a variety of gifts are necessary to the building of the spiritual temple, as Paul sets forth in Rom 12:0 and 1Co 12:0 The liberality of the rich was indeed more splendid; but, as they did not scruple to mix their gold and silver, blue, purple, and precious stones, with brass, iron, and other common materials, so also, now-a-days, those who aid the edification of the Church by their more excellent gifts, admit, without contempt or dislike, into fellowship poor brethren, to whom it is not given to equal them.

Calvin: Exo 25:8 - And let them make me a sanctuary 8.And let them make me a sanctuary By first setting before them an inestimable recompense, God stirs up the people to give largely; for, although lib...

8.And let them make me a sanctuary By first setting before them an inestimable recompense, God stirs up the people to give largely; for, although liberality is praised by all as a most excellent virtue, yet no one willingly deprives himself of his own to bestow it upon others, since all think that it is so much lost to themselves, unless they have some compensation in view. Wherefore, that they may expend cheerfully, God promises that He will dwell among them, than which nothing is more desirable. But we must beware of imagining anything inconsistent with the nature of God, for He who sits above the heavens, and whose footstool is the earth, could not be enclosed in the tabernacle; but, because in His indulgence for the infirmities of an ignorant people, He desired to testify the presence of His grace and help by a visible symbol, the earthly sanctuary is called His dwelling amongst men, inasmuch as there He was not worshipped in vain. And we must bear in memory what we have lately seen, that it was not the infinite essence of God, but His name, or the record of His name, that dwelt there. This was the object of the expressions; that the Israelites ought not to be slow or lazy in setting up the tabernacle, because by these means they would obtain for themselves an inestimable advantage. Another clause follows, that the artificers should copy the pattern shewn to Moses, and not dare to invent anything, since it would be a profanation to mix up anything human with the commands of God; on which matter we shall treat more diffusely when we speak generally of the types. Now is described the form of the Ark and its covering: for the composition of the tabernacle, and its various parts, which Moses now only slightly adverts to, will be presently repeated at greater length in chapter 32. But, although the tabernacle was called God’s house, yet there was a more express image of His glory in the Ark of the Covenant; because the Law, whereby God bound the people to Himself, was there deposited. The material was shittim-wood, covered or overlaid with plates of gold. As to the species of the tree, 121 not even the Hebrews are agreed among themselves, although we may conjecture that it was beautiful and costly; yet God would have gold over its whole surface, and even shining on its staves, that the dignity of the Law might be enhanced But here a question may arise, which introduces many others with it, how the sumptuous splendor both of the Ark, as well as the tabernacle and all its utensils, contributed to the worship of God? for it is certain that God would never be worshipped except agreeably to His nature; whence it follows, that His true worship was always spiritual, and therefore by no means comprised in external pomp.

But the great number and intricacy of the ceremonies were so far from awakening piety, that they were even the occasion of superstition, or era foolish and perverse confidence. Again, so many and such various rites seem to have had no other tendency than to feed curiosity. It will be therefore worth while briefly to premise something respecting this point. They are, in my judgment, at fault, who think that the eyes of the people were captivated by these magnificent sights, lest their religion, being stripped of all ornament, should become dishonored, when amongst the Gentiles their false worship was splendid even to a miracle; and thus a depraved rivalry might affect their minds, 122 if the beauty of the tabernacle did not at least equal the pomp of others, as though the God they worshipped were inferior to idols. On the same grounds they imagine that the Jews were burdened with many observances; lest, if God had only sparingly and slightly exercised them, they would in their natural curiosity, have sought in all directions after profane trifles. They tell part of the truth, but not the whole; for I admit that this was given to the ancient people, in order that, when they saw the tabernacle so brilliantly ornamented, they might be inspired with greater reverence. I also admit that, by God’s command, they were engrossed with many ceremonies, that they might not seek after strange ones; but if this had been the only object proposed in them, the whole legal service would have only availed for ostentation in its shadows and histrionic pomps. But it is most absurd to think that God so trifled with His people. We see, too, how honorably David and the Prophets speak of these exercises. 123 It is, therefore, impiety to suppose that the legal rites were like farces composed in imitation of the Gentiles. In order, then, to preserve their honor and dignity, we must remember the principle to which we have lately alluded, viz., that all of them were arranged according to the spiritual pattern which had been shewn to Moses in the mount. (Exo 25:40.) And this both Stephen, and the Apostle in the Epistle to the Hebrews, wisely observed, when they would reprove the gross follies of the people who continued to be wrapped up in the external ceremonies, as if religion were comprised in them. (Act 7:44; Heb 8:5.) Stephen and the Apostle, therefore, are our best expositors, that the tabernacle, the altar, the table, the Ark of the Covenant, were of no importance except in so far as they referred to the heavenly pattern, of which they were the shadows and images. Thence their entire utility, and even their legitimate use, depended on the truth, (which they represented.) 124 For the slaughter of an ox profits nothing in itself, nay, it is but an unimportant thing; and so all the sacrifices, except that they were types, would have been thought nothing of. Whence we gather that there is the greatest difference between the ceremonies of the Law and the profane rites of the Gentiles, for they differ from each other not only inasmuch as God is the author of the one, and that the temerity of men has foolishly invented the other, but because among the Gentiles their religion was entirely comprised in these bare and empty pomps; whilst God, by these rudiments, which He gave to His people, elevated pious minds, as it were by steps, to higher things. Thus the Gentiles seemed to themselves duly to propitiate (their gods) when they offered victims; whilst the sacrifices of the Jews were acceptable to God, because they were exercises of repentance and faith. So the Law instructed the Jews in the spiritual worship of God, and in nothing else, though it were clothed in ceremonies agreeably to the requirements of the age. For, before the truth was fully made known, the childhood of the Church was to be directed by earthly elements, and thus, though there was great affinity and likeness between the Jews and Gentiles as regarded the external form of their religious service, yet its end was widely different. Moreover, when we would seek the body or substance of the ancient shadows, and the truth of the figures, we may learn them, not only from the Apostles, but also from the Prophets, who everywhere draw the attention of believers to the kingdom of Christ; yet their clearer explanation must be sought in the Gospel, where Christ, the Sun of Righteousness, shining forth, shews that their fulfillment exists in Himself alone. But, although by His coming He abolished these typical ceremonies as regards their use, yet at the same time He established the reverence justly due to them; since they have no claim to be held in esteem on any other grounds, except that their completion is found in Him; for, if they are separated from Him, it is plain that they are mere farces, 125 since neither the blood of animals, nor the sweetness of fat, nor aromatic odors, nor candles, nor anything of that sort, have any power to propitiate God. This indeed must be remembered, that the Jews did not pay attention to the legal sacrifices in vain, since the promises were annexed to them; as often, therefore, as these sentences occur, “your iniquity shall be blotted out,” — “ye shall appear before my face, ” — “I will hear you from the sanctuary,” we are reminded that all the ancient figures were sure testimonies of God’s grace and of eternal salvation; and thus Christ was represented in them, since all the promises are in Him, yea, and amen. (2Co 1:20.) Yet it by no means follows from hence that there were mysteries hidden in all their details, since some, with mistaken acuteness, pass over no point, however trifling, without an allegorical exposition; as, in this passage, for instance, the dimensions of the ark afford them matter of speculation. 126 But it will be enough for the sound and sober-minded to know that God would have His Law deposited in a handsome vessel, in order that its majesty should be recognized. He commanded that the ark itself should be carried with staves, that the hands of the Levites might not touch it, and thus that its sanctity might be the greater

Calvin: Exo 25:16 - And thou shalt put into the ark the testimony 16.And thou shalt put into the ark the testimony The title of “the testimony, ” which is often given to the law, indicates that something more i...

16.And thou shalt put into the ark the testimony The title of “the testimony, ” which is often given to the law, indicates that something more is contained in it than the rule of a just and holy life; viz., the compact whereby God bound Himself to His people, and His people to Himself; therefore the words “the table of the covenant,” are afterwards used instead of “the testimony.” Thus the word עדת , 127 gneduth, in this passage, and similar ones, is equivalent to a contract, which is commonly called a convention In this sense the Prophet in Psa 114:0 calls by the name of testimonies, not only the Commandments, but whatever God hath delivered by the hand of Moses for the salvation of His people. In Psa 14:7, the word testimony is added as if in explanation of the word law: “The law of the Lord is perfect; the testimony of the Lord is sure;” as in Isa 8:20, where it is said, “To the law and to the testimony,” it is not that two different things are referred to, but the utility of the law is commended, because it contains all that God would have testified to His people.

Calvin: Exo 25:17 - And thou shalt make a mercy-seat 17.And thou shalt make a mercy-seat The primary root of the verb כפר , caphar, from whence this noun is derived, 128 is used for “to smear wi...

17.And thou shalt make a mercy-seat The primary root of the verb כפר , caphar, from whence this noun is derived, 128 is used for “to smear with pitch,” but in the Hiphil conjugation, it signifies either to expiate, or to purge, or to receive into favor; whence כפר , copher, is expiation, as we have seen elsewhere; and כפרת , caphoreth, a covering or lid. Yet I doubt not but that Moses alludes in this word to a metaphorical meaning, for the law requires a covering to conceal our transgressions. And it is probable that, when Paul calls Christ ἱλαστήριον , (Rom 3:25,) and John ἱλασμὸν, (1Jo 2:2,) they both refer to this figure, because God was propitiated towards believers by the covering of the Law, so as to shew Himself favorable to them by hearing their vows and prayers. For as long as the law stands forth before God’s face it subjects us to His wrath and curse; and hence it is necessary that the blotting out of our guilt should be interposed, so that God may be reconciled with us. Nor is it without reason that David exclaims, after he has proclaimed the righteousness of the law, “Who can understand his errors?” (Psa 19:12.) Whence we gather that, without a propitiation, the law does not bring us near to God, but accuses us before Him. And assuredly, when I consider all things, it seems to me a tame explanation, that Moses spoke literally of the cover, when he 129 would have the Cherubim turn their faces toward it, and God promises that He will give His answers from it. By these honorable distinctions it is exalted above the Ark.

Calvin: Exo 25:23 - Thou shalt also make a table 23.Thou shalt also make a table The sentiment of a certain ancient bishop 134 is deservedly praised, who, when he sold the sacred vessels in the time...

23.Thou shalt also make a table The sentiment of a certain ancient bishop 134 is deservedly praised, who, when he sold the sacred vessels in the time of a famine, to relieve the distress of the poor, thus excused himself to the Church: “Our God, who does not eat or drink, has no need of patens and chalices;” and yet this seems little in accordance with this His command, that bread should be offered to Him. I answer, that if, under that pretext, the bishop had stripped the sacred table of its ornaments under the Law, he would have spoken unseasonably, what, under the Gospel, he spoke piously and wisely; because at the coming of Christ the shadows of the Law ceased. But God would then have the loaves, which were offered to Him, deposited among the golden dishes and censers, and spoons placed with them, not that He had need of meat and drink, but that He might prescribe the duty of temperance to His people, by deigning to have His table among them; for, when they ate of the same wheat, of which the sacred loaves were made, they were reminded by that symbol that their meat and drink was to be taken, as if they sat before God, and were His guests. Finally, they were taught that the food, by which man’s life is sustained, is in a manner sacred to God; that thus they might be contented with simple and sober food, and might not profane the things which were dedicated to His service. Although, therefore, this offering might appear to be gross and rude, yet it had a just object, i.e., that believers might acknowledge that God presided over their tables, because the loaves were presented in the temple before God in the name of all the people. The same was the intention of the first-fruits, in which the produce of the whole year was consecrated; that even in their feasts they might cherish a recollection of God, who fed them as a father does his children. They are called “the bread of faces” 135 by Moses, because they always appeared before God, in which sense the Greeks called them the bread προθέσεως, because they were always in His presence; for it was not permitted them to remove the precious offering, until others were substituted in their place. I now pass over many points, because what I now omit will soon have to be treated of.

Calvin: Exo 25:31 - And thou shalt make a candlestick 31.And thou shalt make a candlestick God would have seven bright lamps burning day and night in the Tabernacle: first, that the people might know t...

31.And thou shalt make a candlestick God would have seven bright lamps burning day and night in the Tabernacle: first, that the people might know that they were directed by God Himself as to how they were to worship Him aright, and that a light was set before their eyes which might disperse all the darkness of error; and, secondly, lest they should obscure the very worship of God with their gross inventions, but that, intent on the instruction of the Law, they might with a pure and enlightened mind seek after God in all the ceremonies. Let us, therefore, remark a distinction here set forth between the rule of true religion and the superstitions of the Gentiles; because the Gentiles were carried away by their foolish and blind devotions, as they call them, into circuitous and erring ways, so that nothing was straight in them; for unless we have divine teaching to enlighten us, our own reason will beget nothing but mere vanity. But it was not enough for the Israelites that the right way should be pointed out, unless their eyes were open to direct them, since men sometimes are blind in the very midst of light. And this occurred to themselves not only when they went astray into strange and adulterous worships, for though they held fast the external form of the Law, they were, nevertheless, degenerate; and religion was corrupted among them by foul superstitions, when, in obedience to their carnal reason, they conceived that religion consisted in ceremonies. For when God is not worshipped spiritually according to His nature, this is to travesty Him. Hence there was so much security in the hypocrites, that they proudly despised all the reproofs of the Prophets, nay, that they broke out into open fury whenever their empty pomps were condemned. But the candlestick, shining with its seven lights, reminded the people that, in their worship of God, they should look attentively to the light of heavenly doctrine.

But, for the understanding of this type, the vision of Zechariah will be no slight assistance to us, since the truth of this symbol is there set forth. (Zec 4:2.) God there promises that the power of His Spirit will alone avail, and more than avail, for the preservation of His Church, although it may be destitute of all other aid. To awaken confidence in this, He represents the same image of a candlestick which is here described, with the addition of some other circumstances, whereby He reminds us that the shining lights were no vain show like stage plays, but that in the candlestick was represented what believers would really experience to take place. But, that the comparison may be made clearer, we must say a little respecting this passage. The material of the candlestick is pure gold, whereby the excellency of the thing signified is denoted. But, when we have spoken somewhat of its form, the application of Zechariah’s prophecy will be more manifest. Some parts of it were merely for ornament, that its dignity might be increased by its very appearance, such as the flowers and the balls or knops; others for use, as the bowls or receptacles, to prevent the sacred oil from falling on the ground. The lamps were placed at the top, that the Israelites might know that men are surrounded with darkness on earth, if God did not enlighten His Church from on high, and that by day and by night. Thus Isaiah, describing the kingdom of Christ, in which the reality of this sign was at length exhibited, says, — “Behold, darkness shall cover the earth, and gross darkness the people: but the Lord shall arise upon thee, and his glory shall be seen upon thee.” And again,

"Thy sun shall no more go down; neither shall thy moon withdraw itself: for the Lord shall be thy everlasting light.”
(Isa 60:2.)

Now, since God is called the Father of lights, the grace of illumination resides in the Spirit; and since a variety of gifts are distributed by the Spirit, there were seven lamps which visibly represented what Paul says, —

"The manifestation of the Spirit is given to every man to profit withal. For to one is given by the Spirit the word of wisdom; to another the word of knowledge by the same Spirit; to another faith by the same Spirit; to another the gifts of healing by the same Spirit; to another the working of miracles; to another prophecy; to another discerning of spirits; to another divers kinds of tongues; to another the interpretation of tongues: but all these worketh that one and the self-same Spirit, dividing to every man severally as he will.” (1Co 12:7.)

Some, however, have gratuitously invented a mystery in the number seven, whence the common notion 136 among the Papists about the sevenfold grace of the Spirit, which is refuted both by the above-cited passage of St. Paul and the eleventh chapter of Isaiah, where a greater number of gifts are enumerated. I suppose rather that perfection is denoted by the seven lamps according to the ordinary and acknowledged use (of the figure); as if God thus declared that nothing would be wanting for the full enlightenment of believers, who should seek it from its one and only source; secondly, that the Spirit presides over all religious rites when He shines forth to the Church in His gifts. Now, the Prophet, (Zec 4:2,) desiring to teach that what had been shewn forth in this visible symbol would be fulfilled in the restoration of the Church, adds to the lamps seven pipes and two olive-trees, from whence oil would continually flow, so that there was no fear of want or failure. Thus he signifies that God is possessed of a manifold abundance of blessings for the enrichment of the Church; and so that the virtue which flows down from heaven is sufficient for its preservation, according to what is added in connection,

"Not by might, nor by power, but by my Spirit,
saith the Lord of hosts.” (Zec 4:6.)

For although God uses the ministry of men and earthly means at His discretion for the protection and maintenance of the Church, yet He would have, as is just, all the praise ascribed to Himself; whilst He would also have believers to be contented under His guardianship, and not to be discouraged although they should find no ground of confidence in the world.

Calvin: Exo 25:40 - And look that thou make them 40.And look that thou make them He again inculcates, what we have already seen, that Moses should take care that all things were exactly modeled acco...

40.And look that thou make them He again inculcates, what we have already seen, that Moses should take care that all things were exactly modeled according to the original or pattern seen in the mount. But it is certain that it is not any mere vision which is here in question, but that the external ornaments of the sanctuary have reference to their spiritual object, as is plain from the explanation of Stephen and the Apostle. Wherefore we need not wonder that Zechariah should say that God would make manifest, and that by certain proof, under the reign of Christ, that it was no empty spectacle which God had set before His people under the Law.

Defender: Exo 25:8 - I may dwell Instead of the prohibited images representing a "god," the true God provides a symbolic dwelling where He can dwell with His people: a type of the com...

Instead of the prohibited images representing a "god," the true God provides a symbolic dwelling where He can dwell with His people: a type of the coming Holy City (Rev 21:1-3)."

Defender: Exo 25:18 - two cherubims This command does not conflict with God's commandment not to "make unto thee any graven image" (Exo 20:4). The key phrase is "unto thee," meaning, "to...

This command does not conflict with God's commandment not to "make unto thee any graven image" (Exo 20:4). The key phrase is "unto thee," meaning, "to make as an object of worship.""

Defender: Exo 25:22 - of the testimony The ark was a chest containing God's "testimony," the tables of the law. The "mercy seat" covering it was seen as a throne upon which God, seated betw...

The ark was a chest containing God's "testimony," the tables of the law. The "mercy seat" covering it was seen as a throne upon which God, seated between the cherubim, would meet with His people."

Defender: Exo 25:40 - after their pattern The details of the design and building of this very temporary dwelling of God, the wilderness tabernacle, occupies most of thirteen chapters of Exodus...

The details of the design and building of this very temporary dwelling of God, the wilderness tabernacle, occupies most of thirteen chapters of Exodus, indicating the importance of its symbology. Some of the latter is explained in the book of Hebrews (especially Heb 8:1-13 and 9). The tabernacle was actually to be a model of God's "true tabernacle, which the Lord pitched, and not man" (Heb 8:2), where God will dwell with His people forever (Rev 21:3). At that time, no doubt, we shall comprehend the full meaning of all its beauties."

TSK: Exo 25:2 - they // bring me // offering // willingly they : Exod. 35:5-29; Num. 7:3-88; Deu 16:16, Deu 16:17; 1Chr. 29:1-30 bring me : Heb. take for me offering : or, heave offering, Num 18:24 willingly ...

they : Exod. 35:5-29; Num. 7:3-88; Deu 16:16, Deu 16:17; 1Chr. 29:1-30

bring me : Heb. take for me

offering : or, heave offering, Num 18:24

willingly : Exo 35:5, Exo 35:21; Jdg 5:9; 1Ch 29:3, 1Ch 29:5, 1Ch 29:9, 1Ch 29:14, 1Ch 29:17; Ezr 1:6, Ezr 2:68, Ezr 3:5, Ezr 7:16; Neh 11:2; Psa 110:3; 2Co 8:12, 2Co 9:7

TSK: Exo 25:3 - brass brass : Nechosheth , rather, copper; as brass is a factitious metal, composed of copper, and the oxide or ore of zinc, called lapis calaminaris . ...

brass : Nechosheth , rather, copper; as brass is a factitious metal, composed of copper, and the oxide or ore of zinc, called lapis calaminaris . Deu 8:9; Job 28:2

TSK: Exo 25:4 - blue // fine linen blue : Techaileth , generally supposed to mean an azure or sky-colour; rendered by the LXX, υακινθον , uakinthon , and Vulgate, hyacint...

blue : Techaileth , generally supposed to mean an azure or sky-colour; rendered by the LXX, υακινθον , uakinthon , and Vulgate, hyacinthum .

fine linen : or, silk, Gen 41:42; Eze 16:10; Rev 19:8

TSK: Exo 25:5 - shittim wood Exo 26:14 shittim wood : Exo 26:15, Exo 26:26, Exo 26:37, Exo 27:1, Exo 36:20

TSK: Exo 25:6 - Oil for // spices Oil for : Exo 25:37, Exo 27:20, Exo 40:24, Exo 40:25 spices : Exod. 30:23-38

Oil for : Exo 25:37, Exo 27:20, Exo 40:24, Exo 40:25

spices : Exod. 30:23-38

TSK: Exo 25:7 - Onyx stones // ephod Onyx stones : Exo 28:9-21 ephod : Exo 28:4, Exo 28:6, Exo 28:15

Onyx stones : Exo 28:9-21

ephod : Exo 28:4, Exo 28:6, Exo 28:15

TSK: Exo 25:8 - a sanctuary // I may dwell a sanctuary : Exo 15:2, Exo 36:1-4; Lev 4:6, Lev 10:4, Lev 21:12; Heb 9:1, Heb 9:2 I may dwell : Exo 29:45; 1Ki 6:13; Isa 12:6; Zec 2:10, Zec 8:3; 2Co...

TSK: Exo 25:9 - the pattern of the tabernacle the pattern of the tabernacle : Exo 25:40; 1Ch 28:11-19; Heb 8:5, Heb 9:9

the pattern of the tabernacle : Exo 25:40; 1Ch 28:11-19; Heb 8:5, Heb 9:9

TSK: Exo 25:10 - an ark an ark : Aron denotes a chest, or coffer, in general; but is applied particularly to the chest or ark in which the testimony or two tables of the c...

an ark : Aron denotes a chest, or coffer, in general; but is applied particularly to the chest or ark in which the testimony or two tables of the covenant were laid up; on the top of which was the propitiatory or mercy seat; and at the end of which were the cherubim of gold; between whom the visible sign of the presence of God appeared as seated upon his throne. Exo 37:1-3; Deu 10:1-3; 2Ch 8:11; Heb 9:4; Rev 11:19

TSK: Exo 25:11 - -- Exo 25:24, Exo 30:3; 1Ki 6:20; 2Ch 3:4

TSK: Exo 25:12 - -- Exo 25:15, Exo 25:26, Exo 26:29, Exo 27:7, Exo 37:5, Exo 38:7

TSK: Exo 25:13 - -- Exo 25:28, Exo 27:6, Exo 30:5, Exo 37:4, Exo 40:20; Num 4:6, Num 4:8, Num 4:11, Num 4:14; 1Ch 15:15

TSK: Exo 25:15 - -- 1Ki 8:8; 2Ch 5:9

TSK: Exo 25:16 - -- Exo 16:34, Exo 27:21, Exo 30:6, Exo 30:36, Exo 31:18, Exo 32:15, Exo 34:29, Exo 38:21; Num 17:4; Deu 10:2-5, Deu 31:26; 1Ki 8:9; 2Ki 11:12; 2Ch 34:14,...

TSK: Exo 25:17 - mercy seat mercy seat : Exo 26:34, Exo 37:6, Exo 40:20; Lev 16:12-15; 1Ch 28:11; Rom 3:25; Heb 4:16, Heb 9:5; 1Jo 2:2

TSK: Exo 25:18 - two cherubims of gold two cherubims of gold : Exo 37:7-9; Gen 3:24; 1Sa 4:4; 1Ki 6:23-28, 1Ki 8:6, 1Ki 8:7; 1Ch 28:18; Eze 10:2, Eze 10:20, Eze 41:18, Eze 41:19; Heb 9:5

TSK: Exo 25:19 - of the of the : or, of the matter of the

of the : or, of the matter of the

TSK: Exo 25:20 - cherubims shall // covering // toward cherubims shall : Exo 25:18; 1Ki 8:7; 1Ch 28:18; 2Ch 3:10 covering : Eze 28:14 toward : Gen 28:12; Isa 6:1-5; Eze 1:20; Mat 24:31; Joh 1:51; 1Co 4:9, ...

TSK: Exo 25:21 - mercy seat // in mercy seat : Exo 25:17, Exo 26:34; Rom 10:4 in : Exo 25:16

mercy seat : Exo 25:17, Exo 26:34; Rom 10:4

in : Exo 25:16

TSK: Exo 25:22 - and I will // between and I will : Exo 20:24, Exo 30:6, Exo 30:36, Exo 31:18; Gen 18:33; Lev 1:1, Lev 16:2; Num 7:89, Num 17:4; Deu 5:26-31; Jdg 20:27 between : Exo 29:42, ...

TSK: Exo 25:23 - a table // shittim wood a table : Exo 37:10-16, Exo 40:22, Exo 40:23; Lev 24:6; Num 3:31; 1Ki 7:48; 1Ch 28:16; 2Ch 4:8, 2Ch 4:19; Eze 40:41, Eze 40:42; Heb 9:2 shittim wood :...

a table : Exo 37:10-16, Exo 40:22, Exo 40:23; Lev 24:6; Num 3:31; 1Ki 7:48; 1Ch 28:16; 2Ch 4:8, 2Ch 4:19; Eze 40:41, Eze 40:42; Heb 9:2

shittim wood : Shittim wood is probably the acacia Nilotica . St. Jerome says, that the shittim wood grows in the deserts of Arabia, and is like white thorn, as to its colour and leaves; but the tree is so large as to furnish very long planks. The wood is hard, tough, and extremely beautiful. It is thought he means the black acacia, because that is the most common tree in the deserts of Arabia. It is of the size of a large mulberry tree. The spreading branches and larger limbs are armed with thorns, which grow three together. The bark is rough; and the leaves are oblong, standing opposite each other. The flowers, though sometimes white, are generally of a bright yellow; and the fruit, which resembles a bean, is contained in pods like those of the lupin. ""The acacia,""says Dr. Shaw, ""being by much the largest and most common tree in the deserts,""( Arabia Petræa ), we have some reason to conjecture that the shittim wood was the wood of the acacia, especially as its flowers are of an excellent smell; for the shittah tree is, in Isa 41:19, joined with the myrtle and other fragrant shrubs. It may be remarked, that of the two Hebrew names, shittim is masculine, and shittah feminine. So Mr. Bruce says, ""the male is called saiel ; from it proceeds the gula Arabic, on incision with an axe.""

TSK: Exo 25:24 - -- Exo 25:11; 1Ki 6:20-22

TSK: Exo 25:25 - a golden crown to the border a golden crown to the border : Exo 30:3, Exo 37:2

a golden crown to the border : Exo 30:3, Exo 37:2

TSK: Exo 25:26 - four rings of gold four rings of gold : Exo 25:12

four rings of gold : Exo 25:12

TSK: Exo 25:27 - for places of the staves for places of the staves : Exo 25:14, Exo 25:28

for places of the staves : Exo 25:14, Exo 25:28

TSK: Exo 25:28 - the table the table : Exo 25:14, Exo 25:27; Num 10:17; Act 9:15

TSK: Exo 25:29 - the // to cover the : Exo 37:16; Num 4:7, Num 7:13, Num 7:19, Num 7:31-33; 1Ki 7:50; 2Ch 4:22; Ezr 1:9-11; Jer 52:18, Jer 52:19 to cover : or, to pour out, Lev 24:5-9...

TSK: Exo 25:30 - -- Exo 35:13, Exo 39:36; Lev 24:5, Lev 24:6; Num 4:7; 1Sa 21:6; 1Ch 9:32, 1Ch 23:29; 2Ch 13:11; Mal 1:7, Mal 1:12; Mat 12:4

TSK: Exo 25:31 - a candlestick // his knops a candlestick : Exo 35:14, Exo 37:17-24, Exo 40:24, Exo 40:25; 1Ki 7:49; 2Ch 13:11; Zec 4:2; Heb 9:2; Rev 1:12, Rev 1:20, Rev 2:1, Rev 2:5, Rev 4:5 hi...

TSK: Exo 25:33 - like unto // and three like unto : Num 17:4-8; Jer 1:11, Jer 1:12 and three : Exo 37:19, Exo 37:20; Zec 4:3

like unto : Num 17:4-8; Jer 1:11, Jer 1:12

and three : Exo 37:19, Exo 37:20; Zec 4:3

TSK: Exo 25:36 - beaten beaten : Exo 25:18; Num 8:4; 1Ki 10:16, 1Ki 10:17; 2Ch 9:15

TSK: Exo 25:37 - seven // they shall // light // give // it seven : Exo 37:23; Zec 4:2; Rev 1:4, Rev 1:12, Rev 1:20, Rev 2:1, Rev 4:5 they shall : Exo 27:21, Exo 30:8; Lev 24:2-4; 2Ch 13:11 light : or, cause to...

TSK: Exo 25:38 - the tongs the tongs : 2Ch 4:21; Isa 6:6, snuff dishes, Exo 37:23; Num 4:9; 1Ki 7:50; 2Ki 12:13, 2Ki 25:14; Jer 52:18

TSK: Exo 25:39 - talent talent : Exo 37:24; Zec 5:7

talent : Exo 37:24; Zec 5:7

TSK: Exo 25:40 - that thou make // was showed thee in the mount that thou make : Exo 26:30, Exo 39:42, Exo 39:43; Num 8:4; 1Ch 28:11, 1Ch 28:19; Eze 43:11, Eze 43:12; Act 7:44; Heb 8:5 was showed thee in the mount ...

that thou make : Exo 26:30, Exo 39:42, Exo 39:43; Num 8:4; 1Ch 28:11, 1Ch 28:19; Eze 43:11, Eze 43:12; Act 7:44; Heb 8:5

was showed thee in the mount : Heb. thou wast caused to see in the mount

kecilkan semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per Ayat)

Poole: Exo 25:4 - Blue // Goats’ hair Blue or sky-coloured ; but here you must not understand the mere colours, which could not be offered, but some materials proper for the work, and of...

Blue or sky-coloured ; but here you must not understand the mere colours, which could not be offered, but some materials proper for the work, and of the colours here mentioned, to wit, wool, or threads, or some suchlike things, as appears from Heb 9:19 , and from the testimony of the Jews. Fine linen, which was of great esteem in ancient times, and used by priests and great officers of state. See Gen 41:42 Rev 19:8,14 .

Goats’ hair Heb. goats . But that their hair is understood, is apparent from the nature of the thing, and from the use of the word in that sense in other places.

Poole: Exo 25:5 - -- A kind of wood growing in Egypt and the deserts of Arabia, very durable and precious. See Exo 35:24 Num 33:49 Isa 41:19 Joe 3:18 .

A kind of wood growing in Egypt and the deserts of Arabia, very durable and precious. See Exo 35:24 Num 33:49 Isa 41:19 Joe 3:18 .

Poole: Exo 25:6 - Oil for the light // Anointing oil // incense Oil for the light for the lamps or candlesticks, Exo 25:37 . Anointing oil wherewith the priests, and the tabernacle, and the utensils thereof, wer...

Oil for the light for the lamps or candlesticks, Exo 25:37 .

Anointing oil wherewith the priests, and the tabernacle, and the utensils thereof, were to be anointed. Sweet

incense Heb. incense of spices, or sweet odours ; so called to distinguish it from the incense of the fat of sacrifices, which was burnt upon the altar.

Poole: Exo 25:7 - Onyx stones // Stones to be set in the ephod Onyx stones or, sardonyx stones . Note, that the signification of the Hebrew names of the several stones are not agreed upon by the Jews at this day...

Onyx stones or, sardonyx stones . Note, that the signification of the Hebrew names of the several stones are not agreed upon by the Jews at this day, and much more may we safely be ignorant of them, the religious use of them being now abolished.

Stones to be set in the ephod stones of fulness, or filling, or perfecting stones ; so called either because they did perfect and adorn the ephod, or because they filled up the ouches, or the hollow places, which were left vacant for this purpose. What the ephod and breastplate were, see Ex 28 .

Poole: Exo 25:8 - that I may dwell among them A place of public and solemn worship, that I may dwell among them not by my essence, which is every where, but by my grace and glorious operations...

A place of public and solemn worship,

that I may dwell among them not by my essence, which is every where, but by my grace and glorious operations.

Poole: Exo 25:10 - An ark // Two cubits and a half An ark or little chest, or coffer , for the uses after mentioned. Two cubits and a half understand it of the common cubit, which is generally conc...

An ark or little chest, or coffer , for the uses after mentioned.

Two cubits and a half understand it of the common cubit, which is generally conceived to contain a foot and a half of our measure. See Gen 6:15 .

Poole: Exo 25:11 - -- Or, a border , raised up above the rest of the ark, as a crown is above that which it is applied to, only a crown is round, and this was square. Th...

Or, a border , raised up above the rest of the ark, as a crown is above that which it is applied to, only a crown is round, and this was square. This was both for ornament, and for the fastening of the covering of the ark to it.

Poole: Exo 25:12 - In the four corners In the four corners in the middle of each corner, for conveniency of carriage. See 1Ki 7:30 .

In the four corners in the middle of each corner, for conveniency of carriage. See 1Ki 7:30 .

Poole: Exo 25:16 - testimony To wit, the two tables of stone, wherein the decalogue was written, called the testimony here, and Exo 30:6 Lev 16:13 ; and more fully the tables...

To wit, the two tables of stone, wherein the decalogue was written, called the

testimony here, and Exo 30:6 Lev 16:13 ; and more fully the tables of the testimony , Exo 31:18 Num 1:50 ; because they were witnesses of that covenant made between God and his people, whence they are called the tables of the covenant, Deu 9:9 , and the ark, the ark of the covenant , Num 10:33 . This being as a public record both of God’ s mercy promised to them, and of the duty and conditions required of them. See Exo 16:34 .

Poole: Exo 25:17 - Mercy-seat Mercy-seat or, propitiatory ; which seems from the sameness of dimensions to be nothing else but the covering of the ark, upon which God is said to ...

Mercy-seat or, propitiatory ; which seems from the sameness of dimensions to be nothing else but the covering of the ark, upon which God is said to sit, whence the ark is called God’ s footstool. This covering is a manifest type of Christ, who is therefore called the propitiation , or propitiatory , Rom 3:25 1Jo 2:2 4:10 , because he interposeth himself between God our Judge, and the law, by which we all stand condemned and accursed, Gal 3:10,13 ; that God may not deal rigorously with us according to that law, but mercifully for his sake who hath fulfilled the law, and therefore boldly presents himself to his Father on our behalf.

Poole: Exo 25:18 - Of beaten work Figures of human shape, in which alone the angels used to appear; but they had wings, to signify their expedition in God’ s work and messages. ...

Figures of human shape, in which alone the angels used to appear; but they had wings, to signify their expedition in God’ s work and messages. And between these angels God is said to sit and dwell. So this place was a representation of heaven, where God sitteth and dwelleth among the cherubims and other glorious angels.

Of beaten work not made of several parcels joined together, as images commonly are, nor yet melted and cast in a frame or mould, but beaten by the hammer out of one continued piece of gold, possibly to note the exact unity or indivisibility and the simplicity of the evangelical nature.

Poole: Exo 25:19 - -- i.e. Of one and the same piece of massy gold, out of which the cherubims were made.

i.e. Of one and the same piece of massy gold, out of which the cherubims were made.

Poole: Exo 25:20 - -- Towards God, who is supposed to sit there, whose face the angels in heaven always behold, and upon whom their eyes are fixed to observe and receive ...

Towards God, who is supposed to sit there, whose face the angels in heaven always behold, and upon whom their eyes are fixed to observe and receive his commands; and towards Christ, the true propitiatory, which mystery they desire to look into , 1Pe 1:12 ; not envying mankind their near and happy relation to him, but taking pleasure in the contemplation of it.

Poole: Exo 25:21 - -- Or, after thou shalt have put in the ark ; for the ark was not to be opened after the covering was put upon it. The Hebrew particle vau oft signi...

Or, after thou shalt have put in the ark ; for the ark was not to be opened after the covering was put upon it. The Hebrew particle vau oft signifies after that , as Jer 43:13 51:60 .

Poole: Exo 25:22 - There I will meet with thee // From between the cherubims There I will meet with thee there I will be in a special and gracious manner present with thee. From between the cherubims which spreading forth th...

There I will meet with thee there I will be in a special and gracious manner present with thee.

From between the cherubims which spreading forth their wings formed a kind of seat, which the Divine Majesty was pleased to possess.

Poole: Exo 25:24 - -- A square border at the top of it, as Exo 25:11 ; partly for ornament, and principally to keep what was put upon it from falling off.

A square border at the top of it, as Exo 25:11 ; partly for ornament, and principally to keep what was put upon it from falling off.

Poole: Exo 25:25 - A border // A golden crown A border which encompassed and kept together the feet of the table, and seems to have been towards the bottom of it. A golden crown not the same me...

A border which encompassed and kept together the feet of the table, and seems to have been towards the bottom of it.

A golden crown not the same mentioned before, Exo 25:24 , but another for further ornament to the table.

Poole: Exo 25:27 - -- As much below the top as the border was above the bottom of the feet. of the table, which was a convenient place for the carriage. Others, near the...

As much below the top as the border was above the bottom of the feet. of the table, which was a convenient place for the carriage. Others, near the border , in that part of the feet which is next to it.

Poole: Exo 25:29 - The dishes // Spoons // Covers // Bowls The dishes in which the bread and frankincense upon it were put, Lev 24:7 . Of this sort there were twelve, one for every loaf. Spoons in which inc...

The dishes in which the bread and frankincense upon it were put, Lev 24:7 . Of this sort there were twelve, one for every loaf.

Spoons in which incense was put, as appears from Num 7:14 , and by which incense was either put into the dishes or taken out of them, as occasion required.

Covers so the Hebrew word is used, Exo 37:16 Num 4:7 . Herewith either the bread, or incense, or both, were covered.

Bowls to cover the same things. So this and the former were two several sorts of covers, the one deeper than the other, one to cover the bread, another the incense. Or, bowls thereof, to pour out withal , to wit, liquid things, as wine and oil, when they were offered. See Gen 35:14 . Or these last words may relate not only to the bowls, but the other things, here mentioned, and may be thus rendered, wherewith it , to wit, the table, shall be covered, as indeed it was in a manner quite covered with these vessels.

Poole: Exo 25:30 - -- Heb. Bread of faces, or of the presence , so called, because it was constantly placed in God’ s presence. This bread was divided into twelve l...

Heb. Bread of faces, or of the presence , so called, because it was constantly placed in God’ s presence. This bread was divided into twelve loaves, one for every tribe; and they were in their name presented to God in the nature of an offering, as the frankincense shows, as a public acknowledgment that they received all their bread or food, both corporal and spiritual, from God’ s hand, and were to use it as in God’ s presence

Poole: Exo 25:31 - Thou shalt make // His shaft // His knops // His flowers shall be of the same Thou shalt make either by thyself, or by some other person whom thou shalt cause to make it. His shaft the trunk, or main body of it. His knops o...

Thou shalt make either by thyself, or by some other person whom thou shalt cause to make it.

His shaft the trunk, or main body of it.

His knops or, apples , made in form of a pomegranate.

His flowers shall be of the same to wit, beaten out of the same piece by the hammer. Compare Exo 25:36 .

Poole: Exo 25:32 - In every one of which was a lamp In every one of which was a lamp and there was a seventh lamp in the chief stem of it, as appears from Exo 25:37 . And all these together represent ...

In every one of which was a lamp and there was a seventh lamp in the chief stem of it, as appears from Exo 25:37 . And all these together represent the seven Spirits of God , Rev 1:4 4:5 5:6 ; or the Spirit of God, the great Enlightener of the church, with his sevenfold or various gifts and operations.

Poole: Exo 25:34 - In the candlestick In the candlestick i.e. in the shaft or trunk of the candlestick, which is here distinguished from its branches, shall be four bowls, whereas there w...

In the candlestick i.e. in the shaft or trunk of the candlestick, which is here distinguished from its branches, shall be four bowls, whereas there were but three in each of the branches.

Poole: Exo 25:35 - -- And, to complete the number of four, mentioned in the foregoing verse, we must understand that there was another knop and bowl and flower in the upp...

And, to complete the number of four, mentioned in the foregoing verse, we must understand that there was another knop and bowl and flower in the upper part of the shaft, above all the branches, as the rules of proportion, and common use in making such things, will easily evince.

Poole: Exo 25:37 - They shall light the lamps They shall light the lamps whom I shall appoint for that work. Over against it, i.e. either, 1. The table of shewbread. Or rather, 2. The candlesti...

They shall light the lamps whom I shall appoint for that work. Over against it, i.e. either,

1. The table of shewbread. Or rather,

2. The candlestick, as it is expressed, Num 8:2 , where by the candlestick you are to understand, as here, Exo 25:33,34 , the stem or main body of it; and the sense is, that the lamps shall be so placed, that they and their light may look towards that stem; unless you will suppose that the seven lamps were distinct and separated from the candlestick, and fastened to the sides of the tabernacle in several places, and all giving light to or over against the great candlestick, which was in the midst, as the candlestick did over-against them, which is also, now usual among us.

Poole: Exo 25:39 - -- A talent contains three thousand shekels, Ex 38 25 , or one hundred and twenty-five pounds.

A talent contains three thousand shekels, Ex 38 25 , or one hundred and twenty-five pounds.

Haydock: Exo 25:1 - Cherubims Cherubims, symbolic figures, which Moses does not perfectly describe, and therefore we cannot pretend to know their exact form. Some represent them ...

Cherubims, symbolic figures, which Moses does not perfectly describe, and therefore we cannot pretend to know their exact form. Some represent them as young men, with their wings joined over the propitiatory, in a contrary direction to those of birds, in order to form a throne for God, and bending towards Him, with profound respect. Others only admit their heads, with six wings: while many suppose that they resembled those compounded figures mentioned, Ezechiel i. 5. and x. 20. They denote some extraordinary figure not found in nature, 3 Kings vii. 29. An order of angels is known by this name. Yet the four animals, or cherubims, represent the saints, Apocalypse v. 8, 10. The different forms under which they appear, set before us their various perfections. Their wings denote agility, &c. The Egyptians adored Anubis, under the form of a man, with a dog's head. Isis had the head of a cow, Apis that of a bull. They placed a sphinx at the entrance of their temples, to shew that their theology was enigmatical. God condescended perhaps to satisfy the inclinations of his people, by representing the mysteries of religion under similar forms, Wisdom xviii. 24. (Calmet) ---

Would he have allowed such things, if they were so dangerous, as to be inseparable from idolatry! (Haydock)

Haydock: Exo 25:2 - First-fruits First-fruits: offerings, of some of the best and choicest of their goods. (Challoner) --- This was the first time such a voluntary offering was m...

First-fruits: offerings, of some of the best and choicest of their goods. (Challoner) ---

This was the first time such a voluntary offering was made by the Hebrews. (Menochius) ---

It is a lesson for Christians to be liberal for God's service. (Worthington)

Haydock: Exo 25:4 - Scarlet twice dyed // Fine linen Scarlet twice dyed. Aquila and Symmachus have transparent. This colour is often confounded with purple, as our Saviour's robe is styled scarlet b...

Scarlet twice dyed. Aquila and Symmachus have transparent. This colour is often confounded with purple, as our Saviour's robe is styled scarlet by St. Matthew xxvii. 28; and purple by St. John xix. 2. It was dyed with a worm called shani in Hebrew. (St. Jerome, ep. ad Fabiol.) ---

Fine linen, byssus. Hebrew shesh, "or six folds," or it may mean cotton, which was highly esteemed by the ancients; (Arabic version; Herod.) and it is not probable that Moses would have passed over it unnoticed. (Calmet)

Haydock: Exo 25:5 - Setim-wood Setim-wood. The wood of a tree that grows in the wilderness, which is said to be incorruptible, (Challoner) as the Septuagint intimate. It is perha...

Setim-wood. The wood of a tree that grows in the wilderness, which is said to be incorruptible, (Challoner) as the Septuagint intimate. It is perhaps the Acacia, which is very black and hard. St. Jerome in Joel iii. 18, says it resembles our white thorn.

Haydock: Exo 25:7 - Onyx // The ephod and the rational Onyx, emeralds. (Calmet) --- The ephod and the rational. The ephod was the high priests upper vestment; and the rational his breast-plate, in ...

Onyx, emeralds. (Calmet) ---

The ephod and the rational. The ephod was the high priests upper vestment; and the rational his breast-plate, in which were twelve gems, &c. (Challoner) ---

Ephod means a kind of girdle or stole, peculiar to priests, or used by others only of the highest distinction, (Calmet) and in religious solemnities. (St. Jerome, ad Marcel.) Josephus (Antiquities ii. 8) describes it as different from what it was in the days of Moses. Many other alterations had then taken place; the Urim and Thummim were disused, &c. The Pallium is in imitation of the high priest's ephod. The rational is so called, because by it the high priest was enabled to give his oracles, chap. xxviii. 15. (Calmet) ---

The precise import of the Hebrew cheshen, which Protestants render breast plate, is not known. It was certainly fastened on the ephod over the breast, and consisted of 12 stones, on which the names of the 12 patriarchs were engraven. (Haydock)

Haydock: Exo 25:8 - Sanctuary Sanctuary, or tabernacle, to serve as a portable temple. Such alone were probably used at that time. The high priest entered into this holy place o...

Sanctuary, or tabernacle, to serve as a portable temple. Such alone were probably used at that time. The high priest entered into this holy place once a year. (Calmet)

Haydock: Exo 25:10 - Ark Ark, to contain the tables of the law, as a constant memorial of the alliance made between God and his people, ver. 16. In, or on the side of it, we...

Ark, to contain the tables of the law, as a constant memorial of the alliance made between God and his people, ver. 16. In, or on the side of it, were also placed the rod of Aaron, (Numbers xvii. 10.) and the golden urn, containing manna, Hebrews ix. 3. Hence the pagans perhaps took occasion to keep their secret mysteries in an ark, cista secretorum. (Apul. Met. 2.) (Calmet) ---

The ark was three feet nine inches long, two feet three inches high, and as much in breadth. (Haydock)

Haydock: Exo 25:11 - Gold // Crown Gold (deaurabis). Our method of gilding was not yet discovered. --- Crown, or border, resembling "waves," (kumatia) Septuagint.

Gold (deaurabis). Our method of gilding was not yet discovered. ---

Crown, or border, resembling "waves," (kumatia) Septuagint.

Haydock: Exo 25:14 - Carried on them Carried on them, when exposed in solemn processions. These were covered along with the ark: and other bars were used to remove the ark during the jo...

Carried on them, when exposed in solemn processions. These were covered along with the ark: and other bars were used to remove the ark during the journeys in the desert, Numbers iv. 6. (Calmet)

Haydock: Exo 25:16 - Testimony Testimony, the law which testifies the will of God to us. (Menochius) --- An authentic record. Jeremias (xxxii. 11,) uses præceptum in the same...

Testimony, the law which testifies the will of God to us. (Menochius) ---

An authentic record. Jeremias (xxxii. 11,) uses præceptum in the same sense. (Calmet)

Haydock: Exo 25:17 - A propitiatory A propitiatory: a covering for the ark; called a propitiatory, or mercy-seat, because the Lord, who was supposed to sit there upon the wings of t...

A propitiatory: a covering for the ark; called a propitiatory, or mercy-seat, because the Lord, who was supposed to sit there upon the wings of the cherubims, with the ark for his footstool, from thence shewed mercy. It is also called the oracle, ver. 18 and 20, because from thence, God gave his orders and his answers. (Challoner) ---

It was the lid or covering of the ark, from kapha, "to cover, efface," &c. (Calmet) ---

Here the hanan, or cloud representing God, rested, (Leviticus xvi. 2.) and the divine oracles were audibly given: for which reason, God is said to sit upon the cherubims, the mercy-seat being his footstool, Psalm lxxix. 2.

Haydock: Exo 25:23 - A table A table: on which were to be placed the twelve loaves of proposition; or, as they are called in the Hebrew, the face bread; because they were alw...

A table: on which were to be placed the twelve loaves of proposition; or, as they are called in the Hebrew, the face bread; because they were always to stand before the face of the Lord in his temple: as a figure of the eucharistic sacrifice and sacrament, in the church of Christ; (Challoner) which shews that Christ must be present in the eucharist. (Worthington) ---

By this bread, renewed at the public expense every sabbath-day, the Israelites made profession that they were indebted for their food to God's providence; and in gratitude, offered him this sacrifice, with incense and wine, ver. 29. The priests alone were to eat these loaves (1 Kings xxi.) at the expiration of the week. (Tirinus)

Haydock: Exo 25:25 - Polished Polished, ( interrasilem, sculptured and plain, at equal distances). Hebrew, "Thou shalt make all round at the top, a ledge (border) of a hand's br...

Polished, ( interrasilem, sculptured and plain, at equal distances). Hebrew, "Thou shalt make all round at the top, a ledge (border) of a hand's breadth," &c. The tabernacle was the tent of God, the king of Israel: and food and lights were on that account placed before him, (Calmet) though he stood not in need of them. The idolatrous priests set all sorts of meats before Bel, Daniel xiv. (Haydock)

Haydock: Exo 25:29 - Dishes // Bowls // Censers // Cups Dishes. ( acetabulum. ) Properly, a vessel to hold vinegar, but used for various purposes. --- Bowls, or vials full of wine. (Tostat) --- Censer...

Dishes. ( acetabulum. ) Properly, a vessel to hold vinegar, but used for various purposes. ---

Bowls, or vials full of wine. (Tostat) ---

Censers, to contain incense, &c., chap. xxxvii. 16. The first term, karuth, might also mean vessels to contain the flour and oil of which these loaves were made, Numbers vii. 13. The Levites made the bread themselves, (1 Paralipomenon xxii. 29,) and even sowed the corn, and did every thing about it. (St. Jerome in Malachias i. 7.) The second term, coputh, may denote vessels to keep incense; the third, monkiuth, instruments to clean either the floor or the table, &c. All these vessels seem mended to accompany the table of shew-bread. ---

Cups, used for libations (chap. xxxvii. 16; Numbers iv. 7) of wine, on the sabbath. Kossuth signifies a porringer or dish, like the ancient patera. Whether wine was placed on this table, we cannot determine. But we read of salt, (Calmet) which was to accompany all God's sacrifices, Leviticus ii. 13.

Haydock: Exo 25:30 - Loaves Loaves. There were 12, containing each six pints of flour, made up in a square form, without leaven. They were placed in two rows, one above the ot...

Loaves. There were 12, containing each six pints of flour, made up in a square form, without leaven. They were placed in two rows, one above the other, and were kept separate by plates of gold. (Calmet) See Leviticus xxiv. 5.

Haydock: Exo 25:31 - A candlestick // Bowls, sphærulas // Thou shalt make A candlestick . This candlestick, with its seven lamps, which ws always to give light in the house of God, was a figure of the light of the Holy Ghos...

A candlestick . This candlestick, with its seven lamps, which ws always to give light in the house of God, was a figure of the light of the Holy Ghost, and his seven-fold grace, in the sanctuary of the church of Christ. (Challoner) ---

It contained a talent of gold, or above 113 lb.; worth £5475 sterling, including the snuffers, &c., (ver. 39,) and had seven branches, adorned alternately with cups, bowls, or knobs, and lilies; (Haydock) or with cups, pomegranates, and lilies. All was of massive gold, moksse. ---

Bowls, sphærulas, globes, apples, &c. (Calmet) ---

Thou shalt make. The Hebrew thiasse, has evidently the letter i redundant, and rejected by the best manuscripts. (Kennicott, Dis. i.) (Houbigant)

Haydock: Exo 25:33 - Cups Cups. Hebrew, "cups which produce almonds or nuts;" that is three buds of flowers, out of which comes the stalk, as fruit does from the flower. T...

Cups. Hebrew, "cups which produce almonds or nuts;" that is three buds of flowers, out of which comes the stalk, as fruit does from the flower. The Hebrew, Greek, and Latin languages use the word chalice, or cup, for a flower full-blown. The height of this candlestick is undetermined; but it would not exceed five feet.

Haydock: Exo 25:37 - Against Against. The table of proposition on the north, and that of perfumes in the middle, before the veil. (Tirinus) --- The lamps might be detached fro...

Against. The table of proposition on the north, and that of perfumes in the middle, before the veil. (Tirinus) ---

The lamps might be detached from the rest, (Calmet) and were trimmed every evening to burn all night; but in the day four were extinguished. (Bonfrere)

Haydock: Exo 25:38 - Put out Put out, with the oil, &c. Nothing was to be treated with disrespect that had been dedicated to God's service. (Haydock) --- Alexander adorned the...

Put out, with the oil, &c. Nothing was to be treated with disrespect that had been dedicated to God's service. (Haydock) ---

Alexander adorned the temple of Apollo with a grand candlestick, resembling a tree laden with fruit; (Pliny, [Natural History?] xxxiv. 8,) and Dionysius the younger made a present of one to the prytaneum of Athens, which had 365 lamps upon it. They stood on the ground, and burnt oil, being the more necessary, as the ancient temples had generally no windows. The Egyptians, according to Clement of Alexandria (strom. 1,) were the first who introduced them into their temples. (Calmet) ---

Solomon set up ten candlesticks, five on the north, and five on the south of the holy place, 3 Kings vii. 49.

Gill: Exo 25:1 - And the Lord spake unto Moses // saying And the Lord spake unto Moses,.... When on the mount, and in the midst of the cloud with him: saying; as follows.

And the Lord spake unto Moses,.... When on the mount, and in the midst of the cloud with him:

saying; as follows.

Gill: Exo 25:2 - Speak unto the children of Israel // that they bring me an offering // of every man that giveth it willingly, with his heart, ye shall take my offering Speak unto the children of Israel,.... That is, when he should go down from the mountain to the camp: that they bring me an offering; the Targums o...

Speak unto the children of Israel,.... That is, when he should go down from the mountain to the camp:

that they bring me an offering; the Targums of Onkelos and Jonathan call it a "separation": something separated from their substance, and devoted to the service of God, and for the use of the sanctuary afterwards to be built:

of every man that giveth it willingly, with his heart, ye shall take my offering; or take what was offered to him, be it more or less, and of whatsoever person, high and low, rich and poor, so be it it is freely given from the heart; not grudgingly or through force, as the Targum of Jonathan adds; and in such manner did David and his people many hundreds of years after this offer towards building of the temple, and the vessels belonging to that, see 1Ch 29:6 according to the Jewish writers, none but the children of Israel were to offer to this service, and only such who knew what they did; for thus they criticize on the words,"speak unto the children of "Israel": this exempts an Heathen and an idolater; "of every man"; this excludes a little one; "that giveth it willingly with his heart"; this exempts a deaf and dumb man, and a fool, because they have no knowledge to offer freely z''however, this we may learn from hence, that whatever we do for the worship and service of God, we should do it freely, cheerfully, and cordially; for God loves a cheerful giver; and if this was required under the legal dispensation, it is much more necessary and obligatory under the Gospel dispensation, and more suitable to it where all things are done and given freely of God, and such large blessings of grace are liberally bestowed by him on persons undeserving.

Gill: Exo 25:3 - And this is the offering which ye shall take of them // gold and silver, and brass And this is the offering which ye shall take of them,.... That is, some one or other of the following things were to be taken of each of them that had...

And this is the offering which ye shall take of them,.... That is, some one or other of the following things were to be taken of each of them that had a heart, and it was in the power of their hands to give; it was not expected that something of each of these should be had of everyone, but every man was to give, and it was to be received of him, what of these would suit him best to bestow, some one thing, some another, as they were possessed of, and had a heart to give; and for which service many of them were abundantly supplied with what they had brought out of Egypt; and as it was the Lord that gave them favour in the eyes of the Egyptians to lend or give them the riches they had, they were under the greater obligation to part with somewhat of it freely for his service; and especially as it would be to the spiritual profit and advantage both of them and theirs:

gold and silver, and brass; "gold", for those things that were to he made of gold; as the mercy seat and cherubim, the candlestick, &c. or were covered with it, as the ark, the shewbread table, and other things; and silver, for those that were made of that, as the silver sockets to the boards of the tabernacle, the silver trumpets, &c. and "brass" for the altar of burnt offering, its pans, shovels, basins, rings, and staves, and other things: Aben Ezra rightly observes, that no mention is made of iron, there being no use of that for anything in the tabernacle to be made of it; as also there was not in the temple of Solomon, and where there was not so much as a tool of iron heard in it while it was building, 1Ki 6:7 it may be, because instruments of war, slaughtering weapons, were made of iron; and to show that God is the God of peace in his sanctuary, and so in all the churches: gold and silver vessels the Israelites borrowed or begged of the Egyptians, and brought them with them when they came out of Egypt, Exo 11:2.

Gill: Exo 25:4 - And blue, and purple, and scarlet // and fine linen // goats' hair And blue, and purple, and scarlet,.... The Jewish doctors are much divided about the sense of the words so rendered by us; some will have one colour, ...

And blue, and purple, and scarlet,.... The Jewish doctors are much divided about the sense of the words so rendered by us; some will have one colour, and some another meant; but, according to those learned men, who have taken much pains in searching into the meaning of them, as Bochart and Braunius, it appears that our version of them is most correct: and by these we are not to understand the colours themselves, which could not be brought, nor even the materials for dying them are intended; but wool, or clothes, either silken or linen of those colours: of the former the apostle has taught us to expound them, Heb 9:19 and so Jarchi interprets them of wool thus died, and Josephus a also; which was made up into yarn, and wove, and was much used in the garments of the priests, in the curtains of the tabernacle, and in the vail between the holy and the most holy place:

and fine linen; the best of which was made in Egypt only, as Aben Ezra says, and much wore there, especially by the priests; and they had such an abundance of it that they traded to other nations with it, see Isa 19:9 and of which the Israelites might bring a considerable quantity with them out of Egypt; and

goats' hair; though the word hair is not in the text, it is rightly supplied, as it is by the Septuagint version, and others, for not goats themselves, but their hair must be meant; of this the curtains for the covering of the tabernacle were made; Jarchi interprets it the down of goats, the short, small, fine hair that grows under the other.

Gill: Exo 25:5 - And rams' skins died red // and badgers' skins // shittim wood And rams' skins died red,.... Of these were made a covering for the tent or tabernacle: and badgers' skins, which were for the same use: the Septua...

And rams' skins died red,.... Of these were made a covering for the tent or tabernacle:

and badgers' skins, which were for the same use: the Septuagint version calls them hyacinth or blue skins; according to which, they seem to be the rams' skins died blue; and so Josephus b seems to have understood it; and it is much questionable whether the same creature is meant we call the badger, since that with the Israelites was an unclean creature; nor is its skin made use of for shoes, or well could be, as the skin of this creature is said to be, Eze 16:10. Jarchi says it was a kind of beast only at that time; and Aben Ezra says, it was known in those days but not now: and

shittim wood; supposed by the Jewish writers, as Kimchi c, and Ben Melech from him, to be the best and most excellent kind of cedar: Aben Ezra conjectures, and he delivers it but as a conjecture, that there might be near Mount Sinai a forest of "shittim" trees; and while the Israelites were there they cut them down for booths, which they might carry with them when they removed from thence; for, he says, Moses did not speak of the tabernacle till after the day of atonement: and since Acacia is by much the largest and the most common tree of the deserts of Arabia, as Dr. Shaw d observes, he thinks there some reason to conjecture, that the "shittim wood", whereof the several utensils of the tabernacle, &c. were made, was the wood of Acacia: and long ago it was the opinion of Cordus e that the "shittim wood" was the Acacia of Dioscorides; and it is the same with the Senton or Santon of the Arabians, which is the Egyptian thorn that grows in the wilderness, of which Herodotus f says, they cut wood of two cubits out of and make ships of burden of it: this is said to grow in the parts of Egypt at a distance from the sea; in the mountains of Sinai, at the Red sea, about Suez, in the barren wilderness; which circumstances seem to determine it to be the "shittim wood" g: some places where it might grow in plenty seem to have had their names from it, see Num 25:1.

Gill: Exo 25:6 - Oil for the light // spices for anointing oil // and for sweet incense Oil for the light,.... For the light of the lamps in the candlestick: this was oil olive, as the Targum of Jonathan, and so Jarchi, see Exo 27:20, ...

Oil for the light,.... For the light of the lamps in the candlestick: this was oil olive, as the Targum of Jonathan, and so Jarchi, see Exo 27:20,

spices for anointing oil; for the anointing of Aaron and his sons, and the tabernacle and its vessels, such as pure myrrh, sweet cinnamon, sweet calamus, and cassia:

and for sweet incense; as stacte, onycha, and galbanum; from whence they had this oil and these spices, it is not easy to say, unless they brought them out of Egypt with them; which is likely, since the deserts of Arabia could not furnish them with them.

Gill: Exo 25:7 - Onyx stones // and stones to be set in the ephod, and in the breastplate Onyx stones,.... So called from their likeness to the nail of a man's finger: the Targum of Onkelos calls them stones of beryl; and the Targum of Jona...

Onyx stones,.... So called from their likeness to the nail of a man's finger: the Targum of Onkelos calls them stones of beryl; and the Targum of Jonathan gems of beryl; and the Septuagint version, stones of sardius; and some take them to be the sardonyx stones, which have a likeness both to the onyx and to the sardius:

and stones to be set in the ephod, and in the breastplate; two onyx stones were set in the ephod, one of the garments of the high priest, and an onyx stone, with eleven other precious stones, were set in the breastplate of the high priest: these stones were doubtless among the jewels set in gold and silver the Israelites had of the Egyptians, and brought with them out of Egypt.

Gill: Exo 25:8 - And let them make me a sanctuary // that I may dwell amongst them And let them make me a sanctuary,.... An holy place to dwell in, and so called from his dwelling in it, as follows: that I may dwell amongst them; ...

And let them make me a sanctuary,.... An holy place to dwell in, and so called from his dwelling in it, as follows:

that I may dwell amongst them; in the midst of them, where the tabernacle was always placed; and there he dwelt as their King and their God, to whom they might have recourse on all occasions, and whom they should serve and worship; this sanctuary was to be made of many of the materials before mentioned by the Israelites, whom Moses should employ, and to whom he should give directions for the making it, according to the pattern showed him: and so the Jewish writers interpret "make me", or "to me", i.e. of mine, of mine holy things, things sanctified and separated to his use; and they bring this passage to prove that the workmen in the temple were to be paid only out of the holy things, or money given for the repair of it h: this was a type of the human nature of Christ, the true sanctuary and tabernacle which God pitched and not man, and in which the fulness of the Godhead dwells bodily; and of the church of God, the temple of the living God, among whom he walks, and with whom he dwells, Heb 8:2.

Gill: Exo 25:9 - According to all that I show thee // after the pattern of the tabernacle, and of the pattern of all the instruments thereof, even so shall ye make it According to all that I show thee,.... That is, the sanctuary was to be made in all respects exactly according to the view of it that Moses now had up...

According to all that I show thee,.... That is, the sanctuary was to be made in all respects exactly according to the view of it that Moses now had upon the mount from God, and which he was to communicate to the workmen for their instruction and direction:

after the pattern of the tabernacle, and of the pattern of all the instruments thereof, even so shall ye make it: and by the "pattern" is not meant an idea of it, impressed on the mind of Moses, or a picture of it which was shown him, but a little edifice representing it in all its parts, a perfect model of it: and so Maimonides i says, "Tabnith", the word here used, signifies the structure and disposition of anything, i.e. the form of it in a four square, in roundness, in a triangle, or in any of the like figures, see Heb 8:5 and so David had, by the Spirit, a pattern of the temple, and which he gave to his son Solomon, to build according to it, 1Ch 28:11.

Gill: Exo 25:10 - And they shall make an ark of shittim wood // two cubits and a half shall be the length thereof, and a cubit and a half the breadth thereof, and a cubit and a half the height thereof And they shall make an ark of shittim wood,.... A chest or coffer to put things into, and into this were to be put the two tables of stone on which th...

And they shall make an ark of shittim wood,.... A chest or coffer to put things into, and into this were to be put the two tables of stone on which the law was written, and it was to be made of the wood before mentioned, Exo 25:5 this was a very eminent type of Christ, with whom the name of an ark, chest, or coffer where treasure lies, agrees; for the treasures of wisdom and knowledge, and the riches of grace, even all the fulness of it, lie in him; and all the epithets of this ark are suitable to him, as when it is called the ark of God, the ark of his strength, the glory of God, the face of God, Jehovah, and God himself, the holy ark, and ark of the covenant: and its being made of "shittim wood", which is an incorruptible wood, a wood that rots not, by which the Septuagint version here, and in Exo 25:5 and elsewhere render it, may denote the duration of Christ in his person, and the natures united in it; in his divine nature, from everlasting to everlasting, he is God; in his human nature he saw no corruption, and though he died he lived again, and lives for evermore; in his offices, as Mediator, Redeemer, Saviour, prophet, priest, and King, he abideth for ever; and in his grace and the fulness of it, which, like himself, is the same today, yesterday, and forever:

two cubits and a half shall be the length thereof, and a cubit and a half the breadth thereof, and a cubit and a half the height thereof; if this cubit was a common cubit, consisting of a foot and a half or eighteen inches, then the length of this ark was forty five inches, and its breadth and height twenty seven each; according to Dr. Cumberland k, the Egyptian and Jewish cubit was above twenty one inches, and then the ark must be fifty three inches long or more, and thirty two and three quarters broad and high, or more: and Josephus l says, the length of it was five spans, and the breadth and height of it three spans each.

Gill: Exo 25:11 - And thou shalt overlay it with pure gold // within and without shalt thou overlay it // and shalt make upon it a crown of gold round about And thou shalt overlay it with pure gold,.... Not gild it, but put a plate of pure gold over it: within and without shalt thou overlay it; so that ...

And thou shalt overlay it with pure gold,.... Not gild it, but put a plate of pure gold over it:

within and without shalt thou overlay it; so that nothing of the wood could be seen: this may denote the glory of Christ in both his natures, divine and human, the riches of his person and office, which are unsearchable and durable, and his preciousness to them that believe, Son 5:10,

and shalt make upon it a crown of gold round about: or a cornish of pure gold upon it, every way, which was a square on which the mercy seat was set; which may point at the honour and glory of Christ, especially in his kingly office, who has indeed on his head many crowns; one a crown of pure gold, his divine Father has set upon him; another which the church has crowned him with, and indeed both angels and saints cast their crowns at his feet, and set the crown on his head, or give him the glory of all they have and are.

Gill: Exo 25:12 - And thou shalt cast four rings of gold for it // and put them in the corners thereof // and two rings shall be in the one side of it, and two rings in the other side of it And thou shalt cast four rings of gold for it,.... For which a mould was to be made, and the gold being melted was poured into it, and so the rings we...

And thou shalt cast four rings of gold for it,.... For which a mould was to be made, and the gold being melted was poured into it, and so the rings were fashioned:

and put them in the corners thereof; or, "in its feet", as Aben Ezra, though Jarchi says it had no feet; but as the word used so signifies always, it is more probable it had feet; and the rather, that it might not stand upon the ground, but on feet, as chests and coffers usually do:

and two rings shall be in the one side of it, and two rings in the other side of it; Jarchi says, at the upper corners, near the mercy seat were they placed, two on one side and two on the other, at the breadth of the ark; but it is more likely they were fixed in the lower part of it, as Ramban, at the feet of it; and in the length of the ark, as Josephus writes m.

Gill: Exo 25:13 - And thou shall make staves of shittim wood And thou shall make staves of shittim wood,.... Of the same, wood the ark was made of, see Exo 25:5 and overlay them with gold; cover them with plates...

And thou shall make staves of shittim wood,.... Of the same, wood the ark was made of, see Exo 25:5 and overlay them with gold; cover them with plates of gold, so that they appeared to be all of gold, the wood being not to be seen.

Gill: Exo 25:14 - And thou shall put the staves into the rings by the sides of the ark // that the ark might be borne with them And thou shall put the staves into the rings by the sides of the ark,.... This shows for what use the rings were; namely, to put the staves into them ...

And thou shall put the staves into the rings by the sides of the ark,.... This shows for what use the rings were; namely, to put the staves into them and the use of the staves thus put was:

that the ark might be borne with them; which staves overlaid with gold, and put into golden rings, figured the ministers of Christ, enriched with the gifts and graces of his Spirit, and possessed of the truths of the Gospel, more precious than gold and silver; who bear the name of Christ, and carry his Gospel into the several parts of the world.

Gill: Exo 25:15 - The staves shall be in the rings of the ark // they shall not be taken from it The staves shall be in the rings of the ark,.... Not only be put into them, but remain in them, yea, always: they shall not be taken from it; or, a...

The staves shall be in the rings of the ark,.... Not only be put into them, but remain in them, yea, always:

they shall not be taken from it; or, as the Septuagint version is, be immovable; so that those gold rings in the ark may signify the churches of Christ, which are instrumental to bear his name, and spread his truth in the world, comparable to rings for their circular form, being the purest and most perfect bodies of men on earth, and to gold rings for their worth and value, preciousness, excellency, and duration; and with whom the ministers of the Gospel, comparable to golden staves, are always to be, and never depart from them: or else they may signify the perfect and precious doctrines of Christ, in which his ministers are always to be; either in meditation on them, or in preaching of them, and by which they are always to abide, see 1Ti 4:15.

Gill: Exo 25:16 - And thou shall put into the ark the testimony that I shall give thee. And thou shall put into the ark the testimony that I shall give thee. Which was the principal use of it: by the "testimony" is meant the law, written ...

And thou shall put into the ark the testimony that I shall give thee. Which was the principal use of it: by the "testimony" is meant the law, written on two tables of stone; so called, because it was a testification of the mind and will of God, what he would have done or omitted; and as the Israelites had declared their approbation of it, and assent unto it, and had promised obedience to it, therefore, should they transgress it, it would be a testimony against them: now this was put into the ark, and preserved there, see Deu 10:1, which may signify that the law was in the heart of Christ, and which he undertook to fulfil, and with pleasure did it; that he is become the fulfilling end of the law for righteousness to them that believe in him; and that it remains with him as a rule of walk and conversation to his people, so far as it is of a moral, holy, and spiritual nature.

Gill: Exo 25:17 - And thou shall make a mercy seat of pure gold // two cubits and a half shall be the length thereof, and a cubit and a half the breadth thereof And thou shall make a mercy seat of pure gold,.... Or "covering" n; so Jarchi and Aben Ezra; for so the word properly signifies; and what is meant was...

And thou shall make a mercy seat of pure gold,.... Or "covering" n; so Jarchi and Aben Ezra; for so the word properly signifies; and what is meant was no more than a cover of the ark, which was open at the top, and this was the lid of it, and exactly answered to it, as appears by the dimensions afterwards given of it; and because the root of this word in one form signifies to propitiate or make atonement, some render it the "propitiatory" or "propitiation" o; which is favoured by the apostle in Heb 9:5 and to which he seems to refer, Rom 3:25 and the rather since God is represented sitting on this, as showing himself propitious and well pleased with men, by his communing with them from hence; the Septuagint version takes in both senses, rendering it the "propitiatory covering" p: this being called by what name it will, was typical of Christ; he is the seat of mercy, or, as it is in the New Testament expressed, the throne of grace; whereon, or in whom God shows himself to be gracious and merciful to the children of men; all the stores of mercy are in him, and all the vessels of mercy are put into his hands; the mercy of God is displayed in the mission of him as a Saviour, and is glorified by him in a way consistent with his justice and holiness; through him only special mercy is communicated to sinful men, to whom God is only merciful in Christ: and Christ himself is all mercy to his people; his ways of old were mercy and truth, and all his works, especially his great work of redemption, are done in mercy and pity to them; he shows himself to be merciful to them, by sympathizing with them, and supporting them under all their temptations and afflictions, in granting them all the necessary supplies of grace here, and by bestowing eternal life on them hereafter: he is their "covering", the covering of their persons by his righteousness, imputed to them, and of their sins, by his blood shed for them, and sprinkled on them, and of the law, by his satisfaction for the transgressions of it; whereby they are secured from the avenging justice of God, and wrath to come: and he is the "propitiation" or "propitiatory", who has made atonement and reconciliation for sin; and in and through whom God shows himself propitious to his people, he being pacified, his wrath appeased, and his justice satisfied by his obedience and sufferings: and this mercy seat, being of "pure gold", without any alloy or mixture in it, may denote the purity of Christ's obedience, righteousness, and sacrifice, in the completeness of salvation by him, without any works of righteousness of men; the worth and excellency of Christ, and of these blessings of his, and the preciousness of his blood, and the continued virtue and efficacy of it, and of his righteousness and sacrifice, by which the propitiation is made:

two cubits and a half shall be the length thereof, and a cubit and a half the breadth thereof: which are exactly the dimensions of the ark, to which this was a lid or cover, see Exo 25:10 in the mystical sense it intimates, that Christ, in his nature, obedience, sufferings, and death, is the end of the law for righteousness, which is entirely commensurate, and answers to all its demands: his holy nature is answerable to the holiness and spirituality of the law; his righteousness to all that obedience it requires, and his sufferings and death to the penalty of it; so that, through Christ, we have a righteousness to justify us before God, as long and as broad as the law is, though the commandment is exceeding broad, Psa 119:96. Aben Ezra observes, that there is no mention made of the thickness of the mercy seat; and the same Jarchi takes notice of, but adds, that, according to their Rabbins, it was an hand's breadth, and the Targum of Jonathan says,"and its thickness an hand's breadth.''

Gill: Exo 25:18 - And thou shalt make two cherubim of gold // of beaten work shalt thou make them, in the two ends of the mercy seat And thou shalt make two cherubim of gold,.... Which some take to be in the form of birds, and others of winged animals, such as the like were never se...

And thou shalt make two cherubim of gold,.... Which some take to be in the form of birds, and others of winged animals, such as the like were never seen, so Josephus; the Jews commonly suppose they were in the form of young men, which they observe the word signifies in the Chaldee language; others, that they were in the form of an ox, the face of an ox and a cherub being the same, Eze 1:10 and indeed their form is best discerned from account of them in Ezekiel, and in the Revelation, and from the latter we best learn what they were; they were hieroglyphics or emblems, not of the two Testaments, as many of the ancients, nor of the angels, since they are distinguished from them, much less of the trinity of persons in the Godhead; but either of the saints and true believers in Christ in common, of both dispensations, legal and evangelical, and so signified by the number "two"; and being made of gold may denote their excellency, worth, and value in the esteem of Christ; for the precious sons of Sion are comparable to fine gold for their preciousness, solidity, and duration, as well as for their sincerity and simplicity; or rather of the ministers of the word in particular; and these may be signified by two, and at the prophets of the Old Testament and the apostles of the New; and the ministers of the word in all ages, and particularly during the reign of antichrist, are called the two witnesses that prophesy in sackcloth; and being said to be of gold, may respect the grace of God bestowed on "them", comparable to gold, the gifts of the Spirit of God they are furnished with, as well as the precious truths of the Gospel committed to their trust:

of beaten work shalt thou make them, in the two ends of the mercy seat; not of gold melted and poured into a mould, and so received the form of the cherubim; nor were they first made by themselves, and then placed at the two ends of the mercy seat, and soldered to it; but they were made of the same mass of gold with the mercy seat, and beaten out of it with an hammer, and planished and smoothed, and so wrought up into this form, as appears by the following verse; and may denote the union of believers to Christ, who are one body and one spirit with him; and the union of the Old and New Testament churches in him, and who are but one church, one body, of which he is the head; and as he is the foundation of the apostles or prophets, on whom they are laid, he is the cornerstone in which they are united; and so it may likewise signify the nearness of the ministers of the word to Christ, their dependence on him, and their partaking of the same gifts and graces of his Spirit, only in measure, being made by him able ministers of the Gospel.

Gill: Exo 25:19 - And make one cherub on the one end, and the other cherub on the other end // even of the mercy seat shall ye make the cherubim on the two ends thereof And make one cherub on the one end, and the other cherub on the other end,.... The situation of the cherubim is particularly explained, lest, as Jarch...

And make one cherub on the one end, and the other cherub on the other end,.... The situation of the cherubim is particularly explained, lest, as Jarchi observes, it should be thought that there were two at both ends of the mercy seat; whereas there were only one at one end, and another at the other, opposite to each other, and both pointing to the mercy seat; which may express the situation and office of the ministers of the word under each dispensation, who are so placed as to derive all their gifts and graces from Christ, and to point him out unto the sons of men as the only way of salvation, the only propitiation for sin, and through whom alone grace and mercy are to be had:

even of the mercy seat shall ye make the cherubim on the two ends thereof; this is not so much intended the more to inculcate and confirm the situation of the cherubim, as more fully to explain the matter of which they were made; for it was "of" or out of the mercy seat that they were made, at the two ends of it; that is, they were made not only of the same kind of metal with that, but out of the same mass or lump of gold that was; a lid of gold being made commensurate to the ark, what remained above that measure, at the ends of it, were beaten and formed into two cherubim.

Gill: Exo 25:20 - And the cherubim shall stretch forth their wings on high // covering the mercy seat with their wings // and their faces shall look one to another // towards the mercy seat shall the faces of the cherubim be And the cherubim shall stretch forth their wings on high,.... From whence it appears they were in the form of winged creatures, as the seraphim in Isa...

And the cherubim shall stretch forth their wings on high,.... From whence it appears they were in the form of winged creatures, as the seraphim in Isaiah's vision, and the living creatures in those of Ezekiel and John; and their wings did not hang down by them, or on the side of them, but were stretched out upwards towards the heaven above their heads; denoting the readiness, agility, and swiftness of the ministers of the word to do the work and will of Christ, as well as their expectation of all the supplies of gifts and grace from him to enable them to do it:

covering the mercy seat with their wings; which reached each other; though, as Jarchi q says, between them and the mercy seat there was a hollow of ten hands' breadth; so high were they stretched upwards, though they met each other:

and their faces shall look one to another; and which is expressive of the harmony, concord, and agreement of the true and faithful ministers of Christ one with another; who all agree in preaching Christ, and him crucified, and in the several momentous and important doctrines of the Gospel:

towards the mercy seat shall the faces of the cherubim be; as before observed, it may denote their directing souls to Christ as the only way of salvation, keeping always in all their ministrations this great truth in view, atonement and satisfaction by the blood and sacrifice of Christ, and salvation alone by him; which they make the rule of their ministry, and from which they never swerve, taking care not to deliver anything contrary to it, or which may serve to cast a veil over it.

Gill: Exo 25:21 - And thou shalt put the mercy seat above upon the ark // and in the ark thou shalt put the testimony that I shall give thee And thou shalt put the mercy seat above upon the ark,.... Over it, as a covering for it: this situation of the mercy seat above the ark, where the law...

And thou shalt put the mercy seat above upon the ark,.... Over it, as a covering for it: this situation of the mercy seat above the ark, where the law was, signifies, that there is no mercy but in a way of righteousness, or of satisfaction to the law of God, and in a consistence with the honour of it; and the cherubim over the mercy seat making a throne for the majesty of God, in which he sat, and the ark below a kind of footstool for him, shows that Christ, the mercy seat and propitiatory, stands between God and his law, and is the mediator between God, and men the transgressors of that law, and by fulfilling it has covered the sins of his people, which are violations of it; and being above it, and having magnified and made it honourable, is able to suppress its charges and accusations, and secure from its curse and condemnation:

and in the ark thou shalt put the testimony that I shall give thee; or "after thou shalt put in the ark", &c. r, as the particle "vau" is sometimes used; the sense is, that then the mercy seat should be put above, and upon the ark, as the covering of it, after the law, or the two tables of testimony, were put into it; for then it was covered, and not to be opened any more; see Exo 40:20.

Gill: Exo 25:22 - And there I will meet with thee // and I will commune with thee from above the mercy seat, from between the two cherubim // of all things which I shall give thee in commandment unto the children of Israel And there I will meet with thee,.... With Moses, and so with the high priest in later times, when he should enter into the holy of holies, and with th...

And there I will meet with thee,.... With Moses, and so with the high priest in later times, when he should enter into the holy of holies, and with the people of God as represented by him, when he should go in and inquire for them of the Lord:

and I will commune with thee from above the mercy seat, from between the two cherubim; converse with him and them about whatsoever they should apply unto him for, these being the symbols of the divine presence: hence the Lord is frequently described as "dwelling between the cherubim which are upon the ark of the testimony"; that is, which cherubim are upon it, being on the mercy seat, which was the cover of it; or rather "which is upon" s, which mercy seat is upon the ark of the testimony, as it properly was; and here the Lord promises to commune

of all things which I shall give thee in commandment unto the children of Israel: what they shall do, respecting those things which by Moses, or the high priest, they should inquire the mind and will of God about: this may signify that the way to communion with God lies through Christ, the mercy seat and propitiation, through his blood and righteousness, through the vail, that is to say, his flesh; and the encouragement to it is from him, our great high priest, and from his propitiatory sacrifice; and the enjoyment of it is through him; our fellowship is with the Father, and his Son Jesus Christ; God speaks to us by him, and reveals himself in him.

Gill: Exo 25:23 - Thou shalt also make a table of shittim wood // two cubits shall be the length thereof, and a cubit the breadth thereof, and a cubit and a half the height thereof Thou shalt also make a table of shittim wood,.... As the sanctuary or tabernacle was an house for God to dwell in, he would have the proper furniture ...

Thou shalt also make a table of shittim wood,.... As the sanctuary or tabernacle was an house for God to dwell in, he would have the proper furniture of an house, as a table, candlestick, &c. This table was to be in the same place with the ark and mercy seat; they were set in the holy of holies, where there were nothing else; but this in the holy place, on the north side of it, Exo 26:35 its principal use was to set the shewbread on, as after mentioned, and was typical of Christ, and communion with him, both in this life, and that to come. There is the table of the Lord, to which his people are now admitted, where he sits down with them, and they with him, to have fellowship with him in the ministration of the word and ordinances, of which he is the sum and substance; and this is very desirable and delightful, and an instance of his condescending grace, Son 1:12, and he will have a table in his kingdom hereafter, where his saints shall eat and drink with him, in which their chief happiness will consist, Luk 22:30 This table may be considered as typical of Christ himself, for he is both table and provisions and everything to his people; and of him in both his natures; in his human nature, it being made of shittim wood, incorruptible; for though Christ died in, that nature, yet he saw no corruption, he rose again and lives for evermore; in his divine nature, by the gold it was covered with:

two cubits shall be the length thereof, and a cubit the breadth thereof, and a cubit and a half the height thereof; it was two Jewish square cubits in length, which are about six English square feet and above half, viz. ninety four inches, according to Bishop Cumberland t. It was neither so long nor so broad as the ark by half a cubit, but was of the same height with it, being about thirty two inches high and three quarters, according to the Jewish and Egyptian cubit, which was about twenty one inches and more and was a proper height for a table; and this measure, no doubt, takes in the thickness of the table, and the height of the seat, as Jarchi and Aben Ezra observe.

Gill: Exo 25:24 - And thou shalt overlay it with pure gold // and make thereto a crown of gold round about And thou shalt overlay it with pure gold,.... Cover it with a plate of gold, so that the wood was not seen; which may denote either the excellency of ...

And thou shalt overlay it with pure gold,.... Cover it with a plate of gold, so that the wood was not seen; which may denote either the excellency of Christ's human nature, being pure and spotless, and adorned with the grace of the Spirit of God without measure; or rather of his divine nature, which is the head of Christ, and said to be as the most fine gold, for in him dwells all the fulness of the Godhead bodily:

and make thereto a crown of gold round about; that is, on both sides and at both ends; for though it is called a crown, it was a square, and this was both to ornament the table, and to keep from falling off of it what was set upon it. Jarchi says, it was a sign of the crown of the kingdom, for a table signifies riches and greatness, as they say a king's table: and indeed this was the table of the King of kings, who has on his head many crowns, and one must be made upon his table.

Gill: Exo 25:25 - And thou shalt make unto it a border of art hand's breadth round about // and thou shalt make a golden crown to the border thereof round about And thou shalt make unto it a border of art hand's breadth round about,.... Jarchi says, their wise men are divided about this; some say it was above,...

And thou shalt make unto it a border of art hand's breadth round about,.... Jarchi says, their wise men are divided about this; some say it was above, round about the table; others say it was below, fixed from foot to foot at the four corners of the table, and the board of the table lay upon the border:

and thou shalt make a golden crown to the border thereof round about; this was not the same spoke of in the former verse, but another; that was above, and upon the table, this below and under it; or rather that was, as it may be better expressed, a lip, rim, or border, that went round within the table u; and this crown, surrounded that on the edge of it.

Gill: Exo 25:26 - And thou shalt make for it four rings of gold // and put the rings in the four corners that are on the four feet thereof And thou shalt make for it four rings of gold,.... As the ark had, and for the same use as the rings of that were, though whether cast, as they were, ...

And thou shalt make for it four rings of gold,.... As the ark had, and for the same use as the rings of that were, though whether cast, as they were, is not said:

and put the rings in the four corners that are on the four feet thereof; as there were four feet at the four corners of the table, to each foot a ring was fastened; the use of these follows.

Gill: Exo 25:27 - Over against the border // shall the rings be for placing of the staves to bear the table Over against the border,.... Or "under" it, as the Septuagint and Vulgate Latin versions. Jarchi says the rings were fixed to the feet over against th...

Over against the border,.... Or "under" it, as the Septuagint and Vulgate Latin versions. Jarchi says the rings were fixed to the feet over against the top of the border:

shall the rings be for placing of the staves to bear the table; into these rings staves were to be put, to carry the table from place to place, when it was necessary, as while they were in the wilderness, and before the tabernacle had a fixed settled place for it; for wherever the tabernacle was carried, the ark and the table were also: where the church of Christ is, there he is, and there are the word and ordinances; and which are sometimes moved from place to place, as from the land of Judea into the Gentile world, from the eastern part of the world to the more northern; and that by the ministers of the word, who bear the name, and carry the Gospel of Christ into the several parts of the world, as this table was bore by the Levites, Num 4:7.

Gill: Exo 25:28 - And thou shall make the staves of shittim wood, and overlay them with gold // that the table may be borne with them And thou shall make the staves of shittim wood, and overlay them with gold,.... In like manner as the staves for the ark, and which were made of the s...

And thou shall make the staves of shittim wood, and overlay them with gold,.... In like manner as the staves for the ark, and which were made of the same wood:

that the table may be borne with them; when moved from one place to another; these staves did not remain in the rings, as the staves for the ark did; but, as Josephus says w, were taken out, because they otherwise would have been in the way of the priests, who came every week to it, to set the shewbread on; and these were put in only when they carried it from place to place, as appears from Num 4:8.

Gill: Exo 25:29 - And thou shall make the dishes thereof // and the spoons thereof // and the covers thereof, and the bowls thereof, to cover withal And thou shall make the dishes thereof,.... On which the shewbread loaves were set. Jarchi says they were of the form of the bread, and that there wer...

And thou shall make the dishes thereof,.... On which the shewbread loaves were set. Jarchi says they were of the form of the bread, and that there were two sorts, one of gold, and one of iron; in the iron one the bread was baked, and when they took it out of the oven, they put it into the golden one until the morrow of the sabbath, when they set it in order upon the table; and that form is called "Kaarah", which we render a dish:

and the spoons thereof; or rather "cups"; these, Jarchi says, were censers, in which they put the frankincense; and there were two of them for the two handfuls of frankincense, which they put upon the two rows of shewbread, Lev 24:7. Josephus x calls them vials, and says, that on the bread were put two golden vials full of frankincense:

and the covers thereof, and the bowls thereof, to cover withal; the one to cover the bread, and the other to cover the frankincense; or all the above said vessels were to cover the table, and with them all it must be pretty well covered with vessels. The Jews give a different account of these two last, and of their use, which we render "covers" and "bowls": the first of these Jarchi says were like the half of hollow reeds divided to their length, made of gold; and three of them were laid in order on the top of every loaf, so that one loaf rested upon these reeds; and they separated between loaf and loaf, so that the air could come in between them, and they did not become mouldy; the latter, he says, were props like stakes of gold standing on the ground, and they were higher than the table, even as high as the rows of bread; and they were forked with live forks, one above another, and the tops (or ends) of the reeds, which were between each loaf, rested upon these forks, that so the weight of the upper loaves might not be too heavy for the lower ones, and break them. A like account of them Ben Melech gives, and observes, that some make the first word to signify the props, and the second the reeds; and so they are interpreted by Maimonides y; and, according to the Misnah z, the props were four, and the reeds twenty eight. According to the Septuagint version, these were vessels used in libations, or drink offerings; and the last clause is rendered in it, "with which thou shall pour out": wine or oil, and so in some other versions; but it will be difficult to find any use for such libations or drink offerings at this table.

Gill: Exo 25:30 - And thou shall set upon the table shewbread before me always. And thou shall set upon the table shewbread before me always. Which consisted of twelve cakes loaves, set in two rows upon the table, and stood there ...

And thou shall set upon the table shewbread before me always. Which consisted of twelve cakes loaves, set in two rows upon the table, and stood there a whole week, and every sabbath were renewed; and when the old ones were took away, which were eaten by the priests, new ones were set, so that they were always before the Lord; and being continually before him, were called shewbread, or "bread of faces", being always before the face of God. This was a memorial of the goodness of God in daily providing bread for the people of Israel, and was presented to him as a thankful acknowledgment of it, and being the same they ate at their own tables; and this being eaten by the priests, was expressive of the communion between God and them, they being guests of his, and feeding on the same provisions. This shewbread may be considered either as typical of the church and people of God, who are all one bread, 1Co 10:17, these pure and unleavened cakes may denote their purity, simplicity, and sincerity, being without the leaven of malice and wickedness; the number twelve, the twelve tribes of Israel, the whole spiritual Israel of God; their being called shewbread, or bread of faces, the presentation of themselves to the Lord in public worship, and their being ever under the eye and care of God; their being set on the table, their standing in Christ, and security by him, who is the foundation of the apostles and prophets; and being set in rows, their order and harmony; being renewed every sabbath, the constancy of their worship, and the succession of them in all ages; the frankincense put on each row, the acceptance of their persons and services through the incense of Christ's mediation; the border round about them, the power of Christ around them to keep them from falling: or else as typical of Christ himself, of his being the food of believers, the bread of life: the shewbread of fine flour may fitly signify Christ, the finest of the wheat, the corn of heaven, the bread that comes from thence; its quantity, twelve cakes, the sufficiency of food with him, bread enough and to spare for the whole Israel of God; its continuance, the permanency of Christ as the food believers have always to feed upon; the frankincense on it, the gratefulness of Christ to such, to whom his flesh is meat indeed, and his blood drink indeed; and being set for priests, and only for them, may show that Christ is only food to such who are made priests to God: or this may be an emblem of the intercession of Christ, who is the Angel of God's presence, ever before him, and represents the whole Israel of God, for whom he intercedes; and his intercession is continual, he ever lives to make intercession for them, and that is always acceptable to God. The twelve loaves, Josephus a says, signify the year divided into so many months.

Gill: Exo 25:31 - And thou shalt make a candlestick of pure gold // of beaten work shall the candlestick be made // his shaft, and his branches, his bowls, his knops, and his flowers, shall be of the same And thou shalt make a candlestick of pure gold,.... Another piece of household furniture, and an useful one, especially in a house where there are no ...

And thou shalt make a candlestick of pure gold,.... Another piece of household furniture, and an useful one, especially in a house where there are no windows, as there were none in the tabernacle, denoting the darkness of the legal dispensation, see 2Ki 4:10. This candlestick was set in the holy place, on the south side of it, opposite the shewbread table, Exo 26:35 and was typical of the church of God; so the candlesticks John had a vision of signify seven churches, Rev 1:13, the general use of which is, to hold forth light put into it, for it has none of itself, but what is put there by Christ: and this is not the light of nature and reason, nor the law of Moses, but the Gospel of Christ; which where it is set, gives light and dispels darkness; is useful to walk and work by; does not always burn alike, and will shine the brightest in the end of the world: this light is put into the candlestick by Christ the fountain of all light, and from whom all light is communicated, particularly the Gospel; and being put there, lost sinners are looked up by it, strayed ones are brought back, hypocrites are detected, and saints are enlightened, comforted, and refreshed: and this candlestick being made of "pure gold", may denote the worth and value of the church of God, and the members of it, their splendour, glory, and purity they have from Christ, and their duration; and thus the seven churches of Asia are compared to seven golden candlesticks, Rev 1:12, and under the form of a golden candlestick is the Gospel church set forth in Zec 4:2. Josephus b is of opinion the candlestick has some mystical meaning in it, it being of seventy parts, as he says, refers to the twelve signs of the Zodiac, through which the seven planets take their course, whom Milton c follows:

of beaten work shall the candlestick be made; not of gold melted, and poured into a mould, from whence it might take its form; but it was beaten with an hammer out of an entire mass of gold, and not the following parts made separately, and then joined:

his shaft, and his branches, his bowls, his knops, and his flowers, shall be of the same; not only of the same metal, but beaten out of the same mass and lump of gold; these are the several parts of the candlestick: the "shaft" is the trunk and body of the candlestick, which stood in the middle of it, and in which the several parts united; and may either be typical of Christ, who is principal and head of the church, and stands in the middle of it, and is the cement of the several parts of it, and is but one, the one head, Mediator and Saviour; or else the church universal, of which particular ones are parts: its "branches" may either signify the several members of churches, who are in Christ as branches, and hold forth the word of light; or else minister, of the Gospel, who have their commission and gifts from him, and are held by him as stars in his right hand; or else particular churches, which are branches of the church universal: its "bowls", which were to hold oil for the lamps, may denote men of capacity in the churches, full of the gifts and graces of the Spirit, able to teach others also: and the "knops" and "flowers" were for decoration, and may signify the graces of the Spirit, with which private members and believers are adorned; or the gifts of the Spirit with which the ministers of the word are furnished, and appear beautiful, publishing the glad tidings of salvation by Christ.

Gill: Exo 25:32 - And six branches shall come out of the sides of it // three branches of the candlestick out of one side, and three branches of the candlestick out of the other side And six branches shall come out of the sides of it,.... Out of the trunk or shaft, being beaten out of it: three branches of the candlestick out of...

And six branches shall come out of the sides of it,.... Out of the trunk or shaft, being beaten out of it:

three branches of the candlestick out of one side, and three branches of the candlestick out of the other side; Jarchi takes what we render the "shaft" to be the lower part of the candlestick, from whence three feet went out below; and the "branch" or "cane", for it is in the singular number in the preceding verse, he takes to be the middle branch or trunk, that went up from the middle of the foot upwards, and upon it was the middle lamp, in the form of a censer, to pour oil into the midst of it; and the six branches went out from the sides of that, here and there drawn obliquely, and went up to the height of the candlestick, which is the middle branch or cane; and they went up from the midst of that middle cane, one above another, the lowermost long, and that above it shorter than that, and the uppermost shorter than that; for the height of the tops of them were equal to the height of the middle cane, that is, the seventh, from whence the six went out.

Gill: Exo 25:33 - Three bowls made like unto almonds, with a knop and a flower in one branch // and three bowls made like almonds in the other branch // so in the six branches that come out of the candlestick Three bowls made like unto almonds, with a knop and a flower in one branch,.... There were three bowls or cups in the form of almond nuts to each bran...

Three bowls made like unto almonds, with a knop and a flower in one branch,.... There were three bowls or cups in the form of almond nuts to each branch, which were either to hold oil for the lamps, as before observed, or, as others think, to catch the snuff which fell from them; and there were a "knop", which, according to the signification of the word, was in the form of a pomegranate, and a flower, which the Targum of Jonathan renders a lily; and they are both in Scripture emblems of the saints endowed with the gifts and graces of the Spirit:

and three bowls made like almonds in the other branch; on the other side of the candlestick, opposite to the former:

so in the six branches that come out of the candlestick; there were the same number of bowls, with a knop and a flower in the rest of the branches, as in those mentioned.

Gill: Exo 25:34 - And in the candlestick shall be four bowls // made like unto almonds, with their knops and their flowers And in the candlestick shall be four bowls,.... That is, in the trunk or body of it; the branches had but three apiece, but this being larger had four...

And in the candlestick shall be four bowls,.... That is, in the trunk or body of it; the branches had but three apiece, but this being larger had four: and these were also

made like unto almonds, with their knops and their flowers; as the bowls on the branches had with them.

Gill: Exo 25:35 - And there shall be a knop under two branches of the same // according to the six branches that proceed out of the candlestick And there shall be a knop under two branches of the same,.... According to Jarchi, from the middle of the knop (which was like a pomegranate, or, as o...

And there shall be a knop under two branches of the same,.... According to Jarchi, from the middle of the knop (which was like a pomegranate, or, as others, like an apple) two branches were drawn from the two sides of it, here and there; so they teach in the work of the tabernacle, the height of the candlestick was eighteen hands' breadth: this clause is repeated twice in this verse, signifying there should be a knop under each of the three branches on one side, and three on the other side: for it follows:

according to the six branches that proceed out of the candlestick; out of the trunk of it, as in Exo 25:32.

Gill: Exo 25:36 - Their knops and their branches shall be of the same // all of it shall be one beaten work of pure gold Their knops and their branches shall be of the same,.... Of the same metal, gold, and of same mass: all of it shall be one beaten work of pure gold...

Their knops and their branches shall be of the same,.... Of the same metal, gold, and of same mass:

all of it shall be one beaten work of pure gold not made in parts, and then put and soldered together, but the whole candlestick in all its parts and branches were to be beaten out of one piece of gold.

Gill: Exo 25:37 - And thou shall make the seven lamps thereof // and they shall light the lamps thereof // that they may give light over against it And thou shall make the seven lamps thereof,.... Which were, six of them, on the top of the six branches that came out of the sides of the candlestick...

And thou shall make the seven lamps thereof,.... Which were, six of them, on the top of the six branches that came out of the sides of the candlestick, and the seventh on the top of the shaft which ran up in the middle of it; which no doubt were made of gold as well as the rest, and may signify the many members of churches bearing the lamp of a profession: or the several gifts and graces of the Spirit, which are sometimes, because of the perfection of them, called the seven spirits of God, and are compared to seven lamps of fire burning before the throne, Rev 4:5 or else the ministers of the Gospel, who are the lights of the world:

and they shall light the lamps thereof; Aaron and his sons, the priests in successive generations:

that they may give light over against it to the table of shewbread, which was opposite to it on the north side of the tabernacle, and so by the light of these lamps the priests could see to place the shewbread in its order; or the candlestick itself, the lamps being so placed as to give light to the whole body of it, that it might be seen in all its parts very distinctly; unless it can be thought that these lamps were separate from the candlestick, and set around the sides of the holy place, and gave light to it: and this may rather seem to be the case, since these lamps are spoken of after the whole of it is said to be one beaten work of pure gold; but then we have no account of the lamps of the candlestick, unless they are supposed to be included in the branches; wherefore the first sense seems best.

Gill: Exo 25:38 - -- Which, according to Jarchi, was a sort of forks with which they took the wicks out of the oil, and put them in the lamps; or, as some think, the snuff...

Which, according to Jarchi, was a sort of forks with which they took the wicks out of the oil, and put them in the lamps; or, as some think, the snuffers, but they are distinguished from tongs, 1Ki 7:49 and the snuffdishes thereof shall be of pure gold; in which the tongs or snuffers were put, or into which the snuff itself was put that was snuffed off. Jarchi says they were a sort of small cups, in which they put the ashes of the lamp, morning by morning, when they trimmed the lamps from the ashes of the wicks which burned in the night, and were extinct: so Ben Gersom and Lyra say they were vessels full of water where those were put which were snuffed off, that they might not make a smoke, which is not improbable.

Gill: Exo 25:39 - Of a talent of pure gold shall he make it, with all these vessels. Of a talent of pure gold shall he make it, with all these vessels. The common talent weighed sixty pounds, but the sacred talent was double, and weigh...

Of a talent of pure gold shall he make it, with all these vessels. The common talent weighed sixty pounds, but the sacred talent was double, and weighed one hundred and twenty pounds, as says Jarchi, and so Ben Melech: a talent of gold amounted to 5067 pounds, three shillings and ten pence of our money, according to Bishop Cumberland d. (Assuming a troy weight of 12 ounces to a pound, and an ounce of gold worth $400 U.S., than a talent would be worth about $600,000. Editor.)

Gill: Exo 25:40 - And look that thou make them // after their pattern, which was showed thee in the mount And look that thou make them,.... Or see that they are made by workmen employed: after their pattern, which was showed thee in the mount; from when...

And look that thou make them,.... Or see that they are made by workmen employed:

after their pattern, which was showed thee in the mount; from whence it appears, that as Moses was showed the model of the tabernacle, so also of the candlestick, and of all its appurtenances, and of every other vessel in it; and he is strictly charged to look carefully and diligently to it, that everything be done exactly according to the model he had a view of, in which everything was particularly described, and nothing was left to the will, humour, and fancy of men.

buka semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki

NET Notes: Exo 25:1 Now begin the detailed instructions for constructing the tabernacle of Yahweh, with all its furnishings. The first paragraph introduces the issue of t...

NET Notes: Exo 25:2 The pronoun is plural.

NET Notes: Exo 25:3 The pronoun is plural.

NET Notes: Exo 25:4 Goat’s hair was spun into yarn (35:26) and used to make the material for the first tent over the dwelling. It is ideal for tenting, since it is ...

NET Notes: Exo 25:5 The wood of the acacia is darker and harder than oak, and so very durable.

NET Notes: Exo 25:8 The word here is מִקְדּשׁ (miqdash), “a sanctuary” or “holy place”; cf. NLT &#...

NET Notes: Exo 25:9 Among the many helpful studies on the tabernacle, include S. M. Fish, “And They Shall Build Me a Sanctuary,” Gratz College of Jewish Studi...

NET Notes: Exo 25:10 The size is two and a half cubits long, a cubit and a half wide, and a cubit and a half high. The size in feet and inches is estimated on the assumpti...

NET Notes: Exo 25:11 The word זֵר (zer) is used only in Exodus and seems to describe something on the order of a crown molding, an ornamental border runn...

NET Notes: Exo 25:16 The “testimony” is the Decalogue (Exod 24:12; 31:18; Deut 4:13; 9:9; 1 Kgs 8:9); the word identifies it as the witness or affirmation of G...

NET Notes: Exo 25:17 After verbs of making or producing, the accusative (like “gold” here) may be used to express the material from which something is made (se...

NET Notes: Exo 25:18 The evidence suggests that the cherubim were composite angelic creatures that always indicated the nearness of God. So here images of them were to be ...

NET Notes: Exo 25:19 The angels were to form one piece with the lid and not be separated. This could be translated “of one piece with” the lid, but it is likel...

NET Notes: Exo 25:20 Heb “the faces of the cherubim will be” (“the cherubim” was moved to the preceding clause for smoother English).

NET Notes: Exo 25:22 The verb is placed here in the text: “and I will speak”; it has been moved in this translation to be closer to the direct object clause.

NET Notes: Exo 25:23 The Table of the Bread of the Presence (Tyndale’s translation, “Shewbread,” was used in KJV and influenced ASV, NAB) was to be a sta...

NET Notes: Exo 25:24 “Gold” is an adverbial accusative of material.

NET Notes: Exo 25:25 There is some debate as to the meaning of מִסְגֶּרֶת (misgeret). This does not seem to be ...

NET Notes: Exo 25:26 Heb “which [are] to four of its feet.”

NET Notes: Exo 25:27 Heb “houses”; NAB, NASB “holders.”

NET Notes: Exo 25:28 The verb is a Niphal perfect with vav consecutive, showing here the intended result: “so that [the table] might be lifted up [by them].” T...

NET Notes: Exo 25:29 The expression “for pouring out offerings” represents Hebrew אֲשֶׁר יֻסַּ...

NET Notes: Exo 25:30 The name basically means that the bread is to be set out in the presence of Yahweh. The custom of presenting bread on a table as a thank offering is c...

NET Notes: Exo 25:31 Heb “will be from/of it”; the referent (“the same piece” of wrought metal) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

NET Notes: Exo 25:32 Heb “from the second side.”

NET Notes: Exo 25:33 Heb “thus.”

NET Notes: Exo 25:35 For clarity the phrase “the third” has been supplied.

NET Notes: Exo 25:36 Heb “will be from it.”

NET Notes: Exo 25:37 This is a Hiphil perfect with vav consecutive, from אוֹר (’or, “light”), and in the causative, “to lig...

NET Notes: Exo 25:38 “are to be” has been supplied.

NET Notes: Exo 25:39 The text has “he will make it” or “one will make it.” With no expressed subject it is given a passive translation.

NET Notes: Exo 25:40 The message of this section surely concerns access to God. To expound this correctly, though, since it is an instruction section for building the lamp...

Geneva Bible: Exo 25:2 ( a ) Speak unto the children of Israel, that they bring me an offering: of every man that giveth it willingly with his heart ye shall take my offerin...

Geneva Bible: Exo 25:3 And this [is] the offering which ye shall ( b ) take of them; gold, and silver, and brass, ( b ) For the building and use of the tabernacle.

Geneva Bible: Exo 25:5 And rams' skins dyed red, and badgers' skins, and ( c ) shittim wood, ( c ) Which is thought to be a kindred of Cedar, which will not rot.

Geneva Bible: Exo 25:6 Oil for the light, spices for ( d ) anointing oil, and for sweet incense, ( d ) Ordained for the priest.

Geneva Bible: Exo 25:8 And let them make me a ( e ) sanctuary; that I may dwell among them. ( e ) A place both to offer sacrifice, and to hear the law.

Geneva Bible: Exo 25:16 And thou shalt put into the ark the ( f ) testimony which I shall give thee. ( f ) The stone tables, the rod of Aaron and manna which were a testimon...

Geneva Bible: Exo 25:17 And thou shalt make a ( g ) mercy seat [of] pure gold: two cubits and a half [shall be] the length thereof, and a cubit and a half the breadth thereof...

Geneva Bible: Exo 25:29 And thou shalt make the ( h ) dishes thereof, and spoons thereof, and covers thereof, and bowls thereof, to cover withal: [of] pure gold shalt thou ma...

Geneva Bible: Exo 25:31 And thou shalt make a candlestick [of] pure gold: [of] beaten ( i ) work shall the candlestick be made: his shaft, and his branches, his bowls, his kn...

Geneva Bible: Exo 25:39 [Of] a ( k ) talent of pure gold shall he make it, with all these vessels. ( k ) This was the talent weight of the temple, and weighed 120 pounds.

buka semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Rentang Ayat

Maclaren: Exo 25:30 - The Bread Of The Presence Exodus 25:30 I suspect that to many readers the term shew-bread' conveys little more meaning than if the Hebrew words had been lifted over into our ve...

Maclaren: Exo 25:31 - The Golden Lampstand Exodus 25:31 If we could have followed the Jewish priest as he passed in his daily ministrations into the Inner Court, we should have seen that he fir...

MHCC: Exo 25:1-9 - --God chose the people of Israel to be a peculiar people to himself, above all people, and he himself would be their King. He ordered a royal palace to ...

MHCC: Exo 25:10-22 - --The ark was a chest, overlaid with gold, in which the two tables of the law were to be kept. These tables are called the testimony; God in them testif...

MHCC: Exo 25:23-30 - --A table was to be made of wood, overlaid with gold, to stand in the outer tabernacle, to be always furnished with the shew-bread. This table, with the...

MHCC: Exo 25:31-40 - --The candlestick represents the light of God's word and Spirit, in and through Christ Jesus, afforded in this dark world to his believing people, to di...

Matthew Henry: Exo 25:1-9 - -- We may suppose that when Moses went into the midst of the cloud, and abode there so long, where the holy angels attended the shechinah , or divin...

Matthew Henry: Exo 25:10-22 - -- The first thing which is here ordered to be made is the ark with its appurtenances, the furniture of the most holy place, and the special token of G...

Matthew Henry: Exo 25:23-30 - -- Here is, 1. A table ordered to be made of wood overlaid with gold, which was to stand, not in the holy of holies (nothing was in that but the ark wi...

Matthew Henry: Exo 25:31-40 - -- I. The next thing ordered to be made for the furnishing of God's palace was a rich stately candlestick, all of pure gold, not hollow, but solid. The...

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 25:1-9 - -- Exo 25:1-3 (cf. Exo 35:1-9). The Israelites were to bring to the Lord a heave-offering ( תּרוּמה from רוּם , a gift lifted, or heaved by a...

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 25:10-15 - -- The Ark of the Covenant (cf. Exo 37:1-9). - They were to make an ark ( ארון ) of acacia-wood, two cubits and a half long, one and a half broad, ...

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 25:16 - -- Into this ark Moses was to put "the testimony"( העדת ; cf. Exo 40:20). This is the name given to the two tables of stone, upon which the ten wor...

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 25:17-18 - -- In addition to this, Moses was to make a capporeth ( ἱλαστήριον ἐπίθεμα , lxx; propitiatorium , Vulg .), an atoning co...

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 25:19 - -- "Out of the capporeth shall ye make the cherubs at its two ends,"i.e., so as to form one whole with the capporeth itself, and be inseparable from ...

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 25:20-22 - -- " And let the cherubs be stretching out wings on high, screening ( סככים , συσκιάζοντες ) with their wings above the capporeth...

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 25:23-28 - -- The Table of Shew-Bread (cf. Exo 37:10-16). - The table for the shew-bread (Exo 25:30) was to be made of acacia-wood, two cubits long, one broad, an...

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 25:29 - -- Vessels of pure gold were also to be made, to stand upon the table (cf. Exo 37:16). קערת , τὰ τευβλία (lxx), large deep plates, ...

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 25:30 - -- Bread of the face ( פּנים לחם ), the mode of preparing and placing which is described in Lev 24:5., was to lie continually before ( לפני...

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 25:31-40 - -- (cf. Exo 37:17-24). The Candlestick was to be made of pure gold, "beaten work." מקשׁה : see Exo 25:18. For the form תּיעשׂה instead of ...

Constable: Exo 15:22--Lev 1:1 - --II. THE ADOPTION OF ISRAEL 15:22--40:38 The second major section of Exodus records the events associated with Go...

Constable: Exo 24:12--32:1 - --C. Directions regarding God's dwelling among His people 24:12-31:18 Having given directions clarifying I...

Constable: Exo 25:1-9 - --2. Contributions for the construction of the sanctuary 25:1-9 "Only voluntary gifts were accepta...

Constable: Exo 25:10-40 - --3. The tabernacle furnishings 25:10-40 One writer identified three major problems the interprete...

Constable: Exo 25:10-22 - --The ark of the covenant 25:10-22 The ark was the throne of Yahweh where He dwelt in a lo...

Constable: Exo 25:23-30 - --The table of showbread 25:23-30 This piece of furniture stood on the north side of the h...

Constable: Exo 25:31-40 - --The lampstand 25:31-40 This piece of furniture was probably similar in size to the table...

Guzik: Exo 25:1-40 - Supplies and Directions for the Tabernacle Exodus 25 - Supplies and Directions for the Tabernacle A. The supplies for this building project. 1. (1-2) God tells Moses to ask for an offering. ...

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Pendahuluan / Garis Besar

JFB: Exodus (Pendahuluan Kitab) EXODUS, a "going forth," derives its name from its being occupied principally with a relation of the departure of the Israelites from Egypt, and the i...

JFB: Exodus (Garis Besar) INCREASE OF THE ISRAELITES. (Exo. 1:1-22) BIRTH AND PRESERVATION OF MOSES. (Exo 2:1-10) there went a man of the house of Levi, &c. Amram was the hus...

TSK: Exodus (Pendahuluan Kitab) The title of this Book is derived from the Septuagint; in which it is called ΕΞΟΔΟΣ , " Exodus;" or, as it is in the Codex Alexandrinus, Ε...

TSK: Exodus 25 (Pendahuluan Pasal) Overview Exo 25:1, What the Israelites were to offer for the formation of the tabernacle; Exo 25:10, The form of the ark; Exo 25:17, The mercy sea...

Poole: Exodus (Pendahuluan Kitab) SECOND BOOK OF MOSES CALLED EXODUS. THE ARGUMENT. AFTER the death of Joseph, who had sent for his father’ s house into Egypt, the children o...

Poole: Exodus 25 (Pendahuluan Pasal) CHAPTER 25 Moses is commanded to take a free-will offering to set up the tabernacle, and of what, Exo 25:1-7 . God commands him to make a sanctuary...

MHCC: Exodus (Pendahuluan Kitab) The Book of Exodus relates the forming of the children of Israel into a church and a nation. We have hitherto seen true religion shown in domestic lif...

MHCC: Exodus 25 (Pendahuluan Pasal) (Exo 25:1-9) What the Israelites were to offer for making the tabernacle. (Exo 25:10-22) The ark. (Exo 25:23-30) The table, with its furniture. (Ex...

Matthew Henry: Exodus (Pendahuluan Kitab) An Exposition, with Practical Observations, of The Second Book of Moses, Called Exodus Moses (the servant of the Lord in writing for him as well as ...

Matthew Henry: Exodus 25 (Pendahuluan Pasal) At this chapter begins an account of the orders and instructions God gave to Moses upon the mount for the erecting and furnishing of a tabernacle t...

Constable: Exodus (Pendahuluan Kitab) Introduction Title The Hebrew title of this book (we'elleh shemot) originated from the...

Constable: Exodus (Garis Besar) Outline I. The liberation of Israel 1:1-15:21 A. God's preparation of Israel and Moses chs. ...

Constable: Exodus Exodus Bibliography Adams, Dwayne H. "The Building Program that Works (Exodus 25:4--36:7 [31:1-11])." Exegesis ...

Haydock: Exodus (Pendahuluan Kitab) THE BOOK OF EXODUS. INTRODUCTION. The second Book of Moses is called Exodus from the Greek word Exodos, which signifies going out; becaus...

Gill: Exodus (Pendahuluan Kitab) INTRODUCTION TO EXODUS This book is called by the Jews Veelleh Shemoth, from the first words with which it begins, and sometimes Sepher Shemoth, an...

Gill: Exodus 25 (Pendahuluan Pasal) INTRODUCTION TO EXODUS 25 In this chapter an order is given for a freewill offering towards various things for the worship and service of God, and ...

Advanced Commentary (Kamus, Lagu-Lagu Himne, Gambar, Ilustrasi Khotbah, Pertanyaan-Pertanyaan, dll)


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