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Teks -- Exodus 22:1-31 (NET)

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Konteks
Laws about Property
22:1 “If a man steals an ox or a sheep and kills it or sells it, he must pay back five head of cattle for the ox, and four sheep for the one sheep. 22:2 “If a thief is caught breaking in and is struck so that he dies, there will be no blood guilt for him. 22:3 If the sun has risen on him, then there is blood guilt for him. A thief must surely make full restitution; if he has nothing, then he will be sold for his theft. 22:4 If the stolen item should in fact be found alive in his possession, whether it be an ox or a donkey or a sheep, he must pay back double. 22:5 “If a man grazes his livestock in a field or a vineyard, and he lets the livestock loose and they graze in the field of another man, he must make restitution from the best of his own field and the best of his own vineyard. 22:6 “If a fire breaks out and spreads to thorn bushes, so that stacked grain or standing grain or the whole field is consumed, the one who started the fire must surely make restitution. 22:7 “If a man gives his neighbor money or articles for safekeeping, and it is stolen from the man’s house, if the thief is caught, he must repay double. 22:8 If the thief is not caught, then the owner of the house will be brought before the judges to see whether he has laid his hand on his neighbor’s goods. 22:9 In all cases of illegal possessions, whether for an ox, a donkey, a sheep, a garment, or any kind of lost item, about which someone says ‘This belongs to me,’ the matter of the two of them will come before the judges, and the one whom the judges declare guilty must repay double to his neighbor. 22:10 If a man gives his neighbor a donkey or an ox or a sheep or any beast to keep, and it dies or is hurt or is carried away without anyone seeing it, 22:11 then there will be an oath to the Lord between the two of them, that he has not laid his hand on his neighbor’s goods, and its owner will accept this, and he will not have to pay. 22:12 But if it was stolen from him, he will pay its owner. 22:13 If it is torn in pieces, then he will bring it for evidence, and he will not have to pay for what was torn. 22:14 “If a man borrows an animal from his neighbor, and it is hurt or dies when its owner was not with it, the man who borrowed it will surely pay. 22:15 If its owner was with it, he will not have to pay; if it was hired, what was paid for the hire covers it.
Moral and Ceremonial Laws
22:16 “If a man seduces a virgin who is not engaged and has sexual relations with her, he must surely endow her to be his wife. 22:17 If her father refuses to give her to him, he must pay money for the bride price of virgins. 22:18 “You must not allow a sorceress to live. 22:19 “Whoever has sexual relations with a beast must surely be put to death. 22:20 “Whoever sacrifices to a god other than the Lord alone must be utterly destroyed. 22:21 “You must not wrong a foreigner nor oppress him, for you were foreigners in the land of Egypt. 22:22 “You must not afflict any widow or orphan. 22:23 If you afflict them in any way and they cry to me, I will surely hear their cry, 22:24 and my anger will burn and I will kill you with the sword, and your wives will be widows and your children will be fatherless. 22:25 “If you lend money to any of my people who are needy among you, do not be like a moneylender to him; do not charge him interest. 22:26 If you do take the garment of your neighbor in pledge, you must return it to him by the time the sun goes down, 22:27 for it is his only covering– it is his garment for his body. What else can he sleep in? And when he cries out to me, I will hear, for I am gracious. 22:28 “You must not blaspheme God or curse the ruler of your people. 22:29 “Do not hold back offerings from your granaries or your vats. You must give me the firstborn of your sons. 22:30 You must also do this for your oxen and for your sheep; seven days they may remain with their mothers, but give them to me on the eighth day. 22:31 “You will be holy people to me; you must not eat any meat torn by animals in the field. You must throw it to the dogs.
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Egypt descendants of Mizraim


Topik/Tema Kamus: Israel | Book | Revelation | COVENANT, BOOK OF THE | EXODUS, THE BOOK OF, 2 | LAW OF MOSES | Theft | Poor | Bull | Debtor | LEVITICUS, 1 | Property | Trustee | CRIME; CRIMES | PUNISHMENTS | Fine | Creditor | CRITICISM | Dress | Restitution | selebihnya
Daftar Isi

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Wesley , JFB , Clarke , Calvin , Defender , TSK

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Poole , Haydock , Gill

Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki
NET Notes , Geneva Bible

Catatan Rentang Ayat
MHCC , Matthew Henry , Keil-Delitzsch , Constable , Guzik

Lainnya
Evidence

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per frasa)

Wesley: Exo 22:1 - Five oxen for an ox, and four sheep for a sheep More for an ox than for a sheep, because the owner, besides all the other profit, lost the daily labour of his ox. If we were not able to make restitu...

More for an ox than for a sheep, because the owner, besides all the other profit, lost the daily labour of his ox. If we were not able to make restitution, he must be sold for a slave: the court of judgment was to do it, and it is likely the person robbed received the money. Thus with us in some cases, felons are transported to the Plantations, where only, Englishmen know what slavery is. But let it be observed, the sentence is not slavery, but banishment: nor can any Englishman be sold, unless he first indent himself to the captain that carries him over.

Wesley: Exo 22:2 - -- If a thief broke a house in the night, and was killed in the doing it, his blood was upon his own head.

If a thief broke a house in the night, and was killed in the doing it, his blood was upon his own head.

Wesley: Exo 22:2 - But if it were in the day time that the thief was killed, he that killed him was accountable for it, unless it were in the necessary defence of his own life.

time that the thief was killed, he that killed him was accountable for it, unless it were in the necessary defence of his own life.

Wesley: Exo 22:3 - For he should make full restitution This the law determined: not that he should die.

This the law determined: not that he should die.

Wesley: Exo 22:4 - In his hand alive Not killed, nor sold, as Exo 22:1, so that the owner recover it with less charge and trouble.

Not killed, nor sold, as Exo 22:1, so that the owner recover it with less charge and trouble.

Wesley: Exo 22:5 - -- He that wilfully put his cattle into his neighbour's field, must make restitution of the best of his own. The Jews hence observed it as a general rule...

He that wilfully put his cattle into his neighbour's field, must make restitution of the best of his own. The Jews hence observed it as a general rule, that restitution must always be made of the best; and that no man should keep any cattle that were likely to trespass upon his neighbour, or do him any damage.

Wesley: Exo 22:6 - -- He that designed only the burning of thorns might become accessary to the burning of corn, and should not be held guiltless. If the fire did mischief,...

He that designed only the burning of thorns might become accessary to the burning of corn, and should not be held guiltless. If the fire did mischief, he that kindled it must answer for it, though it could not be proved that he designed the mischief. Men must suffer for their carelessness, as well as for their malice. It will make us very careful of ourselves, if we consider that we are accountable not only for the hurt we do, but for the hurt we occasion through inadvertency.

Wesley: Exo 22:7 - If a man deliver goods, suppose to a carrier to be conveyed, or to a warehouse keeper to be preserved, or cattle to a farmer to be fed upon a valuable consideration, and a special confidence reposed in the person they are lodged ...

keeper to be preserved, or cattle to a farmer to be fed upon a valuable consideration, and a special confidence reposed in the person they are lodged with; in case these goods be stolen or lost, perish or be damaged, if it appear that it was not by any fault of the trustee, the owner must stand to the loss, otherwise he that has been false to his trust must be compelled to make satisfaction.

Wesley: Exo 22:14 - -- If a man (suppose) lent his team to his neighbour, if the owner were with it, or were to receive profit for the loan of it, whatever harm befel the ca...

If a man (suppose) lent his team to his neighbour, if the owner were with it, or were to receive profit for the loan of it, whatever harm befel the cattle the owner must stand to the loss of it: but if the owner were so kind to the borrower as to lend it him gratis, and put such a confidence in him as to trust it from under his own eye, then, if any harm happened, the borrower must make it good. Learn hence to be very careful not to abuse any thing that is lent to us; it is not only unjust but base and disingenuous, we should much rather chuse to lose ourselves, than that any should sustain loss by their kindness to us.

Wesley: Exo 22:17 - If the father refused, he shall pay money This shews how ill a thing it is, and by no means to be allowed, that children should marry without their parents consent: even here where the divine ...

This shews how ill a thing it is, and by no means to be allowed, that children should marry without their parents consent: even here where the divine law appointed the marriage, both as a punishment to him that had done wrong, and a recompence to her that had suffered wrong, yet there was an express reservation for the father's power; if he denied his consent, it must be no marriage.

Wesley: Exo 22:18 - -- Witchcraft not only gives that honour to the devil which is due to God alone, but bids defiance to the divine providence, wages war with God's governm...

Witchcraft not only gives that honour to the devil which is due to God alone, but bids defiance to the divine providence, wages war with God's government, puts his work into the devil's hand expecting him to do good and evil. By our law, consulting, covenanting with, invocating or employing any evil spirit to any intent whatever, and exercising any enchantment, charm, or sorcery, whereby hurt shall be done to any person, is made felony, without benefit of clergy; also pretending to tell where goods lost or stolen may be found, is an iniquity punishable by the judge, and the second offence with death. This was the case in former times.

Wesley: Exo 22:18 - But we are wiser than our fore fathers. We believe, no witch ever did live! At least, not for these thousand years.

fathers. We believe, no witch ever did live! At least, not for these thousand years.

Wesley: Exo 22:21 - -- A stranger must not be abused, not wronged in judgment by the magistrates, not imposed upon in contracts, nor any advantage taken of his ignorance or ...

A stranger must not be abused, not wronged in judgment by the magistrates, not imposed upon in contracts, nor any advantage taken of his ignorance or necessity, no, nor must he be taunted, or upbraided with his being a stranger; for all these were vexations.

Wesley: Exo 22:21 - For ye were strangers in Egypt And knew what it was to be vexed and oppressed there. Those that have themselves been in poverty and distress, if Providence enrich and enlarge them, ...

And knew what it was to be vexed and oppressed there. Those that have themselves been in poverty and distress, if Providence enrich and enlarge them, ought to shew a particular tenderness towards those that are now in such circumstances as they were in formerly, now doing to them as they then wished to be done by.

Wesley: Exo 22:22 - Ye shall not afflict the widow or fatherless child That is, ye shall comfort and assist them, and be ready upon all occasions to shew them kindness. In making just demands from them, their condition mu...

That is, ye shall comfort and assist them, and be ready upon all occasions to shew them kindness. In making just demands from them, their condition must be considered who have lost those that should protect them: they are supposed to be unversed in business, destitute of advice, timorous, and of a tender spirit; and therefore must be treated with kindness and compassion, and no advantage taken against them, nor any hardship put upon them, which a husband or a father would have sheltered them from.

Wesley: Exo 22:25 - If thou lend They must not receive use for money from any that borrowed for necessity. And such provision the law made for the preserving estates to their families...

They must not receive use for money from any that borrowed for necessity. And such provision the law made for the preserving estates to their families by the year of Jubilee, that a people who had little concern in trade could not be supposed to borrow money but for necessity; therefore it was generally forbidden among themselves; but to a stranger they were allowed to lend upon usury. This law therefore in the strictness of it seems to have been peculiar to the Jewish state; but in the equity of it, it obligeth us to shew mercy to those we have advantage against, and to be content to share with those we lend to in loss as well as profit, if Providence cross them: and upon this condition it seems as lawful to receive interest for my money, which another takes pains with, and improves, as it is to receive rent for my land, which another takes pains with, and improves, for his own use.

Wesley: Exo 22:25 - They must not take a poor man's bed clothes in pawn; but if they did, must restore them by bed - time.

clothes in pawn; but if they did, must restore them by bed - time.

Wesley: Exo 22:28 - Thou shalt not revile the gods That is, the judges and magistrates. Princes and magistrates are our fathers, whom the fifth commandment obligeth us to honour, and forbids us to revi...

That is, the judges and magistrates. Princes and magistrates are our fathers, whom the fifth commandment obligeth us to honour, and forbids us to revile. St. Paul applies this law to himself, and owns that he ought not to speak evil of the ruler of his people, no, not though he was then his most unrighteous persecutor, Act 23:5.

Wesley: Exo 22:29 - The first born of thy sons shalt thou give unto me - And much more reason have we to give ourselves and all we have to God, who spared not his own Son, but deli...

born of thy sons shalt thou give unto me - And much more reason have we to give ourselves and all we have to God, who spared not his own Son, but delivered him up for us all. The first ripe of their corn they must not delay to offer; there is danger if we delay our duty, lest we wholly omit it; and by slipping the first opportunity in expectation of another, we suffer Satan to cheat us of all our time.

Wesley: Exo 22:31 - Ye shall be holy unto me And one mark of that honourable distinction is appointed in their diet, which was, that they should not eat any flesh that was torn of beasts - Both b...

And one mark of that honourable distinction is appointed in their diet, which was, that they should not eat any flesh that was torn of beasts - Both because the blood was not duly taken out of it, and because the clean beast was ceremonially defiled, by the touch of the unclean.

JFB: Exo 22:1-4 - If a man shall steal an ox, or a sheep The law respects the theft of cattle which constituted the chief part of their property. The penalty for the theft of a sheep which was slain or sold,...

The law respects the theft of cattle which constituted the chief part of their property. The penalty for the theft of a sheep which was slain or sold, was fourfold; for an ox fivefold, because of its greater utility in labor; but, should the stolen animal have been recovered alive, a double compensation was all that was required, because it was presumable he (the thief) was not a practised adept in dishonesty. A robber breaking into a house at midnight might, in self-defense, be slain with impunity; but if he was slain after sunrise, it would be considered murder, for it was not thought likely an assault would then be made upon the lives of the occupants. In every case where a thief could not make restitution, he was sold as a slave for the usual term.

JFB: Exo 22:6 - If fire break out, and catch in thorns This refers to the common practice in the East of setting fire to the dry grass before the fall of the autumnal rains, which prevents the ravages of v...

This refers to the common practice in the East of setting fire to the dry grass before the fall of the autumnal rains, which prevents the ravages of vermin, and is considered a good preparation of the ground for the next crop. The very parched state of the herbage and the long droughts of summer, make the kindling of a fire an operation often dangerous, and always requiring caution from its liability to spread rapidly.

JFB: Exo 22:6 - stacks Or as it is rendered "shocks" (Jdg 15:5; Job 5:26), means simply a bundle of loose sheaves.

Or as it is rendered "shocks" (Jdg 15:5; Job 5:26), means simply a bundle of loose sheaves.

JFB: Exo 22:26-27 - If thou at all take thy neighbour's raiment to pledge, &c. From the nature of the case, this is the description of a poor man. No Orientals undress, but, merely throwing off their turbans and some of their hea...

From the nature of the case, this is the description of a poor man. No Orientals undress, but, merely throwing off their turbans and some of their heavy outer garments, they sleep in the clothes which they wear during the day. The bed of the poor is usually nothing else than a mat; and, in winter, they cover themselves with a cloak--a practice which forms the ground or reason of the humane and merciful law respecting the pawned coat.

JFB: Exo 22:28 - gods A word which is several times in this chapter rendered "judges" or magistrates.

A word which is several times in this chapter rendered "judges" or magistrates.

JFB: Exo 22:28 - the ruler of thy people And the chief magistrate who was also the high priest, at least in the time of Paul (Act 23:1-5).

And the chief magistrate who was also the high priest, at least in the time of Paul (Act 23:1-5).

Clarke: Exo 22:1 - If a man shall steal If a man shall steal - This chapter consists chiefly of judicial laws, as the preceding chapter does of political; and in it the same good sense, an...

If a man shall steal - This chapter consists chiefly of judicial laws, as the preceding chapter does of political; and in it the same good sense, and well-marked attention to the welfare of the community and the moral improvement of each individual, are equally evident

In our translation of this verse, by rendering different Hebrew words by the same term in English, we have greatly obscured the sense. I shall produce the verse with the original words which I think improperly translated, because one English term is used for two Hebrew words, which in this place certainly do not mean the same thing. If a man shall steal an ox ( שור shor ) or a sheep, ( שה seh ), and kill it, or sell it; he shall restore five oxen ( בקר bakar ) for an ox, ( שור shor ), and four sheep ( צאן tson ) for a sheep ( שה seh ). I think it must appear evident that the sacred writer did not intend that these words should be understood as above. A shor certainly is different from a bakar , and a seh from a tson . Where the difference in every case lies, wherever these words occur, it is difficult to say. The shor and the bakar are doubtless creatures of the beeve kind, and are used in different parts of the sacred writings to signify the bull, the ox, the heifer, the steer, and the calf. The seh and the tson are used to signify the ram, the wether, the ewe, the lamb, the he-goat, the she-goat, and the kid. And the latter word צאן tson seems frequently to signify the flock, composed of either of these lesser cattle, or both sorts conjoined

As שור shor is used, Job 21:10, for a bull probably it may mean so here. If a man steal a Bull he shall give five Oxen for him, which we may presume was no more than his real value, as very few bulls could be kept in a country destitute of horses, where oxen were so necessary to till the ground. For though some have imagined that there were no castrated cattle among the Jews, yet this cannot be admitted on the above reason; for as they had no horses, and bulls would have been unmanageable and dangerous, they must have had oxen for the purposes of agriculture. Tson צאן is used for a flock either of sheep or goats, and seh שה for an individual of either species. For every seh , four, taken indifferently from the tson or flock must be given; i.e., a sheep stolen might be recompensed with four out of the flock, whether of sheep or goats: so that a goat might be compensated with four sheep, or a sheep with four goats.

Clarke: Exo 22:2 - If a thief be found If a thief be found - If a thief was found breaking into a house in the night season, he might be killed; but not if the sun had risen, for then he ...

If a thief be found - If a thief was found breaking into a house in the night season, he might be killed; but not if the sun had risen, for then he might be known and taken, and the restitution made which is mentioned in the succeeding verse. So by the law of England it is a burglary to break and enter a house by night; and "anciently the day was accounted to begin only from sunrising, and to end immediately upon sunset: but it is now generally agreed that if there be daylight enough begun or left, either by the light of the sun or twilight, whereby the countenance of a person may reasonably be discerned, it is no burglary; but that this does not extend to moonlight, for then many midnight burglaries would go unpunished. And besides, the malignity of the offense does not so properly arise, as Mr. Justice Blackstone observes, from its being done in the dark, as at the dead of night when all the creation except beasts of prey are at rest; when sleep has disarmed the owner, and rendered his castle defenceless."- East’ s Pleas of the Crown, vol. ii., p. 509.

Clarke: Exo 22:4 - He shall restore double He shall restore double - In no case of theft was the life of the offender taken away; the utmost that the law says on this point is, that, if when ...

He shall restore double - In no case of theft was the life of the offender taken away; the utmost that the law says on this point is, that, if when found breaking into a house, he should be smitten so as to die, no blood should be shed for him; Exo 22:2. If he had stolen and sold the property, then he was to restore four or fivefold, Exo 22:1; but if the animal was found alive in his possession, he was to restore double.

Clarke: Exo 22:6 - If fire break out If fire break out - Mr. Harmer observes that it is a common custom in the east to set the dry herbage on fire before the autumnal rains, which fires...

If fire break out - Mr. Harmer observes that it is a common custom in the east to set the dry herbage on fire before the autumnal rains, which fires, for want of care, often do great damage: and in countries where great drought prevails, and the herbage is generally parched, great caution was peculiarly necessary; and a law to guard against such evils, and to punish inattention and neglect, was highly expedient. See Harmer’ s Observat., vol. iii., p. 310, etc.

Clarke: Exo 22:7 - Deliver unto his neighbor Deliver unto his neighbor - This is called pledging in the law of bailments; it is a deposit of goods by a debtor to his creditor, to be kept till t...

Deliver unto his neighbor - This is called pledging in the law of bailments; it is a deposit of goods by a debtor to his creditor, to be kept till the debt be discharged. Whatever goods were thus left in the hands of another person, that person, according to the Mosaic law, became responsible for them; if they were stolen, and the thief was found, he was to pay double; if he could not be found, the oath of the person who had them in keeping, made before the magistrates, that he knew nothing of them, was considered a full acquittance. Among the Romans, if goods were lost which a man had entrusted to his neighbor, the depositary was obliged to pay their full value. But if a man had been driven by necessity, as in case of fire, to lodge his goods with one of his neighbors, and the goods were lost, the depositary was obliged to pay double their value, because of his unfaithfulness in a case of such distress, where his dishonesty, connected with the destruction by the fire, had completed the ruin of the sufferer. To this case the following law is applicable: Cum quis fidem elegit, nec depositum redditur, contentus esse debet simplo: cum vero extante necessitate deponat, crescit perfidia crimen , etc. - Digest., lib. xvi., tit. 3, 1. 1.

Clarke: Exo 22:8 - Unto the judges Unto the judges - See Clarke’ s note on Exo 21:6.

Unto the judges - See Clarke’ s note on Exo 21:6.

Clarke: Exo 22:9 - Challengeth to be his Challengeth to be his - It was necessary that such a matter should come before the judges, because the person in whose possession the goods were fou...

Challengeth to be his - It was necessary that such a matter should come before the judges, because the person in whose possession the goods were found might have had them by a fair and honest purchase; and, by sifting the business, the thief might be found out, and if found, be obliged to pay double to his neighbor.

Clarke: Exo 22:11 - An oath of the Lord be between them An oath of the Lord be between them - So solemn and awful were all appeals to God considered in those ancient times, that it was taken for granted t...

An oath of the Lord be between them - So solemn and awful were all appeals to God considered in those ancient times, that it was taken for granted that the man was innocent who could by an oath appeal to the omniscient God that he had not put his hand to his neighbor’ s goods. Since oaths have become multiplied, and since they have been administered on the most trifling occasions, their solemnity is gone, and their importance little regarded. Should the oath ever reacquire its weight and importance, it must be when administered only in cases of peculiar delicacy and difficulty, and as sparingly as in the days of Moses.

Clarke: Exo 22:13 - If it be torn in pieces - let him bring it for witness If it be torn in pieces - let him bring it for witness - Rather, Let him bring עד הטרפה ed hatterephah , a testimony or evidence of the torn...

If it be torn in pieces - let him bring it for witness - Rather, Let him bring עד הטרפה ed hatterephah , a testimony or evidence of the torn thing, such as the horns, hoofs, etc. This is still a law in some countries among graziers: if a horse, cow, sheep, or goat, entrusted to them, be lost, and the keeper asserts it was devoured by dogs, etc., the law obliges him to produce the horns and hoofs, because on these the owner’ s mark is generally found. If these can be produced, the keeper is acquitted by the law. The ear is often the place marked, but this is not absolutely required, because a ravenous beast may eat the ear as well as any other part, but he cannot eat the horns or the hoofs. It seems however that in after times two of the legs and the ear were required as evidences to acquit the shepherd of all guilt. See Amo 3:12.

Clarke: Exo 22:16 - If a man entice a maid If a man entice a maid - This was an exceedingly wise and humane law, and must have operated powerfully against seduction and fornication; because t...

If a man entice a maid - This was an exceedingly wise and humane law, and must have operated powerfully against seduction and fornication; because the person who might feel inclined to take the advantage of a young woman knew that he must marry her, and give her a dowry, if her parents consented; and if they did not consent that their daughter should wed her seducer, in this case he was obliged to give her the full dowry which could have been demanded had she been still a virgin. According to the Targumist here, and to Deu 22:29, the dowry was fifty shekels of silver, which the seducer was to pay to her father, and he was obliged to take her to wife; nor had he authority, according to the Jewish canons, ever to put her away by a bill of divorce. This one consideration was a powerful curb on disorderly passions, and must tend greatly to render marriages respectable, and prevent all crimes of this nature.

Clarke: Exo 22:18 - Thou shalt not suffer a witch to live Thou shalt not suffer a witch to live - If there had been no witches, such a law as this had never been made. The existence of the law, given under ...

Thou shalt not suffer a witch to live - If there had been no witches, such a law as this had never been made. The existence of the law, given under the direction of the Spirit of God, proves the existence of the thing. It has been doubted whether מכשפה mecash -shephah , which we translate witch, really means a person who practiced divination or sorcery by spiritual or infernal agency. Whether the persons thus denominated only pretended to have an art which had no existence, or whether they really possessed the power commonly attributed to them, are questions which it would be improper to discuss at length in a work of this kind; but that witches, wizards, those who dealt with familiar spirits, etc., are represented in the sacred writings as actually possessing a power to evoke the dead, to perform, supernatural operations, and to discover hidden or secret things by spells, charms, incantations, etc., is evident to every unprejudiced reader of the Bible. Of Manasseh it is said: He caused his children to pass through the fire in the valley of the son of Hinnom: also he observed times [ ועונן, veonen , he used divination by clouds] and used enchantments, and used witchcraft, [ וכשף vechishsheph ], and dealt with a familiar spirit, [ ועשה אוב veasah ob , performed a variety of operations by means of what was afterwards called the πνευμα πυθωνος, the spirit of Python], and with wizards, [ ידעוני yiddeoni , the wise or knowing ones]; and he wrought much evil in the sight of the Lord; 2Ch 33:6. It is very likely that the Hebrew כשף cashaph , and the Arabic cashafa , had originally the same meaning, to uncover, to remove a veil, to manifest, reveal, make bare or naked; and mecashefat is used to signify commerce with God. See Wilmet and Giggeius. The mecashshephah or witch, therefore, was probably a person who professed to reveal hidden mysteries, by commerce with God, or the invisible world

From the severity of this law against witches, etc., we may see in what light these were viewed by Divine justice. They were seducers of the people from their allegiance to God, on whose judgment alone they should depend; and by impiously prying into futurity, assumed an attribute of God, the foretelling of future events, which implied in itself the grossest blasphemy, and tended to corrupt the minds of the people, by leading them away from God and the revelation he had made of himself. Many of the Israelites had, no doubt, learned these curious arts from their long residence with the Egyptians; and so much were the Israelites attached to them, that we find such arts in repute among them, and various practices of this kind prevailed through the whole of the Jewish history, notwithstanding the offense was capital, and in all cases punished with death.

Clarke: Exo 22:19 - Lieth with a beast Lieth with a beast - If this most abominable crime had not been common, it never would have been mentioned in a sacred code of laws. It is very like...

Lieth with a beast - If this most abominable crime had not been common, it never would have been mentioned in a sacred code of laws. It is very likely that it was an Egyptian practice; and it is certain, from an account in Sonnini’ s Travels, that it is practiced in Egypt to the present day.

Clarke: Exo 22:20 - Utterly destroyed Utterly destroyed - The word חרם cherem denotes a thing utterly and finally separated from God and devoted to destruction, without the possibi...

Utterly destroyed - The word חרם cherem denotes a thing utterly and finally separated from God and devoted to destruction, without the possibility of redemption.

Clarke: Exo 22:21 - Thou shalt neither vex a stranger, nor oppress him Thou shalt neither vex a stranger, nor oppress him - This was not only a very humane law, but it was also the offspring of a sound policy: "Do not v...

Thou shalt neither vex a stranger, nor oppress him - This was not only a very humane law, but it was also the offspring of a sound policy: "Do not vex a stranger; remember ye were strangers. Do not oppress a stranger; remember ye were oppressed. Therefore do unto all men as ye would they should do to you."It was the produce of a sound policy: "Let strangers be well treated among you, and many will come to take refuge among you, and thus the strength of your country will be increased. If refugees of this kind be treated well, they will become proselytes to your religion, and thus their souls may be saved."In every point of view, therefore, justice, humanity, sound policy, and religion, say. Neither vex nor oppress a stranger.

Clarke: Exo 22:22 - Ye shall not afflict any widow, or fatherless child Ye shall not afflict any widow, or fatherless child - It is remarkable that offenses against this law are not left to the discretion of the judges t...

Ye shall not afflict any widow, or fatherless child - It is remarkable that offenses against this law are not left to the discretion of the judges to be punished; God reserves the punishment to himself, and by this he strongly shows his abhorrence of the crime. It is no common crime, and shall not be punished in a common way; the wrath of God shall wax hot against him who in any wise afflicts or wrongs a widow or a fatherless child: and we may rest assured that he who helps either does a service highly acceptable in the sight of God.

Clarke: Exo 22:25 - Neither shalt thou lay upon him usury Neither shalt thou lay upon him usury - נשך neshech , from nashach , to bite, cut, or pierce with the teeth; biting usury. So the Latins call it...

Neither shalt thou lay upon him usury - נשך neshech , from nashach , to bite, cut, or pierce with the teeth; biting usury. So the Latins call it usura vorax , devouring usury. "The increase of usury is called נשך neshech , because it resembles the biting of a serpent; for as this is so small as scarcely to be perceptible at first, but the venom soon spreads and diffuses itself till it reaches the vitals, so the increase of usury, which at first is not perceived nor felt, at length grows so much as by degrees to devour another’ s substance."- Leigh

It is evident that what is here said must be understood of accumulated usury, or what we call compound interest only; and accordingly נשך neshech is mentioned with and distinguished from תרביה tarbith and מרביה marbith , interest or simple interest, Lev 25:36, Lev 25:37; Pro 28:8; Eze 18:8, Eze 18:13, Eze 18:17, and Exo 22:12 - Parkhurst

Perhaps usury may be more properly defined unlawful interest, receiving more for the loan of money than it is really worth, and more than the law allows. It is a wise regulation in the laws of England, that if a man be convicted of usury - taking unlawful interest, the bond or security is rendered void, and he forfeits treble the sum borrowed. Against such an oppressive practice the wisdom of God saw it essentially necessary to make a law to prevent a people, who were naturally what our Lord calls the Pharisees, φιλαργυροι, lovers of money, (Luk 16:14), from oppressing each other; and who, notwithstanding the law in the text, practice usury in all places of their dispersion to the present day.

Clarke: Exo 22:26 - If thou - take thy neighbor’ s raiment to pledge If thou - take thy neighbor’ s raiment to pledge - It seems strange that any pledge should be taken which must be so speedily restored; but it ...

If thou - take thy neighbor’ s raiment to pledge - It seems strange that any pledge should be taken which must be so speedily restored; but it is very likely that the pledge was restored by night only, and that he who pledged it brought it back to his creditor next morning. The opinion of the rabbins is, that whatever a man needed for the support of life, he had the use of it when absolutely necessary, though it was pledged. Thus he had the use of his working tools by day, but he brought them to his creditor in the evening. His hyke, which serves an Arab as a plaid does a Highlander, (See Clarke’ s note on Exo 12:34), was probably the raiment here referred to: it is a sort of coarse blanket, about six yards long, and five or six feet broad, which an Arab always carries with him, and on which he sleeps at night, it being his only substitute for a bed. As the fashions in the east scarcely ever change, it is very likely that the raiment of the Israelites was precisely the same with that of the modern Arabs, who live in the very same desert in which the Hebrews were when this law was given. How necessary it was to restore the hyke to a poor man before the going down of the sun, that he might have something to repose on, will appear evident from the above considerations. At the same time, the returning it daily to the creditor was a continual acknowledgment of the debt, and served instead of a written acknowledgment or bond; as we may rest assured that writing, if practiced at all before the giving of the law, was not common: but it is most likely that it did not exist.

Clarke: Exo 22:28 - Thou shalt not revile the gods Thou shalt not revile the gods - Most commentators believe that the word gods here means magistrates. The original is אלהים Elohim , and shoul...

Thou shalt not revile the gods - Most commentators believe that the word gods here means magistrates. The original is אלהים Elohim , and should be understood of the true God only: Thou shalt not blaspheme or make light of [ תקלל tekallel ] God, the fountain of justice and power, nor curse the ruler of thy people, who derives his authority from God. We shall ever find that he who despises a good civil government, and is disaffected to that under which he lives, is one who has little fear of God before his eyes. The spirit of disaffection and sedition is ever opposed to the religion of the Bible. When those who have been pious get under the spirit of misrule, they infallibly get shorn of their spiritual strength, and become like salt that has lost its savor. He who can indulge himself in speaking evil of the civil ruler, will soon learn to blaspheme God. The highest authority says, Fear God: honor the king.

Clarke: Exo 22:29 - The first of thy ripe fruits The first of thy ripe fruits - This offering was a public acknowledgment of the bounty and goodness of God, who had given them their proper seed tim...

The first of thy ripe fruits - This offering was a public acknowledgment of the bounty and goodness of God, who had given them their proper seed time, the first and the latter rain, and the appointed weeks of harvest

From the practice of the people of God the heathens borrowed a similar one, founded on the same reason. The following passage from Censorinus, De Die Natali, is beautiful, and worthy of the deepest attention: -

Illi enim (majores nostri) qui alimenta, patriam, lucem, se denique ipsos deorum dono habebant, ex omnibus aliquid diis sacrabant, magis adeo, ut se gratos approbarent, quam quod deos arbitrarentur hoc indigere. Itaque cum perceperant fruges, antequam vescerentur, Diis libare instituerunt: et cum agros atque urbes, deorum munera, possiderent, partem quandam templis sacellisque, ubi eos colerent, dicavere

"Our ancestors, who held their food, their country, the light, and all that they possessed, from the bounty of the gods, consecrated to them a part of all their property, rather as a token of their gratitude, than from a conviction that the gods needed any thing. Therefore as soon as the harvest was got in, before they had tasted of the fruits, they appointed libations to be made to the gods. And as they held their fields and cities as gifts from their gods, they consecrated a certain part for temples and shrines, where they might worship them.

Pliny is express on the same point, who attests that the Romans never tasted either their new corn or wine, till the priests had offered the First-Fruits to the gods. Acts ne degustabant quidem, novas fruges aut vina, antequam sacerdotes Primitias Libassent . Hist. Nat., lib. xviii., c. 2

Horace bears the same testimony, and shows that his countrymen offered, not only their first-fruits, but the choicest of all their fruits, to the Lares or household gods; and he shows also the wickedness of those who sent these as presents to the rich, before the gods had been thus honored: -

Dulcia poma

Et quoscumque feret cultus tibi fundus honores

Ante Larem gustet venerabilior Lare dives

Sat., lib. ii., s. v., ver. 12

"What your garden yields

The choicest honors of your cultured fields

To him be sacrificed, and let him taste

Before your gods, the vegetable feast.

Dunkin

And to the same purpose Tibullus, in one of the most beautiful of his elegies: -

Et quodcumque mihi pomum novus educat annus

Libatum agricolae ponitur ante deo

Flava Ceres, tibi sit nostro de rure coron

Spicea, quae templi pendeat ante fores

Eleg., lib. i., eleg. i. ver. 13

"My grateful fruits, the earliest of the year

Before the rural god shall daily wait

From Ceres’ gifts I’ ll cull each browner ear

And hang a wheaten wreath before her gate.

Grainger

The same subject he touches again in the fifth elegy of the same book, where he specifies the different offerings made for the produce of the fields, of the flocks, and of the vine, ver. 27: -

Illa deo sciet agricolae pro vitibus uvam

Pro segete spicas, pro grege ferre dapem

"With pious care will load each rural shrine

For ripen’ d crops a golden sheaf assign

Cates for my fold, rich clusters for my wine

Id. - See Calmet

These quotations will naturally recall to our memory the offerings of Cain and Abel, mentioned Gen 4:3, Gen 4:4

The rejoicings at our harvest-home are distorted remains of that gratitude which our ancestors, with all the primitive inhabitants of the earth, expressed to God with appropriate signs and ceremonies. Is it not possible to restore, in some goodly form, a custom so pure, so edifying, and so becoming? There is a laudable custom, observed by some pious people, of dedicating a new house to God by prayer, etc., which cannot be too highly commended.

Clarke: Exo 22:30 - Seven days it shall be with his dam Seven days it shall be with his dam - For the mother’ s health it was necessary that the young one should suck so long; and prior to this time ...

Seven days it shall be with his dam - For the mother’ s health it was necessary that the young one should suck so long; and prior to this time the process of nutrition in a young animal can scarcely be considered as completely formed. Among the Romans lambs were not considered as pure or clean before the eighth day; nor calves before the thirtieth: Pecoris faetus die octavo purus est, bovis trigesimo - Plin. Hist. Nat., lib. viii.

Clarke: Exo 22:31 - Neither shall ye eat - flesh - torn of beasts in the field Neither shall ye eat - flesh - torn of beasts in the field - This has been supposed to be an ordinance against eating flesh cut off the animal while...

Neither shall ye eat - flesh - torn of beasts in the field - This has been supposed to be an ordinance against eating flesh cut off the animal while alive, and so the Syriac seems to have understood it. If we can credit Mr. Bruce, this is a frequent custom in Abyssinia; but human nature revolts from it. The reason of the prohibition against eating the flesh of animals that had been torn, or as we term it worried in the field, appears to have been simply this: That the people might not eat the blood, which in this case must be coagulated in the flesh; and the blood, being the life of the beast, and emblematical of the blood of the covenant, was ever to be held sacred, and was prohibited from the days of Noah. See Clarke’ s note on Gen 9:4

In the conclusion of this chapter we see the grand reason of all the ordinances and laws which it contains. No command was issued merely from the sovereignty of God. He gave them to the people as restraints on disorderly passions, and incentives to holiness; and hence he says, Ye shall be holy men unto me. Mere outward services could neither please him nor profit them; for from the very beginning of the world the end of the commandment was love out of a pure heart and good conscience, and faith unfeigned, 1Ti 1:5. And without these accompaniments no set of religious duties, however punctually performed, could be pleasing in the sight of that God who seeks truth in the inward parts, and in whose eyes the faith that worketh by love is alone valuable. A holy heart and a holy, useful life God invariably requires in all his worshippers. Reader, how standest thou in his sight?

Calvin: Exo 22:1 - NO PHRASE Thus far God has proclaimed Himself the avenger of iniquities, and, citing thieves before His tribunal, has threatened them with eternal death. Now f...

Thus far God has proclaimed Himself the avenger of iniquities, and, citing thieves before His tribunal, has threatened them with eternal death. Now follow the civil laws, the principle of which is not so exact and perfect; since in their enactment God has relaxed His just severity in consideration of the people’s hardness of heart.

What God formerly delivered to His people the heathen legislators afterwards borrowed. Draco, indeed, was more severe, but his extreme rigor became obsolete by the silent consent of the people of Athens; and the Decemvirs borrowed from Solon part of their law, which they published in the ten tables, although there were some variations in the distinction of the double or quadruple restitution, and in process of time other alterations were afterwards made. But if all things be duly considered, it will be found that both Solon and the Decemvirs have made a change for the worse, wherever they have varied from the law of God. First of all, no distinction 132 is here made, such as the Roman laws decree, between manifest thieves and those that are not manifest; for by them the thief not manifest is condemned to a double amend, and the manifest to quadruple; and he is called a manifest thief who is caught before he has carried what he has stolen to the place of its destination. I suppose that the awarders of the punishment had this point in view, that the wickedness of that person was the more egregious who was so greedily and anxiously set on his prey as not to be afraid of disgrace; and undoubtedly he who has no fear of shame is more audacious ill sin. But, on the contrary, God condemns to a double amend those upon whom the stolen goods were found; and to quadruple, those who had killed or sold it; and deservedly so, because greater obstinacy in crime betrays itself where the theft is turned to profit, nor is there any hope of repentance; and thus by this further process the crime of dishonesty is doubled. It might be that, immediately after the offense, the thief should be alarmed; but he who had dared to kill the stolen animal or to sell it, is altogether hardened in his sin. Besides, the more difficult its investigation is, the greater is the punishment which a misdemeanor deserves. Meanwhile, it is to be remembered, that the pecuniary fine imposed upon thieves did not free them from guilt; for, as Marcellus says, 133 not even the president of a province can bring it to pass, that infamy should not pursue a man condemned of theft; and there was no need of establishing by law that in which all by nature are agreed. Thus, when God punished thieves by a fine, He left them still marked by infamy. I know not whether they 134 assign the true cause why he who had stolen an ox is fined to a larger amount than he who had stolen a goat, or sheep, or other cattle, who say that the loss of the owner is taken into account to whom the labor of the ox is especially useful in agriculture; for what is said as to an ox I extend to cows and the whole herd. Those seem to come nearer to the truth who say the audacity of the thief is punished who, when he stole the larger animal, did not fear being observed by witnesses; yet it seems to me more likely that the different sentence depended on the price of the article; for assuredly it is more reasonable that he who has done the most harm should be exposed to the greater punishment.

Calvin: Exo 22:2 - If a thief be found breaking up 2.If a thief be found breaking up. This clause is to be taken separately, and is inserted by way of parenthesis; for, after having decreed the punish...

2.If a thief be found breaking up. This clause is to be taken separately, and is inserted by way of parenthesis; for, after having decreed the punishment, God adds in connection, “he should make full restitution; if he have nothing, then he should be sold for his theft;” and this exception as to the thief in the night is introduced parenthetically. But although the details are not expressed with sufficient distinctness, still the intention of God is by no means ambiguous, viz., that if a thief should be killed in the dark, his slayer should be unpunished; for he can then hardly be distinguished from a robber, especially when he proceeds with violence; because he cannot enter another man’s house by night without either digging through a wall or breaking down a door. The Twelve Tables 135 differ slightly from this; for they permit the killing of a thief by night, and also by day if he should defend himself with a weapon. But, since God had sufficiently repressed by other laws murders and violent assaults, He is silent here respecting robbers who use the sword in their attempts at plunder. He therefore justly condemns to death those who have avenged by murder a theft in open day.

Calvin: Exo 22:3 - He should make full restitution 3.He should make full restitution. These words, as I have said, are connected with the first verse, since here the execution of the punishment is onl...

3.He should make full restitution. These words, as I have said, are connected with the first verse, since here the execution of the punishment is only enjoined; as if God forbade thieves to be spared, but that they should pay either twofold or quadruple, or even quintuple, according to the measure of their crime. But, if they were unable to pay, He commands them to be sold as slaves, which also was the custom at Rome. Whence the saying of Cato, 136 “that private thieves lived in bonds and fetters, but public ones in gold and purple.” And since this condition was a harsh one, a caution is expressly given, that they were not to be absolved on the score of their poverty. If any one should ask whether it was lawful for the owner of the thing stolen to recover double or quadruple its value, I answer, that what God awards, a man has the best of rights to; meanwhile, in equity men were bound to take care that they did not grow rich at the expense of others, but rather were they to apply whatever they gained to pious and holy uses.

Calvin: Exo 22:5 - If a man shall cause a field or vineyard to be eaten 5.If a man shall cause a field or vineyard to be eaten. This kind of fraud is justly ranked among thefts; viz., if any man shall have put in his beas...

5.If a man shall cause a field or vineyard to be eaten. This kind of fraud is justly ranked among thefts; viz., if any man shall have put in his beast to feed in another’s field or vineyard. For if a person have made improper use of his servant to steal by him, he himself is deemed guilty of the offense, even although he may have touched nothing with his own hand; nor does he less do wrong who has given occasion of injury by means of a brute. Still, God restricts the punishment to a compensation of double the amount, because it cannot be certainly established that the master of the animal desired to effect the damage fraudulently and designedly; yet He requires the loss to be made up at the highest estimate of its value; 138 for thus I interpret “the goodness of his field and his vineyard,” that the place having been examined, a liberal restitution shall be awarded to its owner, according to the utmost it would have probably produced in its greatest state of fertility.

Calvin: Exo 22:6 - If fire break out and catch in thorns 6.If fire break out and catch in thorns. This injury is somewhat different from the foregoing, for he who kindles the fire is commanded to make good ...

6.If fire break out and catch in thorns. This injury is somewhat different from the foregoing, for he who kindles the fire is commanded to make good the damage done by him, although there may have been no willful intention to do harm. For the incendiary who had maliciously destroyed either a cornfield or a vineyard was to be far more severely punished; here, however, mere carelessness is punished. Although no mention is made either of house or barn, still the law includes all similar cases requiring compensation from him who had kindled a fire even in an open field. But it seems that such a person would be blameless, because he could not. foresee that the fire would ignite the thorns; yet, in order that every one should take as much care of the property of another as of his own, God commands him to suffer the penalty of his heedless or stupid negligence.

Calvin: Exo 22:7 - If a man shall deliver unto his neighbor money 7.If a man shall deliver unto his neighbor money. It is here determined under what circumstances an action for theft would lie in case of a deposit, ...

7.If a man shall deliver unto his neighbor money. It is here determined under what circumstances an action for theft would lie in case of a deposit, viz., if an inanimate thing, as a garment or furniture, be given ill charge, and the person with whom it is deposited should allege that it is stolen, God commands that, if the thief be discovered, he should pay double; but, if not, that an oath should be required of the man who declares that the thing has been stolen from him. But, if it be an animal that was given in charge, a somewhat different provision is made, viz., that if it have been violently carried away, or torn by beasts, the person with whom it was deposited should be free; but if it had been stolen, that he should make restitution. In order to understand the principle of this law, we must observe that depositaries are not to be compelled to do more than faith. fully preserve the thing entrusted to them; just as a prudent and careful father of a family is attentive to the preservation of his property. When they have acquitted themselves diligently in this respect, it would be unjust to require more, of them; otherwise, when they undertake the burden of this gratuitous office, their generosity would be an injury to themselves. But, since it is not so easy to steal an animal from the stall, or from the hands of the shepherd, the negligence of the shepherd betrays itself in the loss of the beast, 139 supposing no violence to have been used. Justice, then, is done in both cases, i e. , that the depository shall not make good a vessel, or money, or a garment, because this would be in a manner to put him in the place of the thief; but that if the animal be stolen he shall pay its price, unless he can cleat’ himself of carelessness. If any should think that too great indulgence is shown to the depositary, when God would have the dispute terminated by his oath; the reply is easy, that we do not entrust anything to be kept by another, unless we are persuaded of his honesty. Whoever, then, has chosen a guardian for his property, has borne witness to his own prejudice that he is a good and trustworthy man; and consequently, it would be absurd that he should soon afterwards be involved in all accusation of theft without proof. Wherefore it was reasonable that God would have the owner of the lost goods acquiesce in the oath of him. whom he has considered to be his faithful friend. Besides, a man is altogether acquitted who clears himself by calling God to witness his innocence, unless any sinister suspicion is alleged against him, and provided he excuses himself on probable evidence.

Calvin: Exo 22:9 - For all manner of trespass 9.For all manner of trespass. An action for theft is here permitted, but with a fine attached if any should rashly accuse his neighbor; for else it m...

9.For all manner of trespass. An action for theft is here permitted, but with a fine attached if any should rashly accuse his neighbor; for else it might be doubted when or for what reasons the restitution of double or quadruple was to be required. He therefore permits that if any one suspects another of theft, he should summon that person to plead his cause; and if he should prove his case, that he should recover double the thing lost; but if the judges should pronounce that he had brought his action groundlessly, that he, on the contrary, should pay the penalty of his false accusation. For such an action as this is not altogether a civil one, but carries with it the stain of infamy, and thus it would be unjust that a man should be injured by false suspicions whom the judges acquit of crime. The word used here for judges is אלהים , elohim, which properly means gods, as being of the plural number; it is, however often used for God. 137 It is transferred to judges for the purpose of dignifying their office; because in it they represent the person of God, in whose hand alone is all dominion and power. Therefore Christ says they were called gods, because to them “the word of God came,” ( Joh 10:34,) i.e., that they should preside in His name, and be set over others, on which subject we treated under the Fifth Commandment.

Calvin: Exo 22:10 - If a man deliver unto his neighbor an ass 10.If a man deliver unto his neighbor an ass. Since in the passage from whence I have taken these four verses, mention is made of a deposit, and Mose...

10.If a man deliver unto his neighbor an ass. Since in the passage from whence I have taken these four verses, mention is made of a deposit, and Moses is professedly providing against frauds, and robberies, and thefts, I have thought it well to place them under this head. It has indeed some relation to the Third Commandment, because it shows the lawful use of an oath, viz., that in matters of concealment men should have recourse to the witness of God, and that, by the interposition of His sacred name, an end should be put to their strife. But, while the authority attributed to oaths depends on the reverence due to God, at the same time faith and piety are enforced in them, 140 so that all things should correspond. I have, however, considered the main point, i e. , how controversies as to things concealed should be brought to an end for the advancement of peace and equity. He would therefore have the depositary acquitted, if he swears that the animal entrusted to him is lost (either by death or violence, 141) although lie should produce no witness of the matter, since it would be unjust that he should bear the blame, unless fraud, or some more palpable offense, have been committed by him. At the conclusion, then, it is said, “the owner of it shall accept” the oath, which is equivalent to saying, that lie shall be compelled to acquiesce, and shall give no more trouble about it. The expression, “an oath of the Lord shall be between them both,” is a remarkable one, whereby the obligation and sanctity of an oath are enforced, whilst Moses reminds us that God is the author of this sacred mode of attestation, and presides over it as its judge and avenger.

Moses now lays down the law as to a borrowed animal, if it die, or be mutilated, or injured. There is, however, a wide distinction between a thing borrowed and a thing deposited, for he who lends confers a favor; and therefore, when a man borrows a thing, he binds himself to restore it in safety, as far as in him lies. A distinction, however, is made, if the owner himself of the animal be an eye-witness of the death or fracture, he shall bear the loss; but if the animal should die or be injured in his absence, its value is awarded to him. His presence is tantamount to this, as if it were said, if he shall have seen with his own eyes that the injury did not occur by the fault of him to whom he lent it, then he shall give him no trouble about it. For instance, if you have lent me a horse, and take the journey with me, although anything untoward should happen — supposing you are assured that it did not occur by my temerity, or negligence, or bad management, I am free, and exempt from loss.

What is here laid down as to a borrowed animal must be applied also to all other things borrowed.

Calvin: Exo 22:16 - NO PHRASE Hence, also, it is manifest that, although God remits the judicial penalty, fornication is displeasing to Him. As to the spiritual judgment of the co...

Hence, also, it is manifest that, although God remits the judicial penalty, fornication is displeasing to Him. As to the spiritual judgment of the conscience, there were expiations to propitiate Him; He here only has consideration for young females, lest, being deceived, and having lost their virginity, they should become prostitutes; and thus the land should be defiled by whoredom. The remedy is, that lie who has corrupted girl should be compelled to marry her, and also to give tie a dowry from his own property, lest, if he should afterwards cast her off, she should go away from her bed penniless. But, if the marriage should not please her father, the penalty imposed on her seducer is, that he should assign her a wedding portion.

Calvin: Exo 22:18 - Thou shalt not suffer a witch to live 18.Thou shalt not suffer a witch to live In these passages the punishment of those is appointed who should in any respect violate the worship of God....

18.Thou shalt not suffer a witch to live In these passages the punishment of those is appointed who should in any respect violate the worship of God. We have lately seen how severely God avenged apostasy from the faith; but now He touches upon certain particular points when religion is not professedly forsaken, but some corruption is introduced, whereby its purity is affected. The first passage denounces capital punishment upon witches; by which name Moses means enchantresses, or sorceresses, who devote themselves to magic arts, either to injure persons by their fascinations, or to seek revelations from the devil; such as she was whom Saul consulted, although she might be called by a different name 65 Since such illusions carry with them a wicked renunciation of God, no wonder that He would have them punished with death. But since this pestilent crime would be no more tolerable in a man than a woman, it has been probably supposed that the law was directed against women, because their sex is more disposed to superstition. Certainly the same enactment is made respecting males in Deu 18:1, 66 only the punishment is not there denounced, but God merely prohibits any of the people from being an enchanter or a witch. Now it is clear that all the kinds which are there recited, are here included under one; so that God would condemn to capital punishment all augurs, and magicians, and consulters with familiar spirits, and necromancers and followers of magic arts, as well as enchanters. And this will appear more plainly from the second and third passages, in which God declares that He “will set. His face against all, that shall turn after such as have familiar spirits, and after wizards,” so as to cut them off from His people; and then commands that they should be destroyed by stoning. Wherefore, since it is not just that men should escape with impunity, when the infirmity of women is not spared, nor that dissimilar sentences should be pronounced in similar cases, the same punishment which was decreed against witches and enchantresses, is now extended to either sex, and to all magical superstitions. In the words also “that turneth to go a whoring,” the atrocity of the crime is again expressed, the similitude being taken from immodest women, who seek with wandering glances for the indulgence of their lust. Moses, therefore, signifies that, as soon as we begin to cast our eyes this way and that, and do not keep them fixed on God alone so as to be content with Him, that sacred union 67 is violated wherein He has bound us to Himself.

Calvin: Exo 22:25 - If thou lend money to any of my people 25.If thou lend money to any of my people Humanity ought to be very greatly regarded in the matter of loans, especially when a person, being reduced ...

25.If thou lend money to any of my people Humanity ought to be very greatly regarded in the matter of loans, especially when a person, being reduced to extremities, implores a rich man’s compassion; for this is, in. point of fact, the genuine trial of our charity, when, in accordance with Christ’s precept, we lend to those of whom we expect no return. (Luk 6:35.) The question here is not as to usury, as some have falsely thought, 111 as if he commanded us to lend gratuitously, and without any hope of gain; but, since in lending, private advantage is most generally sought, and therefore we neglect the poor; and only lend our money to the rich, from whom we expect some compensation, Christ reminds us that, if we seek to acquire the favor of the rich, we afford in this way no proof of our charity or mercy; and hence lie proposes another sort of liberality, which is plainly gratuitous, in giving assistance to the poor, not only because our loan is a perilous one, but because they cannot make a return in kind.

Before descending to speak of loans, God here adverts to poverty and distress, (Lev 25:35,) whereby men’s minds may be disposed to compassion. If any one be afflicted with poverty, he commands us to relieve his necessity. He makes use, however, of a metaphor, 112 that he who is tottering should be strengthened, as if by catching hold of his hand. What follows about the stranger and sojourner extends and amplifies, in my opinion, the previous sentence; as if it were said that, since humanity is not to be denied even to strangers, much more is assistance to be given to their brethren. For, when it pleased God that strangers should be permitted to inhabit the land, they were to be kindly treated 113 according to the rights of hospitality; for to allow them to live is to make their condition just and tolerable. And thus God indirectly implies, that such unhappy persons are expelled and driven away, so as not to live, if they are oppressed by unjust burdens. This, then, is the sum of the first sentence, that the rich, who has the ability, should uplift the poor man who is failing, by his assistance, or should strengthen the tottering.

A precept is added as to lending without interest, which, although it is a political law, still depends on the rule of charity; inasmuch as it can scarcely happen but that the poor should be entirely drained by the exaction of interest, and that their blood should be almost sucked away. Nor had God any other object in view, except that mutual and brotherly affection should prevail amongst the Israelites. It is plain that this was a part of the Jewish polity, because it was lawful to lend at interest to the Gentiles, which distinction the spiritual law does not admit. The judicial law, however, which God prescribed to His ancient people, is only so far abrogated as that what charity dictates should remain, i. e. , that our brethren, who need our assistance, are not to be treated harshly. Moreover, since the wall of partition, which formerly separated Jew and Gentile, is now broken down, our condition is now different; and consequently we must spare all without exception, both as regards taking interest, and any other mode of extortion; and equity is to be observed even towards strangers. “The household of faith.” indeed, holds the first rank, since Paul commands us specially to do good to them, (Gal 6:10;) still the common society of the human race demands that we should not seek to grow rich by the loss of others.

As touching the political law, no wonder that God should have permitted His people to receive interest, from the Gentiles, since otherwise a just reciprocity would not have been preserved, without which one party must needs be injured. God commands His people not to practice usury, and still lays the Jews alone, and not foreign nations, under the obligation of this law. In order, therefore, that equality ( ratio analogica) might be preserved, He accords 114 the same liberty to His people which the Gentiles would assume for themselves; for this is the only intercourse that can be endured, when the condition of both parties is similar and equal. For when Plato 115 asserts that usurers are not to be tolerated in a well-ordered republic, lie does not go further than to enjoin, that its citizens should abstain from that base and. dishonest traffic between each other.

The question now is, whether usury is evil in itself; and surely that which heathens even have detested appears to be by no means lawful to the children of God. We know that the name of usurer has everywhere and always been infamous and detested. Thus Cato, 116 desiring to commend agriculture, says that thieves were formerly condemned to a fine of double, and usurers quadruple; from which he infers, that the latter were deemed the worst. And when asked what he thought of usury, he replied, “What do I think of killing a man?” whereby he wished to show, that it was as improper to make money by usury as to commit murder. This was the swing of one private individual, yet it is derived from the opinions of almost all nations and persons. And assuredly from this cause great tumults often arose at Rome, and fatal contentions were awakened between the common people and the rich; since it can hardly be but that usurers suck men’s blood like leeches. But if we come to an accurate decision as to the thing itself, our determination must be derived from nowhere else than the universal rule of justice, and especially from the declaration of Christ, on which hang the law and the prophets, — Do not unto others what ye would not have done to thyself. ( Mat 7:12.) For crafty men are for ever inventing some little subterfuge or other to deceive God. Thus, when all men detested the word foenus, another was substituted, which might avoid unpopularity under an honest pretext; for they called it usury, as being a compensation for the loss a man had incurred by losing the use of his money. But 117 there is no description of foenus to which this specious name may not be extended; for whosoever has any ready money, and is about to lend it, he will allege that it would be profitable to himself if he were to purchase 118 something with it, and that at every moment opportunities of gain are presenting themselves. Thus there will be always ground for his seeking compensation, since no creditor could ever lend money without loss to himself. Thus usury, 119 since the word is equivalent to foenus, is but a covering for an odious practice, as if such glosses would deliver us in God’s judgment, where nothing but absolute integrity can avail for our defense. There was almost a similar mode of subterfuge among the Israelites. The name נש5 , neschec, which is derived from biting, sounded badly; since then no one chose to be likened to a hungry dog, who fed himself by biting others, some escape from the reproach was sought; and they called whatever gain they received beyond the capital, תרבית , therbith, as being an increase. But God, in order to prevent such deception, unites the two words, ( Lev 25:36,) and condemns the increase as well as the biting. For, where He complains of their unjust modes of spoiling and thieving in Ezekiel, 120 and uses both words as He does here by Moses, there is no doubt but that He designedly cuts off their empty excuses. ( Eze 18:13.) Lest any, therefore, should reply, that although he derived advantage from his money, he was not on that account guilty of usury, God at once removes this pretense, and condemns in general any addition to the principal. Assuredly both passages clearly show that those who invent new words in excuse of evil, do nothing but vainly trifle. I have, then, admonished men that the fact itself is simply to be considered, that all unjust gains are ever displeasing to God, whatever color we endeavor to give to it. But if we would form an equitable judgment, reason does not suffer us to admit that all usury is to be condemned without exception. If the debtor have protracted the time by false pretences to the loss and inconvenience of his creditor, will it be consistent that he should reap advantage from his bad faith and broken promises? Certainly no one, I think, will deny that usury ought to be paid to the creditor in addition to the principal, to compensate his loss. 121 If any rich and monied man, wishing to buy a piece of land, should borrow some part of the sum required of another, may not he who lends the money receive some part of the revenues of the farm until the principal shall be repaid? Many such cases daily occur in which, as far as equity is concerned, usury is no worse than purchase. Nor will that subtle argument 122 of Aristotle avail, that usury is unnatural, because money is barren and does not beget money; for such a cheat as I have spoken of, might make much profit by trading with another man’s money, and the purchaser of the farm might in the meantime reap and gather his vintage. But those who think differently, may object, that we must abide by God’s judgment, when He generally prohibits all usury to His people. I reply, that the question is only as to the poor, and consequently, if we have to do with the rich, that usury is freely permitted; because the Lawgiver, in alluding to one thing, seems not to condemn another, concerning which He is silent. If again they object that usurers are absolutely condemned by David and Ezekiel, ( Psa 15:5; Eze 18:13,) I think that their declarations ought to be judged of by the rule of charity; and therefore that only those unjust exactions are condemned whereby the creditor, losing’ sight of equity, burdens and oppresses his debtor. I should, indeed, be unwilling to take usury under my patronage, and I wish the name itself were banished from the world; but I do not dare to pronounce upon so important a point more than God’s words convey. It is abundantly clear that the ancient people were prohibited from usury, but we must needs confess that this was a part of their political constitution. Hence it follows, that usury is not now unlawful, except in so far as it contravenes equity and brotherly union. Let each one, then, place himself before God’s judgment-seat, and not do to his neighbor what he would not have done to himself, from whence a sure and infallible decision may be come to. To exercise the trade of usury, since heathen writers accounted it amongst disgraceful and base modes of gain, is much less tolerable among the children of God; but in what cases, and how far it may be lawful to receive usury upon loans, the law of equity will better prescribe than any lengthened discussions.

Let us now examine the words. In the first place, where we have translated the words, “Thou shalt not be to him as a usurer,” 123 there is some ambiguity in the Hebrew word נש5 , nashac, for it is sometimes used generally for to lend, without any ill meaning; but here it is undoubtedly applied to a usurer, who bites the poor; as also in Psa 109:11, “Let the usurer catch all that he hath.” 124 The sum is, that the poor are to be liberally aided, and not to be oppressed by harsh exactions: and therefore immediately afterwards it is added, “neither shalt thou lay upon him usury.” When again He repeats, “And if thy brother be waxen poor,” etc., we see that reference is everywhere made to the poor; because, although sometimes those who possess large properties are ruined by usury, (as Cicero says that certain luxurious and prodigal persons ill his days contended against usury with the fruits of their farms, because their creditors swallowed up the whole produce; 125) still the poor alone, who had been compelled to borrow by want, and not by luxury, were worthy of compassion.

The third passage, however, admirably explains the meaning of God, since it extends usury to corn and wine, and all other articles. For many contracts were invented by artful men, whereby they pillaged the needy without ignominy or disgrace: and now-a-days no rapacity is more cruel than that which imposes a payment upon debtors, without any mention of usury; for instance, if a poor man should ask the loan of six measures of wheat, the creditor will require seven to be repaid; or if the same thing should happen as regards wine. This profit will not be called usury, because no money will pass; but God, indirectly casting ridicule upon their craftiness, shows that this plague of usury 126 extends itself to various things, and to almost all sorts of traffic; whence it clearly appears that nothing else is prescribed to the Israelites, but that they should humanely assist each other. But, since cupidity blinds men, and carries them, aside to dishonest dealings, God sets His blessing in opposition to all such iniquitous arts, whereby they hawk, as it were, for gain; and commands them to look for riches rather to Him the author of all good things, than to hunt for them by rapine and fraud.

Calvin: Exo 22:28 - Thou shalt not revile the gods Exo 22:28.Thou shalt not revile the gods. These four passages confirm what I have said, that in the: Fifth Commandment are comprised, by synecdoche ...

Exo 22:28.Thou shalt not revile the gods. These four passages confirm what I have said, that in the: Fifth Commandment are comprised, by synecdoche all superiors in authority.: For it was not the design of God to add to the Two Tables, as if something better and more perfect had afterwards come into His mind; which it is sinful to suppose. He was therefore content with the rule once laid down, although He afterwards spoke in a more explanatory manner. But the precepts here given would be unconnected with the Law, if they were not an adjunct, and therefore a part, of the Fifth Commandment.

First of all, He commands that we should think and speak reverently of judges, and others, who exercise the office of magistrate: nor is it to be questioned, that, in the ordinary idiom of the Hebrew language, He repeats the same thing twice over; and consequently that the same persons are called “gods,” and “rulers of the people.” The name of God is, figuratively indeed, but most reasonably, applied to magistrates, upon whom, as the ministers of His authority, He has inscribed a mark of His glory. For, as we have seen that honor is due to fathers, because God has associated them with Himself in the possession of the name, so also here His own dignity is claimed for judges, in order that the people may reverence them, because they are God’s representatives, as His lieutenants, and vicars. And so Christ, the surest expositor, explains it, when He quotes the passage from Psa 82:6, “I have said, Ye are gods, and all of you are children of the Most High,” (Joh 10:34,) viz., “that they are called gods, unto whom the word of God came,” which is to be understood not of the general instruction addressed to all God’s children, but of the special command to rule.

It is a signal exaltation of magistrates, that God should not only count them in the place of parents, but present them to us dignified by His own name; whence also it clearly appears that they are not to be obeyed only from fear of punishment, “but also for conscience sake,” (Rom 13:5,) and to be reverently honored, lest God should be despised in them. If any should object, that it would be wrong to praise the vices of those whom we perceive to abuse their power; the answer is easy, that although judges are to be borne with even if they be not the best, 13 still that the honor with which they are invested, is not a covering for vice. Nor does God command us to applaud their faults, but that the people should rather deplore them in silent sorrow, than raise disturbances in a licentious and seditious spirit, and so subvert political government.

Calvin: Exo 22:29 - Thou shalt not delay 29.Thou shalt not delay We may gather from this passage that the first-fruits were offered, to the end that the Israelites should devote themselves a...

29.Thou shalt not delay We may gather from this passage that the first-fruits were offered, to the end that the Israelites should devote themselves and their possessions to God; for Moses enjoins these two things in conjunction, that they should not delay to consecrate to God of the abundance of their fresh fruits, and their first-born. But we know that, in offering the first-born, the recollection of their deliverance was revived, by the acknowledgment of the preservation of their race, and of their cattle. And there was, moreover, added to the grace of their redemption, the continual supply of food to them from day to day. I do not assent to their opinion who restrict the word fullness 339 to wine, because it flows more abundantly from the press, and take the word tear 340 to mean oil, because it runs less freely; nor do I approve of their notion who apply fullness only to dry fruits. It seems to me more proper to take fullness as the generic term, whilst tear is taken to denote liquids, as if Moses commanded them not only to offer grapes, and olive-berries, but the very drops which were expressed from the fruit. The other passages confirm this command, that they should not defraud God of the first-fruits, and so bury the remembrance of their redemption, and profane themselves in their very eating and drinking, but rather by this portion of the fruits sanctify the food of the whole year. Nor is it causelessly that Moses so often inculcates a point by no means obscure, since all these admonitions were despised and neglected by the Jews, as soon as they had returned from the Babylonish captivity, as Malachi complains in his third chapter.

Defender: Exo 22:8 - unto the judges The word "judges," here and in Exo 22:9, is elohim, the Hebrew word for "God." It is a plural noun, and is sometimes rendered "gods" (Psa 82:1). These...

The word "judges," here and in Exo 22:9, is elohim, the Hebrew word for "God." It is a plural noun, and is sometimes rendered "gods" (Psa 82:1). These judges were authorized to enforce God's law and thus were considered, when sitting in judgment, as representing Him. See the reference by the Lord Jesus in Joh 10:34, Joh 10:35."

TSK: Exo 22:1 - sheep // he shall // five oxen sheep : or, goat he shall : There is a smaller compensation required in other things (Exo 22:9), and also a disproportion between an ox and a sheep. T...

sheep : or, goat

he shall : There is a smaller compensation required in other things (Exo 22:9), and also a disproportion between an ox and a sheep. The reason of the former is, as Maimonides explains it, because money, goods, etc., are better guarded in houses and cities, than cattle in a field; which consequently can be more easily stolen. The reason of the latter seems to be, as it is explained by Bishop Patrick, that an ox was of greater value, and more useful for the purposes of husbandry. Lev 6:1-6; Num 5:7; 2Sa 12:6; Pro 6:31; Luk 19:8

five oxen : Pro 14:4

TSK: Exo 22:2 - breaking // no blood breaking : Job 24:14, Job 30:5; Hos 7:1; Joe 2:9; Mat 6:19, Mat 6:20, Mat 24:43; 1Th 5:2 no blood : Num 35:27

TSK: Exo 22:3 - then he shall then he shall : Exo 21:2; Jdg 2:14, Jdg 10:7; Isa 50:1

then he shall : Exo 21:2; Jdg 2:14, Jdg 10:7; Isa 50:1

TSK: Exo 22:4 - found // he shall restore double found : Exo 21:16 he shall restore double : Exo 22:1, Exo 22:7, Exo 22:9; Pro 6:31; Isa 40:2; Jer 16:18; Rev 18:6

found : Exo 21:16

he shall restore double : Exo 22:1, Exo 22:7, Exo 22:9; Pro 6:31; Isa 40:2; Jer 16:18; Rev 18:6

TSK: Exo 22:5 - shall he make restitution shall he make restitution : Exo 22:3, Exo 22:12, Exo 21:34; Job 20:18

shall he make restitution : Exo 22:3, Exo 22:12, Exo 21:34; Job 20:18

TSK: Exo 22:6 - If fire break out // so that the stacks of corn // he that kindled the fire If fire break out : Mr. Harmer observes, that it is a common custom in the East to set the dry herbage on fire; which fires, from want of care, often ...

If fire break out : Mr. Harmer observes, that it is a common custom in the East to set the dry herbage on fire; which fires, from want of care, often produce great damage. Hence a law to guard against such evils was highly expedient.

so that the stacks of corn : Jdg 15:4, Jdg 15:5; 2Sa 14:30, 2Sa 14:31

he that kindled the fire : Exo 22:9, Exo 22:12, Exo 21:33, Exo 21:34

TSK: Exo 22:7 - if the thief be found // let him pay double if the thief be found : Pro 6:30, Pro 6:31; Jer 2:26; Joh 12:6; 1Co 6:10 let him pay double : Exo 22:4

if the thief be found : Pro 6:30, Pro 6:31; Jer 2:26; Joh 12:6; 1Co 6:10

let him pay double : Exo 22:4

TSK: Exo 22:8 - the judges the judges : Exo 22:28 *marg. Exo 21:6; Deu 16:18, Deu 19:17, Deu 19:18; 1Ch 23:4; Psa 82:1

TSK: Exo 22:9 - for all manner of trespass // the cause of both parties // pay double unto his for all manner of trespass : Num 5:6, Num 5:7; 1Ki 8:31; Mat 6:14, Mat 6:15, Mat 18:15, Mat 18:35; Luk 17:3, Luk 17:4 the cause of both parties : Exo ...

for all manner of trespass : Num 5:6, Num 5:7; 1Ki 8:31; Mat 6:14, Mat 6:15, Mat 18:15, Mat 18:35; Luk 17:3, Luk 17:4

the cause of both parties : Exo 18:21, Exo 18:22, Exo 23:6-8; Deu 16:18, Deu 16:19, Deu 25:1; 2Ch 19:10

pay double unto his : Exo 22:4, Exo 22:7

TSK: Exo 22:10 - -- Gen 39:8; Luk 12:48, Luk 16:11; 2Ti 1:12

TSK: Exo 22:11 - an oath of the Lord // that he hath not an oath of the Lord : Lev 5:1, Lev 6:3; 1Ki 2:42, 1Ki 2:43; Pro 30:9; Heb 6:16 that he hath not : Exo 22:8, Exo 23:1

an oath of the Lord : Lev 5:1, Lev 6:3; 1Ki 2:42, 1Ki 2:43; Pro 30:9; Heb 6:16

that he hath not : Exo 22:8, Exo 23:1

TSK: Exo 22:12 - stolen from him stolen from him : Exo 22:7; Gen 31:39

stolen from him : Exo 22:7; Gen 31:39

TSK: Exo 22:13 - torn in pieces // let him bring it for witness torn in pieces : Eze 4:14; Amo 3:12; Mic 5:8; Nah 2:12 let him bring it for witness : Or, rather, ""Let him bring""aid hatteraiphah , an evidence o...

torn in pieces : Eze 4:14; Amo 3:12; Mic 5:8; Nah 2:12

let him bring it for witness : Or, rather, ""Let him bring""aid hatteraiphah , an evidence of the thing torn, such as the horns, hoofs, etc.

TSK: Exo 22:14 - borrow // make it good borrow : Deu 15:2, Deu 23:19, Deu 23:20; Neh 5:4; Psa 37:21; Mat 5:42; Luk 6:35 make it good : Exo 22:11, Exo 21:34; Lev 24:18

TSK: Exo 22:15 - it came for his hire it came for his hire : Zec 8:10

it came for his hire : Zec 8:10

TSK: Exo 22:16 - a man entice a man entice : Gen 34:2-4; Deu 22:28, Deu 22:29

a man entice : Gen 34:2-4; Deu 22:28, Deu 22:29

TSK: Exo 22:17 - utterly // pay // dowry of virgins utterly : Deu 7:3, Deu 7:4 pay : Heb. weigh, Gen 23:16 dowry of virgins : Gen 34:12; Deu 22:29; 1Sa 18:25

utterly : Deu 7:3, Deu 7:4

pay : Heb. weigh, Gen 23:16

dowry of virgins : Gen 34:12; Deu 22:29; 1Sa 18:25

TSK: Exo 22:18 - -- Lev 19:26, Lev 19:31, Lev 20:6, Lev 20:27; Deu 18:10, Deu 18:11; 1Sa 28:3, 1Sa 28:9; Isa 19:3; Act 8:9-11; Act 16:16-19, Act 19:19; Gal 5:20; Rev 22:1...

TSK: Exo 22:19 - -- Lev 18:23, Lev 18:25, Lev 20:15, Lev 20:16; Deu 27:21

TSK: Exo 22:20 - sacrificeth // utterly sacrificeth : Num 25:2-4, Num 25:7, Num 25:8; Deu 13:1-15, Deu 17:2-5, Deu 18:20 utterly : Num 21:3; Jos 23:15, Jos 23:16

TSK: Exo 22:21 - vex a stranger // for ye were strangers vex a stranger : Exo 23:9; Lev 19:33, Lev 25:35; Deu 10:19; Jer 7:6, Jer 22:3; Zec 7:10; Mal 3:5 for ye were strangers : Exo 20:2, Exo 23:9; Deu 10:19...

TSK: Exo 22:22 - -- Deu 10:18, Deu 24:17, Deu 27:19; Psa 94:6, Psa 94:7; Isa 1:17, Isa 1:23, Isa 10:2; Eze 22:7; Zec 7:10; Jam 1:27

TSK: Exo 22:23 - they cry at all // I will surely they cry at all : Deu 15:9, Deu 24:15; Job 31:38, Job 31:39, Job 35:9; Luk 18:7 I will surely : Job 34:28; Psa 10:17, Psa 10:18, Psa 18:6, Psa 140:12,...

TSK: Exo 22:24 - my wrath // your wives my wrath : Job 31:23; Psa 69:24, Psa 76:7, Psa 90:11; Nah 1:6; Rom 2:5-9; Heb 10:31 your wives : Job 27:13-15; Psa 78:63, Psa 78:64, Psa 109:9; Jer 15...

TSK: Exo 22:25 - -- Lev 25:35-37; Deu 23:19, Deu 23:20; 2Ki 4:1, 2Ki 4:7; Neh 5:2-5, Neh 5:7, Neh 5:10, Neh 5:11; Psa 15:5; Pro 28:8; Jer 15:10; Eze 18:8, Eze 18:17; Mat ...

TSK: Exo 22:26 - to pledge to pledge : Deu 24:6, Deu 24:10-13, Deu 24:17; Job 22:6, Job 24:3, Job 24:9; Pro 20:16, Pro 22:27; Eze 18:7, Eze 18:16; Eze 33:15; Amo 2:8

TSK: Exo 22:27 - when he crieth // for I am gracious when he crieth : Exo 2:23, Exo 2:24; Psa 34:6, Psa 72:12; Isa 19:20 for I am gracious : Exo 34:6; 2Ch 30:9; Psa 86:15, Psa 136:10, Psa 136:11

TSK: Exo 22:28 - the gods // nor curse the gods : or, judges, Exo 22:8, Exo 22:9; Psa 32:6, Psa 82:1-7, Psa 138:1; Joh 10:34, Joh 10:35 nor curse : Exo 21:17; 1Sa 24:6, 1Sa 24:10, 1Sa 26:9;...

TSK: Exo 22:29 - shalt not delay // the first of thy ripe fruits // liquors // the firstborn shalt not delay : Exo 23:16, Exo 23:19; Deu 26:2-10; 2Ki 4:42; 2Ch 31:5; Pro 3:9, Pro 3:10; Eze 20:40; Mic 7:1; Mat 6:33; Rom 8:23; Jam 1:18 the first...

shalt not delay : Exo 23:16, Exo 23:19; Deu 26:2-10; 2Ki 4:42; 2Ch 31:5; Pro 3:9, Pro 3:10; Eze 20:40; Mic 7:1; Mat 6:33; Rom 8:23; Jam 1:18

the first of thy ripe fruits : Heb. thy fulness

liquors : Heb. tear.

the firstborn : Exo 13:2, Exo 13:12, Exo 34:19

TSK: Exo 22:30 - Likewise // seven days Likewise : Deu 15:19 seven days : Lev 22:27

Likewise : Deu 15:19

seven days : Lev 22:27

TSK: Exo 22:31 - holy // neither holy : Exo 19:5, Exo 19:6; Lev 11:45, Lev 19:2; Deu 14:21; 1Pe 1:15, 1Pe 1:16 neither : Lev 17:15, Lev 17:16, Lev 20:25, Lev 22:8; Deu 14:21; Eze 4:14...

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Poole: Exo 22:1 - An ox, or a sheep // Or sell it // Four sheep for a sheep // Quest // Answ An ox, or a sheep or, an ass , which is added Exo 22:4 , and consequently any other living creature, to be valued according to its worth and use to...

An ox, or a sheep or, an ass , which is added Exo 22:4 , and consequently any other living creature, to be valued according to its worth and use to man, proportionably to the rule here laid down. Only these are instanced in for their usefulness in the service both of God and men.

Or sell it which was an aggravation of the crime, and a token of greater boldness, resolvedness, and expertness in the trade of thieving, than was in him who kept it at home, Exo 22:4 .

Four sheep for a sheep

Quest. 1. Why so much, seeing the stealer of other things was tied to restore but double?

Answ 1. For terror, because these beasts being kept in the fields might more easily be stolen.

2. Because the loss of these was greater than of other things; for they did not only lose what the cattle might be sold for, but all the service, increase, and other benefits which a man might receive from them.

Quest. 2. Why more for oxen than for sheep?

Answ 1. Because it argued greater boldness and customariness in the thief to steal that which might more easily be discovered.

2. Because besides the intrinsical worth of the ox, the labour of the ox was very considerable to his owner, Pro 14:4 , and therefore the loss greater.

Poole: Exo 22:2 - For him Ver. 2: Breaking up to wit, an house , which the Chaldee here adds, and by night , as appears from the next verse. For him i.e. for the thief, t...

Ver. 2: Breaking up to wit, an house , which the Chaldee here adds, and by night , as appears from the next verse.

For him i.e. for the thief, though he be killed by a man in his own defence. Because in that case the thief might be presumed to have a worse design, and the owner of the house could neither expect or have the help of others to secure him from the intended violence, nor guide his blows with that discretion and moderation which in the day-time he might use.

Poole: Exo 22:3 - There shall be blood shed for him // He shall be sold // Quest // Answ There shall be blood shed for him he that kills him shall be put to death, because he punished him more than his crime deserved, and might have been ...

There shall be blood shed for him he that kills him shall be put to death, because he punished him more than his crime deserved, and might have been otherwise either secured or righted; and in that case, it is probable, the thief designed not murder, but theft only. But if it were evident that the housebreaker designed murder, he might doubtless kill him in his own defence.

He shall be sold either so long till his service was worth the thing stolen, or rather for the ordinary time of six years, because this was not a simple thief, but a housebreaker, which was much worse.

Quest. How can he be sold, who is supposed to be killed?

Answ 1. The Hebrew word may be better rendered should be sold , as the foregoing word of the same future time is rendered, should make restitution, to wit, if he were not killed; and therefore the killer of him being sufficiently secured against this injury, was more culpable in killing him without necessity.

Poole: Exo 22:4 - Alive // Double // Object // Answ // Sevenfold Alive ; not killed, nor sold, as Exo 22:1 . Double ; not more, 1. Because in that case it was presumed, either that he intended to restore it, or at...

Alive ; not killed, nor sold, as Exo 22:1 .

Double ; not more,

1. Because in that case it was presumed, either that he intended to restore it, or at least that he was but raw and unexercised in the trade of stealing, and so should be more gently punished.

2. Because the right owner recovered his goods with less charge and trouble. Or,

3. Because it was but a single crime, whereas the other, Exo 22:1 , was an aggravated and complicated crime, where one sin and injury was added to another.

Object . It is said, he shall restore sevenfold , Pro 6:31 .

Answ . 1.

Sevenfold is put for abundantly, as that word is oft used, as Gen 4:24 Psa 12:6 79:12 ; and a learned man observes, it is never used for that definite number.

Answ . 2. This sevenfold, or seven times, may relate not to the proportion of his restitution, but to the number of his thefts, or rather of his detections; and the sense is this, Though he be found guilty of theft seven times, all his punishment is, that he shall restore as the law prescribes. Whereas adultery, of which he there speaks in the following verses, is a crime of that nature, that if a man be once found guilty of it, restitution cannot be made, nor will it serve his turn, but he falls into all the mischiefs there reckoned up.

Poole: Exo 22:5 - A field or vineyard A field or vineyard or orchard, or other things of like nature; which is generally to be observed in laws.

A field or vineyard or orchard, or other things of like nature; which is generally to be observed in laws.

Poole: Exo 22:6 - He that kindled the five // He shall surely make restitution He that kindled the five whether wilfully for such a purpose, or carelessly in such a time or place as was dangerous. He shall surely make restituti...

He that kindled the five whether wilfully for such a purpose, or carelessly in such a time or place as was dangerous.

He shall surely make restitution which if he were not able to do, it is probable he was to be sold for it, as in like cases was provided.

Poole: Exo 22:7 - Stuff Stuff Heb. vessels , garments, utensils, or any kind of household stuff.

Stuff Heb. vessels , garments, utensils, or any kind of household stuff.

Poole: Exo 22:8 - Unto his neighbour’ s goods That they may examine all circumstances, and use all means to find out the truth, by offering him his oath, or otherwise. Unto his neighbour’ ...

That they may examine all circumstances, and use all means to find out the truth, by offering him his oath, or otherwise.

Unto his neighbour’ s goods either to take and reserve them for his own use, or to dispose of them to another for his own advantage.

Poole: Exo 22:9 - All manner of trespass // Which another challengeth to be his // Whom the judges shall condemn All manner of trespass to wit, about matters deposited upon trust, and lost, of which alone this place speaks. Which another challengeth to be his ...

All manner of trespass to wit, about matters deposited upon trust, and lost, of which alone this place speaks.

Which another challengeth to be his or, when , or concerning which he shall say, This is it, viz. the thing that I have lost; or rather, This is he, to whom I committed it, and whom I suspect and charge as guilty.

Whom the judges shall condemn whether the person with whom the things were deposited, if they judged him guilty of theft, or the depositor, if he were convicted of a false accusation.

Poole: Exo 22:10 - To keep To keep as his servant, not freely, but for wages.

To keep as his servant, not freely, but for wages.

Poole: Exo 22:11 - An oath of the Lord An oath of the Lord so called here, as also 1Ki 2:43 , because it is taken by his authority and appointment, and for his honour, and in his name alon...

An oath of the Lord so called here, as also 1Ki 2:43 , because it is taken by his authority and appointment, and for his honour, and in his name alone, God being made both witness, and judge, and avenger thereby. Shall be between them both, i.e. shall end the difference between them both; the one shall give his oath, and the other shall accept of it: or be taken by them both; by the one, that he did deliver them to him upon agreement and for hire; by the other, that he put not his hand to them.

Poole: Exo 22:12 - From him From him Heb. from with him , which is an emphatical expression, and notes that this was taken away, either, 1. From those things which were with h...

From him Heb. from with him , which is an emphatical expression, and notes that this was taken away, either,

1. From those things which were with him, or which were his, i.e. from the midst of his own goods, which supposeth fraud in him. Or,

2. From under his eye, when he either did know of it, or with common care and diligence it might have been known and prevented, and this argues gross neglect in him. And this is one reason why this man is bound to make restitution, when the other, Exo 22:7 , is not: another reason of the difference is, because those things, Exo 22:7 , were only or principally dead things, and such things as required no great care; or if they did, (for in that case also were included oxen, asses, &c., Exo 22:9 ) yet he with whom they were left received no recompence for them, and therefore was not obliged to any singular care about them; but here the things were such as needed great care and diligence, which also this man was obliged to perform by the hire which he received upon that account, which was Jacob’ s case, Gen 31:39 .

Poole: Exo 22:13 - Let him bring it // Quest // Answ Let him bring it it, i.e. some part of the torn creature, which the wild beast haply had left, Amo 3:11,12 . Quest. What if the whole creature wer...

Let him bring it it, i.e. some part of the torn creature, which the wild beast haply had left, Amo 3:11,12 .

Quest. What if the whole creature were carried away, as a sheep or lamb is sometimes by the wolf?

Answ 1. I suppose this was not frequent, and that those ravenous creatures did speedily fall to their meal, and that something was left not far from the place, which the shepherd might easily procure.

2. The words may Be otherwise rendered, he shall bring a witness, as the Chaldee and Samaritan render it; or a testimony, i.e. some evidence whereby the judge might be satisfied; as for instance, that some wolf or lion, &c. was seen in those parts, &c., or some witness of his diligence and Faithfulness in all other things, which therefore might well be presumed in this.

Poole: Exo 22:14 - Ought // hurt // die // He shall surely make it good Ought i.e. any living thing, which may be hurt or die as it follows. He shall surely make it good: this may seem hard, but all things considere...

Ought i.e. any living thing, which may be

hurt or

die as it follows.

He shall surely make it good: this may seem hard, but all things considered is reasonable; because in doubtful cases, wherein it is not evident whether the borrower was faulty or not, as it is here, it ought to be interpreted in favour of the lender, rather than of the borrower; partly, to oblige the borrower to the greater fidelity and care in such things, which being not his own, men are commonly more careless about; partly, because the benefit being wholly the borrower’ s, the loss also in all reason ought to be his, and the lender ought not to suffer for his kindness, lest he should be discouraged from such actions for the future.

Poole: Exo 22:15 - If the owner thereof be with it // He shall not make it good // It came for his hire If the owner thereof be with it: the law reasonably presumes, both that the borrower would not abuse it in the sight of its owner, and that the lende...

If the owner thereof be with it: the law reasonably presumes, both that the borrower would not abuse it in the sight of its owner, and that the lender might and would take due care about it.

He shall not make it good except there be some manifest fault in the borrower, as if he should kill or wound the beast in the lender’ s presence; which exception is easily to be understood from divers other laws of God.

It came for his hire i.e. the benefit was the lender’ s, and not the borrower’ s, and therefore the former reason ceaseth; and whether the master were present or absent, he that receives the gain or hire shall bear the loss, except when it came through the borrower’ s gross and wilful default.

Poole: Exo 22:16 - If a man entice a maid If a man entice a maid by persuasions, promise of marriage, allurements, or rewards. But if she were betrothed, it was punished with death, Deu 22:23...

If a man entice a maid by persuasions, promise of marriage, allurements, or rewards. But if she were betrothed, it was punished with death, Deu 22:23,24 .

Poole: Exo 22:17 - According to the dowry of virgins // Quest // Answ This shows the necessity of parents’ consent in marriage. According to the dowry of virgins i.e. in such proportion as the virgin’ s qu...

This shows the necessity of parents’ consent in marriage.

According to the dowry of virgins i.e. in such proportion as the virgin’ s quality requires; for there was no certain and equal dowry appointed for all women. See Poole on 1Sa 18:25.

Quest. Why is there no punishment for the woman?

Answ 1. She had no distinct estate, being yet in her father’ s house.

2. The loss of her virginity was a sufficient punishment, especially in Israel, where it was a great reproach and prejudice.

3. She was not so culpable as the man, both because she was of the weaker sex, and because she was drawn to the sin by the man’ s persuasion.

Poole: Exo 22:18 - -- i.e. Any person that is in league with the devil, and by his help either doth any mischief, or discovers and practices things above the reach of oth...

i.e. Any person that is in league with the devil, and by his help either doth any mischief, or discovers and practices things above the reach of other men or women. Of which see Exo 7:11 Lev 20:27 Deu 18:10 1Sa 28:9 . The word is of the feminine gender, partly because women are most prone to these devilish arts, and most frequently guilty of them; and partly to intimate that no pity should be showed to such offenders, though they were of the weaker sex.

Poole: Exo 22:20 - Sacrificeth // Destroyed Sacrificeth or otherwise worshippeth, as appears from Deu 17:2-5 , and many other places. One act of worship put for all by a very familiar synecdoch...

Sacrificeth or otherwise worshippeth, as appears from Deu 17:2-5 , and many other places. One act of worship put for all by a very familiar synecdoche.

Destroyed Heb. anathematized , i.e. esteemed execrable, and as such destroyed without mercy. See Deu 13:15 18:20 .

Poole: Exo 22:25 - Any of my people // That is poor // Usury Any of my people i.e. any Israelite; for it was permitted to take usury of the Gentiles, Deu 23:20 . That is poor: this seems to be added not by wa...

Any of my people i.e. any Israelite; for it was permitted to take usury of the Gentiles, Deu 23:20 .

That is poor: this seems to be added not by way of apposition, as if God’ s people and the poor were all one, because such are commonly poor; but by way of restriction; for God had promised greatly to bless and enrich the generality of his people, if they by their wickedness did not hinder it, and that there should be few poor among them; yet some such there should be for the trial and exercise of their charity. See Lev 19:10 Deu 15:4,7,11 .

Usury the Hebrew word signifies biting ; so usury is called, not by way of distinction, as if moderate usury were allowed in this case, which is manifestly false, because the borrower is here supposed to be poor, to whom not the use only, but ofttimes even the principal is to be remitted, Luk 6:34,35 ; but by way of explication, because all usury is of a biting or eating nature, which commonly consumes the person that pays it.

Poole: Exo 22:26 - Thy neighbour’ s // By that the sun goeth down Thy neighbour’ s to wit, that is poor, as appears by comparing this with the next verse, where he is supposed to have but one garment, and with ...

Thy neighbour’ s to wit, that is poor, as appears by comparing this with the next verse, where he is supposed to have but one garment, and with Deu 24:12,13 .

By that the sun goeth down because he speaks of such raiment or covering wherein he used to sleep, Exo 22:27 . But you are not to think that the creditor would every morning take, and every night redeliver his pledge; and therefore this is rather a prohibition to take any such thing for a pledge as a man hath great and daily need of, by this argument, that if he did take it, he could not keep it. Compare Deu 24:6 .

Poole: Exo 22:28 - Gods // The ruler of thy people Gods not gods falsely so called, as some would have it, as appears by 1Ki 18:27 Jer 10:11 ; but magistrates and governors, whether civil or ecclesias...

Gods not gods falsely so called, as some would have it, as appears by 1Ki 18:27 Jer 10:11 ; but magistrates and governors, whether civil or ecclesiastical, as it is evident both from Act 23:3-5 and from the following words, which explain the former, according to the common use of Scripture, and from the title of gods commonly given to such, as Exo 7:1 Psa 82:6 Joh 10:34,35.

The ruler of thy people Compare /APC Sir 10:20 , Jud 1:8 .

Poole: Exo 22:29 - Thou shalt not delay // Thy ripe fruits // liquors // Shalt thou give unto me Thou shalt not delay beyond the times appointed, lest this delay grow to a total neglect. And delay may here be put for neglect , as that word is ...

Thou shalt not delay beyond the times appointed, lest this delay grow to a total neglect. And delay may here be put for neglect , as that word is used, Deu 7:10 23:21 Hab 2:3 ; which may seem to be favoured by the following clause, which commands the giving or offering of the first-born without any mention of the hastening or delaying of it.

Thy ripe fruits Heb thy fulness ; and whereas this word is sometimes applied to seed or corn, as Num 18:27 , and sometimes to the vintage, as Deu 22:9 , the circumstances must determine, as it doth in like cases, how it must be taken; which here seem to restrain it to dry fruits, as corn, &c., because it is opposed to

liquors and so all sorts of fruits are comprehended here. Unless you will make this a usual figure called hendyadis , as judgment and justice , Deu 16:18 , is put for judgment of justice , or just judgment ; so here the fulness and liquors , for the fulness of thy liquors ; and so this may be one kind mentioned for all the rest, than which nothing more frequent.

Shalt thou give unto me not in kind, but by a price of redemption to be paid to me in their stead.

Poole: Exo 22:30 - Likewise // On the eighth day Likewise i.e. ye shall offer their first-born. On the eighth day not sooner, because it was till then tender and imperfect, and therefore not fit t...

Likewise i.e. ye shall offer their first-born.

On the eighth day not sooner, because it was till then tender and imperfect, and therefore not fit to be offered to God; but it was not tied to that day, for it might be offered afterwards, appears from Lev 22:27 , even till it was a year old.

Poole: Exo 22:31 - Ye shall be holy // Neither shall ye eat any flesh that is torn of beasts Ye shall be holy i.e. separated from all filthiness, both moral and ceremonial. Neither shall ye eat any flesh that is torn of beasts partly, becau...

Ye shall be holy i.e. separated from all filthiness, both moral and ceremonial.

Neither shall ye eat any flesh that is torn of beasts partly, because the blood was not taken out of it; partly, because the clean beast was ceremonially defiled by the touch of the unclean; and partly, to beget in them a detestation of cruelty, even in the beasts, and much more in men.

Haydock: Exo 22:1 - Five oxen Five oxen; because they are of greater value than sheep. (Theodoret) --- As these things may easily be stolen, a heavier fine is imposed than on ...

Five oxen; because they are of greater value than sheep. (Theodoret) ---

As these things may easily be stolen, a heavier fine is imposed than on those who steal money. The Scythians punish theft with the utmost severity. (Grotius) ---

All these punishments, till the 25th chapter, were inflicted by the judge. (Tirinus)

Haydock: Exo 22:2 - Blood Blood. The reason is, because it could not easily be known whether the thief had not a design upon the life of the people in the house; and therefor...

Blood. The reason is, because it could not easily be known whether the thief had not a design upon the life of the people in the house; and therefore, the law gave them authority to defend themselves. But they were not authorized to kill the thief designedly. the laws of Athens and of Rome, permitted nocturnal robbers to be slain, at least when they came armed. (Plato, de leg. ix. &c.) To defend our goods or honour, by killing the aggressor, is contrary to justice and reason. (Calmet)

Haydock: Exo 22:4 - Double Double. This is an exception from the general law, ver. 1, (Calmet) because he can more easily make restitution, as he has not sold or destroyed the...

Double. This is an exception from the general law, ver. 1, (Calmet) because he can more easily make restitution, as he has not sold or destroyed the thing. (Du Hamel)

Haydock: Exo 22:8 - Gods Gods. "In the presence of the Lord," Septuagint.

Gods. "In the presence of the Lord," Septuagint.

Haydock: Exo 22:9 - Damage Damage. Hebrew, "thing lost, which another challengeth.…and whom the judges condemn, he," &c. If the person who had deposited a thing, pretended ...

Damage. Hebrew, "thing lost, which another challengeth.…and whom the judges condemn, he," &c. If the person who had deposited a thing, pretended that the one produced was not the same, or not equally good, and failed in proving the charge, he was liable to pay double its value. (Calmet)

Haydock: Exo 22:12 - Stealth Stealth, of the person to whom it was entrusted, or by his connivance, as the Hebrew mamu, ( de cum eo ) "from with him," intimates. (Menochius)

Stealth, of the person to whom it was entrusted, or by his connivance, as the Hebrew mamu, ( de cum eo ) "from with him," intimates. (Menochius)

Haydock: Exo 22:13 - Slain Slain. Or any part of its mangled remains, in proof of his assertion. (Syriac)

Slain. Or any part of its mangled remains, in proof of his assertion. (Syriac)

Haydock: Exo 22:14 - Restitution Restitution. It is to be presumed he was guilty of some negligence. (Calmet)

Restitution. It is to be presumed he was guilty of some negligence. (Calmet)

Haydock: Exo 22:15 - Especially Especially, &c. This is a third case, in which the person who lends, suffers all the loss, in consideration of the money which he had received. Oth...

Especially, &c. This is a third case, in which the person who lends, suffers all the loss, in consideration of the money which he had received. Others explain, "If he be a hired servant, he shall pay out of his wages," Syriac. (Grotius)

Haydock: Exo 22:17 - Money Money. Fifty sicles, as it is expressed, Deuteronomy xxi. 29. If the maid were of high birth, the magistrates might inflict other punishments on th...

Money. Fifty sicles, as it is expressed, Deuteronomy xxi. 29. If the maid were of high birth, the magistrates might inflict other punishments on the seducer.

Haydock: Exo 22:18 - Wizards Wizards. Hebrew, "a witch." Women are more given to such delusions, which imply an apostacy from God to serve the devil, and disturb the republic.

Wizards. Hebrew, "a witch." Women are more given to such delusions, which imply an apostacy from God to serve the devil, and disturb the republic.

Haydock: Exo 22:20 - Death Death. Hebrew, "shall be anathema," ( erom ) which denotes utter destruction both of the person and of his goods. (Jonathan) (1 Kings xv. 3.)

Death. Hebrew, "shall be anathema," ( erom ) which denotes utter destruction both of the person and of his goods. (Jonathan) (1 Kings xv. 3.)

Haydock: Exo 22:21 - Were strangers Were strangers. The Celtes punished with death the murderer of a stranger, which they only banished him who murdered a citizen. (Calmet)

Were strangers. The Celtes punished with death the murderer of a stranger, which they only banished him who murdered a citizen. (Calmet)

Haydock: Exo 22:24 - Fatherless Fatherless. Thus God will retaliate upon the oppressors of the poor. (Haydock)

Fatherless. Thus God will retaliate upon the oppressors of the poor. (Haydock)

Haydock: Exo 22:25 - Poor Poor. Such are often most in want. Usury is not lawful, even with respect to the rich. The Hebrew terms it a bite. (Menochius) --- "What is us...

Poor. Such are often most in want. Usury is not lawful, even with respect to the rich. The Hebrew terms it a bite. (Menochius) ---

"What is usury, said Cato, but to kill a man." The Romans required thieves to restore double, but usurers were to render four times as much as they had taken. (Varro Rustic. i.) ---

Restitution is prescribed, 2 Esdras v. 11. Some Calvinists have stood up in its defence, in opposition to the Scriptures, fathers, and Councils of the Catholic Church. Lend, hoping to gain nothing by it, Luke vi. 35. "Let him who loves money,.…lend (in the persons of the poor) to Him who says, Give, and it shall be given to you. " (St. Leo, ser.) The Jews themselves have reprobated usury in any use. (Calmet)

Haydock: Exo 22:28 - Gods Gods. Judges, priests, &c. Josephus and Philo say, we must not speak ill of strange gods, lest the Gentiles should take occasion to blaspheme the t...

Gods. Judges, priests, &c. Josephus and Philo say, we must not speak ill of strange gods, lest the Gentiles should take occasion to blaspheme the true God, and that we may be farther removed from the danger of taking the name of God in vain, and losing that respect which we owe to it.

Haydock: Exo 22:29 - Tithes Tithes. Hebrew, "thy plentitude, (first-fruits and tithes) and thy tears;" (or liquors distilled form odoriferous trees) in a word, all that is most...

Tithes. Hebrew, "thy plentitude, (first-fruits and tithes) and thy tears;" (or liquors distilled form odoriferous trees) in a word, all that is most excellent. Censorinus (de die nat.) says, excellently well: "They who acknowledged that they had received food, a country, light, and even their very persons, from the bounty of the gods, failed not to consecrate a part of all to the gods,....to the temples and chapels, where they worshipped them." (Calmet)

Haydock: Exo 22:31 - Beasts Beasts. "Wild beasts," Septuagint. --- This was to encourage humanity. (Theodoret)

Beasts. "Wild beasts," Septuagint. ---

This was to encourage humanity. (Theodoret)

Gill: Exo 22:1 - If a man shall steal an ox or a sheep // and kill it, or sell it // he shall restore five oxen for an ox If a man shall steal an ox or a sheep,.... In which the substance of men chiefly lay in those times, and particularly the people of Israel, who were n...

If a man shall steal an ox or a sheep,.... In which the substance of men chiefly lay in those times, and particularly the people of Israel, who were now come out of Egypt, with their flocks and herds, and these lying near together, were the more liable to be stolen; and hence also the laws in the preceding chapter concerning oxen and damages done by them, and oxen and sheep are only mentioned; perhaps chiefly because used in sacrifice, as well as serviceable for other things; not but that stealing other cattle and other things were criminal and forbidden, and to be punished in proportion:

and kill it, or sell it; either of which cases would plainly show that he took it away with an intention to deprive the owner of it, and to convert it to his own use:

he shall restore five oxen for an ox, and four sheep for a sheep; the reason of this difference, five being obliged to be given for the one, and but four for the other, is, because the one was more valuable than the other, as well as more useful, and also more easily stolen, and therefore the greater mulct or fine was laid upon the theft of it, to deter from it: the Targum of Jonathan expresses the reason of the law thus; five for oxen, because the theft of them hindered from ploughing, or made to cease from it; and for sheep but four, because there was trouble in the theft of them, and there was no tillage or agriculture by them: and Saadiah Gaon observes, that the damage that comes to the owner of the ox is more than that by a lamb, because with it, the ox, he ploughs, which is a creature that was used in those countries to be employed in that service, as well as in treading out the corn: Maimonides u accounts for it thus,"the restitution of the theft of oxen is increased by one, because the theft of them is easy; sheep are fed in flocks, and are easily kept and watched, and can scarcely be taken away by theft but in the night; but oxen are fed scattered here and there, and therefore cannot be so easily kept by the herdsmen; hence also their theft used to be more common:''four fold restitution was in use with the ancient Persians, with whom it was a rule,"whoever took any substance of another, in retaliation they took fourfold from him, and if he restored it, he gave fourfold of the same w.''

Gill: Exo 22:2 - If a thief be found breaking up // and be smitten that he die If a thief be found breaking up,.... An house, in order to steal money, jewels, household goods, &c. or breaking through any fence, hedge, or wall of ...

If a thief be found breaking up,.... An house, in order to steal money, jewels, household goods, &c. or breaking through any fence, hedge, or wall of any enclosure, where oxen, or sheep, or any other creatures are, in order to take them away: the Targum of Jonathan is,"if in the hole of a wall (or window of it) a thief be found;''that is, in the night, as appears from the following verse, "if the sun", &c. to which this is opposed, as Aben Ezra observes; some render it, with a digging instrument x; and it is a Jewish canon y, that"if anyone enter with a digging instrument: he is condemned on account of his end;''his design, which is apparent by the instrument found upon him; for, as Maimonides z observes,"it is well known, that if anyone enters with a digging instrument, that he intends, if the master of the house opposes him to deliver his goods out of his power, that he will kill him, and therefore it is lawful to kill him; but it does not signify whether he enters with a digging instrument, either by the way of the court, or roof;"

and be smitten that he die be knocked down with a club, by the master of the house, or any of his servants, or be run through with a sword, or be struck with any other weapon, to hinder him from entrance and carrying off any of the goods of the house, and the blow be mortal: there shall no blood be shed for him: as for a man that is murdered; for to kill a man when breaking into a house, and, by all appearance, with an intention to commit murder, if resisted, in defence of a man's self, his life and property, was not to be reckoned murder, and so not punishable with death: or, "no blood" shall be "unto him" a; shall be imputed to him, the man that kills the thief shall not be chargeable with his blood, or suffer for shedding it; because his own life was risked, and it being at such a time, could call none to his assistance, nor easily discern the person, nor could know well where and whom he struck.

Gill: Exo 22:3 - If the sun be risen upon him // there shall be blood shed for him // for he should makes full restitution // if he have nothing, then he shall be sold for his theft, If the sun be risen upon him,.... Either upon the thief, or upon the master of the house, or the person that finds the thief and smites him that he di...

If the sun be risen upon him,.... Either upon the thief, or upon the master of the house, or the person that finds the thief and smites him that he dies; it matters not which it is interpreted, it is true of both, for when it is risen on the one, it is on the other:

there shall be blood shed for him; the person that kills him shall die for it: the Targum of Jonathan is,"if it is as clear as the sun (and so Jarchi), that not to kill any he entered, and he should kill him, there is guilt of shedding innocent blood:''because coming at broad daylight, and when the sun was up, it was a plain case he came not with a design to murder, but only to steal; besides, being at such a time, the master of the house could call for help and assistance, and take him; which is what is suggested he should do, and not take away his life, but oblige him, if he had got any of his goods, to restore them, as follows:

for he should makes full restitution; by returning them and as much more, as the following verse shows:

if he have nothing, then he shall be sold for his theft, by the sanhedrim, or court, of judicature: as the Targum of Jonathan, before whom he should be brought, and the theft proved upon him, and unto the year of the remission or release, as the same Targum; nor were such to be sold to strangers, or to serve forever, for they were to be dismissed after six years, as Josephus b observes: and it is a canon with the Jews c, that,"an Hebrew servant whom the sanhedrim sell, they do not sell him but to an Israelite, or to a proselyte of righteousness;''according to the Targum of Jonathan, it seems as if he was to be sold to the person from whom he stole, since it is,"he shall he sold to him;''but if not, however, the price he was sold at was to be given to him for a recompence of his loss; so says Maimonides d,"if he have not goods, neither movable nor immovable the sanhedrim sell him, and give the price to him that is injured, as it is said: "if he have nothing", &c. and adds, a man is sold for his theft but not a woman e:''from hence it appears that theft was not a capital crime by the law of Moses: Draco is said to be the first who made it so; but his law being thought by the Athenians to be too severe, was annulled by them f: the law of the twelve tables, with the Romans greatly agrees with the Mosaic laws about theft; these permitted to kill a thief who should be taken in open theft, if either when he committed the theft it was night or if in the daytime, and he defended himself with weapons when about to be taken g or, as elsewhere expressed h, an open thief was delivered to servitude to him who was robbed, but nocturnal thief it was lawful to kill by the law of the twelve tables.

Gill: Exo 22:4 - If the theft be certainly found in his hand alive // whether it be ox, or ass, or sheep // he shall restore double If the theft be certainly found in his hand alive,.... Or, "in finding be found" i, be plainly and evidently found upon him, before witnesses, as the ...

If the theft be certainly found in his hand alive,.... Or, "in finding be found" i, be plainly and evidently found upon him, before witnesses, as the Targum of Jonathan; so that there is no doubt of the theft; and it is a clear case that he had neither as yet killed nor sold the creature he had stolen, and to could be had again directly, and without any damage well as it would appear by this that he was not an old expert thief, and used to such practices, since he would soon have made away with this theft in some way or another:

whether it be ox, or ass, or sheep, or any other creature; and even, as Jarchi thinks, anything else, as raiment, goods, &c.

he shall restore double; two oxen for an ox, two asses for an ass, and two sheep for a sheep: and, as the same commentator observes, two living ones, and not dead ones, or the price of two living ones: so Solon made theft, by his law, punishable with death, but with a double restitution k; and the reason why here only a double restitution and not fourfold is insisted on, as in Exo 22:1 is, because there the theft is persisted in, here not; but either the thief being convicted in his own conscience of his evil, makes confession, or, however, the creatures are found with alive, and so more useful being restored, and, being had again sooner, the loss is not quite so great.

Gill: Exo 22:5 - If a man shall cause a field or vineyard to be eaten // and shall put in his beast, and shall feed in another man's field // of the best of his own field, and of the best of his own vineyard, shall he make restitution If a man shall cause a field or vineyard to be eaten,.... Which is not his own, by putting cattle into it to feed upon it, as it is explained in the n...

If a man shall cause a field or vineyard to be eaten,.... Which is not his own, by putting cattle into it to feed upon it, as it is explained in the next clause:

and shall put in his beast, and shall feed in another man's field; do damage in one or both those two ways, either by his feet treading down the grass and fruits of the earth, which the Rabbins, as Jarchi says, think, is meant by putting in his beast; or with his beast eating up the same, which is intended by the latter phrase:

of the best of his own field, and of the best of his own vineyard, shall he make restitution for what damage is done by his beast in his neighbour's field or vineyard; and this held good of any garden or orchard injured in like manner; and it is a general rule with the Jews, that when any damage is sustained, he that does the damage is obliged to pay with the best the earth produces l, even though better than was the man's that suffered the loss, that for the future he might be more careful of doing injury to another m.

Gill: Exo 22:6 - If fire break out // and catch in thorns // so that the stacks of corn, or the standing corn, or the field, be consumed therewith // he that kindleth the fire, shall surely make restitution If fire break out,.... Even though of itself, as Jarchi interprets it: and catch in thorns a thorn hedge or fence, with which cornfields might be e...

If fire break out,.... Even though of itself, as Jarchi interprets it:

and catch in thorns a thorn hedge or fence, with which cornfields might be en closed:

so that the stacks of corn, or the standing corn, or the field, be consumed therewith; whether it be corn cut down, bound up in sheaves, and laid up in heaps or stacks, or whether it be yet growing, and not fully ripe, at least not cut down, or any other fruits of the field; if the fire that takes the thorns which are near them should reach to those, and kindle upon them and destroy them:

he that kindleth the fire, shall surely make restitution: that is, though he kindles the fire upon his own ground, yet being careless of it, it breaks out without his intention and design, and catches hold on a thorn hedge between him and his neighbour's field, and so spreads itself to the corn there, whether standing or in stacks, or to other fruits either lying or growing there; now, though he did not kindle the fire in the corn, and among the stacks or heaps of fruit in his neighbours field, yet, for his carelessness in not looking after the fire he had kindled in his own field, he was to make good all the damages his neighbour sustained hereby: the Jewish canons relating to this affair are these;"if a man kindles a fire by the hands of a deaf man, or a fool, or a child, he is free by human judgment, but he is bound by the judgment of heaven (that is, to make restitution); if he kindles it by the hand of a knowing and understanding man, he is bound; one brings fire and another "afterwards" brings wood, he that brings the wood is bound; one brings wood and another "afterwards" brings fire, he that brings the fire is bound; "after that", another comes and blows the flame (or fire), he is bound; "but if" the wind blows it they are all free; he that kindles fire and it consumes wood or stones, or dust, he is bound, as it is said, Exo 22:6 "if fire break out", &c. if the fire passes over a fence four cubits high, or a public road, or a river, he is free n;''those two things last mentioned, feeding on another man's field and fire, with the ox and the pit, observed in the preceding chapter, are with the Misnic doctors o, the four fathers' fountains, or sources of damages.

Gill: Exo 22:7 - If a man shall deliver unto his neighbour money or stock to keep // and if it be stolen out of the man's house // if the thief be found, let him pay double: the worth of what is stolen, If a man shall deliver unto his neighbour money or stock to keep,.... Without any reward for keeping it, as the Targum of Jonathan; and so other Jewis...

If a man shall deliver unto his neighbour money or stock to keep,.... Without any reward for keeping it, as the Targum of Jonathan; and so other Jewish writers p understand this passage of such as keep a deposit freely, having nothing for it; whether it be money or goods, gold, silver, jewels, raiment, household stuff or any kind of vessels or instruments used in the house, or in trade; and also cattle, as appears from Exo 22:9.

and if it be stolen out of the man's house; into whose custody it was delivered:

if the thief be found, let him pay double: the worth of what is stolen, agreeably to the law in Exo 22:4 that is, if it was found in his hands; but if he had disposed of it, then he was to pay five fold or four fold, as in Exo 22:1, and so runs the Jewish canon q,"if anyone delivers to his neighbour a beast or vessels, and they are stolen or lost, he shall make restitution; but if he will not swear, for they say, one that keeps for nothing, may swear and be free; then if the thief should be found he shall pay double; if he has killed or sold, he shall pay four fold or five fold: to whom shall he pay? to him with whom the depositum is: if he swears, and will not pay, and the thief is found, he shall pay double; if he has killed or sold he shall pay four fold and five fold: to whom shall he pay? to the owner of the depositum.''

Gill: Exo 22:8 - If the thief be not found // then the master of the house shall be brought unto the judges If the thief be not found,.... And so no account can be given of the goods deposited, what is become of them, and it becomes a doubtful case whether t...

If the thief be not found,.... And so no account can be given of the goods deposited, what is become of them, and it becomes a doubtful case whether they have been stolen or embezzled, and there is suspicion of the latter:

then the master of the house shall be brought unto the judges: here called Elohim, gods, because they were God's vicegerents, and represented him, and acted under his power and authority; and who at this present were Moses, and those that judged the people under him, and afterwards the seventy elders, and all such who in succeeding times were judges in Israel, and bore the office of civil magistrates; before these the master of the house, or the person who had any goods committed to his care, and they were lost, was to be brought and put to his oath, and upon it examined, in order to find out what was become of the goods committed to him: to see whether he has put his hand to his neighbour's goods: took them to himself, made use of them, or disposed of them to his own advantage, and which was no other than a kind of theft.

Gill: Exo 22:9 - For all manner of trespass // whether it be for ox, for ass, for sheep, for raiment, or for any manner of lost thing // which another challengeth to be his // the cause of both parties shall come before the judges // and whom the judges shall condemn // he shall pay double unto his neighbour For all manner of trespass,.... With respect to what is committed to a man's trust, and it is lost to the owner of it, there must be somewhere or othe...

For all manner of trespass,.... With respect to what is committed to a man's trust, and it is lost to the owner of it, there must be somewhere or other a trespass committed, either by the person into whose hands it was put, or by a thief that has stolen it from him:

whether it be for ox, for ass, for sheep, for raiment, or for any manner of lost thing by which it appears that either of these, or any other cattle not named, as well as money and vessels, or household goods, or goods in trade, were sometimes, or might be lodged in the hands of another as a depositum for safety or convenience; and for which, or any other so deposited, and lost:

which another challengeth to be his, or affirms that he put into the hands of his neighbour, to be kept by him for him; "or who shall say this is he", or "he is" the person into whose hands I put it, or this is "it" r; such and such were the thing or things I delivered to him:

the cause of both parties shall come before the judges; who were to hear what each party had to say, and to examine the witnesses each of them brought, and consider the nature of the evidence given, and to judge and determine:

and whom the judges shall condemn; or "pronounce wicked" s, as having done a wicked thing; either the one as having brought a false accusation against his neighbour, charging him with a depositum he never had, or the other as having converted it to his own use:

he shall pay double unto his neighbour; either the depositor, who pretended to be so and was not, but brought a false charge against his neighbour, or a false witness, as Jarchi, such as one was to pay double to the person charged wrongfully; or, on the other hand, the person with whom the depositum was put, if it appeared that he had acted a fraudulent part, and abused his trust, then he was to pay double to the depositor.

Gill: Exo 22:10 - If a man deliver to his neighbour an ass, or an ox, or a sheep, or any beast to keep // and it die // or be hurt // or driven away // no man seeing it If a man deliver to his neighbour an ass, or an ox, or a sheep, or any beast to keep,.... And he keeps it without a reward, as the Targum of Jonathan;...

If a man deliver to his neighbour an ass, or an ox, or a sheep, or any beast to keep,.... And he keeps it without a reward, as the Targum of Jonathan; but Jarchi and Aben Ezra more rightly interpret this of one that keeps for hire, as herdsmen, shepherds, &c. The Jews say t there are"four sorts of keepers; he that keeps for nought (or freely), he that borrows, he that takes hire, and he that hires; he that keeps for nought swears in all cases (and is free), he that borrows pays for all (that is lost or stolen, &c.) he that takes hire, and he that hires, swear on account of that which is torn, or carried away, or dies, and they pay for that which is lost or stolen,''which are the cases after supposed:

and it die; either of the above, or any other under the care of another; that is, dies of itself, not being killed by any, and its death sudden, and not easily accounted for:

or be hurt; receive any damage in any part, though it die not; or "be broken" u; have any of its limbs or bones broken; or be torn by a wild beast, as the Targum of Jonathan adds:

or driven away; from the flock or herd by thieves or robbers, or rather carried captive by an enemy in an hostile way, see Exo 22:12,

no man seeing it; die, or be hurt, or carried off; and so, as the above Targum paraphrases it, there is no witness that sees and can bear witness, that is, to any of the said things which have happened to it.

Gill: Exo 22:11 - Then shall an oath of the Lord be between them both // and the owner of it shall accept thereof // and he shall not make it good Then shall an oath of the Lord be between them both,.... Either by the one, the keeper, for the satisfaction of the owner, or by them both; by the own...

Then shall an oath of the Lord be between them both,.... Either by the one, the keeper, for the satisfaction of the owner, or by them both; by the owner, that he delivered such and such cattle to the keeper; and by the keeper, that he was no ways concerned in the death, hurt, or carrying off of the same: and this is called "the oath of the Lord", not only because in this law required by him, but because sworn by him, or in his name, and made before him, in his presence, who is hereby appealed unto; and who is called upon to take vengeance on the person that takes the oath of perjury; and such an oath only is a lawful one, men are to swear only by the Lord. But this oath was not tendered to anyone:"if a man was suspected of an oath (i.e. of perjury) they might not give him his oath, neither the oath of the law, nor the oath from their words (the scribes), nor the oath of imposition (imposed by the wise wen); and even though he that brought the action would have it, they might not hearken unto him: if a man has swore falsely a rash oath, or an oath of testimony, or an oath concerning anything deposited, or a vain oath, lo, he is suspected of an oath, and so everyone that is rejected for witness on account of any transgression w.''The oath to be taken by the keeper, and who indeed seems to be the only person that was to take one, was, "that he hath not put his hand unto his neighbour's goods"; so as either to kill or maim, or drive away, or suffer to be driven away, any of the cattle committed to his care, or that he had not disposed of them to his own use and profit:

and the owner of it shall accept thereof; of the oath, as the Targum of Jonathan and Jarchi, and so be satisfied, and give no further trouble, such an oath being for the confirmation of the thing, and to put an end to strife; or he shall take the ass, ox, or sheep, as it was, and be content; but then, though he might take the dead or maimed one, he could not take that which was driven or carried away, wherefore the first sense, is best:

and he shall not make it good; or pay for it to the owner what it was worth.

Gill: Exo 22:12 - And if it be stolen from him // he shall make restitution to the owner thereof And if it be stolen from him,.... Or "but if" x it was taken away by theft; and that "from with him" y, as it may be literally rendered, from among hi...

And if it be stolen from him,.... Or "but if" x it was taken away by theft; and that "from with him" y, as it may be literally rendered, from among his own cattle, and they not taken; and he being present, pretending to have an eye upon them and keep them, but was careless and negligent, at least, if he did not connive at the theft:

he shall make restitution to the owner thereof; for in such a case there was ground for suspicion of fraud; however, there was apparent carelessness, and it was but just he should make restitution, since he had hire or wages for keeping it; which is the reason Aben Ezra gives for it, and is suggested by the Targum of Jonathan; which adds to the former clause, by way of explanation,"that which was with him to be kept for a reward.''

Gill: Exo 22:13 - If it be torn in pieces // then let him bring it for witness // and he shall not make good that which was torn If it be torn in pieces,.... By some wild beast, at least as pretended: then let him bring it for witness; part of that which is torn, that it may...

If it be torn in pieces,.... By some wild beast, at least as pretended:

then let him bring it for witness; part of that which is torn, that it may be witness for him that it was torn, as in Amo 3:12 as Aben Ezra observes; and so the Jerusalem Targurn,"let him bring of the members of it a witness,''which would make it a clear case that it had been so used; but it is possible that the whole carcass might be carried off, and nothing remain to be brought as a proof of it; wherefore the Targum of Jonathan is,"let him bring witnesses;''and so some versions render it z; and to this agrees Jarchi, whose note is,"let him bring witnesses of its being torn by violence, and he is free,''such who saw it done; but it is before supposed, that such cattle may be hurt, broken, or maimed, no man seeing it, Exo 22:10 and therefore in such a case no witnesses could be brought, wherefore the first sense seems best:

and he shall not make good that which was torn; or shall not pay for it, pay the price of it, as much as it is worth. Here Jarchi distinguishes,"there is that which is torn, for which a man pays, and there is that which is torn, for which he does not pay; that which is torn by a cat, or a fox, or a marten (a kind of weasel), he pays for, but that which is torn by a wolf, a lion, or a bear, he does not pay for:''the reason of which is, because it is thought the keeper might have preserved and delivered from the former, and therefore was culpable, when it was not in his power to save from the latter; and the Misnic doctors observe, that one wolf is not violence, but two are; so that what is torn by one, the keeper is bound to pay for, but not what is torn by more. But two dogs are not violence, unless they come from two different quarters, and then they are: a single thief is violence, and so is a lion, a bear, a leopard, a basilisk, and a serpent, and this only when they come willingly, and of themselves; but if they (the cattle) are brought to places where there are troops of wild beasts, and thieves, it is no violence a, and in such a case the keepers are liable to pay; and so unless he makes use of staves, and calls in other shepherds to his assistance, as Maimonides b observes, when it is in his power to do it; and so at least might make an attempt to save or rescue the cattle.

Gill: Exo 22:14 - And if a man borrow ought of his neighbour // and if he be hurt or die // he shall surely make it good And if a man borrow ought of his neighbour,.... Any beast, as it should seem, as an ox to plough with, an ass, horse, or camel to ride on, though the...

And if a man borrow ought of his neighbour,.... Any beast, as it should seem, as an ox to plough with, an ass, horse, or camel to ride on, though the Jewish writers carry it also to any kind of household stuff:

and if he be hurt or die; if any damage comes to it, or it dies while it is in the borrower's hands, and when employed in that work for which he borrowed it; the Targum of Jonathan is,"and the vessel should be broke, or the beast die:''and the owner thereof being not with it; at the time of its being hurt, or of its death, and so could not be so well satisfied whether used well or not, nor how the damage and death came to it:

he shall surely make it good; pay the full price for it it is worth; which, though it may seem hard, was necessary, in order to make men careful of things they borrowed, and that lenders may not be losers for their kindness.

Gill: Exo 22:15 - But if the owner thereof be with it // he shall not make it good But if the owner thereof be with it,.... When it is hurt or dies; for in some cases the owner might go along with his beast, being borrowed or hired t...

But if the owner thereof be with it,.... When it is hurt or dies; for in some cases the owner might go along with his beast, being borrowed or hired to do work with it; or, however, being upon the spot, must be satisfied that it was not ill used; and it may be reasonably presumed he would do all he could to preserve it: and this being the case:

he shall not make it good; that is, the borrower, but the loss would lie upon the lender; seeing this might have been the case if it had been at home, and not borrowed or lent. The Jewish writers understand all this in a different manner, that if the owner is not with it in the time of borrowing, though he is with it in the time of its being hurt, or of its death, the borrower must pay; but if he was with it in the time of borrowing, though not in the time of its receiving damage, or of its death, the borrower was free c; for, as Jarchi says, whether it be in that work (for which he was borrowed), or in another work (it matters not), if he was with it at the time of borrowing, there was no necessity of his being with it at the time of its hurt or death. The reason of which, I must confess, I do not understand; unless the meaning is, that it was necessary that the owner, and the beast, should be both borrowed or hired together; and which indeed seems to be the sense of the Misnah, or tradition d, which runs thus,"if a man borrows a cow, and borrows or hires its owner with it; or if he hires or borrows the owner, and after that borrows the cow, and it dies, he is free, as it is said, Exo 22:15 but if he borrows the cow, and afterwards borrows or hires the owner, and it dies, he is bound to pay, as it is said, Exo 22:13 if his owner is not with it, &c.''If it be an hired thing, it came for its hire; that is, if the beast which was come to some damage, or was dead, was hired, and not borrowed, then, whether the owner was with it or not at that time, he could demand no more than hire, and the person that hired it was obliged to pay that and no more; or if the owner himself was hired along with his beast, and so was present when it received its damage, or its death, nothing more could come to him than what he agreed for.

Gill: Exo 22:16 - And if a man entice a maid, that is not betrothed // and lie with her // he shall surely endow her to be his wife And if a man entice a maid, that is not betrothed,.... For one might be betrothed according to the custom of those times, and not be married, or the n...

And if a man entice a maid, that is not betrothed,.... For one might be betrothed according to the custom of those times, and not be married, or the nuptials consummated, and so be yet a maid or virgin; but being betrothed, it made the case different, because such an one was as a wife to a man: but the case here supposed is of a maid not betrothed, and also not forced, but yielding to the solicitations of a man, as is implied by her being enticed; which signifies his gaining upon her affections, and obtaining her consent by expressing strong affection for her, and making large promises to her, and so both by words and gestures prevailing with her to yield to his desire:

and lie with her; in a way of carnal copulation; and such an action between two single persons, by consent, is what is called simple fornication: if this was done in a field, the maid was supposed to be forced, since there she might cry out, and not be heard; but if in a city, she is supposed to be enticed, and consent, since if she cried out she might be heard; this the Jewish writers gather from Deu 22:23, though the law there respects a betrothed damsel:

he shall surely endow her to be his wife; give her a dowry in order to be his wife, or, however, such an one as he would or must give if she became his wife, even one suitable to her rank and dignity, whether he married her or not; for he was not obliged to it whether he would or not, and in some cases could not if he would, as follows.

Gill: Exo 22:17 - If her father utterly refuse to give her unto him // he shall pay money according to the dowry of virgins If her father utterly refuse to give her unto him,.... For wife, either because of his character, family, or circumstances; or, however, being disagre...

If her father utterly refuse to give her unto him,.... For wife, either because of his character, family, or circumstances; or, however, being disagreeable to him on one account or another, and therefore will by no means agree to marry his daughter to him, and not only give him an absolute denial, but resolutely persist in it: the Targum of Jonathan has it,"if it seems not good to him;''if he do not like nor choose to marry her; and some add also, if she herself do not approve of marrying him:

he shall pay money according to the dowry of virgins; as virgins on marriage have usually given them, according to their rank and dignity: here is no sum fixed, but the Targum of Jonathan is,"he shall be mulcted in fifty shekels of silver,''which is taken from Deu 22:29 though that seems to be not altogether a like case with this; for though it respects a virgin not betrothed, as here, yet one that has been forced, and therefore the man was obliged to marry her, and never put her away; and the mulct or fine was to be paid to the damsel's father and not to her: the Septuagint version here says, it was to be paid to the father.

Gill: Exo 22:18 - Thou shall not suffer a witch to live. Thou shall not suffer a witch to live. Such that had familiar spirits, and conversed with them, and by means thereof got knowledge of many things rela...

Thou shall not suffer a witch to live. Such that had familiar spirits, and conversed with them, and by means thereof got knowledge of many things relating to persons, at least pretending they did; and who did or seemed to do many strange and surprising feats, as even to raise the spirits of departed persons, to converse with them and gain knowledge by them, though in reality they did not, and could not do such things, but used some juggling tricks to deceive the people, and in which they might be assisted by evil spirits; as appears from the case of the witch of Endor, who was surprised at the appearance of Samuel, it being out of the ordinary course of her art and practice really to bring up the spirit of a man deceased, whatever pretensions might be made to it; however, such being deceivers of the people, and leading them into unwarrantable practices, and off of a dependence on God and his providence, and from seeking to him, and asking counsel of him, they are by this law condemned to death, such an one was not to be suffered to live; not that it was lawful for anybody to kill her, or that any private person might or must do it that knew her, or took her to be a witch; but she was to be had before a court of judicature and tried there, and, if found guilty, to be put to death by the civil magistrate: so Jarchi's note is,"but she shall die by the house of judgment;''or the sanhedrim; for these words are spoken to Moses the chief judge, and to those that were under him, and succeeded him and them; though the Targum of Jonathan prefaces them thus:"and my people, the children of Israel, thou shalt not, &c.''and though only a witch is mentioned, or this is only expressed in the feminine gender, because a multitude of this sort of people were found among women, as Ben Melech observes, and so Aben Ezra; yet wizards, or men that dealt with familiar spirits, are included; and it may be reasonably concluded from hence, that if women, who generally have more mercy and compassion shown them, yet were not suffered to live when found criminal in this way, then much less men: and this law is thought by some to follow upon the other, concerning enticing and lying with a virgin not betrothed; because such sort of persons were made use of to entice and decoy maids to gratify the lusts of men.

Gill: Exo 22:19 - shall surely be put to death In like manner as a man and woman, by carnal copulation; this is a crime so detestable and abominable, so shocking and dishonourable to human nature, ...

In like manner as a man and woman, by carnal copulation; this is a crime so detestable and abominable, so shocking and dishonourable to human nature, that one would think it could never be committed by any of the human species, and that there was no occasion for making a law against it; but, such is the depravity and corruption of mankind, that divine wisdom saw it necessary, and, to deter from it, made it death, as follows; such an one

shall surely be put to death; no mercy shown him, no pardon or respite given him by the civil magistrate: according to the Targum of Jonathan, the death of such a person was by stoning, for it paraphrases the words,"he shall be killed with the casting of stones.''

Gill: Exo 22:20 - He that sacrificeth unto any god // save unto the Lord only He that sacrificeth unto any god,.... To Elohim, to strange gods, to the idols of the people, as the Targum of Jonathan; to the Egyptian deities, to ...

He that sacrificeth unto any god,.... To Elohim, to strange gods, to the idols of the people, as the Targum of Jonathan; to the Egyptian deities, to the gods of the Moabites, Amorites, Edomites, Canaanites, Philistines, or any other: Aben Ezra says the word Elohim comprehends angels; and by the exceptive clause it is plain it takes in all that had been, were, or ever would be the objects of idolatrous worship, especially the sun, moon, and stars, the principal objects of worship in those days:

save unto the Lord only; the true and living God; Jehovah, the self-existent, immutable, and eternal Being; the Creator of all things, the possessor of heaven and earth, the most high God, and the only one: sacrificing takes in all the acts of service performed to an idol as to the true God, as offering incense, pouring out a libation, as well as slaying and burning an animal as Jarchi observes: he shall be utterly destroyed; be accursed, anathematized, devoted to destruction, as the word used signifies: the Targum of Jonathan is,"he shall be killed with the sword, and his goods consumed,''not only lose his life but his substance, and so be destroyed in body and estate.

Gill: Exo 22:21 - Thou shall not vex a stranger // nor oppress him // for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt Thou shall not vex a stranger,.... One that is not born in the same country, but comes into another country to sojourn, as Jarchi; not a native of the...

Thou shall not vex a stranger,.... One that is not born in the same country, but comes into another country to sojourn, as Jarchi; not a native of the place, but of another kingdom or country; a stranger to the commonwealth of Israel, that is only in it for a time on trade and business, or through one providence or another; or else a proselyte is meant, not a proselyte of righteousness, who has embraced the true religion; but a proselyte of the gate, that takes upon him the commands of the sons of Noah; or, as Aben Ezra here expresses it, who takes upon him not to serve idols; such were allowed to dwell among the Israelites, and they were to carry it friendly and kindly to them, and "not vex" them, nor irritate them with words, as the Targum of Jonathan, and so Jarchi; by calling them names, Gentiles, uncircumcised persons, and the like; upbraiding them with their country, ignorance, and manner of life; they were not to say to a proselyte, as Ben Melech observes, remember thy former works; or, if the son of a proselyte, remember thy father's works:

nor oppress him; by taking his goods, as the above Targum, and so Jarchi; by refusing to assist him with advice or otherwise, to trade with him, or to give him lodging, and furnish him with the necessaries of life:

for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt: out of which they were but just come, and therefore such a reason must be very striking and moving upon them: the Targum of Jonathan prefaces it,"and my people, the house of Israel, remember that ye were strangers, &c.''this they could not have forgot in so short a time, and the remembrance of this should move their compassion to strangers hereafter, when they came to settle in their own land; and therefore, as they would that men should have done to them when in such circumstances, the same they should do to others; and besides, the remembrance of this would serve to abate their pride and vanity, and their overbearing disposition.

Gill: Exo 22:22 - Ye shall not afflict any widow or fatherless child. Ye shall not afflict any widow or fatherless child. Who have no friends, husband, or father to be on their side and protect them, and are weak and hel...

Ye shall not afflict any widow or fatherless child. Who have no friends, husband, or father to be on their side and protect them, and are weak and helpless to defend themselves, and therefore it must be barbarous to do them any injury, either to their persons or property; no one ought to be afflicted and distressed by another, either in body or mind, or substance, and especially such as have no helper, not any to assist them and sympathize with them; for this is a law for every man, as Jarchi observes, is binding upon all; only the Scripture speaks of these, because of their weakness, and because they are more frequently afflicted than others, cruel and unmerciful men taking the advantage of their inability to defend themselves.

Gill: Exo 22:23 - If thou afflict them in any wise // and they cry at all unto me // I will surely hear their cry If thou afflict them in any wise,..... In any way, or by any means whatever; their minds, by reproaches, censures, insults, and their bodies by stripe...

If thou afflict them in any wise,..... In any way, or by any means whatever; their minds, by reproaches, censures, insults, and their bodies by stripes, false imprisonment, &c. and in their substance, by withholding from them what belongs to them, taking what they have, or cheating and defrauding them in any respect; or, "in afflicting afflict them" e; afflict them much, and continue to do so:

and they cry at all unto me; in prayer, as the Targum of Jonathan; or, "in crying cry" f; cry vehemently, or importunately, and with constancy, or rather, cry ever so little:

I will surely hear their cry; the voice of their prayer, as the same Targum; or, "in hearing I will hear" g; will certainly take notice of their cries, and return an answer to them, by appearing on their side, and avenging their injuries; for God is the Father of the fatherless, and the husband of the widow, and the Judge of them both: the manner of speaking or form of expression is the same in all these clauses, the words being doubled.

Gill: Exo 22:24 - And my wrath shall wax hot // and I will kill you with the sword // and your wives shall be widows, and your children fatherless And my wrath shall wax hot,.... Against those that afflict them, being so devoid of humanity, compassion, and tenderness, and so guilty of oppression ...

And my wrath shall wax hot,.... Against those that afflict them, being so devoid of humanity, compassion, and tenderness, and so guilty of oppression and injustice, which are aggravated by the circumstances of the persons they ill treat, and therefore the more provoking to God:

and I will kill you with the sword; with the sword of death, says the Targum of Jonathan; it designs one of God's sore judgments, the sword of an enemy; the meaning is, that when such evils should become frequent among them, God would suffer a neighbouring nation to break in upon them in an hostile way, and put them to the sword; hence it follows:

and your wives shall be widows, and your children fatherless; be in the same circumstances with those they have injured, and therefore should consider not only the destruction that would come upon themselves, being cutoff by the sword, but the case of their families; and how, could they be sensible of it, they would like to have their wives and children used as they have used the widows and fatherless.

Gill: Exo 22:25 - If thou lend money to any of my people that is poor by thee // thou shalt not be to him as an usurer // neither shalt thou lay upon him usury If thou lend money to any of my people that is poor by thee, Such only need to borrow money, and to whom it should be freely lent, when it may be to ...

If thou lend money to any of my people that is poor by thee, Such only need to borrow money, and to whom it should be freely lent, when it may be to the good of the borrower, and not any injury to the lender: this law, according to the Jewish writers, only respects Israelites, and not Gentiles; agreeably to which is Jarchi's note,"if thou lend, that is, not to a Gentile; and to which of my people? the poor, and to which of the poor? that is with thee:"

thou shalt not be to him as an usurer; that will not lend without usury, nor without an exorbitant interest, and deals very hardly with the borrower if he is not punctual in the payment of it; the Israelites were not only not to be usurers, but they were not to be like them; they were not to require anything for lending a poor man a little money; as not any settled interest, so neither were they to take any previous gift or reward later, see Luk 6:34.

neither shalt thou lay upon him usury; or oblige him to give interest for money borrowed: it is in the plural, number, "neither shall ye lay"; and Aben Ezra observes, that the lender, scribe, and witness, all transgress this law; that is, when a man lends money on interest, and a bond is made by the scribe for it, and this signed by witnesses, all are guilty of the breach of it: yea, some Jewish writers h say, not only those, but whoever is a surety or bondsman for the payment, and even the borrower himself; see Gill on Psa 15:5.

Gill: Exo 22:26 - If thou at all take thy neighbour's raiment to pledge // thou shalt deliver it to him by that the sun goeth down If thou at all take thy neighbour's raiment to pledge,.... So that it seems that the lender, though he might not impose usury on the borrower, or obli...

If thou at all take thy neighbour's raiment to pledge,.... So that it seems that the lender, though he might not impose usury on the borrower, or oblige him to pay interest for what he lent him, yet for the security of his money he might take his clothes, either his bed clothes or wearing apparel, or any instruments or goods of his; but when he did, he was bound to what follows:

thou shalt deliver it to him by that the sun goeth down; the reason of which appears in the next verse, with respect to his bed clothes, should that be the pledge: but Jarchi interprets it, not of his nocturnal clothes, but of his apparel in the daytime, and paraphrases it thus,"all the day thou shalt restore it to him until the setting of the sun; and when the sun is set, thou shalt return and take it until the morning of the morrow comes; the Scripture speaks of the covering of the day, of which there is no need at night;''but rather night clothes are meant by what follows.

Gill: Exo 22:27 - For that is his covering only // it is his raiment for his skin // wherein shall he sleep // and it shall come to pass, when he crieth unto me // that I will hear // for I am gracious For that is his covering only,.... All that he has to cover him, the only covering he has when he lies down to sleep; and therefore should be restored...

For that is his covering only,.... All that he has to cover him, the only covering he has when he lies down to sleep; and therefore should be restored to him by the time of sunset, at which time he returns from his labour; and after some refreshment retires to his bed for rest, when his covering will be necessary:

it is his raiment for his skin; which is next to his skin, and covers his naked body, as it is when he lies down to sleep; and therefore if not returned, he must lie naked without any covering, which to deprive him of would be cruel: Jarchi interprets this covering of his shirt, but it rather means his bed clothes: the Septuagint version calls it the clothes of his shame, what cover and hide the shame of nakedness:

wherein shall he sleep? what shall he have to sleep in if this is detained from him? nothing at all; or it may be read without an interrogation, wherein he should sleep, or was used to sleep:

and it shall come to pass, when he crieth unto me; and complains of ill usage, that he has nothing to cover him in the night season, when he lies down to sleep, which is very uncomfortable, as well as unhealthful and dangerous:

that I will hear; his cry and complaint, take notice of it, and resent the usage of him:

for I am gracious; or merciful; and therefore everything cruel and uncompassionate is disagreeable, and even abominable to him, and he will take care in his providence that the injured person shall be redressed and the injurer punished.

Gill: Exo 22:28 - Thou shalt not revile the gods // nor curse the ruler of thy people Thou shalt not revile the gods,.... Meaning not the idols of the Gentiles, which they reckon gods, and worship as such; which is the sense of Philo, a...

Thou shalt not revile the gods,.... Meaning not the idols of the Gentiles, which they reckon gods, and worship as such; which is the sense of Philo, and some others, particularly Josephus i, who, to curry favour with the Roman emperors given to idolatry, has from hence inserted the following among the laws given to Moses;"let no man blaspheme the gods, which other cities think are such, nor rob strange sacred places, nor receive a gift dedicated to any deity;''but this cannot be the sense of the text, being contrary to Deu 12:2 nor can it be thought that care should be taken, lest the honour of the Heathen deities should be detracted from; but civil magistrates, the judges of the land, and the like, are meant, who are powers ordained of God, are in his stead, and represent him, and therefore respect should be shown them; nor should they be treated with any degree of slight and contempt, which may discourage and intimidate them, and deter them from the execution of their office: the Targum of Jonathan interprets them of judges very rightly, agreeably to Psa 82:1 and so Aben Ezra says,"they are the judges and the priests, the sons of Levi, with whom the law is:"

nor curse the ruler of thy people whether civil or ecclesiastic; the last mentioned Jewish writer intend of the king, who is the supreme ruler in things civil, and ought to be honoured and loved, served and obeyed, and not hated and cursed, no, not secretly, not in the bedchamber, nor in the thought of the heart, since not only the thing is criminal but dangerous; it is much if it is not discovered, and then ruin follows upon it, Ecc 10:20. The Apostle Paul applies it to the high priest among the Jews, who was the ruler in sacred things, Act 23:5 and may be applicable to the prince of the sanhedrim, or chief in the grand court of judicature; and even to all dignified persons, who ought not to be spoken ill of, and to be abused in the execution of their office, and especially when they perform well.

Gill: Exo 22:29 - Thou shall not delay to offer the first of thy ripe fruits // And of thy liquors // the firstborn of thy sons thou shall give unto me Thou shall not delay to offer the first of thy ripe fruits,.... Which, according to Maimonides k, were of seven kinds only; for he says,"they do not b...

Thou shall not delay to offer the first of thy ripe fruits,.... Which, according to Maimonides k, were of seven kinds only; for he says,"they do not bring the firstfruits, but of the seven kinds, said in the praise of the land, (the land of Canaan), Deu 8:8 and they are wheat, barley, grapes, figs, pomegranates, olives, and dates;''and how much of these were to be offered is not fixed by the law, but were left to the generosity of the people: the above mentioned writer asks l,"what measure do the wise men set? a good eye (or a bountiful man) brings one of forty (or the fortieth part of his fruits); a middling one (one that is neither liberal nor niggardly) brings one of fifty (or the fiftieth part); and an evil one (a covetous man) one of sixty (or the sixtieth part), but never less than that.''Now this was not to be delayed, but to be brought as soon and as early as could be: the Jewish writers seem to understand this of postponing things, or inverting the order of them, bringing that first which should be last, and that last which should be first; so Jarchi interprets it,"thou shall not change the order of their separation, to postpone that which should be first, and to put before that which should be last; for the first oblation should not be brought before the firstfruits, and the tithes before the first oblation.''And thus runs one of their canons or traditions m,"if anyone brings the first oblation before the firstfruits, the first tithe before the first oblation, the second tithe before the first, it is as if he transgressed a negative precept: "thou shalt not delay or postpone", &c. Exo 22:29'

And of thy liquors: and these, according to Maimonides n, were only the firstfruits of liquors of olives and grapes:

the firstborn of thy sons thou shall give unto me; which is a repetition of the law. See Gill on Exo 13:2.

Gill: Exo 22:30 - Likewise shalt thou do with thine oxen, and with thy sheep // seven days it shall be with his dam // on the eighth day thou shall give it me Likewise shalt thou do with thine oxen, and with thy sheep,.... That is, with the firstborn, which were to be set apart to the Lord; and so the Targum...

Likewise shalt thou do with thine oxen, and with thy sheep,.... That is, with the firstborn, which were to be set apart to the Lord; and so the Targum of Jonathan paraphrases it,"the firstborn of thine oxen, and of thy sheep;''for having spoken of the firstborn of men, the Scripture proceeds to speak of the firstborn of cattle, great and small, the separation of which was enjoined in one and the same precept, Exo 13:2,

seven days it shall be with his dam; whether it be a calf or a lamb; before it was seven days old it was not to be taken from it, and given to the Lord:

on the eighth day thou shall give it me; that is, they might do it then, but not before; yet they were not obliged to bring it exactly on that day, but they might do it any time within the month, and at a month's end they were obliged to redeem it, that is, give the priest the sum of five shekels for it, Num 18:16. The Jewish canon runs thus n;"how long are Israelites bound for the bringing of the firstborn, i.e. before they offer it to the priest? in small cattle thirty days, in large cattle fifty days.''

Gill: Exo 22:31 - And ye shall be holy men unto me // neither shall ye eat any flesh that is torn of beasts in the field And ye shall be holy men unto me,.... They were so by God's act of election, not special and particular, but general and national; choosing and separa...

And ye shall be holy men unto me,.... They were so by God's act of election, not special and particular, but general and national; choosing and separating them to be an holy people to him, above all the people on the face of the earth, and in a ceremonial sense they observing laws and appointments of God of this kind; which is the sense here intended, as appears by what follows: all men, and so these Israelites, ought to be holy in a moral sense, and some are holy in a spiritual and evangelical sense, being made holy by the Spirit of God; of these the Apostle Peter speaks, in allusion to this, and such like passages, 1Pe 2:9.

neither shall ye eat any flesh that is torn of beasts in the field; or in the house, as Jarchi notes; but the Scripture, as he observes, speaks of the place where it is more usual for beasts to tear, and so Aben Ezra; otherwise what is torn elsewhere, or by whatsoever accident it is bruised and maimed, was not to be eaten: ye shall cast it to the dogs: for even a stranger was not to eat of it, or if he did he was unclean, and was obliged to wash his clothes, and bathe himself, Lev 17:15 and yet Jarchi interprets this figuratively of such as are like dogs, meaning the Gentiles, whom the Jews used to call so, see Mat 15:26. An Heathen poet gives instructions perfectly agreeable to this law;"do not (says he) eat flesh fed upon by beasts, but leave the remains to the swift dogs o.''

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki

NET Notes: Exo 22:1 בָּקַר (baqar) and צֹאן (tso’n) are the categories to which the ox and the sheep bel...

NET Notes: Exo 22:2 This law focuses on what is reasonable defense against burglary. If someone killed a thief who was breaking in during the night, he was not charged be...

NET Notes: Exo 22:3 The words “a thief” have been added for clarification. S. R. Driver (Exodus, 224) thinks that these lines are out of order, since some of ...

NET Notes: Exo 22:4 He must pay back one for what he took, and then one for the penalty – his loss as he was inflicting a loss on someone else.

NET Notes: Exo 22:5 The phrase “his livestock” is supplied from the next clause.

NET Notes: Exo 22:6 This is a Hiphil participle of the verb “to burn, kindle” used substantivally. This is the one who caused the fire, whether by accident or...

NET Notes: Exo 22:7 Heb “found.”

NET Notes: Exo 22:8 The line says “if he has not stretched out his hand.” This could be the oath formula, but the construction here would be unusual, or it co...

NET Notes: Exo 22:9 The verb means “to be guilty” in Qal; in Hiphil it would have a declarative sense, because a causative sense would not possibly fit.

NET Notes: Exo 22:10 Heb “there is no one seeing.”

NET Notes: Exo 22:11 The construct relationship שְׁבֻעַת יְהוָה (shÿvu’at y&...

NET Notes: Exo 22:12 The point is that the man should have taken better care of the animal.

NET Notes: Exo 22:13 The word עֵד (’ed) actually means “witness,” but the dead animal that is returned is a silent witness, i.e., evide...

NET Notes: Exo 22:14 Heb “he”; the referent (the man who borrowed the animal) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

NET Notes: Exo 22:15 Literally “it came with/for its hire,” this expression implies that the owner who hired it out and was present was prepared to take the ri...

NET Notes: Exo 22:16 The verb מָהַר (mahar) means “pay the marriage price,” and the related noun is the bride price. B. Jacob say...

NET Notes: Exo 22:18 There still were many who wished to follow pagan beliefs and consort with the dead (see Deut 18:10-11). The sorceress was someone who dealt with drugs...

NET Notes: Exo 22:19 Heb “lies with.”

NET Notes: Exo 22:20 The verb חָרַם (kharam) means “to be devoted” to God or “to be banned.” The idea is that it woul...

NET Notes: Exo 22:21 Or “alien,” both here and in 23:9. This individual is a resident foreigner; he lives in the land but, aside from provisions such as this, ...

NET Notes: Exo 22:22 The verb “afflict” is a Piel imperfect from עָנָה (’anah); it has a wide range of meanings: “aff...

NET Notes: Exo 22:23 Here is the normal use of the infinitive absolute with the imperfect tense to emphasize the verb: “I will surely hear,” implying, “I...

NET Notes: Exo 22:24 The punishment will follow the form of talionic justice, an eye for an eye, in which the punishment matches the crime. God will use invading armies (&...

NET Notes: Exo 22:25 In ancient times money was lent primarily for poverty and not for commercial ventures (H. Gamoran, “The Biblical Law against Loans on Interest,&...

NET Notes: Exo 22:26 The clause uses the preposition, the infinitive construct, and the noun that is the subjective genitive – “at the going in of the sun.R...

NET Notes: Exo 22:27 Heb “and it will be.”

NET Notes: Exo 22:28 The word אֱלֹהִים (’elohim) is “gods” or “God.” If taken as the simple p...

NET Notes: Exo 22:29 The expressions are unusual. U. Cassuto renders them: “from the fullness of your harvest and from the outflow of your presses” (Exodus, 29...

NET Notes: Exo 22:31 Or “by wild animals.”

Geneva Bible: Exo 22:1 If a man shall steal an ( a ) ox, or a sheep, and kill it, or sell it; he shall restore five oxen for an ox, and four sheep for a sheep. ( a ) Either...

Geneva Bible: Exo 22:2 If a thief be found ( b ) breaking up, and be smitten that he die, [there shall] no blood [be shed] for him. ( b ) Breaking a house to enter in, or u...

Geneva Bible: Exo 22:3 If the sun be risen upon him, [there shall be] ( c ) blood [shed] for him; [for] he should make full restitution; if he have nothing, then he shall be...

Geneva Bible: Exo 22:8 If the thief be not found, then the master of the house shall be brought unto the judges, [to see] whether he have ( d ) put his hand unto his neighbo...

Geneva Bible: Exo 22:11 ( e ) [Then] shall an oath of the LORD be between them both, that he hath not put his hand unto his neighbour's goods; and the owner of it shall accep...

Geneva Bible: Exo 22:13 If it be torn in pieces, [then] let him bring ( f ) it [for] witness, [and] he shall not make good that which was torn. ( f ) He shall show some part...

Geneva Bible: Exo 22:15 [But] if the owner thereof [be] with it, he shall not make [it] good: if it [be] an hired [thing], it ( g ) came for his hire. ( g ) He that hired it...

Geneva Bible: Exo 22:24 And my wrath shall wax hot, and I will kill you with the sword; and your ( h ) wives shall be widows, and your children fatherless. ( h ) The just pl...

Geneva Bible: Exo 22:27 For that [is] his covering only, it [is] his raiment for his skin: wherein shall he sleep? and it shall come to pass, when he ( i ) crieth unto me, th...

Geneva Bible: Exo 22:29 Thou shalt not delay [to offer] the ( k ) first of thy ripe fruits, and of thy liquors: the firstborn of thy sons shalt thou give unto me. ( k ) Your...

Geneva Bible: Exo 22:31 And ye shall be holy men unto me: neither shall ye eat [any] flesh [that is] torn of beasts in the field; ye shall cast it ( l ) to the dogs. ( l ) A...

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Rentang Ayat

MHCC: Exo 22:1-31 - --The people of God should ever be ready to show mildness and mercy, according to the spirit of these laws. We must answer to God, not only for what we ...

Matthew Henry: Exo 22:1-6 - -- Here are the laws, I. Concerning theft, which are these: - 1. If a man steal any cattle (in which the wealth of those times chiefly consisted), and ...

Matthew Henry: Exo 22:7-15 - -- These laws are, I. Concerning trusts, Exo 22:7-13. If a man deliver goods, suppose to a carrier to be conveyed, or to a warehouse-keeper to be prese...

Matthew Henry: Exo 22:16-24 - -- Here is, I. A law that he who debauched a young woman should be obliged to marry her, Exo 22:16, Exo 22:17. If she was betrothed to another, it was ...

Matthew Henry: Exo 22:25-31 - -- Here is, I. A law against extortion in lending. 1. They must not receive use for money from any that borrowed for necessity (Exo 22:25), as in that ...

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 22:1-4 - -- With regard to cattle-stealing , the law makes a distinction between what had been killed or sold, and what was still alive and in the thief's hand...

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 22:5-6 - -- Injury done to another man's field or corn was also to be made good by compensation for the injury done. If any one should consume a field or a vin...

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 22:7-9 - -- In cases of dishonesty, or the loss of property entrusted, the following was to be the recognised right: If money or articles ( כּלים , not mer...

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 22:10-13 - -- If an animal entrusted to a neighbour to take care of had either died or hurt itself ( נשׁבּר , broken a limb), or been driven away by robbers w...

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 22:14-15 - -- If any one borrowed an animal of his neighbour (to use it for some kind of work), and it got injured and died, he was to make compensation to the ow...

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 22:16-17 - -- The seduction of a girl, who belonged to her father as long as she was not betrothed (cf. Exo 21:7), was also to be regarded as an attack upon the ...

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 22:18-19 - -- The laws which follow, from Exo 22:18 onwards, differ both in form and subject-matter from the determinations of right which we have been studying h...

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 22:20 - -- Whoever offered sacrifice to strange gods instead of to Jehovah alone, was liable to death. יחרם he shall be banned, put under the ban ( cherem...

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 22:21-24 - -- The Israelites were not to offer sacrifice to foreign deities; but a foreigner himself they were not only to tolerate, but were not to vex or oppres...

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 22:25-27 - -- If a man should lend to one of the poor of his own people, he was not to oppress him by demanding interest; and if he gave his upper garment as a pl...

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 22:28 - -- " Thou shalt not despise God, and the prince among thy people thou shalt not curse. " Elohim does not mean either the gods of other nations, as Jose...

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 22:29-30 - -- " Thy fulness and thy flowing thou shalt not delay (to Me)." מלאה fulness, signifies the produce of corn (Deu 22:9); and דּמע (lit., tear, f...

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 22:31 - -- As the whole nation sanctified itself to the Lord in the sanctification of the first-born, the Israelites were to show themselves to be holy men unt...

Constable: Exo 15:22--Lev 1:1 - --II. THE ADOPTION OF ISRAEL 15:22--40:38 The second major section of Exodus records the events associated with Go...

Constable: Exo 19:1--24:12 - --B. The establishment of the Mosaic Covenant 19:1-24:11 The Lord had liberated Israel from bondage in Egy...

Constable: Exo 20:22--24:1 - --4. The stipulations of the Book of the Covenant 20:22-23:33 Israel's "Bill of Rights" begins her...

Constable: Exo 21:1--23:13 - --The fundamental rights of the Israelites 21:1-23:12 It is very important to note that va...

Constable: Exo 21:33--22:16 - --Property damage 21:33-22:15 21:33-34 The pit represents a typical case of damage caused by an inanimate object or natural phenomenon. These specific c...

Constable: Exo 22:16-31 - --Crimes against society 22:16-31 22:16-17 Next we have a case of seduction. Here the girl is viewed as the property of her father. If a young couple ha...

Guzik: Exo 22:1-31 - More Laws to Direct Judges Exodus 22 - More Laws to Direct Judges A. Laws regarding personal property and restitution. 1. (1-4) Restitution required in cases of theft. "...

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Lainnya

Evidence: Exo 22:31 "Before modern science identified bacteria, God made provision for humans by banning possibly diseased animals. As the blood carries most sickness, it...

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Pendahuluan / Garis Besar

JFB: Exodus (Pendahuluan Kitab) EXODUS, a "going forth," derives its name from its being occupied principally with a relation of the departure of the Israelites from Egypt, and the i...

JFB: Exodus (Garis Besar) INCREASE OF THE ISRAELITES. (Exo. 1:1-22) BIRTH AND PRESERVATION OF MOSES. (Exo 2:1-10) there went a man of the house of Levi, &c. Amram was the hus...

TSK: Exodus (Pendahuluan Kitab) The title of this Book is derived from the Septuagint; in which it is called ΕΞΟΔΟΣ , " Exodus;" or, as it is in the Codex Alexandrinus, Ε...

TSK: Exodus 22 (Pendahuluan Pasal) Overview Exo 22:1, Of theft; Exo 22:5, Of damage; Exo 22:7, Of trespasses; Exo 22:14, Of borrowing; Exo 22:16, Of fornication; Exo 22:18, Of witch...

Poole: Exodus (Pendahuluan Kitab) SECOND BOOK OF MOSES CALLED EXODUS. THE ARGUMENT. AFTER the death of Joseph, who had sent for his father’ s house into Egypt, the children o...

Poole: Exodus 22 (Pendahuluan Pasal) CHAPTER 22 Of theft, Exo 22:1-4 . Of eating another man’ s vineyard, Exo 2:5 Of hurt coming by fire, Exo 22:6 . Of hurt coming to goods commi...

MHCC: Exodus (Pendahuluan Kitab) The Book of Exodus relates the forming of the children of Israel into a church and a nation. We have hitherto seen true religion shown in domestic lif...

MHCC: Exodus 22 (Pendahuluan Pasal) Judicial laws.

Matthew Henry: Exodus (Pendahuluan Kitab) An Exposition, with Practical Observations, of The Second Book of Moses, Called Exodus Moses (the servant of the Lord in writing for him as well as ...

Matthew Henry: Exodus 22 (Pendahuluan Pasal) The laws of this chapter relate, I. To the eighth commandment, concerning theft (Exo 22:1-4), trespass by cattle (Exo 22:5), damage by fire (Exo 2...

Constable: Exodus (Pendahuluan Kitab) Introduction Title The Hebrew title of this book (we'elleh shemot) originated from the...

Constable: Exodus (Garis Besar) Outline I. The liberation of Israel 1:1-15:21 A. God's preparation of Israel and Moses chs. ...

Constable: Exodus Exodus Bibliography Adams, Dwayne H. "The Building Program that Works (Exodus 25:4--36:7 [31:1-11])." Exegesis ...

Haydock: Exodus (Pendahuluan Kitab) THE BOOK OF EXODUS. INTRODUCTION. The second Book of Moses is called Exodus from the Greek word Exodos, which signifies going out; becaus...

Gill: Exodus (Pendahuluan Kitab) INTRODUCTION TO EXODUS This book is called by the Jews Veelleh Shemoth, from the first words with which it begins, and sometimes Sepher Shemoth, an...

Gill: Exodus 22 (Pendahuluan Pasal) INTRODUCTION TO EXODUS 22 This chapter contains various laws concerning theft, Exo 22:1, concerning damage done to fields and vineyards by beasts, ...

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