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Teks -- Genesis 14:1-24 (NET)

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Konteks
The Blessing of Victory for God’s People
14:1 At that time Amraphel king of Shinar, Arioch king of Ellasar, Kedorlaomer king of Elam, and Tidal king of nations 14:2 went to war against Bera king of Sodom, Birsha king of Gomorrah, Shinab king of Admah, Shemeber king of Zeboiim, and the king of Bela (that is, Zoar). 14:3 These last five kings joined forces in the Valley of Siddim (that is, the Salt Sea). 14:4 For twelve years they had served Kedorlaomer, but in the thirteenth year they rebelled. 14:5 In the fourteenth year, Kedorlaomer and the kings who were his allies came and defeated the Rephaites in Ashteroth Karnaim, the Zuzites in Ham, the Emites in Shaveh Kiriathaim, 14:6 and the Horites in their hill country of Seir, as far as El Paran, which is near the desert. 14:7 Then they attacked En Mishpat (that is, Kadesh) again, and they conquered all the territory of the Amalekites, as well as the Amorites who were living in Hazazon Tamar. 14:8 Then the king of Sodom, the king of Gomorrah, the king of Admah, the king of Zeboiim, and the king of Bela (that is, Zoar) went out and prepared for battle. In the Valley of Siddim they met 14:9 Kedorlaomer king of Elam, Tidal king of nations, Amraphel king of Shinar, and Arioch king of Ellasar. Four kings fought against five. 14:10 Now the Valley of Siddim was full of tar pits. When the kings of Sodom and Gomorrah fled, they fell into them, but some survivors fled to the hills. 14:11 The four victorious kings took all the possessions and food of Sodom and Gomorrah and left. 14:12 They also took Abram’s nephew Lot and his possessions when they left, for Lot was living in Sodom. 14:13 A fugitive came and told Abram the Hebrew. Now Abram was living by the oaks of Mamre the Amorite, the brother of Eshcol and Aner. (All these were allied by treaty with Abram.) 14:14 When Abram heard that his nephew had been taken captive, he mobilized his 318 trained men who had been born in his household, and he pursued the invaders as far as Dan. 14:15 Then, during the night, Abram divided his forces against them and defeated them. He chased them as far as Hobah, which is north of Damascus. 14:16 He retrieved all the stolen property. He also brought back his nephew Lot and his possessions, as well as the women and the rest of the people. 14:17 After Abram returned from defeating Kedorlaomer and the kings who were with him, the king of Sodom went out to meet Abram in the Valley of Shaveh (known as the King’s Valley). 14:18 Melchizedek king of Salem brought out bread and wine. (Now he was the priest of the Most High God.) 14:19 He blessed Abram, saying, “Blessed be Abram by the Most High God, Creator of heaven and earth. 14:20 Worthy of praise is the Most High God, who delivered your enemies into your hand.” Abram gave Melchizedek a tenth of everything. 14:21 Then the king of Sodom said to Abram, “Give me the people and take the possessions for yourself.” 14:22 But Abram replied to the king of Sodom, “I raise my hand to the Lord, the Most High God, Creator of heaven and earth, and vow 14:23 that I will take nothing belonging to you, not even a thread or the strap of a sandal. That way you can never say, ‘It is I who made Abram rich.’ 14:24 I will take nothing except compensation for what the young men have eaten. As for the share of the men who went with me– Aner, Eshcol, and Mamre– let them take their share.”
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Abram the son of Terah of Shem
 · Admah a town destroyed with Sodom
 · Amalekites members of the nation of Amalek
 · Amorite members of a pre-Israel Semitic tribe from Mesopotamia
 · Amorites members of a pre-Israel Semitic tribe from Mesopotamia
 · Amraphel king of Shinar in the days of Abraham
 · Aner an Amorite chief who was an ally of Abram,a town in the territory of Manasseh given to the Kohathites
 · Arioch king of Ellasar, a town in Mesopotamia,the captain of the Nebuchadnezzar's guard
 · Ashteroth-karnaim a town of Manasseh about 35 km east of the sea of Chinnereth
 · Ashteroth-Karnaim a town of Manasseh about 35 km east of the sea of Chinnereth
 · Bela a town near the south end of the Dead Sea,son of Beor; first king of Edom,son of Benjamin son of Israel,son of Azaz; a leader in the tribe of Reuben
 · Bera king of Sodom in Abraham's time
 · Birsha king of Gomorrah in Abraham's time
 · Ched-Or-Laomer king of Elam in the time of Abraham
 · Damascus a city-state in Syria, located near Mt. Hermon at the edge of the Syrian desert (OS),a town near Mt. Hermon at the edge of the Syrian desert (OS)
 · Dan residents of the town of Dan; members of the tribe of Dan,the tribe of Dan as a whole; the descendants of Dan in Israel
 · El-Paran a place (town?) at edge of the wilderness, see Gen. 21:21,a town on the wilderness border of the land of Seir
 · El-paran a place (town?) at edge of the wilderness, see Gen. 21:21,a town on the wilderness border of the land of Seir
 · Elam son of Shem son of Noah,a country east of the Tigris and Babylon in the territory of Media,son of Shashak of Benjamin,son of Meshelemiah; a Levite gatekeeper,a man whose descendants returned from exile in Babylon; Elam I,forefather of exile returnees with Zerubbabel; Elam II,forefather of returnees headed by Jeshaiah,forefather of Shecaniah who had to put away his heathen wife,an Israelite chief who signed the covenant to obey God's law,a priest who helped Nehemiah dedicate the new wall of Jerusalem
 · Ellasar a town in Mesopotamia
 · Emim a tall people who lived east of the Jordan before Israel came
 · Enmishpat an oasis 100 km south of Gaza & 120 km NNW of Ezion-Geber
 · Eshcol brother of Mamre and Aner, Amorites who were allies of Abraham,a valley near Hebron, presumably where Eshcol once lived
 · Goiim a country defeated by Abraham,a country or town defeated by Joshua
 · Gomorrah an ancient city known for its sin whose ruins are said to be visible from the Masada,a town destroyed with Sodom by burning sulphur
 · Ham a man and nation; son of Noah,a country occupied by the descendants of Ham
 · Hazazon-tamar an oasis town in the desert of Judah by the Dead Sea
 · Hazazon-Tamar an oasis town in the desert of Judah by the Dead Sea
 · Hebrew a person descended from Heber; an ancient Jew; a Hebrew speaking Jew,any Jew, but particularly one who spoke the Hebrew language
 · Hobah a place north of Damascus to which Abraham pursued his enemies
 · Horite resident(s) of the region of Mount Seir


Topik/Tema Kamus: Abraham | Chedorlaomer | Lot | Tidal | Sodom | Amraphel | Amorites | Damascus | SIDDIM, VALE OF | LOT (1) | EXODUS, THE BOOK OF, 3-4 | GENESIS, 4 | LAW IN THE OLD TESTAMENT | ELAM; ELAMITES | ISRAEL, HISTORY OF, 1 | CHRONOLOGY OF THE OLD TESTAMENT | ARMY | ARCHAEOLOGY; ARCHAEOLOGY AND CRITICISM | ADAM IN THE NEW TESTAMENT | BABYLONIA | selebihnya
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Maclaren , MHCC , Matthew Henry , Keil-Delitzsch , Constable , Guzik

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Wesley: Gen 14:1 - -- We have here an account of the first war that ever we read of in scripture, in which we may observe. [1.] The parties engaged in it.

We have here an account of the first war that ever we read of in scripture, in which we may observe. [1.] The parties engaged in it.

Wesley: Gen 14:1 - The invaders were four kings; two of them no less than kings of Shinar and Elam That is, Chaldea and Persia; yet probably not the sovereign princes of those great kingdoms, but rather the heads of some colonies which came out then...

That is, Chaldea and Persia; yet probably not the sovereign princes of those great kingdoms, but rather the heads of some colonies which came out thence, and settled themselves near Sodom, but retained the names of the countries from which they had their original. The invaded were the kings of five cities that lay near together in the plain of Jordan, Sodom and Gomorrah, Admah, Zeboiim, and Zoar. [2.] The occasion of this war was, the revolt of the five kings from under the government of Chedorlaomer.

Wesley: Gen 14:4 - Twelve years they served him The Sodomites were the posterity of Canaan, whom Noah had pronounced a servant to Shem, from whom Elam descended. Thus soon did that prophecy begin to...

The Sodomites were the posterity of Canaan, whom Noah had pronounced a servant to Shem, from whom Elam descended. Thus soon did that prophecy begin to be fulfilled. In the thirteenth year, beginning to be weary of their subjection, they rebelled - Denied their tribute, and attempted to shake off the yoke.

Wesley: Gen 14:5 - In the fourteenth year After some pause and preparation, Chedorlaomer, in conjunction with his allies, set himself to reduce the revolters. [3.] The progress of the war. The...

After some pause and preparation, Chedorlaomer, in conjunction with his allies, set himself to reduce the revolters.

[3.] The progress of the war. The four kings laid the neighbouring countries waste, and enriched themselves with the spoil of them, Gen 14:5-7. Upon the alarm of which, the king of Sodom and his allies went out and were routed.

Wesley: Gen 14:13 - -- We have here an account of the only military action we ever find Abram engaged in; and this he was not prompted to by avarice or ambition, but purely ...

We have here an account of the only military action we ever find Abram engaged in; and this he was not prompted to by avarice or ambition, but purely by a principle of charity.

Wesley: Gen 14:14 - He armed his trained servants, born in his house To the number of three hundred and eighteen: a great family, but a small army; about as many as Gideon's that routed the Midianites, Jdg 7:7. He drew ...

To the number of three hundred and eighteen: a great family, but a small army; about as many as Gideon's that routed the Midianites, Jdg 7:7. He drew out his trained servants, or his catechized servants; not only instructed in the art of war, but instructed in the principles of religion; for Abram commanded his household to keep the way of the Lord.

Wesley: Gen 14:16 - His brother Lot That is, his kinsman.

That is, his kinsman.

Wesley: Gen 14:18 - -- The Rabbins say, that Melchizedek was Shem the son of Noah, who was king and priest to those that descended from him, according to the patriarchal mod...

The Rabbins say, that Melchizedek was Shem the son of Noah, who was king and priest to those that descended from him, according to the patriarchal model. Many Christian writers have thought that this was an appearance of the Son of God himself, our Lord Jesus, known to Abram at this time by this name. But as nothing is expressly revealed concerning it, we can determine nothing.

Wesley: Gen 14:18 - He brought forth bread and wine For the refreshment of Abram and his soldiers, and in congratulation of their victory. This he did as a king. As priest of the most high God he blesse...

For the refreshment of Abram and his soldiers, and in congratulation of their victory. This he did as a king. As priest of the most high God he blessed Abram, which we may suppose a greater refreshment to Abram than his bread and wine were.

Wesley: Gen 14:19 - Blessed be Abram, of the most high God Observe the titles he here gives to God, which are very glorious. The most high God, which speaks his absolute perfections in himself, and his soverei...

Observe the titles he here gives to God, which are very glorious. The most high God, which speaks his absolute perfections in himself, and his sovereign dominion over all the creatures.

Wesley: Gen 14:19 - Possessor of heaven and earth That is, rightful owner and sovereign Lord of all the creatures; because he made them.

That is, rightful owner and sovereign Lord of all the creatures; because he made them.

Wesley: Gen 14:20 - And blessed be the most high God Note, In all our prayers we must praise God, and join hallelujahs with all our hosannas. These are the spiritual sacrifices we must offer up daily, an...

Note, In all our prayers we must praise God, and join hallelujahs with all our hosannas. These are the spiritual sacrifices we must offer up daily, and upon particular occasions. God as the most high God must have the glory of all our victories. In them he shews himself higher than our enemies, and higher than we, for without him we could do nothing.

Wesley: Gen 14:20 - And he gave him tithes of all That is, of the spoils, Heb 7:4. This may be looked upon, As a gratuity presented to Melchizedek, by way of return for his respects. As an offering de...

That is, of the spoils, Heb 7:4. This may be looked upon, As a gratuity presented to Melchizedek, by way of return for his respects. As an offering dedicated to the most high God, and therefore put into the hands of Melchizedek his priest. Jesus Christ, our great Melchizedek, is to be humbly acknowledged by every one of us as our king and priest, and not only the tithe of all, but all we have, must be given up to him.

Wesley: Gen 14:21 - Give me the souls, and take thou the substance So the Hebrew reads it. Here he fairly begs the persons, but as freely bestows the goods on Abram. Gratitude teaches us to recompense to the utmost of...

So the Hebrew reads it. Here he fairly begs the persons, but as freely bestows the goods on Abram. Gratitude teaches us to recompense to the utmost of our power those that have undergone fatigues, or been at expence for our service.

Wesley: Gen 14:22 - I have lift up mine hand to the Lord that I will not take anything Here Observe, The titles he gives to God, the most high God, the possessor of heaven and earth - The same that Melchizedek had just now used. It is go...

Here Observe, The titles he gives to God, the most high God, the possessor of heaven and earth - The same that Melchizedek had just now used. It is good to learn of others how to order our speech concerning God, and to imitate those who speak well in divine things.

Wesley: Gen 14:22 - The ceremony used in this oath; I have lift up my hand In religious swearing we appeal to God's knowledge of our truth and sincerity, and imprecate his wrath if we swear falsely; and the lifting up of the ...

In religious swearing we appeal to God's knowledge of our truth and sincerity, and imprecate his wrath if we swear falsely; and the lifting up of the hands is expressive of both. Lest thou shouldst say, I have made Abram rich - Probably, Abram knew the king of Sodom to be a proud and scornful man, and one that would be apt to turn such a thing as this to his reproach afterwards, and when we have to do with such men, we have need to act with particular caution.

Wesley: Gen 14:23 - From a thread to a shoe latchet - Not the least thing that had ever belonged to the king of Sodom.

latchet - Not the least thing that had ever belonged to the king of Sodom.

JFB: Gen 14:1 - And it came to pass This chapter presents Abram in the unexpected character of a warrior. The occasion was this: The king of Sodom and the kings of the adjoining cities, ...

This chapter presents Abram in the unexpected character of a warrior. The occasion was this: The king of Sodom and the kings of the adjoining cities, after having been tributaries for twelve years to the king of Elam, combined to throw off his yoke. To chastise their rebellion, as he deemed it, Chedorlaomer, with the aid of three allies, invaded the territories of the refractory princes, defeated them in a pitched battle where the nature of the ground favored his army (Gen 14:10), and hastened in triumph on his homeward march, with a large amount of captives and booty, though merely a stranger.

JFB: Gen 14:12 - they took Lot . . . and his goods, and departed How would the conscience of that young man now upbraid him for his selfish folly and ingratitude in withdrawing from his kind and pious relative! When...

How would the conscience of that young man now upbraid him for his selfish folly and ingratitude in withdrawing from his kind and pious relative! Whenever we go out of the path of duty, we put ourselves away from God's protection, and cannot expect that the choice we make will be for our lasting good.

JFB: Gen 14:13 - there came one that had escaped Abram might have excused himself from taking any active concern in his "brother," that is, nephew, who little deserved that he should incur trouble or...

Abram might have excused himself from taking any active concern in his "brother," that is, nephew, who little deserved that he should incur trouble or danger on his account. But Abram, far from rendering evil for evil, resolved to take immediate measures for the rescue of Lot.

JFB: Gen 14:14 - And when Abram heard that his brother was taken captive, he armed his trained servants Domestic slaves, such as are common in Eastern countries still and are considered and treated as members of the family. If Abram could spare three hun...

Domestic slaves, such as are common in Eastern countries still and are considered and treated as members of the family. If Abram could spare three hundred and eighteen slaves and leave a sufficient number to take care of the flocks, what a large establishment he must have had.

JFB: Gen 14:15-16 - he divided himself . . . by night This war between the petty princes of ancient Canaan is exactly the same as the frays and skirmishes between Arab chiefs in the present day. When a de...

This war between the petty princes of ancient Canaan is exactly the same as the frays and skirmishes between Arab chiefs in the present day. When a defeated party resolves to pursue the enemy, they wait till they are fast asleep; then, as they have no idea of posting sentinels, they rush upon them from different directions, strike down the tent poles--if there is any fight at all, it is the fray of a tumultuous mob--a panic commonly ensues, and the whole contest is ended with little or no loss on either side.

JFB: Gen 14:18 - Melchizedek This victory conferred a public benefit on that part of the country; and Abram, on his return, was treated with high respect and consideration, partic...

This victory conferred a public benefit on that part of the country; and Abram, on his return, was treated with high respect and consideration, particularly by the king of Sodom and Melchizedek, who seems to have been one of the few native princes, if not the only one, who knew and worshipped, "the most high God," whom Abram served. This king who was a type of the Saviour (Heb 7:1), came to bless God for the victory which had been won, and in the name of God to bless Abram, by whose arms it had been achieved--a pious acknowledgment which we should imitate on succeeding in any lawful enterprise.

JFB: Gen 14:20 - he gave him tithes of all Here is an evidence of Abram's piety, as well as of his valor; for it was to a priest or official mediator between God and him that Abram gave a tenth...

Here is an evidence of Abram's piety, as well as of his valor; for it was to a priest or official mediator between God and him that Abram gave a tenth of the spoil--a token of his gratitude and in honor of a divine ordinance (Pro 3:9).

JFB: Gen 14:21 - the king of Sodom said . . . Give me the persons According to the war customs still existing among the Arab tribes, Abram might have retained the recovered goods, and his right was acknowledged by th...

According to the war customs still existing among the Arab tribes, Abram might have retained the recovered goods, and his right was acknowledged by the king of Sodom. But with honest pride, and a generosity unknown in that part of the world, he replied with strong phraseology common to the East, "I have lifted up mine hand" [that is, I have sworn] unto the Lord that I will not take from a thread even to a sandal-thong, and that that I will not take any thing that [is] thine, lest thou shouldst say, I have made Abram rich" [Gen 14:22-23].

Clarke: Gen 14:1 - In the days of Amraphel In the days of Amraphel - Who this king was is not known; and yet, from the manner in which he is spoken of in the text, it would seem that he was a...

In the days of Amraphel - Who this king was is not known; and yet, from the manner in which he is spoken of in the text, it would seem that he was a person well known, even when Moses wrote this account. But the Vulgate gives a different turn to the place, by rendering the passage thus: Factum est in illo tempore, ut Amraphel , etc. "It came to pass in that time that Amraphel, etc."The Chaldee Targum of Onkelos makes Amraphel king of Babylon, others make him king of Assyria; some make him the same as Nimrod, and others, one of his descendants

Clarke: Gen 14:1 - Arioch king of Ellasar Arioch king of Ellasar - Some think Syria is meant; but conjecture is endless where facts cannot be ascertained. Chedorlaomer king of Elam - Dr. Shu...

Arioch king of Ellasar - Some think Syria is meant; but conjecture is endless where facts cannot be ascertained. Chedorlaomer king of Elam - Dr. Shuckford thinks that this was the same as Ninyas, the son of Ninus and Semiramis; and some think him to be the same with Keeumras, son of Doolaved, son of Arphaxad, son of Shem, son of Noah; and that Elam means Persia; see Gen 10:22. The Persian historians unanimously allow that Keeumras, whose name bears some affinity to Chedorlaomer, was the first king of the Peeshdadian dynasty

Clarke: Gen 14:1 - Tidal king of nations Tidal king of nations - גוים goyim , different peoples or clans. Probably some adventurous person, whose subjects were composed of refugees fro...

Tidal king of nations - גוים goyim , different peoples or clans. Probably some adventurous person, whose subjects were composed of refugees from different countries.

Clarke: Gen 14:2 - These made war with Bera, etc. These made war with Bera, etc. - It appears, from Gen 14:4, that these five Canaanitish kings had been subdued by Chedorlaomer, and were obliged to ...

These made war with Bera, etc. - It appears, from Gen 14:4, that these five Canaanitish kings had been subdued by Chedorlaomer, and were obliged to pay him tribute; and that, having been enslaved by him twelve years, wishing to recover their liberty, they revolted in the thirteenth; in consequence of which Chedorlaomer, the following year, summoned to his assistance three of his vassals, invaded Canaan, fought with and discomfited the kings of the Pentapolis or five cities - Sodom, Gomorrah, Zeboiim, Zoar, and Admab, which were situated in the fruitful plain of Siddim, having previously overrun the whole land.

Clarke: Gen 14:5 - Rephaims Rephaims - A people of Canaan: Gen 15:20

Rephaims - A people of Canaan: Gen 15:20

Clarke: Gen 14:5 - Ashteroth Ashteroth - A city of Basan, where Og afterwards reigned; Jos 13:31

Ashteroth - A city of Basan, where Og afterwards reigned; Jos 13:31

Clarke: Gen 14:5 - Zuzims Zuzims - Nowhere else spoken of, unless they were the same with the Zamzummims, Deu 2:20, as some imagine

Zuzims - Nowhere else spoken of, unless they were the same with the Zamzummims, Deu 2:20, as some imagine

Clarke: Gen 14:5 - Emims Emims - A people great and many in the days of Moses, and tall as the Anakim. They dwelt among the Moabites, by whom they were reputed giants; Deu 2...

Emims - A people great and many in the days of Moses, and tall as the Anakim. They dwelt among the Moabites, by whom they were reputed giants; Deu 2:10, Deu 2:11

Clarke: Gen 14:5 - Shaveh Kiriathaim Shaveh Kiriathaim - Rather, as the margin, the plain of Kiriathaim, which was a city afterwards belonging to Sihon king of Heshbon; Jos 13:19.

Shaveh Kiriathaim - Rather, as the margin, the plain of Kiriathaim, which was a city afterwards belonging to Sihon king of Heshbon; Jos 13:19.

Clarke: Gen 14:6 - The Horites The Horites - A people that dwelt in Mount Seir, till Esau and his sons drove them thence; Deu 2:22

The Horites - A people that dwelt in Mount Seir, till Esau and his sons drove them thence; Deu 2:22

Clarke: Gen 14:6 - El-paran El-paran - The plain or oak of Paran, which was a city in the wilderness of Paran; Gen 21:21.

El-paran - The plain or oak of Paran, which was a city in the wilderness of Paran; Gen 21:21.

Clarke: Gen 14:7 - En-mishpat En-mishpat - The well of judgment; probably so called from the judgment pronounced by God on Moses and Aaron for their rebellion at that place; Num ...

En-mishpat - The well of judgment; probably so called from the judgment pronounced by God on Moses and Aaron for their rebellion at that place; Num 20:1-10

Clarke: Gen 14:7 - Amalekites Amalekites - So called afterwards, from Amalek, son of Esau; Gen 36:12

Amalekites - So called afterwards, from Amalek, son of Esau; Gen 36:12

Clarke: Gen 14:7 - Hazezon-tamar Hazezon-tamar - Called, in the Chaldee, Engaddi; a city in the land of Canaan, which fell to the lot of Judah; Jos 15:62. See also 2Ch 20:2. It appe...

Hazezon-tamar - Called, in the Chaldee, Engaddi; a city in the land of Canaan, which fell to the lot of Judah; Jos 15:62. See also 2Ch 20:2. It appears, from Son 1:14, to have been a very fruitful place.

Clarke: Gen 14:8 - Bela, the same is Zoar Bela, the same is Zoar - That is, it was called Zoar after the destruction of Sodom, etc., mentioned in Genesis 19.

Bela, the same is Zoar - That is, it was called Zoar after the destruction of Sodom, etc., mentioned in Genesis 19.

Clarke: Gen 14:10 - Slime-pits Slime-pits - Places where asphaltus or bitumen sprang out of the ground; this substance abounded in that country

Slime-pits - Places where asphaltus or bitumen sprang out of the ground; this substance abounded in that country

Clarke: Gen 14:10 - Fell there Fell there - It either signifies they were defeated on this spot, and many of them slain, or that multitudes of them had perished in the bitumen-pit...

Fell there - It either signifies they were defeated on this spot, and many of them slain, or that multitudes of them had perished in the bitumen-pits which abounded there; that the place was full of pits we learn from the Hebrew, which reads here בארת בארת beeroth beeroth , pits, pits, i.e., multitudes of pits. A bad place to maintain a fight on, or to be obliged to run through in order to escape.

Clarke: Gen 14:11 - They took all the goods, etc. They took all the goods, etc. - This was a predatory war, such as the Arabs carry on to the present day; they pillage a city, town, or caravan; and ...

They took all the goods, etc. - This was a predatory war, such as the Arabs carry on to the present day; they pillage a city, town, or caravan; and then escape with the booty to the wilderness, where it would ever be unsafe, and often impossible, to pursue them.

Clarke: Gen 14:12 - They took Lot, etc. They took Lot, etc. - The people, being exceedingly wicked, had provoked God to afflict them by means of those marauding kings; and Lot also suffere...

They took Lot, etc. - The people, being exceedingly wicked, had provoked God to afflict them by means of those marauding kings; and Lot also suffered, being found in company with the workers of iniquity. Every child remembers the fable of the Geese and Cranes; the former, being found feeding where the latter were destroying the grain, were all taken in the same net. Let him that readeth understand.

Clarke: Gen 14:13 - Abram the Hebrew Abram the Hebrew - See note on Gen 10:21. It is very likely that Abram had this appellation from his coming from beyond the river Euphrates to enter...

Abram the Hebrew - See note on Gen 10:21. It is very likely that Abram had this appellation from his coming from beyond the river Euphrates to enter Canaan; for העברי haibri , which we render the Hebrew, comes from עבר abar , to pass over, or come from beyond. It is supposed by many that he got this name from Eber or Heber, son of Salah; see Gen 11:15. But why he should get a name from Heber, rather than from his own father, or some other of his progenitors, no person has yet been able to discover. We may, therefore, safely conclude that he bears the appellation of Hebrew or Ibrite from the above circumstance, and not from one of his progenitors, of whom we know nothing but the name, and who preceded Abram not less than six generations; and during the whole of that time till the time marked here, none of his descendants were ever called Hebrews; this is a demonstration that Abram was not called the Hebrew from Heber; see Gen 11:15-27

Clarke: Gen 14:13 - These were confederate with Abram These were confederate with Abram - It seems that a kind of convention was made between Abram and the three brothers, Mamre, Eshcol, and Aner, who w...

These were confederate with Abram - It seems that a kind of convention was made between Abram and the three brothers, Mamre, Eshcol, and Aner, who were probably all chieftains in the vicinity of Abram’ s dwelling: all petty princes, similar to the nine kings before mentioned.

Clarke: Gen 14:14 - He armed his trained servants He armed his trained servants - These amounted to three hundred and eighteen in number: and how many were in the divisions of Mamre, Eshcol, and Ane...

He armed his trained servants - These amounted to three hundred and eighteen in number: and how many were in the divisions of Mamre, Eshcol, and Aner, we know not; but they and their men certainly accompanied him in this expedition. See Gen 14:24.

Clarke: Gen 14:15 - And he divided himself against them And he divided himself against them - It required both considerable courage and address in Abram to lead him to attack the victorious armies of thes...

And he divided himself against them - It required both considerable courage and address in Abram to lead him to attack the victorious armies of these four kings with so small a number of troops, and on this occasion both his skill and his courage are exercised. His affection for Lot appears to have been his chief motive; he cheerfully risks his life for that nephew who had lately chosen the best part of the land, and left his uncle to live as he might, on what he did not think worthy his own acceptance. But it is the property of a great and generous mind, not only to forgive, but to forget offenses; and at all times to repay evil with good.

Clarke: Gen 14:16 - And he brought back - the women also And he brought back - the women also - This is brought in by the sacred historian with peculiar interest and tenderness. All who read the account mu...

And he brought back - the women also - This is brought in by the sacred historian with peculiar interest and tenderness. All who read the account must be in pain for the fate of wives and daughters fallen into the hands of a ferocious, licentious, and victorious soldiery. Other spoils the routed confederates might have left behind; and yet on their swift asses, camels, and dromedaries, have carried off the female captives. However, Abram had disposed his attack so judiciously, and so promptly executed his measures, that not only all the baggage, but all the females also, were recovered.

Clarke: Gen 14:17 - The king of Sodom went out to meet him The king of Sodom went out to meet him - This could not have been Bera, mentioned Gen 14:2, for it seems pretty evident, from Gen 14:10, that both h...

The king of Sodom went out to meet him - This could not have been Bera, mentioned Gen 14:2, for it seems pretty evident, from Gen 14:10, that both he and Birsha, king of Gomorrah, were slain at the bitumen-pits in the vale of Siddim; but another person in the meantime might have succeeded to the government.

Clarke: Gen 14:18 - And Melchizedek, king of Salem And Melchizedek, king of Salem - A thousand idle stories have been told about this man, and a thousand idle conjectures spent on the subject of his ...

And Melchizedek, king of Salem - A thousand idle stories have been told about this man, and a thousand idle conjectures spent on the subject of his short history given here and in Heb. vii. At present it is only necessary to state that he appears to have been as real a personage as Bera, Birsha, or Shinab, though we have no more of his genealogy than we have of theirs

Clarke: Gen 14:18 - Brought forth bread and wine Brought forth bread and wine - Certainly to refresh Abram and his men, exhausted with the late battle and fatigues of the journey; not in the way of...

Brought forth bread and wine - Certainly to refresh Abram and his men, exhausted with the late battle and fatigues of the journey; not in the way of sacrifice, etc.; this is an idle conjecture

Clarke: Gen 14:18 - He was the priest of the most high God He was the priest of the most high God - He had preserved in his family and among his subjects the worship of the true God, and the primitive patria...

He was the priest of the most high God - He had preserved in his family and among his subjects the worship of the true God, and the primitive patriarchal institutions; by these the father of every family was both king and priest, so Melchizedek, being a worshipper of the true God, was priest among the people, as well as king over them

Melchizedek is called here king of Salem, and the most judicious interpreters allow that by Salem, Jerusalem is meant. That it bore this name anciently is evident from Psa 76:1, Psa 76:2 : "In Judah is God known; his name is great in Israel. In Salem also is his tabernacle, and his dwelling place in Zion."From the use made of this part of the sacred history by David, Psa 110:4, and by St. Paul, Heb 7:1-10, we learn that there was something very mysterious, and at the same time typical, in the person, name, office, residence, and government of this Canaanitish prince. 1. In his person he was a representative and type of Christ; see the scriptures above referred to. 2. His name, מלכי צדק malki tsedek , signifies my righteous king, or king of righteousness. This name he probably had from the pure and righteous administration of his government; and this is one of the characters of our blessed Lord, a character which can be applied to him only, as he alone is essentially righteous, and the only Potentate; but a holy man, such as Melchizedek, might bear this name as his type or representative. 3. Office; he was a priest of the most high God. The word כהן cohen , which signifies both prince and priest, because the patriarchs sustained this double office, has both its root and proper signification in the Arabic; kahana signifies to approach, draw near, have intimate access to; and from hence to officiate as priest before God, and thus have intimate access to the Divine presence: and by means of the sacrifices which he offered he received counsel and information relative to what was yet to take place, and hence another acceptation of the word, to foretell, predict future events, unfold hidden things or mysteries; so the lips of the priests preserved knowledge, and they were often the interpreters of the will of God to the people. Thus we find that Melchizedek, being a priest of the most high God, represented Christ in his sacerdotal character, the word priest being understood as before explained. 4. His residence; he was king of Salem. שלם shalam signifies to make whole, complete, or perfect; and hence it means peace, which implies the making whole the breaches made in the political and domestic union of kingdoms, states, families, etc., making an end of discord, and establishing friendship. Christ is called the Prince of peace, because, by his incarnation, sacrifice, and mediation, he procures and establishes peace between God and man; heals the breaches and dissensions between heaven and earth, reconciling both; and produces glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace and good will among men. His residence is peace and quietness and assurance for ever, in every believing upright heart. He governs as the Prince and Priest of the most high God, ruling in righteousness, mighty to save; and he ever lives to make intercession for, and save to the uttermost all who come unto the Father by him. See the notes on Hebrews 7 (note).

Clarke: Gen 14:19 - And he blessed him And he blessed him - This was a part of the priest’ s office, to bless in the name of the Lord, for ever. See the form of this blessing, Num 6:...

And he blessed him - This was a part of the priest’ s office, to bless in the name of the Lord, for ever. See the form of this blessing, Num 6:23-26; and for the meaning of the word to bless, see Gen 2:3 (note).

Clarke: Gen 14:20 - And he gave him tithes And he gave him tithes - A tenth part of all the spoils he had taken from the confederate kings. These Abram gave as a tribute to the most high God,...

And he gave him tithes - A tenth part of all the spoils he had taken from the confederate kings. These Abram gave as a tribute to the most high God, who, being the possessor of heaven and earth, dispenses all spiritual and temporal favors, and demands the gratitude, and submissive, loving obedience, of all his subjects. Almost all nations of the earth have agreed in giving a tenth part of their property to be employed in religious uses. The tithes were afterwards granted to the Levites for the use of the sanctuary, and the maintenance of themselves and their families, as they had no other inheritance in Israel.

Clarke: Gen 14:22 - I have lift up mine hand I have lift up mine hand - The primitive mode of appealing to God, and calling him to witness a particular transaction; this no doubt generally obta...

I have lift up mine hand - The primitive mode of appealing to God, and calling him to witness a particular transaction; this no doubt generally obtained among the faithful till circumcision, the sign of the covenant, was established. After this, in swearing, the hand was often placed on the circumcised part; see Gen 24:2, Gen 24:9.

Clarke: Gen 14:23 - From a thread even to a shoelatchet From a thread even to a shoelatchet - This was certainly a proverbial mode of expression, the full meaning of which is perhaps not known. Among the ...

From a thread even to a shoelatchet - This was certainly a proverbial mode of expression, the full meaning of which is perhaps not known. Among the rabbinical writers חוט chut , or חוטי chuti , signifies a fillet worn by young women to tie up their hair; taken in this sense it will give a good meaning here. As Abram had rescued both the men and women carried off by the confederate kings, and the king of Sodom had offered him all the goods, claiming only the persons, he answers by protesting against the accepting any of their property: "I have vowed unto the Lord, the proprietor of heaven and earth, that I will not receive the smallest portion of the property either of the women or men, from a girl’ s fillet to a man’ s shoe-tie."

Clarke: Gen 14:24 - Save only that which the young men have eaten Save only that which the young men have eaten - His own servants had partaken of the victuals which the confederate kings had carried away; see Gen ...

Save only that which the young men have eaten - His own servants had partaken of the victuals which the confederate kings had carried away; see Gen 14:11. This was unavoidable, and this is all he claims; but as he had no right to prescribe the same liberal conduct to his assistants, Aner, Eshcol, and Mamre, he left them to claim the share that by right of conquest belonged to them of the recaptured booty. Whether they were as generous as Abram we are not told

The great variety of striking incidents in this chapter the attentive reader has already carefully noted. To read and not understand is the property of the foolish and the inconsiderate. 1. We have already seen the danger to which Lot exposed himself in preferring a fertile region, though peopled with the workers of iniquity. His sorrows commence in the captivity of himself and family, and the loss of all his property, though by the good providence of God he and they were rescued. 2. Long observation has proved that the company a man keeps is not an indifferent thing; it will either be the means of his salvation or destruction. 3. A generous man cannot be contented with mere personal safety while others are in danger, nor with his own prosperity while others are in distress. Abram, hearing of the captivity of his nephew, determines to attempt his rescue; he puts himself at the head of his own servants, three hundred and eighteen in number, and the few assistants with which his neighbors, Mamre, Aner, and Eshcol, could furnish him; and, trusting in God and the goodness of his cause, marches off to attack four confederate kings! 4. Though it is not very likely that the armies of those petty kings could have amounted to many thousands, yet they were numerous enough to subdue almost the whole land of Canaan; and consequently, humanly speaking, Abram must know that by numbers he could not prevail, and that in this case particularly the battle was the Lord’ s. 5. While depending on the Divine blessing and succor he knew he must use the means he had in his power; he therefore divided his troops skilfully that he might attack the enemy at different points at the same time, and he chooses the night season to commence his attack, that the smallness of his force might not be discovered. God requires a man to use all the faculties he has given him in every lawful enterprise, and only in the conscientious use of them can he expect the Divine blessing; when this is done the event may be safely trusted in the hands of God. 6. Here is a war undertaken by Abram on motives the most honorable and conscientious; it was to repel aggression, and to rescue the innocent from the heaviest of sufferings and the worst of slavery, not for the purpose of plunder nor the extension of his territories; therefore he takes no spoils, and returns peaceably to his own possessions. How happy would the world be were every sovereign actuated by the same spirit! 7. We have already noticed the appearance, person, office, etc., of Melchizedek; and, without indulging in the wild theories of either ancient or modern visionaries, have considered him as the Scriptures do, a type of Christ. All that has been already spoken on this head may be recapitulated in a few words. 1. The Redeemer of the world is the King of righteousness; he creates it, maintains it, and rules by it. 2. His empire is the empire of peace; this he proclaims to them who are afar off, and to them that are nigh; to the Jew and to the Gentile. 3. He is Priest of the most high God, and has laid down his life for the sin of the world; and through this sacrifice the blessing of God is derived on them that believe. Reader, take him for thy King as well as thy Priest; he saves those only who submit to his authority and take his Spirit for the regulator of their heart, and his word for the director of their conduct. How many do we find, among those who would be sorry to be rated so low as to rank only with nominal Christians, talking of Christ as their Prophet, Priest, and King, who are not taught by his word and Spirit, who apply not for redemption in his blood, and who submit not to his authority! Reader, learn this deep and important truth: "Where I am there also shall my servant be; and he that serveth me, him shall my Father honor."

Calvin: Gen 14:1 - And it came to pass in the days of Amraphel 1.And it came to pass in the days of Amraphel. The history related in this chapter is chiefly worthy of remembrance, for three reasons: first, becaus...

1.And it came to pass in the days of Amraphel. The history related in this chapter is chiefly worthy of remembrance, for three reasons: first, because Lot, with a gentle reproof, exhorted the men of Sodom to repentance; they had, however, become altogether unteachable, and desperately perverse in their wickedness. But Lot was beaten with these scourges, because, having been allured and deceived by the richness of the soil, he had mixed himself with unholy and wicked men. Secondly, because God, out of compassion to him, raised up Abram as his avenger and liberator, to rescue him, when a captive, from the hand of the enemy; in which act the incredible goodness and benevolence of God towards his own people, is rendered conspicuous; since, for the sake of one man, he preserves, for a time, many who were utterly unworthy. Thirdly, because Abram was divinely honored with a signal victory, and was blessed by the mouth of Melchizedek, in whose person, as appears from other passages of Scripture, the kingdom and priesthood of Christ was shadowed forth. As it respects the sum of the history, it is a horrible picture both of the avarice and pride of man.

The human race had yet their three progenitors, Shem, Ham, and Japheth, living among them; by the very sight of whom they were admonished, that they all sprung from one family, and one ark. Moreover, the memory of their common origin was a sacred pledge of fraternal connection, which should have bound them to assist each other, by mutual good offices. Nevertheless, ambition so prevailed, that they assailed one another on all sides, with sword and armor, and each attempted to subdue the rest. Wherefore, while we see, at the present day, princes raging furiously, and shaking the earth to the utmost of their power; let us remember that the evil is of ancient date; since the lust of dominion has, in all ages, been too prevalent among men. Let us, however, also remark, that no fault is worse than that loftiness of mind, which many deem a most heroical disposition. The ambition of Chedorlaomer was the torch of the whole war: for he, inflamed with the desire of triumphing, drew three others into a hostile confederacy. And pride compelled the men of Sodom and their allies to take arms, for the purpose of shaking off the yoke.

That Moses, however, records the names of so many kings, while Shem was yet living, (although derided by profane men as fabulous,) will not appear absurd, if we only reflect that this great propagation of the human race, was a remarkable miracle of God. For when the Lord said to Noah himself, and to his sons, Increase and multiply, he intended to raise them to the hope of a far more excellent restoration than would have taken place, in the ordinary course of nature. This benediction is indeed perpetual, and shall flourish even to the end of the world: but it was necessary that its extraordinary efficacy should then appear; in order that these earliest fathers might know, that a new world had been divinely inclosed within the ark. By the Poets, Deucalion with his wife, is feigned to have sown the race of men after the deluge, by throwing stones behind him. 356 But it followed of necessity, that the miserable minds of men should be deluded with such trifles, when they departed from the pure truth of God; and Satan has made use of this artifice, for the purpose at discrediting the veracity of the miracles of God. For since the memory of the deluge, and the unwonted propagation of a new world, could not be speedily obliterated, he scattered abroad clouds and smoke; introducing puerile conceits, in order that what had before been held for certain truth, might now be regarded as a fable. It is however to be observed, that all are called kings by Moses, who held the priority in any town, or in any considerable assembly of men. It is asked, whether those kings who followed Chedorlaomer dwelt at a great distance; because Tidal is called the king of nations? There are those who imagine that he reigned over different nations far and wide; as if he was a king of kings. The ancient interpreter fetches Arioch from Pontus; 357 which is most absurd. I rather think the true reason of the name was, that he had a band composed of deserters and vagrants, who, having left their own country, had resorted to him. Therefore, since they were not one body — natives of his own country — but gathered together from a promiscuous multitude, he was properly called king of nations. In saying that the battle was fought in the vale of Siddim, or in the open plain, which, when Moses wrote, had become the Salt Sea, it is not to be doubted that the Dead Sea, or the lake Asphaltites, is meant. For he knew whom he was appointed to instruct, and therefore he always accommodated his words to the rude capacity of the people; and this is his common custom in reference to the names of places, as I have previously intimated. Before, however, the battle was fought, Moses declares that the inhabitants of the region were partially beaten. It is probable that all had been scattered, because they had no leader, under whose auspices they might fight, until five kings advanced to meet them with a disciplined army. Now, though Chedorlaomer had rendered so many people tributary to him by tyranny rather than by lawful authority, and on that account his ambition is to be condemned; yet his subjects are justly punished for having rashly rebelled. For although liberty is by no means to be despised, yet the subjection which is once imposed upon us cannot, without implied rebellion against God, be shaken off; because ‘every power is ordained by God,’ notwithstanding, in its commencement, it may have flowed from the lust of dominion, (Rom 13:1.) Therefore some of the rebels are slaughtered like cattle; and others, though they have clothed themselves in armor, and are prepared to resist, are yet driven to flight; thus, unhappily to all concerned, terminates the contumacious refusal to pay tribute. And such narratives are to be noticed that we may learn from them, that all who strive to produce anarchy, fight against God.

Calvin: Gen 14:10 - And the kings of Sodom and Gomorrah fled 10.And the kings of Sodom and Gomorrah fled. Some expound that they had fallen into pits: but this is not probable, since they were by no means ignor...

10.And the kings of Sodom and Gomorrah fled. Some expound that they had fallen into pits: but this is not probable, since they were by no means ignorant of the neighboring places: such an event would rather have happened to foreign enemies. Others say, that they went down into them for the sake of preserving their lives. I, however, understand them to have exchanged one kind of death for another, as is common in the moment of desperation; as if Moses had said, the swords of the enemy were so formidable to them, that, without hesitation, they threw themselves headlong into the pits. For he immediately afterwards subjoins, that they who escaped fled to the mountains. Whence we infer, that they who had rushed into the pits had perished. Only let us know, that they fell, not so much deceived through ignorance of the place, as disheartened by fear.

Calvin: Gen 14:12 - And they took Lot 12.And they took Lot. It is doubtful whether Lot remained at home while others went to the battle, and was there captured by the enemy; or whether he...

12.And they took Lot. It is doubtful whether Lot remained at home while others went to the battle, and was there captured by the enemy; or whether he had been compelled to take arms with the rest of the people. As, however, Moses does not mention him till he speaks of the plundering of the city, the conjecture is probable, that at the conclusion of the battle, he was taken at home, unarmed. We here see, first, that sufferings are common to the good and the evil; then, that the more closely we are connected with the wicked and the ungodly, when God pours down his vengeance on them, the more quickly does the scourge come upon us.

Calvin: Gen 14:13 - And there came one that had escaped // And these were confederate with Abram 13.And there came one that had escaped. This is the second part of the chapter, in which Moses shows, that when God had respect to his servant Lot, h...

13.And there came one that had escaped. This is the second part of the chapter, in which Moses shows, that when God had respect to his servant Lot, he gave him Abram as his deliverer, to rescue him from the hands of the enemy. But here various questions arise; as, whether it was lawful for Abram, a private person, to arm his family against kings, and to undertake a public war. I do not, however, doubt, that as he went to the war endued with the power of the Spirit, so also he was guarded by a heavenly command, that he did not transgress the bounds of his vocation. And this ought not to be regarded as a new thing, but as his special calling; for he had already been created king of that land. And although the possession of it was deferred to a future time; yet God would give some remarkable proof of the power which he had granted him, and which was hitherto unknown to men. 358 A similar prelude of what was to follow, we read in the case of Moses, when he slew the Egyptian, before he openly presented himself as the avenger and deliverer of his nation. And for this reason the subject ought to be noticed, that they who wish to defend themselves by armed force, whenever any force is used against them, may note from this fact, frame a rule for themselves. We shall hereafter see this same Abram bearing patiently and with a submissive mind, injuries which had at least, an equal tendency to provoke his spirit. Moreover, that Abram attempted nothing rashly, but rather, that his design was approved by God, will appear presently, from the commendation of Melchizedek. We may therefore conclude, that this war was undertaken by him, under the special direction of the Spirit. If any one should take exception, that he proceeded further than was lawful, when he spoiled the victors of their prey and captives, and restored them wholly to the men of Sodom, who had, by no means been committed to his protection; I answer, since it appears that God was his Guide and Ruler in this affair, — as we infer from His approbation, — it is not for us to dispute respecting His secret judgment. God had destined the inhabitants of Sodom, when their neighbors were ruined and destroyed, to a still more severe judgment; because they were themselves the worst of all. He, therefore, raised up his servant Abram, after they had been admonished by a chastisement sufficiently severe, to deliver them, in order that they might be rendered the more inexcusable. Therefore, this peculiar suggestion of the Holy Spirit ought no more to be drawn into a precedent, than the whole war which Abram had carried on. With respect to the messenger who had related to Abram the slaughter at Sodom, I do not accept what some suppose, that he was a pious man. We may rather conjecture that, as a fugitive from home, who had been deprived of all his goods, he came to Abram to elicit something from his humanity. That Abram is called a Hebrew, I do not explain from the fact of his having passed over the river, as is the opinion of some; but from his being of the progeny of Eber. For it is a name of descent. And the Holy Spirit here again honorably announces that race as blessed by God.

And these were confederate with Abram. It appears, that in the course of time, Abram was freely permitted to enter into covenant and friendship with the princes of the land: for the heroical virtues of the man, caused them to regard him as one who was not, by any means, to be despised. Nay, as he had so great a family, he might also have been numbered among kings, if he had not been a stranger and a sojourner. But God purposed thus to provide for his peace, by a covenant relating to temporal things in order that he never might be mingled with those nations. Moreover, that this whole transaction was divinely ordered we may readily conjecture from the fact, that his associates did not hesitate, at great risk, to assail four kings, who (according to the state of the times) were sufficiently strong, and were flushed with the confidence of victory. Surely they would scarcely ever have been thus favorable to a stranger, except by a secret impulse of God.

Calvin: Gen 14:14 - When Abram heard that his brother was taken captive 14.When Abram heard that his brother was taken captive. Moses briefly explains the cause of the war which was undertaken; namely, that Abram might re...

14.When Abram heard that his brother was taken captive. Moses briefly explains the cause of the war which was undertaken; namely, that Abram might rescue his relation from captivity. Meanwhile, what I have before said is to be remembered, that he did not rashly fly to arms; but took them as from the hand of God, who had constituted him lord of that land. With reference to the words themselves, I know not why the ancient interpreter has rendered them, ‘Abram numbered his trained servants.’ For the word ריק ( rik) signifies to unsheathe, or to draw out. 359 Now Moses calls these servants חניכים ( chanichim,) not as having been educated and trained for military service, as many suppose; but rather (in my opinion) as having been brought up under his own authority, and imbued from childhood with his discipline; so that they fought the more courageously, being stimulated by his faith, and going forth under his auspices; 360 and were ready to undergo every kind of danger for his sake. But in this great household troop, we must notice, not only the diligence of the holy patriarch, but the special blessing of God, by which it had been increased beyond the common and usual manner.

Calvin: Gen 14:15 - And he divided himself against them 15.And he divided himself against them. Some explain the words to mean that Abram alone, with his domestic troops, rushed upon the enemy. Others, tha...

15.And he divided himself against them. Some explain the words to mean that Abram alone, with his domestic troops, rushed upon the enemy. Others, that he and his three confederates divided their bands, in order to strike greater terror into the foe. A third class suppose the phrase to be a Hebraism, for making an irruption into the midst of the enemy. I rather embrace the second exposition; namely, that he invaded the enemy on different sides, and suddenly inspired them with terror. For the circumstance of time favors this view, because he attacked them by night. And although examples of similar bravery occur in profane history; yet it ought to be ascribed to the faith of Abram, that with a small band, he dared to assail a numerous army elated with victory. But that he came off conqueror with little trouble, and with intrepidity pursued those who far exceeded him in number, we must ascribe to the favor of God.

Calvin: Gen 14:17 - And the king of Sodom went out 17.And the king of Sodom went out. Although the king of Sodom knew that Abram had taken arms only on account of his nephew, yet he went to meet him w...

17.And the king of Sodom went out. Although the king of Sodom knew that Abram had taken arms only on account of his nephew, yet he went to meet him with due honor, in order to show his gratitude. For it is a natural duty to acknowledge benefits conferred upon us, even when not intentionally rendered, but only from unexpected circumstances and occasions, or (as we say) by accident. Moreover, the whole affair yields greater glory to God, because the victory of Abram was celebrated in this manner. He also marks the place where the king of Sodom met Abram, namely, “the king’s dale,” which I think was so called, rather after some particular king, than because those kings met there for their pleasure. 361

Calvin: Gen 14:18 - And Melchizedek king of Salem brought forth 18.And Melchizedek king of Salem brought forth. This is the last of the three principal points of this history, that Melchizedek, the chief father of...

18.And Melchizedek king of Salem brought forth. This is the last of the three principal points of this history, that Melchizedek, the chief father of the Church, having entertained Abram at a feast, blessed him, in virtue of his priesthood, and received tithes from him. There is no doubt that by the coming of this king to meet him, God also designed to render the victory of Abram famous and memorable to posterity. But a more exalted and excellent mystery was, at the same time, adumbrated: for seeing that the holy patriarch, whom God had raised to the highest rank of honor, submitted himself to Melchizedek, it is not to be doubted that God had constituted him the only head of the whole Church; 362 for, without controversy, the solemn act of benediction, which Melchizedek assumed to himself, was a symbol of preeminent dignity. If any one replies, that he did this as a priest; I ask, was not Abram also a priest? Therefore God here commends to us something peculiar in Melchizedek, in preferring him before the father of all the faithful. But it will be more satisfactory to examine the passage word by word, in regular order, that we may thence better gather the import of the whole. That he received Abram and his companions as guests belonged to his royalty; but the benediction pertained especially to his sacerdotal office. Therefore, the words of Moses ought to be thus connected: Melchizedek king of Salem brought forth bread and wine; and seeing he was the priest of God, he blessed Abram; thus to each character is distinctly attributed what is its own. He refreshed a wearied and famishing army with royal liberality; but because he was a priest, he blessed, by the rite of solemn prayer, the firstborn son of God, and the father of the Church. Moreover, although I do not deny that it was the most ancient custom, for those who were kings to fulfill also the office of the priesthood; yet this appears to have been, even in that age, extraordinary in Melchizedek. And truly he is honored with no common eulogy, when the Spirit ratifies his priesthood. We know how, at that time, religion was everywhere corrupted since Abram himself, who was descended from the sacred race of Shem and Eber, had been plunged in the profound vortex of superstitions with his father and grandfather. Therefore many imagine Melchizedek to have been Shem; to whose opinion I am, for many reasons, hindered from subscribing. For the Lord would not have designated a man, worthy of eternal memory, by a name so new and obscure, that he must remain unknown. Secondly, it is not probable that Shem had migrated from the east into Judea; and nothing of the kind is to be gathered from Moses. Thirdly, if Shem had dwelt in the land of Canaan, Abram would not have wandered by such winding courses, as Moses has previously related, before he went to salute his ancestor. But the declaration of the Apostle is of the greatest weight; that this Melchizedek, whoever he was, is presented before us, without any origin, as if he had dropped from the clouds, and that his name is buried without any mention of his death. (Heb 7:3.) But the admirable grace of God shines more clearly in a person unknown; because, amid the corruptions of the world, he alone, in that land, was an upright and sincere cultivator and guardian of religion. I omit the absurdities which Jerome, in his Epistle to Evagrius, heaps together; lest, without any advantage, I should become troublesome, and even offensive to the reader. I readily believe that Salem is to be taken for Jerusalem; and this is the generally received interpretation. If, however, any one chooses rather to embrace a contrary opinion, seeing that the town was situated in a plain, I do not oppose it. On this point Jerome thinks differently: nevertheless, what he elsewhere relates, that in his own times some vestiges of the palace of Melchizedek were still extant in the ancient ruins, appears to me improbable.

It now remains to be seen how Melchizedek bore the image of Christ, and became, as it were, his representative, ἀντίτυπος ( avtitupos. 363) These are the words of David,

“The Lord sware, and will not repent, Thou art a priest forever, after the order of Melchizedek,” (Psa 110:4.)

First, he had placed him on a royal throne, and now he gives him the honor of the priesthood. But under the Law, these two offices were so distinct, that it was unlawful for kings to usurp the office of the priesthood. If, therefore, we concede as true, what Plato declares, and what occasionally occurs in the poets, that it was formerly received, by the common custom of nations, that the same person should be both king and priest; this was by no means the case with David and his posterity, whom the Law peremptorily forbade to intrude on the priestly office. It was therefore right, that what was divinely appointed under the old law, should be abrogated in the person of this priest. And the Apostle does not contend without reason, that a more excellent priesthood than that old and shadowy one, was here pointed out; which priesthood is confirmed by an oath. Moreover, we never find that king and priest, who is to be preeminent over all, till we come to Christ. And as no one has arisen except Christ, who equalled Melchizedek in dignity, still less who excelled him; we hence infer that the image of Christ was presented to the fathers, in his person. David, indeed, does not propose a similitude framed by himself; but declares the reason for which the kingdom of Christ was divinely ordained, and even confirmed with an oath; and it is not to be doubted that the same truth had previously been traditionally handed down by the fathers. The sum of the whole is, that Christ would thus be the king next to God, and also that he should be anointed priest, and that for ever; which it is very useful for us to know, in order that we may learn that the royal power of Christ is combined with the office of priest. The same Person, therefore who was constituted the only and eternal Priest, in order that he might reconcile us to God, and who, having made expiation, might intercede for us, is also a King of infinite power to secure our salvation, and to protect us by his guardian care. Hence it follows, that relying on his advocacy, we may stand boldly in the presence of God, who will, we are assured, be propitious to us; and that trusting in his invincible arm, we may securely triumph over enemies of every kind. But they who separate one office from the other, rend Christ asunder, and subvert their own faith, which is deprived of half its support. It is also to be observed, that Christ is called an eternal King, like Melchizedek. For since the Scripture, by assigning no end to his life, leaves him as if he were to survive through all ages; it certainly represents or shadows forth to us, in his person, a figure, not of a temporal, but of an eternal kingdom. But whereas Christ, by his death, has accomplished the office of Priest, it follows that God was, by that one sacrifice, once appeased in such a manner, that now reconciliation is to be sought in Christ alone. Therefore, they do him grievous wrong, and wrest from him by abominable sacrilege, the honor divinely conferred upon him by an oaths who either institute other sacrifices for the expiation of sins, or who make other priests. 364 And I wish this had been prudently weighed by the ancient writers of the Church. For then would they not so coolly, and even so ignorantly, have transferred to the bread and wine the similitude between Christ and Melchizedek, which consists in things very different. They have supposed that Melchizedek is the image of Christ, because he offered bread and wine. For they add, that Christ offered his body, which is life-giving bread, and his blood, which is spiritual drink. But the Apostle, while in his Epistle to the Hebrews, he most accurately collects, and specifically prosecutes, every point of similarity between Christ and Melchizedek, says not a word concerning the bread and wine. If the subtleties of Tertullian, and of others like him, were true, it would have been a culpable negligence, not to bestow a single syllable upon the principal point, while discussing the separate parts, which were of comparatively trivial importance. And seeing the Apostle disputes at so great length, and with such minuteness, concerning the priesthood; how gross an instance of forgetfulness would it have been, not to touch upon that memorable sacrifice, in which the whole force of the priesthood was comprehended? He proves the honor of Melchizedek from the benediction given, and tithes received: how much better would it have suited this argument to have said, that he offered not lambs or calves, but the life of the world, (that is, the body and blood of Christ,) in a figure? By these arguments the fictions of the ancients are abundantly refuted. Nevertheless, from the very words of Moses a sufficiently lucid refutation may be taken. For we do not there read that anything was offered to God; but in one continued discourse it is stated, ‘He offered bread and wine; and seeing he was priest of the Most High God, he blessed him.’ Who does not see that the same relative pronoun is common to both verbs; and therefore that Abram was both refreshed with the wine, and honored with the benediction? Utterly ridiculous truly are the Papists, who distort the offering 365 of bread and wine to the sacrifice of their mass. For in order to bring Melchizedek into agreement with themselves, it will be necessary for them to concede that bread and wine are offered in the mass. Where, then, is transubstantiation, which leaves nothing except the bare species of the elements? Then, with what audacity do they declare that the body of Christ is immolated in their sacrifices? Under what pretext, since the Son of God is called the only successor of Melchizedek, do they substitute innumerable successors for him? We see, then, how foolishly they not only deprave this passage, but babble without the color of reason.

Calvin: Gen 14:19 - And he blessed him // Blessed be Abram of the most high God 19.And he blessed him. Unless these two members of the sentence, ‘He was the priest of God,’ and ‘He blessed,’ cohere together, Moses here re...

19.And he blessed him. Unless these two members of the sentence, ‘He was the priest of God,’ and ‘He blessed,’ cohere together, Moses here relates nothing uncommon. For men mutually bless each other; that is, they wish well to each other. But here the priest of God is described, who, according to the right of his office, sanctifies one inferior and subject to himself. For he would never have dared to bless Abram, unless he had known, that in this respect he excelled him. In this manner the Levitical priests are commanded to bless the people; and God promises that the blessing should be efficacious and ratified, (Num 6:23.) So Christ, when about to ascend up to heaven, having lifted up his hands, blessed the Apostles, as a minister of the grace of God, (Luk 24:51;) and then was exhibited the truth of this figure. For he testifies that the office of blessing the Church, which had been adumbrated in Melchizedek, was assigned him by his Father.

Blessed be Abram of the most high God. The design of Melchizedek is to confirm and ratify the grace of the Divine vocation to holy Abram; for he points out the honor with which God had peculiarly dignified him by separating him from all others, and adopting him as his own son. And he calls God, by whom Abram had been chosen, the Possessor of heaven and earth, to distinguish him from the fictitious idols of the Gentiles. Afterwards, indeed, God invests himself with other titles; that, by some peculiar mark, he may render himself more clearly known to men, who, because of the vanity of their mind, when they simply hear of God as the Framer of heaven and earth, never cease to wander, till at length they are lost in their own speculations. But because God was already known to Abram, and his faith was founded upon many miracles, Melchizedek deems it sufficient to declare that, by the title of Creator, 366 He whom Abram worshipped, is the true and only God. And although Melchizedek himself maintained the sincere worship of the true God, he yet calls Abram blessed of God, in respect of the eternal covenant: as if he would say, that, by a kind of hereditary right, the grace of God resided in one family and nation, because Abram alone had been chosen out of the whole world. Then is added a special congratulation on the victory obtained; not such as is wont to pass between profane men, who puff each other up with inflated encomiums; but Melchizedek gives thanks unto God, and regards the victory which the holy man had gained as a seal of his gratuitous calling.

Calvin: Gen 14:20 - And he gave him tithes of all 20.And he gave him tithes of all. There are those who understand that the tithes were given to Abram; but the Apostle speaks otherwise, in declaring ...

20.And he gave him tithes of all. There are those who understand that the tithes were given to Abram; but the Apostle speaks otherwise, in declaring that Levi had paid tithes in the loins of Abram, (Heb 7:9,) when Abram offered tithes to a more excellent Priest. And truly what the expositors above-mentioned mean, would be most absurd; because, if Melchizedek was the priest of God, it behaved him to receive tithes rather than to give them. Nor is it to be doubted but Abram offered the gift to God, in the person of Melchizedek, in order that, by such first-fruits, he might dedicate all his possessions to God. Abram therefore voluntarily gave tithes to Melchizedek, to do honor to his priesthood. Moreover, since it appears that this was not done wrongfully nor rashly, the Apostle properly infers, that, in this figure, the Levitical priesthood is subordinate to the priesthood of Christ. For other reasons, God afterwards commanded tithes to be given to Levi under the Law; but, in the age of Abram, they were only a holy offering, given as a pledge and proof of gratitude. It is however uncertain whether he offered the title of the spoils or of the goods which he possessed at home. But, since it is improbable that he should have been liberal with other persons’ goods, and should have given a very a tenth part of the prey, of which he had resolved not to touch even a thread, I rather conjecture, that these tithes were taken out of his own property. I do not, however, admit that they were paid annually, as some imagine, but rather, in my judgment, he dedicated this present to Melchizedek once, for the purpose of acknowledging him as the high priest of God: nor could he, at that time, (as we say,) hand it over; 367 but there was a solemn stipulation, of which the effect shortly after followed.

Calvin: Gen 14:21 - And the king of Sodom said 21.And the king of Sodom said. Moses having, by the way, interrupted the course of his narrative concerning the king of Sodom, by the mention of the ...

21.And the king of Sodom said. Moses having, by the way, interrupted the course of his narrative concerning the king of Sodom, by the mention of the king of Salem, now returns to it again; and says that the king of Sodom came to meet Abram, not only for the sake of congratulating him, but of giving him a due reward. He therefore makes over to him the whole prey, except the men; as if he would says ‘It is a great thing that I recover the men; let all the rest be given to thee as a reward for this benefit.’ And thus to have shown himself grateful to man, would truly have been worthy of commendation; had he not been ungrateful to God, by whose severity and clemency he remained alike unprofited. It was even possible that this man, when poor and deprived of all his goods, might, with a servile affectation of modesty, try to gain the favor of Abram, by asking to have nothing but the captives and the empty city for himself. Certainly we shall afterwards see that the men of Sodom were unmindful of the benefit received, when they proudly and contemptuously vexed righteous Lot.

Calvin: Gen 14:22 - And Abram said to the king of Sodom, I have lift up mine hand, etc 22.And Abram said to the king of Sodom, I have lift up mine hand, etc 368 This ancient ceremony was very appropriate to give expression to the force ...

22.And Abram said to the king of Sodom, I have lift up mine hand, etc 368 This ancient ceremony was very appropriate to give expression to the force and nature of an oath. For by raising the hand towards heaven, we show that we appeal to God as a witness, and also as an avenger, if we fail to keep our oath. Formerly, indeed, they raised their hands in giving votes; whence the Greeks derive the word (χειροτονεῖν,) 369 which signifies to decree: but in the rite of swearing, the reason for doing so was different. For men hereby declared, that they regarded themselves as in the presence of God, and called upon him to be both the Guardian of truth, and the Avenger of perjury. Yet it may seem strange that Abram should so easily have put himself forward to swear; for he knew that a degree of reverence was due to the name of God, which should constrain us to use it but sparingly, and only from necessity. I answer, there were two reasons for his swearing. First, since inconstant men are wont to measure others by their own standard, they seldom place confidence in bare assertions. The king of Sodom, therefore, would have thought that Abram did not seriously remit his right, unless the name of God had been interposed. And, secondly, it was of great consequence, to make it manifest to all, that he had not carried on a mercenary war. The histories of all times sufficiently declare, that even they who have had just causes of war have, nevertheless, been invited to it by the thirst of private gain. And as men are acute in devising pretexts, they are never at a loss to find plausible reasons for war, even though covetousness may be their only real stimulant. Therefore, unless Abram had resolutely refused the spoils of war, the rumor would immediately have spread, that, under the pretense of rescuing his nephew, he had been intent upon grasping the prey. Against which it was necessary for him carefully to guard, not so much for his own sakes as for the glory of God, which would otherwise have received some mark of disparagement. Besides, Abram wished to arm himself with the name of God, as with a shield, against all the allurements of avarice. For the king of Sodom would not have desisted from tempting his mind by various methods, if the occasion for using bland insinuations had not been promptly cut off.

Calvin: Gen 14:23 - That I will not take from a thread even to a shoe - latchet // Lest thou shouldst say 23.That I will not take from a thread even to a shoe - latchet. The Hebrews have an elliptical form of making oath, in which the imprecation of punis...

23.That I will not take from a thread even to a shoe - latchet. The Hebrews have an elliptical form of making oath, in which the imprecation of punishment is understood. In some places, the full expression of it occurs in the Scriptures, “The Lord do so to me and more also,” (1Sa 14:44.) Since however, it is a dreadful thing to fall into the hands of the living God, in order that the obligation of oaths may be the more binding, this abrupt form of speech admonishes men to reflect on what they are doing; for it is just as if they should put a restraint upon themselves, and should stop suddenly in the midst of their discourse. This indeed is most certain, that men never rashly swear, but they provoke the vengeance of God against them, and make Him their adversary.

Lest thou shouldst say. Although these words seem to denote a mind elated, and too much addicted to fame, yet since Abram is on this point commended by the Spirit, we conclude that this was a truly holy magnanimity. But an exception is added namely that he will not allow his own liberality to be injurious to his allies, nor make them subject to his laws. For this also is not the least part of virtue, to act rightly, yet in such a manner, that we do not bind others to our example, as to a rule. Let every one therefore regard what his own vocation demands, and what pertains to his own duty, in order that men may not prejudge one another according to their own will. For it is a moroseness too imperious, to wish that what we ourselves follow as right, and consonant with our duty, should be prescribed as a law to others.

Defender: Gen 14:1 - king of Shinar Shinar probably refers to Sumeria, and Elam to early Persia. Ellasar was the leading tribe in southern Babylonia and "nations" (Hebrew Goiim) was prob...

Shinar probably refers to Sumeria, and Elam to early Persia. Ellasar was the leading tribe in southern Babylonia and "nations" (Hebrew Goiim) was probably a tribe of northeastern Babylonia. Chedorlaomer seems to have been the chief leader of this confederacy (Gen 14:4)."

Defender: Gen 14:3 - Siddim "Siddim" meant "cultivated fields," and the vale of Siddim at this time was extremely fertile, supporting the five cities of the plain. The reference ...

"Siddim" meant "cultivated fields," and the vale of Siddim at this time was extremely fertile, supporting the five cities of the plain. The reference to "the salt sea" was probably a later editorial insertion by Moses. At the time of Abram, what is now the Dead Sea was still a freshwater remnant of the great flood, and the whole region was "well watered everywhere" (Gen 13:10). The exact location of Sodom and her four sister cities is uncertain, although most authorities believe their remains are now submerged beneath the waters of the shallow southern arm of the Dead Sea. There is also the possibility that the actual cities were located on higher elevations overlooking five ephemeral streams emptying into the lake, with the inhabitants working the fields below during the daytime, then living in the cooler heights above at night."

Defender: Gen 14:5 - Rephaims Some of these Canaanite tribes actually seem to have been demon-possessed, in the same manner as the demon-energized population before the Flood (see ...

Some of these Canaanite tribes actually seem to have been demon-possessed, in the same manner as the demon-energized population before the Flood (see notes on Gen 6:1-4). The Rephaim ("strong ones") and the Zamzummim ("powerful ones," probably the same as the Zuzim) along with the Emim, all seem to have been of the sons of Anak, or the Anakim, and all seem to have been giants (Deu 2:10, Deu 2:20; Jos 15:13). In Num 13:33, these Anakim are actually said to have been "giants" (Hebrew nephilim, the same word as used in Gen 6:4). Furthermore, the term rephaim is also used to refer to some of the spirits of the wicked dead in Hades (Job 26:5; Pro 2:18; Pro 9:18; Pro 21:16; Isa 14:9; Isa 26:14). All of this suggests another irruption of demonic spirits after the Flood, possibly at the rebellion at Babel, with giant progeny again being produced through demon-possessed parents. Their descendants inhabited Canaan."

Defender: Gen 14:6 - Horites The Horites are known to archaeologists as the Hurrians, a leading tribe of the ancient Middle East."

The Horites are known to archaeologists as the Hurrians, a leading tribe of the ancient Middle East."

Defender: Gen 14:7 - Amalekites The Amalekites were descended from Amalek, a grandson of Esau, and later inhabited a region west of the Dead Sea. This note was evidently inserted by ...

The Amalekites were descended from Amalek, a grandson of Esau, and later inhabited a region west of the Dead Sea. This note was evidently inserted by Moses in his editing of Genesis.

Defender: Gen 14:7 - Amorites The Amorites were probably the dominant tribe in Canaan at this time."

The Amorites were probably the dominant tribe in Canaan at this time."

Defender: Gen 14:10 - slime pits These "slime pits" were so extensive that the Dead Sea was called the Asphalt Sea by early writers. They probably represented accumulations of organic...

These "slime pits" were so extensive that the Dead Sea was called the Asphalt Sea by early writers. They probably represented accumulations of organic debris from the Flood, collecting in the unique basins of the great Rift Valley which traverses the region."

Defender: Gen 14:18 - Melchizedek The identity of Melchizedek is controversial, especially in view of the statements made concerning him in Psa 110:4, and in Heb 5:6, Heb 5:10; Heb 6:2...

The identity of Melchizedek is controversial, especially in view of the statements made concerning him in Psa 110:4, and in Heb 5:6, Heb 5:10; Heb 6:20; 7:1-21. "The Lord" is called by David "a priest for ever after the order of Melchizedek." The writer of Hebrews said Melchizedek was "without father, without mother, without descent ("genealogy"), having neither beginning of days, nor end of life; but made like unto the Son of God; abideth a priest continually" (Heb 7:3). The usual interpretation of these words is that he was made into a type of Christ since as a "King of Righteousness" (meaning of Melchizedek ) and "King of Peace" (meaning of Salem ), he appears and leaves the record suddenly, with no mention of either ancestry or death. It seems better to take the words literally, in which case they could be applicable to Christ Himself, appearing here to Abram in a theophany. This would also solve the problem of how such a godly king and priest as Melchizedek could be ruling a city in such an ungodly land as Canaan and, why, if he did, Abram would have had no other contact with him. The fact that he was "like unto the Son of God" (Heb 7:3) accords with one of Christ's pre-incarnate appearances; at His human birth, he became the incarnate Son of God forever. Melchizedek was also said to be a man (Heb 7:4), but the same is true in the case of other theophanies, one of which was likewise manifested to Abram (Gen 18:2, Gen 18:22; 19:1-24)."

TSK: Gen 14:1 - Shinar // Ellasar // Elam am 2091, bc 1913 Shinar : Gen 10:10, Gen 11:2; Isa 11:11; Dan 1:2; Zec 5:11 Ellasar : Isa 37:12 Elam : Gen 10:22; Isa 21:2, Isa 22:6; Jer 25:25, Jer 4...

TSK: Gen 14:2 - Sodom // Admah // Zeboiim // Zoar Sodom : Gen 10:19, Gen 13:10, Gen 19:24; Isa 1:9, Isa 1:10 Admah : Deu 29:23; Hos 11:8 Zeboiim : 1Sa 13:18; Neh 11:34 Zoar : Gen 19:20-30; Deu 34:3; I...

TSK: Gen 14:3 - salt sea salt sea : Gen 19:24; Num 34:12; Deu 3:17; Jos 3:16; Psa 107:34 *marg.

TSK: Gen 14:4 - they served // they rebelled they served : Gen 9:25, Gen 9:26 they rebelled : Eze 17:15

they served : Gen 9:25, Gen 9:26

they rebelled : Eze 17:15

TSK: Gen 14:5 - Rephaims // Ashteroth // Zuzims // Emims // Shaveh Kiriathaim Rephaims : Gen 15:20; Deu 3:11, Deu 3:20, Deu 3:22; 2Sa 5:18, 2Sa 5:22, 2Sa 23:13; 1Ch 11:15, 1Ch 14:9; Isa 17:5 Ashteroth : The same as Ashteroth, a ...

Rephaims : Gen 15:20; Deu 3:11, Deu 3:20, Deu 3:22; 2Sa 5:18, 2Sa 5:22, 2Sa 23:13; 1Ch 11:15, 1Ch 14:9; Isa 17:5

Ashteroth : The same as Ashteroth, a city of Bashan, where Og afterwards reigned. Deu 1:4; Jos 12:4, Jos 13:12, Jos 13:31

Zuzims : Deu 2:20-23; 1Ch 4:40; Psa 78:51, Psa 105:23, Psa 105:27, Psa 106:22

Emims : Deu 2:10, Deu 2:11

Shaveh Kiriathaim : or, the plains of Kiriathaim, Kiriathaim was beyond Jordan, 10 miles west-ward from Medeba, and afterwards belonged to Sihon, king of Heshbon. Jos 13:19; Jer 48:1, Jer 48:23

TSK: Gen 14:6 - Horites // Elparan Horites : Gen 36:8, Gen 36:20-30; Deu 2:12, Deu 2:22; 1Ch 1:38-42 Elparan : or, the plain of Paran, Gen 16:7, Gen 21:21; Num 12:16, Num 13:3; Hab 3:3

Horites : Gen 36:8, Gen 36:20-30; Deu 2:12, Deu 2:22; 1Ch 1:38-42

Elparan : or, the plain of Paran, Gen 16:7, Gen 21:21; Num 12:16, Num 13:3; Hab 3:3

TSK: Gen 14:7 - Kadesh // Amalekites // Hazezontamar Kadesh : En-mishpat or Kadesh, was about 8 leagues south of Hebron. Gen 16:14, Gen 20:1; Num 20:1; Deu 1:19, Deu 1:46 Amalekites : Gen 36:12, Gen 36:1...

Kadesh : En-mishpat or Kadesh, was about 8 leagues south of Hebron. Gen 16:14, Gen 20:1; Num 20:1; Deu 1:19, Deu 1:46

Amalekites : Gen 36:12, Gen 36:16; Exo 17:8-16; Num 14:43, Num 14:45, Num 24:20; 1Sam. 15:1-35, 1Sa 27:1-12; 1Sam. 30:1-31

Hazezontamar : Called by the Chaldee, ""En-gaddi,""a town on the western shore of the Dead Sea. Jos 15:62; 2Ch 20:2

TSK: Gen 14:8 - same // in same : Gen 14:2, Gen 13:10, Gen 19:20, Gen 19:22 in : Gen 14:3, Gen 14:10

TSK: Gen 14:9 - -- Gen 14:1

TSK: Gen 14:10 - fell // the mountain slime pits, Places where asphaltus or bitumen sprung out of the ground: this substance which is properly denoted by the word ""slime,""abounds in thes...

slime pits, Places where asphaltus or bitumen sprung out of the ground: this substance which is properly denoted by the word ""slime,""abounds in these parts. Gen 11:3

fell : Jos 8:24; Psa 83:10; Isa 24:18; Jer 48:44

the mountain : Gen 19:17, Gen 19:30

TSK: Gen 14:11 - -- Gen 14:16, Gen 14:21, Gen 12:5; Deu 28:31, Deu 28:35, Deu 28:51

TSK: Gen 14:12 - Lot // who Lot : Gen 11:27, Gen 12:5 who : Gen 13:12, Gen 13:13; Num 16:26; Job 9:23; Jer 2:17-19; 1Ti 6:9-11; Rev 3:19, Rev 18:4

TSK: Gen 14:13 - one // the // dwelt // Mamre // Amorite // and these one : 1Sa 4:12; Job 1:15 the : Gen 39:14, Gen 40:15, Gen 41:12, Gen 43:32; Exo 2:6, Exo 2:11; Jon 1:9; 2Co 11:22; Phi 2:5 dwelt : Gen 13:18 Mamre : Ge...

TSK: Gen 14:14 - his brother // armed // trained // born // Dan his brother : Gen 11:27-31, Gen 13:8; Pro 17:17, Pro 24:11, Pro 24:12; Gal 6:1, Gal 6:2; 1Jo 2:18 armed : or, led forth, Psa 45:3-5, Psa 68:12; Isa 41...

TSK: Gen 14:15 - And he // smote // Damascus And he : Psa 112:5 smote : Isa 41:2, Isa 41:3 Damascus : Deu 15:2; 1Ki 15:18; Act 9:2

And he : Psa 112:5

smote : Isa 41:2, Isa 41:3

Damascus : Deu 15:2; 1Ki 15:18; Act 9:2

TSK: Gen 14:16 - -- Gen 14:11, Gen 14:12, Gen 12:2; 1Sa 30:8, 1Sa 30:18, 1Sa 30:19; Isa 41:2

TSK: Gen 14:17 - to // after // king’ s to : Jdg 11:34; 1Sa 18:6; Pro 14:20, Pro 19:4 after : Heb 7:1 king’ s : 2Sa 18:18

to : Jdg 11:34; 1Sa 18:6; Pro 14:20, Pro 19:4

after : Heb 7:1

king’ s : 2Sa 18:18

TSK: Gen 14:18 - king // bread // the priest // the most king : Psa 76:2; Heb 7:1, Heb 7:2 bread : Mat 26:26-29; Gal 6:10 the priest : Psa 110:4; Heb 5:6, Heb 5:10, Heb 6:20, Heb 7:1, Heb 7:3, Heb 7:10-22 th...

TSK: Gen 14:19 - he blessed // Blessed be // high // possessor he blessed : Gen 27:4, Gen 27:25-29, Gen 47:7, Gen 47:10, Gen 48:9-16, Gen 49:28; Num 6:23-27; Mar 10:16; Heb 7:6, Heb 7:7 Blessed be : Rth 3:10; 2Sa ...

TSK: Gen 14:20 - blessed // which // tithes blessed : Gen 9:26, Gen 24:27; Psa 68:19, Psa 72:17-19, Psa 144:1; Eph 1:3; 1Pe 1:3, 1Pe 1:4 which : Jos 10:42; Psa 44:3 tithes : Gen 28:22; Lev 27:30...

TSK: Gen 14:21 - persons persons : Heb. souls, Gen 14:21

persons : Heb. souls, Gen 14:21

TSK: Gen 14:22 - lift // unto // the most // possessor lift : Exo 6:8; Deu 32:40; Dan 12:7; Rev 10:5, Rev 10:6 unto : Gen 21:23-31; Jdg 11:35 the most : Gen 14:20, Gen 17:1; Psa 24:1, Psa 83:18; Isa 57:15;...

TSK: Gen 14:23 - That I // lest That I : 1Ki 13:8; 2Ki 5:16, 2Ki 5:20; Est 9:15, Est 9:16; 2Co 11:9-11, 2Co 12:14 lest : 2Co 11:12; Heb 13:5

TSK: Gen 14:24 - Save // Aner // let Save : Pro 3:27; Mat 7:12; Rom 13:7, Rom 13:8 Aner : Gen 14:13 let : 1Co 9:14, 1Co 9:15; 1Ti 5:18

kecilkan semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per Ayat)

Poole: Gen 14:2 - -- Once for all, observe that the name of kings is here and elsewhere given by Moses to the chief governors of cities or little provinces. Compare Jo...

Once for all, observe that the name of kings is here and elsewhere given by Moses to the chief governors of cities or little provinces. Compare Jos 12:9 , &c.

Poole: Gen 14:3 - -- Which now is, though when this battle was fought it was not so.

Which now is, though when this battle was fought it was not so.

Poole: Gen 14:4 - -- He was their lord, either, 1. By inheritance, as the issue of Elam, Shem’ s son, Gen 10:22 . Or, 2. By conquest, having subdued those people ...

He was their lord, either,

1. By inheritance, as the issue of Elam, Shem’ s son, Gen 10:22 . Or,

2. By conquest, having subdued those people in a former war, which Josephus speaks of.

Poole: Gen 14:5 - The kings that were with him // The Rephaims // Ashteroth Karnaim // The Emims // Shaveh Kiriathaim The kings that were with him i.e. confederate with him for the recovery of his right, expecting the same assistance from him upon the like occasion. ...

The kings that were with him i.e. confederate with him for the recovery of his right, expecting the same assistance from him upon the like occasion. 1913

The Rephaims a fierce and warlike people of Canaan. See Gen 15:20 . Or the giants, as this word is taken Deu 2:11 .

Ashteroth Karnaim a place in Basan called Ashteroth, Deu 1:4 Jos 9:10 13:31 . It is surnamed Carnaim, q.d.

Two-horned, like a half moon, either from the situation and form of the place, or from the goddess Diana, or the moon, which usually was painted with two horns, whom they worshipped.

The Emims a people in Canaan of giant-like stature, Deu 2:10,11 .

Shaveh Kiriathaim Kiriathaim is a noted city in Gilead, and Shaveh may be either the ancient name of that city, or the present name of the country adjoining and belonging to it.

Poole: Gen 14:6 - The Horites The Horites the ancient inhabitants of Seir, of whom see Gen 36:20 Deu 2:12 . El signifies a plain, and Paran is the name of a known city and ...

The Horites the ancient inhabitants of Seir, of whom see Gen 36:20 Deu 2:12 . El signifies a plain, and Paran is the name of a known city and mountain. See Num 13:3 Deu 33:2 1Sa 25:1 , &c.

Poole: Gen 14:7 - Which is Kadesh // The country of the Amalekites Which is Kadesh i.e. which after that time was called Kadesh, of which see Num 20:1,14 , &c. The country of the Amalekites i.e. which afterwards wa...

Which is Kadesh i.e. which after that time was called Kadesh, of which see Num 20:1,14 , &c.

The country of the Amalekites i.e. which afterwards was possessed by the Amalekites, Gen 36:12 . A known figure called prolepsis.

Poole: Gen 14:10 - The vale of Siddim was // Kings of Sodom and Gomorrah The vale of Siddim was chosen by those five kings for the place of battle, that their adversaries being ignorant of the place might unawares fall int...

The vale of Siddim was chosen by those five kings for the place of battle, that their adversaries being ignorant of the place might unawares fall into those pits, which they by their knowledge of it thought to escape.

Kings of Sodom and Gomorrah i.e. their armies; a figurative speech, frequent in Scripture and other authors; for their persons escaped: see Gen 14:17 . They either,

1. Fell into the pits which they designed for others; or rather,

2. Were slain, as this word is oft used, as Jos 8:24,25 Jud 8:10 12:6 ; and here too; for those that fell are here opposed to those that remained.

Poole: Gen 14:12 - Lot Lot now suffered for his cohabitation with bad neighbours.

Lot now suffered for his cohabitation with bad neighbours.

Poole: Gen 14:13 - Abram the Hebrew // These were confederate with Abram Abram the Hebrew so called, either, 1. From his great and good predecessor Eber, Gen 10:24 11:14 , in and by whom the primitive language and true re...

Abram the Hebrew so called, either,

1. From his great and good predecessor Eber, Gen 10:24 11:14 , in and by whom the primitive language and true religion were preserved; and therefore though Abram had five other progenitors between Eber and him, which were persons of less note, he is rightly denominated from Eber, the Hebrew, because he was the first that revived the memory and the work of Eber, that kept up the same language, and eminently propagated the same true religion. Or,

2. As others think, from his passing over the river Euphrates, from beyond which he came into Canaan.

These were confederate with Abram i.e. had entered into a league for their mutual defence against common enemies. Whence we learn that it is not simply and universally unlawful to make a league with persons of a false religion.

Poole: Gen 14:14 - He armed his trained servants // Dan He armed his trained servants whom he had disciplined and instructed both in religion and in the military art too, both which were necessary to make ...

He armed his trained servants whom he had disciplined and instructed both in religion and in the military art too, both which were necessary to make them good soldiers, that they might both fight with skill and courage, and also rely upon God, and engage his assistance; which was now especially necessary, when so small a party were to engage against so numerous an army.

Dan is commonly thought to be a town then called Leshem, Jos 19:47 , or Laish, Jud 18:7 , and afterwards Dan; see Jud 18:7,29 ; so it is an anticipation. But it may be doubted whether this was a city; or if it were, whether it were not another town called by the same name, which was frequent in those parts. And some think this is not a town, but the very fountain of Dan, whence Jordan had its name.

Poole: Gen 14:15 - He divided himself He divided himself i.e. his forces into several parties, that coming upon them from several quarters he might strike them with greater terror, whilst...

He divided himself i.e. his forces into several parties, that coming upon them from several quarters he might strike them with greater terror, whilst they thought his army far more numerous than it was.

Poole: Gen 14:16 - He brought back all the goods He brought back all the goods which the victorious kings had taken from the princes and people mentioned before in this chapter.

He brought back all the goods which the victorious kings had taken from the princes and people mentioned before in this chapter.

Poole: Gen 14:17 - -- So called either upon this occasion of the meeting of divers kings here; or because king Melchizedek either had his habitation, or was much delighte...

So called either upon this occasion of the meeting of divers kings here; or because king Melchizedek either had his habitation, or was much delighted with it, and conversant in it. See 2Sa 18:18 .

Poole: Gen 14:18 - Quest // Answ // King of Salem // He was the priest of the most high God Quest Who was this? Answ 1. Shem, as the Jews and many others think, who probably was alive at this time, and, no doubt, a great prince. But neith...

Quest Who was this?

Answ

1. Shem, as the Jews and many others think, who probably was alive at this time, and, no doubt, a great prince. But neither is it probable that Shem should be a king among the cursed race of Ham; nor will this agree with the apostle’ s description of Melchizedek, Heb 7:3 , without father and mother, & c. Whereas Shem’ s parents, and the beginning and end of his days, are as expressly mentioned by Moses as any other.

2. A Canaanitish king, by the Divine Providence made both a king over men, and priest unto the true God, brought in here in this unusual manner, without any mention of his parents, birth, or death, for this end, that he might be an illustrious type of Christ. Of this matter see more upon Heb 7:3 .

King of Salem i.e. of Jerusalem, called elsewhere Jebus, and Salem, Psa 76:2 .

Bread and wine; not for sacrifice to God; for then he had brought forth beasts to be slain, which were the usual and best sacrifices: but partly to show the respect which he bore to Abram, and principally to refresh his weary and hungry army, according to the manner of those times. See Deu 23:3,4 25:18 Jud 8:5,6,15 1Sa 17:17 .

He was the priest of the most high God: thus in succeeding ages the same persons were often both kings and priests, as the learned note out of Virgil and other authors. And this clause is here added, as the cause and reason, not for his bringing forth or offering bread and wine, as some would have it, (for that is ascribed to him as a king, as an act of royal munificence), but of the following benediction and decimation. In those times God had his remnant scattered here and there even in the worst places and nations.

Poole: Gen 14:19 - And // he // blessed him And or therefore, ( as the particle is oft taken, i.e. because he was a priest of God), he (i.e. Melchizedek ) blessed him ( Abram,) which was...

And or therefore, ( as the particle is oft taken, i.e. because he was a priest of God),

he (i.e. Melchizedek )

blessed him ( Abram,) which was one act of the priestly office. See Poole on "Heb 7:6" . See Poole on "Heb 7:7" . So it is a prayer for him, that God would confirm and increase the blessing which he had given him. Or, blessed is; so it is an acknowledgment of God’ s blessing conferred upon Abram both formerly, and in this late and great victory. Or, blessed shall be; so it is a prediction concerning his future and further blessedness, whereof this was only an earnest.

Poole: Gen 14:20 - All Not Melchizedek gave to Abram, as some Jews foolishly understand it; for Abram swears that he would not keep nor take any of the recovered good...

Not Melchizedek gave to Abram, as some Jews foolishly understand it; for Abram swears that he would not keep nor take any of the recovered goods of the kings of Sodom, or his brethren, Gen 14:23 . But Abram gave to Melchizedek, as appears both from Heb 4:7 , and from the nature of the thing, for the tithes confessedly belong to the priest, such as Melchizedek, and not Abram, is here described to be.

All not of all the recovered goods, but of all the spoils taken from the enemies.

Poole: Gen 14:22 - -- This was the ancient manner of swearing. See Exo 6:8 Num 14:30 Deu 32:40 Eze 20:5,6 .

This was the ancient manner of swearing. See Exo 6:8 Num 14:30 Deu 32:40 Eze 20:5,6 .

Poole: Gen 14:23 - That I will not take // Even to a shoe-latchet That I will not take Heb. If I shall take. Understand, God do so and so to me, which is expressed 1Sa 14:44 . A defective manner of swearing use...

That I will not take Heb. If I shall take. Understand, God do so and so to me, which is expressed 1Sa 14:44 . A defective manner of swearing used amongst the Hebrews, either to maintain the reverence of oaths, and the dread of perjury, seeing they were afraid so much as to mention the curse which they meant; or to show that they were willing to submit to any punishment which God should inflict upon them, without exception, if they violated their oaths.

Even to a shoe-latchet i.e. any thing, though never so small or mean, lest thou shouldst claim a share with God in the honour due to him, to whose blessing alone I do and I will owe my riches. Or, lest thou shouldst say, Abram is enriched with my spoils; and however he pretended kindness and charity, yet indeed it was his covetousness that put him upon this work.

Poole: Gen 14:24 - -- For as Abram had a right to spoils, so had they, whether they joined with him in the battle, as it is conceived they did, or only abode by the stuff...

For as Abram had a right to spoils, so had they, whether they joined with him in the battle, as it is conceived they did, or only abode by the stuff, 1Sa 30:24 ; and therefore though he might and did give away his own right, he could not give away other men’ s.

Haydock: Gen 14:1 - Sennaar // Pontus // Elamites // Nations Sennaar, or Babylon. --- Pontus, Hebrew: Ellasar, perhaps Thalassar, as Jonathan writes, not far from Eden. --- Elamites, or Persians. --- Natio...

Sennaar, or Babylon. ---

Pontus, Hebrew: Ellasar, perhaps Thalassar, as Jonathan writes, not far from Eden. ---

Elamites, or Persians. ---

Nations in Galilee, east of the Jordan, whither the conquered kings directed their course. Josue xii. 23, mentions the king of the nations (foreigners) at Galgal. (Calmet)

Haydock: Gen 14:3 - Now // Salt sea Now, in the days of Moses. --- Salt sea; called also the vale of salts, and the dead sea.

Now, in the days of Moses. ---

Salt sea; called also the vale of salts, and the dead sea.

Haydock: Gen 14:4 - Served Served. Thus Noe's prediction began to be fulfilled, as Elam was the eldest son of Sem, to whose posterity Chanaan should be slaves, chap. ix. 26.

Served. Thus Noe's prediction began to be fulfilled, as Elam was the eldest son of Sem, to whose posterity Chanaan should be slaves, chap. ix. 26.

Haydock: Gen 14:5 - Raphaim, Zuzim Raphaim, Zuzim, and Emim, were all of the gigantic race, robbers, like the Arabs. (Du Hamel) --- These dwelt in the land of Basan, or of giants, ...

Raphaim, Zuzim, and Emim, were all of the gigantic race, robbers, like the Arabs. (Du Hamel) ---

These dwelt in the land of Basan, or of giants, Deuteronomy iii. 13.

Haydock: Gen 14:6 - Chorreans Chorreans, or Horreans, who dwelt in one part of that extensive range of mountains, which took their name from Seir; perhaps about mount Hor, where A...

Chorreans, or Horreans, who dwelt in one part of that extensive range of mountains, which took their name from Seir; perhaps about mount Hor, where Aaron died. (Calmet) ---

These also were auxiliaries of the five kings, and hence experienced the fury of the four confederates; who cut off all their opponents, before they made their grand attack upon Sodom. (Haydock)

Haydock: Gen 14:7 - Misphat // Amalecites // Amorrheans Misphat, or of judgment and contradiction, because there the Hebrews contended with Moses and Aaron: it was afterwards called Cadez, Numbers xx. 11. ...

Misphat, or of judgment and contradiction, because there the Hebrews contended with Moses and Aaron: it was afterwards called Cadez, Numbers xx. 11. ---

Amalecites, that is which they afterwards possessed; for as yet Amelec was unborn, chap. xxxvi. 16. (Menochius) ---

Amorrheans, to the west of Sodom. (Calmet)

Haydock: Gen 14:10 - Of slime // Overthrown Of slime. Bituminis. This was a kind of pitch, which served for mortar in the building of Babel, Genesis xi. 3, and was used by Noe in pitching th...

Of slime. Bituminis. This was a kind of pitch, which served for mortar in the building of Babel, Genesis xi. 3, and was used by Noe in pitching the ark. (Challoner) ---

Moses does not make this remark without reason. This bitumen would easily take fire, and contribute to the conflagration of Sodom. (Calmet) ---

Overthrown, not all slain, for the king of Sodom escaped, ver. 17.

Haydock: Gen 14:13 - The Hebrew The Hebrew, or traveller who came from beyond the Euphrates, (Calmet) or who dwelt beyond the Jordan, with reference to the five kings. (Diodorus)

The Hebrew, or traveller who came from beyond the Euphrates, (Calmet) or who dwelt beyond the Jordan, with reference to the five kings. (Diodorus)

Haydock: Gen 14:14 - Servants Servants, fit for war. Hence we may form some judgment of the power and dignity of Abram, who was considered as a great prince in that country, chap...

Servants, fit for war. Hence we may form some judgment of the power and dignity of Abram, who was considered as a great prince in that country, chap. xxiii. 6. He was assisted by Mambre, Escol, and Aner, with all the forces they could raise on such a short warning; and coming upon the four kings unawares, in four divisions, easily discomfits them, while they were busy plundering the cities, and pursues them to Dan; which is either the city that went by that name afterwards, or more probably one of the sources of the Jordan, (Haydock) which the people of the country call Medan. Neither did he suffer them to repose, before he had retaken all the plunder at Hoba, or Abila, north of the road leading to Damascus. (Calmet)

Haydock: Gen 14:18 - Melchisedech Melchisedech was not Sem: for his genealogy is given in Scripture. (Hebrew xii. 6.); nor God the Son, for they are compared together; nor the Holy Gh...

Melchisedech was not Sem: for his genealogy is given in Scripture. (Hebrew xii. 6.); nor God the Son, for they are compared together; nor the Holy Ghost, as some have asserted; but a virtuous Gentile who adored the true God, and was king of Salem, or Jerusalem, and Priest of an order different from that of Aaron, offering in sacrifice bread and wine, a figure of Christ's sacrifice in the Mass; as the fathers constantly affirm. (Haydock) ---

See Pererius. St. Jerome, ep. ad Evagrium, says, "Melchisedech offered not bloody victims, but dedicated the sacrament of Christ in bread and wine...a pure sacrifice." See St. Cyprian ep. 63, ad Cæcil.; St. Augustine, City of God xvi. 22, &c. Many Protestants confess, that this renowned prince of Chanaan, was also a priest; but they will not allow that his sacrifice consisted of bread and wine. In what then? for a true priest must offer some real sacrifice. If Christ, therefore, be a priest for ever according to the order of Melchisedech, whose sacrifice was not bloody, as those of Aaron were, what other sacrifice does he now offer, but that of his own body and blood in the holy Mass, by the ministry of his priests? for he was the priest: this is plainly referred to bringing forth, &c., which shews that word to be sacrificial, as in Judges vi. 18. The Hebrew may be ambiguous. But all know that vau means for as well as and . Thus the English Bible had it, 1552, "for he was the priest." (Worthington) ---

If Josephus take notice only of Melchisedech, offering Abram and his men corporal refreshment, we need not wonder; he was a Jewish priest, to whom the order of Melchisedech might not be agreeable. It is not indeed improbable, but Abram might partake of the meat, which had been offered in thanksgiving by Melchisedech; and in this sense his words are true. But there would be no need of observing, that he was a priest on this account; as this was a piece of civility expected from princes on similar occasions. (Deuteronomy xxiii. 4; 2 Kings xvii. 27.) (Haydock)

Haydock: Gen 14:19 - Blessed him Blessed him, as his inferior, and received tithes of him, Hebrews iv. 7. This shews the antiquity of the practice of supporting God's priests by tit...

Blessed him, as his inferior, and received tithes of him, Hebrews iv. 7. This shews the antiquity of the practice of supporting God's priests by tithes.

Haydock: Gen 14:21 - The persons The persons ( animas ), the souls subject to my dominion. (Haydock)

The persons ( animas ), the souls subject to my dominion. (Haydock)

Haydock: Gen 14:22 - I lift up I lift up. This is the posture of one swearing solemnly, by which we testify our belief, that God dwells in the heavens, and governs the world. (Ca...

I lift up. This is the posture of one swearing solemnly, by which we testify our belief, that God dwells in the heavens, and governs the world. (Calmet)

Haydock: Gen 14:23 - Woof-thread Woof-thread. The first word is added by way of explanation. Abram declares he will not receive the smallest present for himself.

Woof-thread. The first word is added by way of explanation. Abram declares he will not receive the smallest present for himself.

Haydock: Gen 14:24 - Their shares Their shares, due to them on account of the danger to which they had exposed themselves. The king of Sodom could not but accept these conditions wit...

Their shares, due to them on account of the danger to which they had exposed themselves. The king of Sodom could not but accept these conditions with gratitude. In a just war, whatever is taken by the enemy, cannot be reclaimed by the original proprietor, if it be retaken. (Grotius, iii. 6, de Jure.)

Gill: Gen 14:1 - And it came to pass, in the days of Amraphel king of Shinar // Arioch king of Ellasar // Chedorlaomer king of Elam // and Tidal king of nations And it came to pass, in the days of Amraphel king of Shinar,.... Or Babylon, as Onkelos, where Nimrod began his kingdom, Gen 10:8. This was Nimrod him...

And it came to pass, in the days of Amraphel king of Shinar,.... Or Babylon, as Onkelos, where Nimrod began his kingdom, Gen 10:8. This was Nimrod himself, as the Jewish writers generally says; though more likely Ninyas the son of Ninus and Semiramis, and grandson of Nimrod; or rather some petty prince or deputy governor of Shinar, under the king of Babylon; since, though named first, he was not the principal in this war, but fought under the king of Elam, and as an ally and auxiliary of his; and it may be the kingdom of Babylon was not as yet of any great extent and power, and that all those stories told of Ninus, Semiramis, and Ninyas, are mere fables; and indeed we hear nothing in Scripture of this kingdom, and the kings of it, from this time, until the times of Merodach Baladan, the son of Baladan king of Babylon, in the reign of Hezekiah king of Judah; nor of the Assyrian kingdom, and the kings of it, until Pul king of Assyria, in the times of Menahem king of Israel; wherefore it is greatly to be questioned, whether those kingdoms rose to any considerable height until these times: though some think that Shinar here does not intend Shinar in Chaldea or Babylon, which was too far distant from Abram, but Shinar in Mesopotamia, a large city at the foot of a mountain, three days distant from Mansil, which is now, in Arabic, called Singjar, and by Ptolemy, Singara n.

Arioch king of Ellasar; or Telassar, according to the Targum of Jonathan, a place in Mesopotamia, inhabited by the children of Eden, Isa 37:12; and Stephanus o makes mention of a city in Coelesyria, upon the borders of Arabia, called Ellas, of which this prince may be thought to be the governor; or rather he was king of a people called Elesari, whose country is placed by Ptolemy p in Arabia; and could Ninyas be thought to be Amraphel, this king would bid fair to be Ariaeus a king of Arabia, or a son of his of the same name, that was a confederate of Ninus, as Diodorus Siculus q relates out of Ctesias. Next follows:

Chedorlaomer king of Elam; or the Elamites, as the Vulgate Latin version, the Persians, see Act 1:9. This led Diodorus r to say, that the war Moses speaks of is what the Persians waged against the Sodomites. This seems to have been the most powerful prince at this time, to whom the five kings of Sodom, &c. had been subject for twelve years, but now had rebelled, and to subdue them again he came forth, with three other kings his allies, see Gen 14:4; but if Elam is the same with Persia, as it often signifies, or with Elymais, a part of Persia, that kingdom could not be at this time so large and potent as it has been since; or Chedorlaomer would not have stood in need of the assistance of other princes against such petty kings as those of Sodom, &c. Nor does it seem credible that he should come out of Persia, and pass through so great a part of the world as the countries of Assyria, Chaldea, Mesopotamia, Syria, and part of Arabia and of Canaan, to bring five such small towns or cities into subjection to him, as he must, as Sir Walter Raleigh s observes; nor could the trifle of goods, as they may be comparatively called, he carried off, be an equivalent to the expense he must be at in so long a march. It is more probable, therefore, that this was the name of some place near to the land of Canaan, built by some of the posterity of Elam, the son of Shem, and called after the name of their ancestor; or it may be a colony of the Elamites in those parts, of which this prince was their head and chief:

and Tidal king of nations; that is, either of other nations distinct from those before mentioned, so Aben Ezra; or else, as he also observes, the name of a province; or as Jarchi and Ben Melech, the name of a place called Goim, because there were gathered together many out of various nations and places, and they set a man to reign over them, whose name was Tidal; just as one of the Galilees in later times was called Galilee of the nations, for a like reason. Sir Walter Raleigh t conjectures, that as there were many petty kingdoms joining to Phoenicia and Palestine, as Palmyrene, Batanea, Laodicene, Apamene, Chalcidice, Cassiotis and Celibonitis, these might be gathered together under this man. According to Eupolemus u, an Heathen writer, these several princes were Armenians that fought with the Phoenicians, and overcame them, by whom Lot was carried captive. Josephus w indeed, accommodating himself to the Greek historians, and in favour of them, says that the Assyrians at this time were masters of Asia, and led out an army under four generals, and made the kings of Sodom, &c. tributary to them; and they rebelling against them, made another expedition upon them under these four kings as their generals, and conquered them: but it seems not likely that the Assyrian monarchy was so large at this time; or if it was, these live petty kings of the plain of Jordan, who had not so much ground as our Middlesex, as Sir Walter Raleigh x observes, and perhaps not a quarter of the people in it, would never have dared to have engaged with so powerful an adversary.

Gill: Gen 14:2 - That these made war with Bera king of Sodom // and with Birsha king of Gomorrah // Shinab king of Admah // and Shemeber king of Zeboiim // and the king of Bela, which is Zoar That these made war with Bera king of Sodom,.... A city in the plain of Jordan, which with the four following made the Pentapolis, or five cities of ...

That these made war with Bera king of Sodom,.... A city in the plain of Jordan, which with the four following made the Pentapolis, or five cities of the plain. Strabo y says, in this place formerly were thirteen cities, the metropolis of which was Sodom, and which yet had remaining a compass of sixty furlongs; according to Dr. Lightfoot z, it should be placed in the southern extremity of the lake Asphaltites, whereas it is usually set in the maps in the northern bounds of it:

and with Birsha king of Gomorrah; another city in the plain of Jordan, called by Solinus a Gomorrum:

Shinab king of Admah; a third city situated in the same plain:

and Shemeber king of Zeboiim; a fourth city of the plain, which seems to have its name from the pleasantness of its situation:

and the king of Bela, which is Zoar; so it was afterwards called by Lot, being a little city, Gen 19:20; but before, Bela; the name of its king is not mentioned, being a person of no great note and importance, and his city small.

Gill: Gen 14:3 - All these were joined together in the vale of Siddim // which is the salt sea All these were joined together in the vale of Siddim,.... Or "of fields", or "ploughed lands" b, a fruitful vale abounding with corn; or of gardens or...

All these were joined together in the vale of Siddim,.... Or "of fields", or "ploughed lands" b, a fruitful vale abounding with corn; or of gardens or paradises, as the Targums of Jonathan and Jerusalem, being full of gardens and orchards, and was as the garden of the Lord, even as Eden, see Gen 13:10; though Aben Ezra thinks it had its name from the slime or bitumen, of which there was great plenty in it, see Gen 14:10. Now the above five kings, as they all dwelt in the plain, they entered into a confederacy, met together, and joined their forces in this vale, to oppose the four kings that were come to make war with them, as being an advantageous place, as they judged, perhaps on more accounts than one; and here they stayed to receive the enemy, and give him battle, see Gen 14:8,

which is the salt sea; afterwards so called, not at this time, for then it would not have been fit for armies to be drawn up in battle array in it; but it was so called in the times of Moses, and after this fine vale was turned into a bituminous lake, and had its name from the saltness of the waters of the lake, or from the city Melach, or city of salt, which was near it, Jos 15:62.

Gill: Gen 14:4 - Twelve years they served Chedorlaomer // and in the thirteenth year they rebelled Twelve years they served Chedorlaomer,.... King of Elam, who was of the race of Shem, and so the prophecy of Noah began to be fulfilled, that Canaan s...

Twelve years they served Chedorlaomer,.... King of Elam, who was of the race of Shem, and so the prophecy of Noah began to be fulfilled, that Canaan should be servant to Shem, Gen 9:26; for the kings of Sodom, &c. and their subjects, were of the race of Ham in the line of Canaan, who had by violence seized on that part of the earth which was allotted to the sons of Shem, and therefore Chedorlaomer being a descendant of his claimed his right, and made them tributary to him, which they were for the space of twelve years:

and in the thirteenth year they rebelled; refused homage to Chedorlaomer and to pay tribute to him.

Gill: Gen 14:5 - And in the fourteenth year came Chedorlaomer // and the kings that were with him // and smote the Rephaims in Ashteroth Karnaim // and the Zuzims in Ham // and the Enims in Shaveh Kiriathaim And in the fourteenth year came Chedorlaomer,.... Not in the fourteenth year of their rebellion against him, as Jarchi, but from their becoming vassal...

And in the fourteenth year came Chedorlaomer,.... Not in the fourteenth year of their rebellion against him, as Jarchi, but from their becoming vassals to him:

and the kings that were with him; those kings before mentioned:

and smote the Rephaims in Ashteroth Karnaim; which were in their way to Sodom, &c. and very probably were confederates with the five kings; the Targum, and so the Septuagint, render the word "giants", as it is in Deu 2:11; but they were one of the nations or tribes of the Canaanites, Gen 15:20; and had their name either from the Hebrew word רפא, which signifies to be healthful and robust, as those people might be, or from Rephas, the Remphan of Stephen, Act 7:43; called Chiun, Amo 5:26; and with Cronus or Ham the father of Canaan, as Bishop Cumberland c observes; and these dwelt in Ashteroth Karnaim, which was a place in Bashan, Deu 1:4; it is about six miles, as Eusebius d says, from Adraa or Edrei, and in the Apocrypha:"Then Maccabeus marched forth to Carnion, and to the temple of Atargatis, and there he slew five and twenty thousand persons.'' (2 Maccabees 12:26)mention is made of a place called Carnion, where was a temple of Atergates, a Phoenician deity, as Ashteroth or Astarte, was; and this city here had its first name from Astarte the wife of Cronus or Ham, and whose name may be preserved in Carnaim, as Bishop Cumberland thinks; though as Astarte is said by Sanchoniatho e to put on her head the mark of her sovereignty, a bull's head, that is, with its horns, this might be another of her names retained in this city; and it is certain that she was a Phoenician goddess, called the goddess of the Zidonians, 1Ki 11:5; and Sanchoniatho relates f, that the Phoenicians say, that Astarte is she, who among the Greeks is called Aphrodite or Venus; and Astarte is called by Lucian g the Phoenician Venus, and by Cicero h the Syrian Venus; and if she was the same with Diana or the moon, as some think, she might have the name of Carnaim from its two horns, as the word signifies: our English poet i seems to have this in his thoughts, when he speaks of Astoreth as the goddess of the Phoenicians: however the in habitants of this place who belonged to the Canaanites were first attacked by the four kings and routed, though not utterly destroyed, because we hear of them afterwards, as well as they that follow:

and the Zuzims in Ham; or Hemtha, as Onkelos and Jonathan render it, a place so called from Ham the father of Canaan, and was somewhere in the land of Canaan or near it, and near the former place; for it can hardly be thought the land of Egypt, sometimes called the land of Ham, is meant; these Zuzim are supposed by Jarchi to the same with the Zamzummim in Deu 2:20; the word is by Onkelos and Jonathan rendered strong and mighty ones, as also by the Septuagint, mighty nations:

and the Enims in Shaveh Kiriathaim: a people great, and many, and tall, as the Anakim, and were accounted giants as they, and who in later times were by the Moabites called Emim, Deu 2:10; and therefore Moses gives them the same name here, which they had from the dread and terror they injected into men, and so the word in all the three Targums is rendered terrible ones; and these dwelt in Kiriathaim, a city in the tribe of Reuben, taken from Sihon, king of the Amorites, and which seems to be situated in a plain, see Jos 13:19.

Gill: Gen 14:6 - And the Horites in their Mount Seir // unto Elparan, which is by the wilderness And the Horites in their Mount Seir,.... Or the Horim who dwelt in Mount Seir, so called from Seir the Horite, who continued here till they were drove...

And the Horites in their Mount Seir,.... Or the Horim who dwelt in Mount Seir, so called from Seir the Horite, who continued here till they were drove out by the sons of Esau or Edom, from whom their country was afterwards called Edom or Idumea, see Gen 36:20 Deu 2:12,

unto Elparan, which is by the wilderness; so far these Horites inhabited, and the four kings smote all they met with unto this place, which was either the plain or oak of Paran, near a wilderness of the same name; the wilderness of Arabia, through which the Israelites travelled forty years, in their way to Canaan.

Gill: Gen 14:7 - And they returned, and came to Enmishpat, which is Kadesh // which is Kadesh // and smote all the country of the Amalekites // and also the Amorites, that dwelt in Hazezontamar And they returned, and came to Enmishpat, which is Kadesh,.... Pursuing their victories as far as Elparan by the wilderness, they had passed by the co...

And they returned, and came to Enmishpat, which is Kadesh,.... Pursuing their victories as far as Elparan by the wilderness, they had passed by the country of the Amalekites; wherefore they "returned", or came back to fall upon them, and they came to a place called Enmishpat, or the "fountain of judgment"; which was not its future name, as Jarchi thinks, because there Moses and Aaron were to be judged concerning the business of that fountain, even the waters of Meribah, with which agrees the Targum of Jonathan;"and they returned and came to the place where the judgment of Moses the prophet was determined by the fountain of the waters of contention:''but it seems to have been the ancient name of the place, and by which it was called at this time, as Kadesh was the name of it at the time of Moses writing this; and therefore he adds:

which is Kadesh; that is, which is now called Kadesh, because there the Lord was sanctified, when the rock at that place was smitten, and waters gushed out: it was a city on the uttermost border of the land of Edom, Num 20:1, and seems formerly to have been a place where causes were heard and judgment passed; and so Onkelos paraphrases it,"to the plain of the division or decision of judgment;''which, as Jarchi himself interprets it,"is a place where the men of the province gathered together for all judgment;''or for hearing all causes and determining them:

and smote all the country of the Amalekites; which, according to Josephus k, reached from Pelusium in Egypt to the Red sea; they inhabited Arabia Petraea, for he l says, the inhabitants of Gobolitis and Petra are called Amalekites; which name is generally supposed to have been given them here by way of anticipation, since the commonly received opinion is, that they were the descendants of Amalek, a grandson of Esau, who was not born when this war was waged, see Gen 36:12; but the Mahometan writers derive the pedigree of Amalek, from whom these people had their name, from Noah in the line of Ham, and make him to be some generations older than Abram, which with them stands thus, Noah, Ham, Aram, Uz, Ad, Amalek m; and they speak of the Amalekites as dwelling in the country about Mecca, from whence they were driven by the Jorhamites n: and indeed it seems more probable that the Amalekites were of the posterity of Ham, since Chedorlaomer, a descendant of Shem, falls upon them, and smites them; and they being confederates with the Canaanites, and are with the Amorites, Philistines, and other Canaanitish nations, always mentioned, seem to be a more ancient nation than what could proceed from Amalek the son of Eliphaz, since Amalek is said to be the first of the nations, Num 24:20; nor does there ever appear to be any harmony and friendship between them and the Edomites, as it might be thought there would, if they were a branch of Esau's family; nor did they give them any assistance, when destroyed by Saul, so that they seem rather to be a tribe of the Canaanitish nations; and they are, by Philo o the Jew, expressly called Phoenicians:

and also the Amorites, that dwelt in Hazezontamar; the same with the Emorites, see Gen 10:16; another tribe or nation of the Canaanites descended from Amor or Emor, a son of Canaan: the place of their habitation has its name of Hazezontamar from the multitude of palm trees which grew there: for Tamar signifies a palm tree, and Hazezon is from חצץ "to cut"; and this part of the name seems to be taken from the cutting of the top, crown, or head of the palm tree, for the sake of a liquor which has a more luscious sweetness than honey; and is of the consistence of a thin syrup, as Dr. Shaw p relates; the head of the palm tree being cut off, the top of the trunk is scooped into the shape of a basin, as he says, where the sap in ascending lodges itself at the rate of three or four quarts a day during the first week or fortnight, after which the quantity daily diminishes; and at the end of six weeks or two months the juices are entirely consumed, and the tree becomes dry, and serves only for timber or, firewood. This place is the same with Engedi, 2Ch 20:2; and so the Targums of Onkelos and Jonathan here translate it, "in Engedi"; and which place Pliny q says was famous for groves of palm trees; it was a city near the Dead sea, see Eze 47:8; and Josephus says r it was situated by the lake Asphaltites, that is, the place where Sodom and Gomorrah stood; and he adds, that it was three hundred furlongs distant from Jerusalem, where were the best palm trees and balsam: so that now the four kings had got pretty near Sodom; wherefore it follows,

Gill: Gen 14:8 - And there went out the king of Sodom // and the king of Gomorrah, and the king of Admah, and the King of Zeboiim // and the king of Bela, the same is Zoar // and they joined battle with them in the vale of Siddim And there went out the king of Sodom,.... With his armed men to meet the four kings, and give them battle, being so near him, and in so much danger fr...

And there went out the king of Sodom,.... With his armed men to meet the four kings, and give them battle, being so near him, and in so much danger from them, that if they could not stand their ground, they might flee to the mountains, and not perish in the city:

and the king of Gomorrah, and the king of Admah, and the King of Zeboiim; whose names are before given, Gen 14:2,

and the king of Bela, the same is Zoar: as in Gen 14:2,

and they joined battle with them in the vale of Siddim; where the five Canaanitish kings met, of which see Gen 14:3; and fought the four kings that were come forth against them, and whose names are repeated, and are as follow:

Gill: Gen 14:9 - With Chedorlaomer king of Elam // and with Tidal king of nations, and Amraphel king of Shinar, and Arioch king of Ellasar // four kings with five With Chedorlaomer king of Elam,.... Who is here mentioned first, being the principal in the war, and against whom the kings of Sodom, &c. had rebelled...

With Chedorlaomer king of Elam,.... Who is here mentioned first, being the principal in the war, and against whom the kings of Sodom, &c. had rebelled:

and with Tidal king of nations, and Amraphel king of Shinar, and Arioch king of Ellasar; who were his allies, confederates, and auxiliaries:

four kings with five; those four last mentioned, with the other five before spoken of, that is, they fought with them; or rather four kings against five, as the Vulgate Latin and Tigurine versions, and some others.

Gill: Gen 14:10 - And the vale of Siddim was full of slimepits // and the kings of Sodom and Gomorrah fled // and fell there // and they that remained fled to the mountain And the vale of Siddim was full of slimepits,.... Or "wells" or "fountains of slime" or bitumen s; a liquid of a pitchy nature, cast out of fountains...

And the vale of Siddim was full of slimepits,.... Or "wells" or "fountains of slime" or bitumen s; a liquid of a pitchy nature, cast out of fountains, and which was used for a cement in buildings; such fountains were near Babylon; see Gill on Gen 11:3; so that this place was naturally prepared for what it was designed to be, a bituminous lake; and hence, when turned into one, it was called the lake Asphaltites, from this slime or bitumen, called by the Greeks "asphaltos". Brocardus t says, these pits or wells of bitumen are at this day on the shore of the lake, each of them having pyramids erect, which he saw with his own eyes; and such pits casting out bitumen, as fountains do water, have been found in other countries, as in Greece u. Now this vale being full of such pits, the kings of Sodom and Gomorrah chose it to fight in, and here drew up in a line of battle, hoping that the enemy, being ignorant of them, would fall into them and perish, and their ranks be broke and fall into confusion; but as it often is, that the pit men dig and contrive for others they fall into themselves, so it was in this case:

and the kings of Sodom and Gomorrah fled: the battle going hard against them, and they not able to stand before their enemies:

and fell there, or "into them" w; the slimepits, or fountains of bitumen, into which they precipitately fell, and many perished; or of their own accord they threw themselves into them for their own safety, as some think; though the sense may be this, that there was a great slaughter of them made there, as the word is frequently used, see 1Sa 4:10; this is to be understood not of the kings of Sodom and Gomorrah; for it is certain that they were preserved alive, at least the king of Sodom, for we hear of him afterwards, Gen 14:17; but of their soldiers:

and they that remained fled to the mountain: or mountains hard by, where Lot after went when Sodom was destroyed, Gen 19:30; hither such fled that escaped the sword of the enemy, or perished not in the slimepits, judging it more safe to be there, than to be in their cities, which would fall into the hands of their enemies, and be plundered by them, and where they would be in danger of losing their lives.

Gill: Gen 14:11 - And they took all the goods of Sodom and Gomorrah // and all their victuals, and went away And they took all the goods of Sodom and Gomorrah,.... They entered these cities and pillaged them, and carried off everything valuable in them, that ...

And they took all the goods of Sodom and Gomorrah,.... They entered these cities and pillaged them, and carried off everything valuable in them, that was portable or could be driven, as their cattle, &c. they did not burn these cities, nor take possession of them, and leave garrisons in them, which shows them to be petty princes that came for plunder, and to get an equivalent for nonpayment of tribute to one of them:

and all their victuals, and went away; all the meat and drink they could light of, with which they refreshed their troops, and then departed.

Gill: Gen 14:12 - And they took Lot, Abram's brother's son // who dwelt in Sodom // his goods, and departed And they took Lot, Abram's brother's son,.... The son of Haran, his elder brother, who was now, as the Jews say x, fifty years of age: who dwelt in...

And they took Lot, Abram's brother's son,.... The son of Haran, his elder brother, who was now, as the Jews say x, fifty years of age:

who dwelt in Sodom, or near it, in the country adjacent to it, see Gen 13:12; and so being a neighbour of the men of Sodom, and a sojourner among them, he partakes of their punishment; and this was a just correction of him for choosing to dwell among such a people: and they took

his goods, and departed; as him and his family, so all his substance, his cattle, wealth, and riches of every sort, and went off with it: Eupolemus y, an Heathen writer, makes mention of this circumstance in his relation of this war, and says, that the Armenians, as he calls the four kings, baring conquered the Phoenicians, carried away captive the brother's son of Abram.

Gill: Gen 14:13 - And there came one that escaped // And told Abram the Hebrew // for he dwelt in the plain of Mamre the Amorite // brother of Eshcol, and brother of Aner // and these were confederate with Abram And there came one that escaped,.... Both the sword of the enemy and the slimepits; either one of the inhabitants of Sodom, who had an acquaintance wi...

And there came one that escaped,.... Both the sword of the enemy and the slimepits; either one of the inhabitants of Sodom, who had an acquaintance with Lot and a friendship for him, and knew his relation to Abram; or one of Lot's family, that might escape being taken and carried captive: for not Michael the prince, so called, because when the angels fell they would have drawn him with them, but God delivered him, and therefore his name was called פליט, or "one that escaped", as the Jews z say; nor Og, that escaped the waters of the flood, as they also say a, and now from this war, and was the only one left of the Rephaim, or giants, whom Amraphel slew, which they gather from Deu 3:11; who they suppose came with the following message to Abram with an ill design, that he might go out to war with the kings, and be slain, and then he thought to marry his wife; but these are idle fancies, what is first suggested is right.

And told Abram the Hebrew; that there had been a battle of four kings with five, that the latter were beaten, among whom were the kings of Sodom and Gomorrah; and that Lot, his kinsman, who dwelt in or near Sodom, was carried captive, with all his goods. Abram is called the Hebrew, either from his passing over or coming beyond the river Euphrates, from Chaldea into Canaan; with which the Septuagint version agrees, rendering it the "passer over"; and so Jarchi says he is called, because he came beyond the river: or rather from his having lived beyond it, as such as dwelt there were called; for it can hardly be thought that he should peculiarly have this name from that single action of his passing the river, which multitudes did besides him: but rather, why should he not be called Ibri, the word here used, from the place of his birth? For, according to the Talmudists b, Ur of the Chaldees was called עיברא זעירא, "little Ibra"; though it is more generally thought he had this name from his being a descendant of Eber, and who was not only of his sons' sons, and spoke the same language, but professed the same religion, and which was continued in his posterity, who to the latest ages were called Hebrews, and sometimes Eber, Num 24:24; and which is the opinion of many Jewish writers c, and seems most probable:

for he dwelt in the plain of Mamre the Amorite; see Gen 13:18; it was about forty miles from Sodom, but from it to Dan, whither he pursued the four kings, and where he overtook, fought, and smote them, is by some computed one hundred and twenty four miles d: this Mamre, from whom the plain or grove of oaks were called, was the

brother of Eshcol, and brother of Aner; who are particularly mentioned, because of their concern in the following expedition:

and these were confederate with Abram; or " were masters" or "authors of a covenant" e with him; they had entered into a league to defend one another, their persons and properties, from the insults of invaders and tyrants, or thieves and robbers: and it may be lawful to form such leagues with irreligious persons on such accounts, where there is no prohibition from God, as there was none as yet, though there afterwards was one; and the Israelites, were forbid to make covenants with the Canaanites, but that was after they were drove out of the land for their sins, Deu 7:1; besides, it is not improbable that these men were religious men, and worshipped the same God with Abram, for such there were among the Canaanitish princes, of which Melchizedek, after spoken of, is an instance; and as yet the sin of the Amorites was not full, of which tribe or nation these men were.

Gill: Gen 14:14 - And when Abram heard that his brother was taken captive // he armed his trained servants // born in his own house // three hundred and eighteen // and pursued them unto Dan And when Abram heard that his brother was taken captive,.... That is, his brother's son Lot, as in Gen 14:12; which was contrary to the law of nations...

And when Abram heard that his brother was taken captive,.... That is, his brother's son Lot, as in Gen 14:12; which was contrary to the law of nations; since Lot was only a sojourner, and not an inhabitant n Sodom, and therefore had no concern in the quarrel between the kings, and this justified Abram's taking up arms on his behalf:

he armed his trained servants; such as were trained up by him in religious exercises, see Gen 18:19; in the affairs and business of civil life, in the care of flocks and herds, and particularly in the art of war; which was both lawful and necessary, for the preservation of his family and substance from oppressors:

born in his own house; of his servants, and so were his property, and at his disposal and command; their number was

three hundred and eighteen, a large number for servants, and which showed how great a man Abram was, what possessions he must have to employ so many, and yet but a small number for an army, to go forth with against four kings who had conquered five; though how many his confederates brought with them is not certain:

and pursued them unto Dan; the Jerusalem Targum is, to Dan of Caesarea, meaning Caesarea of Philippi, as in the times of Christ and his apostles it was called; which at first had the name of Leshem, or Lais, and was not called Dan until the times of the judges, Jdg 18:29; wherefore, if the same place is intended here, it is so called not only by anticipation, but by a spirit of prophecy; since it had not the name of Dan even in the times of Moses, the writer of this history, unless it may be thought to be inserted by Samuel or some other inspired writer, after Moses; though there is no need to suppose either of these, seeing there might be a town or city of this name in those parts at this time, or however one of the springs of Jordan might be so called, from whence the river had its name as early, Gen 13:11; and so Josephus f expressly says, speaking of this expedition, that Abram fell upon them at Dan, for so, adds he, the other fountain of Jordan is called.

Gill: Gen 14:15 - And he divided himself against them, he and his servants by night // and smote them, and pursued them unto Hoba, which is on the left hand of Damascus And he divided himself against them, he and his servants by night,.... Together with his confederates; and very probably their whole three was divided...

And he divided himself against them, he and his servants by night,.... Together with his confederates; and very probably their whole three was divided into four parts, under their four leaders; and this might be done in order to attack the four kings and their soldiers, who might be in four separate bodies; or to fall upon their camp in the four quarters of it, and to make a show of a greater army, thereby to intimidate the enemy: Abram seems to have understood the art of war, and the use of stratagems in it; and, as it might be night before he could come up to them, he took the advantage of that, and fell upon them unawares, when some were asleep in their beds, and others drunk, as Josephus g relates; and who also says, it was on the fifth night after Abram had knowledge of what had happened at Sodom:

and smote them, and pursued them unto Hoba, which is on the left hand of Damascus; a famous city in Syria; it was in later times the metropolis of that country, Isa 7:8; and was most delightfully situated in a vale; see Gill on Jer 49:25; according to Josephus h it was built by Uz, the son of Aram and grandson of Shem, and some say i by Shem himself, and that it is to this day called Sem in the Saracene language, and lay between Palestine and Coelesyria; on the left hand of this city, or on the north of it, as all the Targums paraphrase it, lay a place called Hoba, and is completed to be eighty miles from Dan, from whence he pursued them hither, after he had discomfited them there.

Gill: Gen 14:16 - And he brought back all the goods // and also brought again his brother Lot // and the women also, and the people And he brought back all the goods,.... Taken from Sodom and Gomorrah, Gen 14:11, and also brought again his brother Lot; his brother's son, Gen 14:...

And he brought back all the goods,.... Taken from Sodom and Gomorrah, Gen 14:11,

and also brought again his brother Lot; his brother's son, Gen 14:12, for whose sake chiefly he engaged in this enterprise: and his goods; money, cattle, &c.

and the women also, and the people; not only that belonged to Lot, but to Sodom and Gomorrah, who had been taken and carried captive; these were all rescued and brought back by Abram, see Gen 14:21;

Gill: Gen 14:17 - And the king of Sodom went out to meet him // after his return from the slaughter of Chedorlaomer, and of the kings that were with him // at the valley of Shaveh // which is the king's dale And the king of Sodom went out to meet him,.... While Abram was in pursuit of the four kings, the king of Sodom came down from the mountain whither he...

And the king of Sodom went out to meet him,.... While Abram was in pursuit of the four kings, the king of Sodom came down from the mountain whither he and those that escaped with him fled, and came to Sodom: and from hence he went out, not alone, but accompanied with his retinue, to meet Abram:

after his return from the slaughter of Chedorlaomer, and of the kings that were with him; to congratulate him upon the victory he had obtained over them; and this meeting was

at the valley of Shaveh; a most plain and even valley, as the word signifies, clear of trees and everything that obstructs sight or passage, as Jarchi observes, and so a proper place to have an interview in:

which is the king's dale; some say King Melchizedek's, but one should rather think it was the king of Sodom's; the Targum of Jonathan calls it the place of the king's exercise, where he had his diversions in riding, walking, &c. it can hardly be that in 2Sa 18:18; though some are of this opinion, being near to Jerusalem, which they suppose to be the same with Salem in Gen 14:18.

Gill: Gen 14:18 - And Melchizedek king of Salem brought forth bread and wine // and he was the priest of the most high God And Melchizedek king of Salem brought forth bread and wine,.... Both the Targums of Jonathan and Jerusalem say, this is Shem the son of Noah, and whic...

And Melchizedek king of Salem brought forth bread and wine,.... Both the Targums of Jonathan and Jerusalem say, this is Shem the son of Noah, and which is the sense of the Jewish writers in general, and of many Christian ones; but, though it is highly probable he was living at this time, yet it is not easy to account for it why his name should be changed, or that he should reign in a country in the possession of his brother's son; or that he should meet Abram, and congratulate him on the slaughter of one of his own descendants, as Chedorlaomer was; and especially it cannot be said of him that he was without father or mother, or that those were not known, since Shem's parentage and pedigree are famous enough; some have thought him to be more than a mere man, even the Son of God himself, but he is manifestly distinguished from him in Heb 7:3; he seems to be what Josephus k says he was, a Canaanitish prince, a pious and religious man, eminently raised up by God, and whose genealogy was kept a secret, that he might be in this as in other things a type of Christ; but that he should be Canaan himself, as Dr. Clayton l thinks, a brother of Metsir, or Mizraim, the second son of Ham, being by Sanchoniatho called Sedec, is not likely, since he was cursed by Noah. Salem, of which he was king, is by the above Targums said to be Jerusalem, and which is the opinion of many writers, Jewish and Christian, and of which opinion I myself was formerly; see Gill on Heb 7:1; Jerusalem being plainly called Salem, Psa 76:2, but it seems clear from hence that it must be near to Sodom, and lay in the way between Damascus and Sodom; whereas Jerusalem was in a contrary situation, and lay nearly forty miles from Sodom; for Josephus says m, the lake Asphaltites, where Sodom once stood, was three hundred furlongs from Jerusalem, which is about thirty eight miles; and Jerom relates n, that Salem was a town near Scythopolis, which was so called in his times, and where was showed the palace of Melchizedek, which, by the largeness of the ruins, appeared to have been very magnificent, and takes it to be the same place with Shalem in Gen 33:18; and Salim, near to which John was baptizing, Joh 3:23, this great man "brought forth bread and wine"; not as a priest for an offering, but as a munificent king, to refresh Abram and his weary troops, and which the king of Sodom could not do, because the victuals of that place were carried off by the four kings, Gen 14:11; and as Abram had the land of Canaan by promise, and now had made conquest in it over the invaders of it, Melchizedek, sensible of his right unto it, brings forth the best fruits of it, and, as Dr. Lightfoot observes o, tenders them to him as "livery and seisin" of it: in this Melchizedek was a type of Christ, who comforts and refreshes his hungry and weary people with himself, the bread of life, and with the wine of his love, as well as his name and title agree with him, who is a righteous King and Prince of Peace, Jer 23:5,

and he was the priest of the most high God; a priest as well as a king, as in many countries princes were both p; and in this he was a type of Christ in his kingly and priestly offices, who is a priest upon the throne, both king and priest, Zec 6:13. Melchizedek was a priest not of any of the Phoenician deities, but of the true and living God, who is above all gods, dwells in the highest heaven, and is the most High over all the earth; by him was he called to this office and invested with it, and he ministered to him in it.

Gill: Gen 14:19 - And he blessed him // and said, blessed be Abram of the most high God // possessor of heaven and earth And he blessed him,.... Melchizedek blessed Abram, which was one part of his office as a priest, to wish and pray for a blessing on others, see Num 6:...

And he blessed him,.... Melchizedek blessed Abram, which was one part of his office as a priest, to wish and pray for a blessing on others, see Num 6:23, &c. and herein typified Christ, who really blesses or confers blessings on all his people, even spiritual blessings, such as redemption, remission of sins, and justifying righteousness, adoption, and eternal life:

and said, blessed be Abram of the most high God; that is, may he be blessed by him who is the most high God, with all kind of blessings, both temporal and spiritual; or he declares him to be blessed of him, as he undoubtedly was, or foretells that he would be, as was certainly his case: and another epithet of God is added, which abundantly shows he was able to bless him, since he is the

possessor of heaven and earth; is the Maker of both, and has a right to dispose of all things in them, both heavenly and earthly.

Gill: Gen 14:20 - And blessed be the most high God // which hath delivered thine enemies into thine hand // and he gave him tithes of all And blessed be the most high God,.... Let his name be praised, and thanks be given to him for all mercies temporal and spiritual, since all flow from ...

And blessed be the most high God,.... Let his name be praised, and thanks be given to him for all mercies temporal and spiritual, since all flow from him, and particularly for the mercies Abram and others through him were now made partakers of; for whoever were the instruments, God was the efficient cause, and to him all the glory was to be given:

which hath delivered thine enemies into thine hand; the four kings, who are called Abram's enemies, because the enemies of God and of true religion, and because they had been injurious to a relation of his; and especially they may be so called, if their intention was, as, say the Jewish writers q to slay him, beginning first with Lot: and those four kings, according to them, signify the four monarchies, the Babylonian, Persian, Grecian, and Roman r who in their turns distressed his posterity, but in the latter day shall fall into their hands, as those did into Abram's, and fall by them:

and he gave him tithes of all; not Melchizedek to Abram, but Abram to Melchizedek, as appears from Heb 7:4; and these tithes were given not out of the goods that were recovered, for they were restored to the proprietors of them, but out of the spoils that were taken from the enemy, as is evident from the same place referred to; and these were given both as a return for the respect shown him by Melchizedek, and by way of thankfulness to God for the victory, whose priest he was; otherwise, as a king, he stood in no need of such a present; nor was it for his maintenance as a priest, or what Abram was obliged unto, but was a voluntary action, and not out of his own substance, but out of the spoils of the enemy, and to testify his gratitude to God: this was imitated by the Heathens in later times; so the Tarentines, having got a victory over the Peucetians, sent the tenth (of the spoil) to Delphos s: the Jews t say Abraham was the first in the world that began to offer tithes; but they are mistaken, when they say in the same place, that he took all the tithes of Sodom and Gomorrah, and of Lot his brother's son, and gave them to Shem the son of Noah. Eupolemus u makes mention of this interview between Abram and Melchizedek by name; he says, Abram was hospitably entertained in the holy city Argarizin, which is by interpretation the mountain of the most High (but seems to be the Mount Gerizzim) and that he received gifts from Melchizedek, the priest of God, who reigned there.

Gill: Gen 14:21 - And the king of Sodom said unto Abram // give me the persons, and take the goods to thyself And the king of Sodom said unto Abram,.... After the conversation between him and Melchizedek was over: give me the persons, and take the goods to ...

And the king of Sodom said unto Abram,.... After the conversation between him and Melchizedek was over:

give me the persons, and take the goods to thyself; meaning by "persons" or "souls", as in the original, his own subjects that had been taken and carried away by the four kings, and were now brought back by Abram; and by "the goods", those of his own and his subjects, which their conquerors had spoiled them of, but were now recovered, and which he was very willing Abram should have as his right, according to the laws of war, and as a reward of his labours; and very modestly asks for the other, which he did not deny but he might claim as the fruits of his victory: and this also shows, that the king of Sodom, though a Heathen prince, and perhaps a wicked man, yet had more regard to the persons of his subjects than to his own or their goods: the word for "goods" includes all the substance and possession of a man, gold, silver, cattle, and all movables w.

Gill: Gen 14:22 - And Abram said to the king of Sodom // I have lifted up mine hand unto the Lord // the most high God, the possessor of heaven and earth And Abram said to the king of Sodom,.... In reply to his request: I have lifted up mine hand unto the Lord; which was both a gesture of praying and...

And Abram said to the king of Sodom,.... In reply to his request:

I have lifted up mine hand unto the Lord; which was both a gesture of praying and of swearing, and both may be intended here; when he set out on his expedition, it is very probable he prayed to God for success, and swore that if he prospered him, that he would receive no profit or advantage from it to himself; or now in the presence of Melchizedek he lift up his hands and swore that he would take none of the goods he had recovered to his own line; and in this form of praying or swearing, he makes use of the same epithets of God Melchizedek had just used:

the most high God, the possessor of heaven and earth: having his heart struck with those just and glorious representations of God, and awed with a sense of such a glorious Being, and being forward to learn and retain everything that tended to make for the glory of God.

Gill: Gen 14:23 - That I will not take from a thread even to a shoelatchet // and that I will not take anything that is thine // lest thou shouldest say, I have made Abram rich That I will not take from a thread even to a shoelatchet,.... That is, from a thread used in sewing garments to, a shoelatchet, or the string which f...

That I will not take from a thread even to a shoelatchet,.... That is, from a thread used in sewing garments to, a shoelatchet, or the string which fastens the shoes to the foot, the least belonging to that; or from the hair lace of the head, to the shoelatchet of the foot; that is, he would take nothing of his from head to foot: the meaning is, that he would not take that which was of the least value and importance that could be conceived of, and which is more clearly expressed by what follows:

and that I will not take anything that is thine; the least thing that belonged to him, or to any of his subjects, for this reason:

lest thou shouldest say, I have made Abram rich; lest he should upbraid him with it afterwards, and say, that all his riches were owing to him; whereas God had promised to bless him, and make him rich and great, as he had begun to do, and still would more and more; and in whom his trusted, and to whom he was desirous all the glory of his greatness and riches should be ascribed.

Gill: Gen 14:24 - Save only that which the young men have eaten // and the portion of the men which went with me // let them take their portion Save only that which the young men have eaten,.... His three hundred and eighteen trained servants, and those of his confederates, who having recovere...

Save only that which the young men have eaten,.... His three hundred and eighteen trained servants, and those of his confederates, who having recovered the victuals taken away from the inhabitants of Sodom and Gomorrah, had eaten of it for their refreshment, as it was but just and right they should:

and the portion of the men which went with me; the part in the spoil which belonged unto them by the laws of war; wherefore, though he abridged himself of rights and privileges that belonged unto him, which he might do, and thereby showed his great generosity, and that it was not covetousness but kindness that moved him to do what he did; yet he did not take upon him to abridge the rights and privileges of others, which would have been injurious to them: the men he means were Aner, Eshcol, and Mamre; his confederates, who went with him in the pursuit of the enemy, and were assisting to him in recovering the men and goods they had carried away: and as it was but justice they should have their share in the spoils, therefore he says:

let them take their portion; in the goods recovered, and in the spoils taken. Eupolemus x, the Heathen writer above quoted, relates this affair thus, that"Abram being assisted by his servants became master of those who had captivated others, and carried captive the wives and children of the soldiers; and when ambassadors came to him to ransom them with money, he would not suffer the conquered to be insulted, but taking food for the young men, returned the captives freely.''

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki

NET Notes: Gen 14:1 Or “king of Goyim.” The Hebrew term גּוֹיִם (goyim) means “nations,” but a number of...

NET Notes: Gen 14:2 On the geographical background of vv. 1-2 see J. P. Harland, “Sodom and Gomorrah,” The Biblical Archaeologist Reader, 1:41-75; and D. N. F...

NET Notes: Gen 14:3 The Salt Sea is the older name for the Dead Sea.

NET Notes: Gen 14:4 The story serves as a foreshadowing of the plight of the kingdom of Israel later. Eastern powers came and forced the western kingdoms into submission....

NET Notes: Gen 14:5 The Hebrew verb נָכָה (nakhah) means “to attack, to strike, to smite.” In this context it appears that the s...

NET Notes: Gen 14:6 The line of attack ran down the eastern side of the Jordan Valley into the desert, and then turned and came up the valley to the cities of the plain.

NET Notes: Gen 14:7 Heb “they returned and came to En Mishpat (that is, Kadesh).” The two verbs together form a verbal hendiadys, the first serving as the adv...

NET Notes: Gen 14:8 Heb “against.”

NET Notes: Gen 14:9 The Hebrew text has simply “against.” The word “fought” is supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.

NET Notes: Gen 14:10 The reference to the kings of Sodom and Gomorrah must mean the kings along with their armies. Most of them were defeated in the valley, but some of th...

NET Notes: Gen 14:11 Heb “they”; the referent (the four victorious kings, see v. 9) has been supplied in the translation for clarity.

NET Notes: Gen 14:12 This disjunctive clause is circumstantial/causal, explaining that Lot was captured because he was living in Sodom at the time.

NET Notes: Gen 14:13 This parenthetical disjunctive clause explains how Abram came to be living in their territory, but it also explains why they must go to war with Abram...

NET Notes: Gen 14:14 The use of the name Dan reflects a later perspective. The Danites did not migrate to this northern territory until centuries later (see Judg 18:29). F...

NET Notes: Gen 14:15 Heb “left.” Directions in ancient Israel were given in relation to the east rather than the north.

NET Notes: Gen 14:16 The phrase “the rest of “ has been supplied in the translation for clarification.

NET Notes: Gen 14:17 The King’s Valley is possibly a reference to what came to be known later as the Kidron Valley.

NET Notes: Gen 14:18 It is his royal priestly status that makes Melchizedek a type of Christ: He was identified with Jerusalem, superior to the ancestor of Israel, and bot...

NET Notes: Gen 14:19 The terms translated “heaven” and “earth” are both objective genitives after the participle in construct.

NET Notes: Gen 14:20 Heb “him”; the referent (Melchizedek) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

NET Notes: Gen 14:22 The words “and vow” are not in the Hebrew text, but are supplied in the translation for clarification.

NET Notes: Gen 14:23 The Hebrew text adds the independent pronoun (“I”) to the verb form for emphasis.

NET Notes: Gen 14:24 Heb “except only what the young men have eaten.”

Geneva Bible: Gen 14:1 And it came to pass in the days of Amraphel king of ( a ) Shinar, Arioch king of Ellasar, Chedorlaomer king of Elam, and Tidal king of ( b ) nations; ...

Geneva Bible: Gen 14:3 All these were ( c ) joined together in the vale of Siddim, which is the ( d ) salt sea. ( c ) Ambition is the chief cause of wars among princes. ( ...

Geneva Bible: Gen 14:10 And the ( e ) vale of Siddim [was full of] slimepits; and the kings of Sodom and Gomorrah fled, and fell there; and they that remained fled to the mou...

Geneva Bible: Gen 14:12 And they ( f ) took Lot, Abram's brother's son, who dwelt in Sodom, and his goods, and departed. ( f ) The godly are plagued many times with the wick...

Geneva Bible: Gen 14:13 And there came one that had escaped, and told Abram the Hebrew; for he dwelt in the plain of Mamre the Amorite, brother of Eshcol, and brother of Aner...

Geneva Bible: Gen 14:18 And Melchizedek king of Salem ( h ) brought forth bread and wine: and he [was] the priest of the most high God. ( h ) For Abram and his soldiers refr...

Geneva Bible: Gen 14:19 And he ( i ) blessed him, and said, Blessed [be] Abram of the most high God, possessor of heaven and earth: ( i ) Melchizedek fed Abram, declared him...

Geneva Bible: Gen 14:24 ( k ) Save only that which the young men have eaten, and the portion of the men which went with me, Aner, Eshcol, and Mamre; let them take their porti...

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Rentang Ayat

Maclaren: Gen 14:13 - Abram The Hebrew Genesis 14:13 This is a singular designation of Abram as The Hebrew.' Probably we have in its use here a trace of the customary epithet which he bore ...

MHCC: Gen 14:1-12 - --The wars of nations make great figure in history, but we should not have had the record of this war if Abram and Lot had not been concerned. Out of co...

MHCC: Gen 14:13-16 - --Abram takes this opportunity to give a real proof of his being truly friendly to Lot. We ought to be ready to succour those in distress, especially re...

MHCC: Gen 14:17-20 - --Melchizedek is spoken of as a king of Salem, supposed to be the place afterwards called Jerusalem, and it is generally thought that he was only a man....

MHCC: Gen 14:21-24 - --Observe the king of Sodom's grateful offer to Abram, Give me the souls, and take thou the substance. Gratitude teaches us to recompense to the utmost ...

Matthew Henry: Gen 14:1-12 - -- We have here an account of the first war that ever we read of in scripture, which (though the wars of the nations make the greatest figure in histor...

Matthew Henry: Gen 14:13-16 - -- We have here an account of the only military action we ever find Abram engaged in, and this he was prompted to, not by his avarice or ambition, but ...

Matthew Henry: Gen 14:17-20 - -- This paragraph begins with the mention of the respect which the king of Sodom paid to Abram at his return from the slaughter of the kings; but, befo...

Matthew Henry: Gen 14:21-24 - -- We have here an account of what passed between Abram and the king of Sodom, who succeeded him that fell in the battle (Gen 14:10), and thought himse...

Keil-Delitzsch: Gen 14:1-12 - -- The war, which furnished Abram with an opportunity, while in the promised land of which as yet he could not really call a single rood his own, to pr...

Keil-Delitzsch: Gen 14:13-16 - -- A fugitive (lit., the fugitive; the article denotes the genus, Ewald , §277) brought intelligence of this to Abram the Hebrew ( העברי , an ...

Keil-Delitzsch: Gen 14:17-24 - -- As Abram returned with the booty which he had taken from the enemy, the king of Sodom (of course, the successor to the one who fell in the battle) a...

Constable: Gen 11:27--Exo 1:1 - --II. PATRIARCHAL NARRATIVES 11:27--50:26 One of the significant changes in the emphasis that occurs at this point...

Constable: Gen 11:27--25:12 - --A. What became of Terah 11:27-25:11 A major theme of the Pentateuch is the partial fulfillment of the pr...

Constable: Gen 14:1-24 - --4. Abram's military victory ch. 14 A powerful coalition of kings from Mesopotamia invaded Canaan...

Constable: Gen 14:1-16 - --Abram's war with four kings 14:1-16 A major significance of this literary unit is that it describes two more challenges to God's faithfulness and Abra...

Constable: Gen 14:17-24 - --Abram's meeting with two kings 14:17-24 This section records an important decision Abram had to make after he returned victoriously from his battle wi...

Guzik: Gen 14:1-24 - Abram Rescues Lot and Meets Melchizedek Genesis 14 - Abram Rescues Lot and Meets Melchizedek A. Abram rescues Lot from the confederacy of kings. 1. (1-10) The four kings of the cities in t...

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Lainnya

Bible Query: Gen 14:1-17 Q: In Gen 14:1-17, is there any extra-Biblical evidence for Sodom, Gomorrah, and the other cities? A: Yes. There used to be none until archaeologist...

Bible Query: Gen 14:1-2 Q: In Gen 14:1-2, who are these kings? A: This occurred around 2000 B.C., so it is not surprising we cannot find some of these rulers. However, Elam...

Bible Query: Gen 14:1-2 Q: In Gen 14:1-2, how could you have "confederacies" of kings fighting? A: There would be very few confederacies of kings prior to the fall of the s...

Bible Query: Gen 14:1 Q: In Gen 14:1, how do you pronounce the name "Chederlaomer"? A: Cruden’s Concordance says it is "ked-ur-la-o-mer", with the u and first e short, ...

Bible Query: Gen 14:5 Q: In Gen 14:5, what does Ashteroth-Karnaim mean? A: There are two possibilities according to both the Wycliffe Bible Dictionary p.160 and the New B...

Bible Query: Gen 14:7 Q: In Gen 14:7, how do you pronounce the word "Amalekite"? A: Cruden’s Concordance says it is pronounced as "AM-a-le-kit" with the "i" and second ...

Bible Query: Gen 14:14 Q: In Gen 14:14, how could Abram and his allies, only 318 men, defeat an invading army of an alliance of 4 great kings? A: Genesis 14:15 suggests th...

Bible Query: Gen 14:14 Q: In Gen 14:14, how does Abram’s raid compare to other surprise attacks in history? A: The army apparently retreated from Dan to Damascus, around...

Bible Query: Gen 14:18-19 Q: In Gen 14:18-19, how could Melchizedek, presumably a cursed Canaanite, be in a position to bless Abraham? A: Melchizedek is a mysterious person i...

Bible Query: Gen 14:18 Q: In Gen 14:18, how old is the city of Jerusalem? A: We think it was founded about 3000 B.C. Asimov’s Guide to the Bible p.74 says that early Egy...

Bible Query: Gen 14:18 Q: Does Gen 14:18 teach a "Melchizedek priesthood" of people as Mormons teach? A: No. Genesis 14 only mentions one individual named Melchizedek. Heb...

Bible Query: Gen 14:23 Q: In Gen 14:23 (KJV), why are shoe latchlets mentioned, when they did not have shoes with latchlets back then? A: This King James Version expressio...

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Pendahuluan / Garis Besar

JFB: Genesis (Pendahuluan Kitab) GENESIS, the book of the origin or production of all things, consists of two parts: the first, comprehended in the first through eleventh chapters, gi...

JFB: Genesis (Garis Besar) THE CREATION OF HEAVEN AND EARTH. (Gen 1:1-2) THE FIRST DAY. (Gen 1:3-5) SECOND DAY. (Gen 1:6-8) THIRD DAY. (Gen 1:9-13) FOURTH DAY. (Gen 1:14-19) FI...

TSK: Genesis (Pendahuluan Kitab) The Book of Genesis is the most ancient record in the world; including the History of two grand and stupendous subjects, Creation and Providence; of e...

TSK: Genesis 14 (Pendahuluan Pasal) Overview Gen 14:1, The battle of four kings against the king of Sodom and his allies; Gen 14:12, Lot is taken prisoner; Gen 14:14, Abram rescues h...

Poole: Genesis 14 (Pendahuluan Pasal) CHAPTER 14 Several kings wage war against the king of Sodom, &c.; Lot is taken prisoner, Gen 14:1-12 . Abram rescues him, Gen 14:13-16 . The king o...

MHCC: Genesis (Pendahuluan Kitab) Genesis is a name taken from the Greek, and signifies " the book of generation or production;" it is properly so called, as containing an account of ...

MHCC: Genesis 14 (Pendahuluan Pasal) (Gen 14:1-12) The battle of the kings, Lot is taken prisoner. (Gen 14:13-16) Abram rescues Lot. (Gen 14:17-20) Melchizedek blesses Abram. (Gen 14:2...

Matthew Henry: Genesis (Pendahuluan Kitab) An Exposition, with Practical Observations, of The First Book of Moses, Called Genesis We have now before us the holy Bible, or book, for so bible ...

Matthew Henry: Genesis 14 (Pendahuluan Pasal) We have four things in the story of this chapter. I. A war with the king of Sodom and his allies (Gen 14:1-11). II. The captivity of Lot in that ...

Constable: Genesis (Pendahuluan Kitab) Introduction Title Each book of the Pentateuch (the first five books of the Old Testam...

Constable: Genesis (Garis Besar) Outline The structure of Genesis is very clear. The phrase "the generations of" (toledot in Hebrew, from yalad m...

Constable: Genesis Bibliography Aalders, Gerhard Charles. Genesis. The Bible Student's Commentary series. 2 vols. Translated by William Hey...

Haydock: Genesis (Pendahuluan Kitab) THE BOOK OF GENESIS. INTRODUCTION. The Hebrews now entitle all the Five Books of Moses, from the initial words, which originally were written li...

Gill: Genesis (Pendahuluan Kitab) INTRODUCTION TO GENESIS This book, in the Hebrew copies of the Bible, and by the Jewish writers, is generally called Bereshith, which signifies "in...

Gill: Genesis 14 (Pendahuluan Pasal) INTRODUCTION TO GENESIS 14 This chapter gives an account of a war that was waged, and a battle fought between four kings on one side, and five on t...

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