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Teks -- 2 Corinthians 11:1-33 (NET)

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Konteks
Paul and His Opponents
11:1 I wish that you would be patient with me in a little foolishness, but indeed you are being patient with me! 11:2 For I am jealous for you with godly jealousy, because I promised you in marriage to one husband, to present you as a pure virgin to Christ. 11:3 But I am afraid that just as the serpent deceived Eve by his treachery, your minds may be led astray from a sincere and pure devotion to Christ. 11:4 For if someone comes and proclaims another Jesus different from the one we proclaimed, or if you receive a different spirit than the one you received, or a different gospel than the one you accepted, you put up with it well enough! 11:5 For I consider myself not at all inferior to those “super-apostles.” 11:6 And even if I am unskilled in speaking, yet I am certainly not so in knowledge. Indeed, we have made this plain to you in everything in every way. 11:7 Or did I commit a sin by humbling myself so that you could be exalted, because I proclaimed the gospel of God to you free of charge? 11:8 I robbed other churches by receiving support from them so that I could serve you! 11:9 When I was with you and was in need, I was not a burden to anyone, for the brothers who came from Macedonia fully supplied my needs. I kept myself from being a burden to you in any way, and will continue to do so. 11:10 As the truth of Christ is in me, this boasting of mine will not be stopped in the regions of Achaia. 11:11 Why? Because I do not love you? God knows I do! 11:12 And what I am doing I will continue to do, so that I may eliminate any opportunity for those who want a chance to be regarded as our equals in the things they boast about. 11:13 For such people are false apostles, deceitful workers, disguising themselves as apostles of Christ. 11:14 And no wonder, for even Satan disguises himself as an angel of light. 11:15 Therefore it is not surprising his servants also disguise themselves as servants of righteousness, whose end will correspond to their actions.
Paul’s Sufferings for Christ
11:16 I say again, let no one think that I am a fool. But if you do, then at least accept me as a fool, so that I too may boast a little. 11:17 What I am saying with this boastful confidence I do not say the way the Lord would. Instead it is, as it were, foolishness. 11:18 Since many are boasting according to human standards, I too will boast. 11:19 For since you are so wise, you put up with fools gladly. 11:20 For you put up with it if someone makes slaves of you, if someone exploits you, if someone takes advantage of you, if someone behaves arrogantly toward you, if someone strikes you in the face. 11:21 (To my disgrace I must say that we were too weak for that!) But whatever anyone else dares to boast about (I am speaking foolishly), I also dare to boast about the same thing. 11:22 Are they Hebrews? So am I. Are they Israelites? So am I. Are they descendants of Abraham? So am I. 11:23 Are they servants of Christ? (I am talking like I am out of my mind!) I am even more so: with much greater labors, with far more imprisonments, with more severe beatings, facing death many times. 11:24 Five times I received from the Jews forty lashes less one. 11:25 Three times I was beaten with a rod. Once I received a stoning. Three times I suffered shipwreck. A night and a day I spent adrift in the open sea. 11:26 I have been on journeys many times, in dangers from rivers, in dangers from robbers, in dangers from my own countrymen, in dangers from Gentiles, in dangers in the city, in dangers in the wilderness, in dangers at sea, in dangers from false brothers, 11:27 in hard work and toil, through many sleepless nights, in hunger and thirst, many times without food, in cold and without enough clothing. 11:28 Apart from other things, there is the daily pressure on me of my anxious concern for all the churches. 11:29 Who is weak, and I am not weak? Who is led into sin, and I do not burn with indignation? 11:30 If I must boast, I will boast about the things that show my weakness. 11:31 The God and Father of the Lord Jesus, who is blessed forever, knows I am not lying. 11:32 In Damascus, the governor under King Aretas was guarding the city of Damascus in order to arrest me, 11:33 but I was let down in a rope-basket through a window in the city wall, and escaped his hands.
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Abraham a son of Terah; the father of Isaac; ancestor of the Jewish nation.,the son of Terah of Shem
 · Achaia a Roman province located in Greece along the south coast of the Gulf of Corinth
 · Aretas the ruler of Damascus during N.T. times; the father-in-law of Herod the Tetrarch
 · Damascus a city-state in Syria, located near Mt. Hermon at the edge of the Syrian desert (OS),a town near Mt. Hermon at the edge of the Syrian desert (OS)
 · Eve the first woman created by God; wife of Adam,wife of Adam; mother of all the people of the earth
 · Gentile a non-Jewish person
 · Hebrew a person descended from Heber; an ancient Jew; a Hebrew speaking Jew,any Jew, but particularly one who spoke the Hebrew language
 · Israelite a citizen of Israel.,a member of the nation of Israel
 · Jews the people descended from Israel
 · Macedonia a Roman province north of Greece which included 10 Roman colonies (IBD),citizens of the province of Macedonia
 · Satan a person, male (evil angelic),an angel that has rebelled against God


Topik/Tema Kamus: Minister | Corinth | Zeal | PAUL, THE APOSTLE, 4 | CORINTHIANS, SECOND EPISTLE TO THE | Paul | Afflictions and Adversities | Philippians, Epistle to | Persecution | Folly | Satan | MARK | Serpent | Damascus | SCOURGE; SCOURGING | Basket | SCRIBES | SUFFERING | TRANSFORM | Scourging | selebihnya
Daftar Isi

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Robertson , Vincent , Wesley , JFB , Clarke , Calvin , Defender , TSK

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Poole , Haydock , Gill

Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki
NET Notes , Geneva Bible

Catatan Rentang Ayat
Maclaren , MHCC , Matthew Henry , Barclay , Constable , College , McGarvey , Lapide

Lainnya
Evidence

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per frasa)

Robertson: 2Co 11:1 - Would that ye could bear with me Would that ye could bear with me ( ophelon aneichesthe mou ). Koiné[28928]š way of expressing a wish about the present, ophelon (as a conjuncti...

Would that ye could bear with me ( ophelon aneichesthe mou ).

Koiné[28928]š way of expressing a wish about the present, ophelon (as a conjunction, really second aorist active indicative of opheilō without augment) and the imperfect indicative instead of eithe or ei gar (Robertson, Grammar , p. 1003). Cf. Rev 3:15. See note on Gal 5:12 for future indicative with ophelon and note on 1Co 4:8 for aorist. Mou is ablative case after aneichesthe (direct middle, hold yourselves back from me). There is a touch of irony here.

Robertson: 2Co 11:1 - Bear with me Bear with me ( anechesthe mou ). Either imperative middle or present middle indicative (ye do bear with me). Same form.

Bear with me ( anechesthe mou ).

Either imperative middle or present middle indicative (ye do bear with me). Same form.

Robertson: 2Co 11:1 - In a little foolishness In a little foolishness ( mikron ti aphrosunēs ). Accusative of general reference (mikron ti ). "Some little foolishness"(from aphrōn , foolish)...

In a little foolishness ( mikron ti aphrosunēs ).

Accusative of general reference (mikron ti ). "Some little foolishness"(from aphrōn , foolish). Old word only in this chapter in N.T.

Robertson: 2Co 11:2 - With a godly jealousy With a godly jealousy ( theou zēlōi ). Instrumental case of zēlos . With a jealousy of God.

With a godly jealousy ( theou zēlōi ).

Instrumental case of zēlos . With a jealousy of God.

Robertson: 2Co 11:2 - I espoused I espoused ( hērmosamēn ). First aorist middle indicative of harmozō , old verb to join, to fit together (from harmos , joint). Common for betr...

I espoused ( hērmosamēn ).

First aorist middle indicative of harmozō , old verb to join, to fit together (from harmos , joint). Common for betrothed, though only here in N.T. The middle voice indicates Paul’ s interest in the matter. Paul treats the Corinthians as his bride.

Robertson: 2Co 11:3 - The serpent beguiled Eve The serpent beguiled Eve ( ho ophis exēpatēsen Heuan ). Paul’ s only mention of the serpent in Eden. The compound exapataō means to dece...

The serpent beguiled Eve ( ho ophis exēpatēsen Heuan ).

Paul’ s only mention of the serpent in Eden. The compound exapataō means to deceive completely.

Robertson: 2Co 11:3 - Lest by any means Lest by any means ( mē pōs ). Common conjunction after verbs of fearing.

Lest by any means ( mē pōs ).

Common conjunction after verbs of fearing.

Robertson: 2Co 11:3 - Corrupted Corrupted ( phtharēi ). Second aorist passive subjunctive with mē pōs of phtheirō , to corrupt.

Corrupted ( phtharēi ).

Second aorist passive subjunctive with mē pōs of phtheirō , to corrupt.

Robertson: 2Co 11:4 - Another Jesus Another Jesus ( allon Iēsoun ). Not necessarily a different Jesus, but any other "Jesus"is a rival and so wrong. That would deny the identity.

Another Jesus ( allon Iēsoun ).

Not necessarily a different Jesus, but any other "Jesus"is a rival and so wrong. That would deny the identity.

Robertson: 2Co 11:4 - A different spirit A different spirit ( pneuma heteron ). This is the obvious meaning of heteron in distinction from allon as seen in Act 4:12; Gal 1:6. But this di...

A different spirit ( pneuma heteron ).

This is the obvious meaning of heteron in distinction from allon as seen in Act 4:12; Gal 1:6. But this distinction in nature or kind is not always to be insisted on.

Robertson: 2Co 11:4 - A different gospel A different gospel ( euaggelion heteron ). Similar use of heteron .

A different gospel ( euaggelion heteron ).

Similar use of heteron .

Robertson: 2Co 11:4 - Ye do well to bear with him Ye do well to bear with him ( kalōs anechesthe ). Ironical turn again. "Well do you hold yourselves back from him"(the coming one, whoever he is). ...

Ye do well to bear with him ( kalōs anechesthe ).

Ironical turn again. "Well do you hold yourselves back from him"(the coming one, whoever he is). Some MSS. have the imperfect aneichesthe (did bear with).

Robertson: 2Co 11:5 - That I am not a whit behind the very chiefest apostles That I am not a whit behind the very chiefest apostles ( mēden husterēkenai tōn huperlian apostolōn ). Perfect active infinitive of hustereo...

That I am not a whit behind the very chiefest apostles ( mēden husterēkenai tōn huperlian apostolōn ).

Perfect active infinitive of hustereō , old verb to fall short with the ablative case. The rare compound adverb huperlian (possibly in use in the vernacular) is probably ironical also, "the super apostles"as these Judaizers set themselves up to be. "The extra-super apostles"(Farrar). Also in 2Co 12:11. He is not referring to the pillar-apostles of Gal 2:9.

Robertson: 2Co 11:6 - Rude in speech Rude in speech ( idiōtēs tōi logōi ). Locative case with idiōtēs for which word see note on Act 4:13; note on 1Co 14:16, note on 1Co 14...

Rude in speech ( idiōtēs tōi logōi ).

Locative case with idiōtēs for which word see note on Act 4:13; note on 1Co 14:16, note on 1Co 14:23, and 1Co 14:24. The Greeks regarded a man as idiōtēs who just attended to his own affairs (ta idia ) and took no part in public life. Paul admits that he is not a professional orator (cf. 2Co 10:10), but denies that he is unskilled in knowledge (all' ou tēi gnōsei ).

Robertson: 2Co 11:6 - Among all men Among all men ( en pāsin ). He has made his mastery of the things of Christ plain among all men. He knew his subject.

Among all men ( en pāsin ).

He has made his mastery of the things of Christ plain among all men. He knew his subject.

Robertson: 2Co 11:7 - In abasing myself In abasing myself ( emauton tapeinōn ). Humbling myself by making tents for a living while preaching in Corinth. He is ironical still about "doing ...

In abasing myself ( emauton tapeinōn ).

Humbling myself by making tents for a living while preaching in Corinth. He is ironical still about "doing a sin"(hamartian epoiēsa ).

Robertson: 2Co 11:7 - For nought For nought ( dōrean ). Gratis . Accusative of general reference, common adverb. It amounts to sarcasm to ask if he did a sin in preaching the gosp...

For nought ( dōrean ).

Gratis . Accusative of general reference, common adverb. It amounts to sarcasm to ask if he did a sin in preaching the gospel free of expense to them "that ye may be exalted."

Robertson: 2Co 11:8 - I robbed I robbed ( esulēsa ). Old verb to despoil, strip arms from a slain foe, only here in N.T. He allowed other churches to do more than their share.

I robbed ( esulēsa ).

Old verb to despoil, strip arms from a slain foe, only here in N.T. He allowed other churches to do more than their share.

Robertson: 2Co 11:8 - Taking wages Taking wages ( labōn opsōnion ). For opsōnion see note on 1Co 9:7; note on Rom 6:23. He got his "rations"from other churches, not from Corint...

Taking wages ( labōn opsōnion ).

For opsōnion see note on 1Co 9:7; note on Rom 6:23. He got his "rations"from other churches, not from Corinth while there.

Robertson: 2Co 11:9 - I was not a burden to any man I was not a burden to any man ( ou katenarkēsa outhenos ). First aorist active indicative of katanarkaō . Jerome calls this word one of Paul̵...

I was not a burden to any man ( ou katenarkēsa outhenos ).

First aorist active indicative of katanarkaō . Jerome calls this word one of Paul’ s cilicisms which he brought from Cilicia. But the word occurs in Hippocrates for growing quite stiff and may be a medical term in popular use. Narkaō means to become numb, torpid, and so a burden. It is only here and 2Co 12:13. Paul "did not benumb the Corinthians by his demand for pecuniary aid"(Vincent).

Robertson: 2Co 11:9 - From being burdensome From being burdensome ( abarē ). Old adjective, free from weight or light (a privative and baros , weight). See note on 1Th 2:9 for same idea. Pa...

From being burdensome ( abarē ).

Old adjective, free from weight or light (a privative and baros , weight). See note on 1Th 2:9 for same idea. Paul kept himself independent.

Robertson: 2Co 11:10 - No man shall stop me of this glorying No man shall stop me of this glorying ( hē kauchēsis hautē ou phragēsetai eis eme ). More exactly, "This glorying shall not be fenced in as r...

No man shall stop me of this glorying ( hē kauchēsis hautē ou phragēsetai eis eme ).

More exactly, "This glorying shall not be fenced in as regards me."Second future passive of phrassō , to fence in, to stop, to block in. Old verb, only here in N.T.

Robertson: 2Co 11:10 - In the regions of Achaia In the regions of Achaia ( en tois klimasin tēs Achaias ). Klima from klinō , to incline, is Koiné[28928]š word for declivity slope, region...

In the regions of Achaia ( en tois klimasin tēs Achaias ).

Klima from klinō , to incline, is Koiné[28928]š word for declivity slope, region (our climate). See chapter 1 Corinthians 9 for Paul’ s boast about preaching the gospel without cost to them.

Robertson: 2Co 11:11 - God knoweth God knoweth ( ho theos oiden ). Whether they do or not. He knows that God understands his motives.

God knoweth ( ho theos oiden ).

Whether they do or not. He knows that God understands his motives.

Robertson: 2Co 11:12 - That I may cut off occasion That I may cut off occasion ( hina ekkopsō tēn aphormēn ). Purpose clause with hina and first aorist active subjunctive of ekkoptō , old ve...

That I may cut off occasion ( hina ekkopsō tēn aphormēn ).

Purpose clause with hina and first aorist active subjunctive of ekkoptō , old verb to cut out or off (Mat 3:10; Mat 5:30). See note on 2Co 5:12 for aphormēn .

Robertson: 2Co 11:12 - From them which desire an occasion From them which desire an occasion ( tōn thelontōn aphormēn ). Ablative case after ekkopsō . There are always some hunting for occasions to s...

From them which desire an occasion ( tōn thelontōn aphormēn ).

Ablative case after ekkopsō . There are always some hunting for occasions to start something against preachers.

Robertson: 2Co 11:12 - They may be found They may be found ( heurethōsin ). First aorist passive subjunctive of heuriskō , to find with final conjunction hina .

They may be found ( heurethōsin ).

First aorist passive subjunctive of heuriskō , to find with final conjunction hina .

Robertson: 2Co 11:13 - False apostles False apostles ( pseudapostoloi ). From pseudēs , false, and apostolos . Paul apparently made this word (cf. Rev 2:2). In 2Co 11:26 we have pseudad...

False apostles ( pseudapostoloi ).

From pseudēs , false, and apostolos . Paul apparently made this word (cf. Rev 2:2). In 2Co 11:26 we have pseudadelphos , a word of like formation (Gal 2:4). See also pseudochristoi and pseudoprophētai in Mar 13:22.

Robertson: 2Co 11:13 - Deceitful Deceitful ( dolioi ). Old word from dolos (lure, snare), only here in N.T. (cf. Rom 16:18).

Deceitful ( dolioi ).

Old word from dolos (lure, snare), only here in N.T. (cf. Rom 16:18).

Robertson: 2Co 11:13 - Fashioning themselves Fashioning themselves ( metaschēmatizomenoi ). Present middle (direct) participle of the old verb metaschēmatizō for which see note on 1Co 4:...

Fashioning themselves ( metaschēmatizomenoi ).

Present middle (direct) participle of the old verb metaschēmatizō for which see note on 1Co 4:6. Masquerading as apostles of Christ by putting on the outward habiliments, posing as ministers of Christ ("gentlemen of the cloth,"nothing but cloth). Paul plays with this verb in 2Co 11:13, 2Co 11:14, 2Co 11:15.

Robertson: 2Co 11:14 - An angel of light An angel of light ( aggelon phōtos ). The prince of darkness puts on the garb of light and sets the fashion for his followers in the masquerade to ...

An angel of light ( aggelon phōtos ).

The prince of darkness puts on the garb of light and sets the fashion for his followers in the masquerade to deceive the saints. "Like master like man."Cf. 2Co 2:11; Gal 1:8. This terrible portrayal reveals the depth of Paul’ s feelings about the conduct of the Judaizing leaders in Corinth. In Gal 2:4 he terms those in Jerusalem "false brethren."

Robertson: 2Co 11:15 - As ministers of righteousness As ministers of righteousness ( hōs diakonoi dikaiosunēs ). Jesus (John 10:1-21) terms these false shepherds thieves and robbers. It is a tragedy...

As ministers of righteousness ( hōs diakonoi dikaiosunēs ).

Jesus (John 10:1-21) terms these false shepherds thieves and robbers. It is a tragedy to see men in the livery of heaven serve the devil.

Robertson: 2Co 11:16 - Let no man think me foolish Let no man think me foolish ( mē tis me doxēi aphrona einai ). Usual construction in a negative prohibition with mē and the aorist subjunctiv...

Let no man think me foolish ( mē tis me doxēi aphrona einai ).

Usual construction in a negative prohibition with mē and the aorist subjunctive doxēi (Robertson, Grammar , p. 933).

Robertson: 2Co 11:16 - But if ye do But if ye do ( ei de mē ge ). Literally, "But if not at least (or otherwise),"that is, If you do think me foolish.

But if ye do ( ei de mē ge ).

Literally, "But if not at least (or otherwise),"that is, If you do think me foolish.

Robertson: 2Co 11:16 - Yet as foolish Yet as foolish ( kan hōs aphrona ). "Even if as foolish."Paul feels compelled to boast of his career and work as an apostle of Christ after the ter...

Yet as foolish ( kan hōs aphrona ).

"Even if as foolish."Paul feels compelled to boast of his career and work as an apostle of Christ after the terrible picture just drawn of the Judaizers. He feels greatly embarrassed in doing it. Some men can do it with complete composure ( sang froid ).

Robertson: 2Co 11:17 - Not after the Lord Not after the Lord ( ou kata Kurion ). Not after the example of the Lord. He had appealed to the example of Christ in 2Co 10:1 (the meekness and gent...

Not after the Lord ( ou kata Kurion ).

Not after the example of the Lord. He had appealed to the example of Christ in 2Co 10:1 (the meekness and gentleness of Christ). Paul’ s conduct here, he admits, is not in keeping with that. But circumstances force him on.

Robertson: 2Co 11:18 - After the flesh After the flesh ( kata sarka ). It is kata sarka not kata Kurion .

After the flesh ( kata sarka ).

It is kata sarka not kata Kurion .

Robertson: 2Co 11:18 - I also I also ( kagō ). But he knows that it is a bit of foolishness and not like Christ.

I also ( kagō ).

But he knows that it is a bit of foolishness and not like Christ.

Robertson: 2Co 11:19 - Gladly Gladly ( hēdeōs ). Irony again. Cf. kalos in 2Co 11:4 (Mar 7:9). So as to phronimoi ontes (being wise).

Gladly ( hēdeōs ).

Irony again. Cf. kalos in 2Co 11:4 (Mar 7:9). So as to phronimoi ontes (being wise).

Robertson: 2Co 11:20 - For ye bear with a man For ye bear with a man ( anechesthe gar ). "You tolerate tyranny, extortion, craftiness, arrogance, violence, and insult"(Plummer). Sarcasm that cut ...

For ye bear with a man ( anechesthe gar ).

"You tolerate tyranny, extortion, craftiness, arrogance, violence, and insult"(Plummer). Sarcasm that cut to the bone. Note the verb with each of the five conditional clauses (enslaves, devours, takes captive, exalteth himself, smites on the face). The climax of insult, smiting on the face.

Robertson: 2Co 11:21 - By way of disparagement By way of disparagement ( kata atimian ). Intense irony. Cf. 2Co 6:8.

By way of disparagement ( kata atimian ).

Intense irony. Cf. 2Co 6:8.

Robertson: 2Co 11:21 - As though As though ( hōs hoti ). Presented as the charge of another. "They more than tolerate those who trample on them while they criticize as ‘ weak&...

As though ( hōs hoti ).

Presented as the charge of another. "They more than tolerate those who trample on them while they criticize as ‘ weak’ one who shows them great consideration"(Plummer). After these prolonged explanations Paul "changes his tone from irony to direct and masterful assertion"(Bernard).

Robertson: 2Co 11:21 - I am bold also I am bold also ( tolmō kagō ). Real courage. Cf. 2Co 10:2, 2Co 10:12.

I am bold also ( tolmō kagō ).

Real courage. Cf. 2Co 10:2, 2Co 10:12.

Robertson: 2Co 11:22 - So am I So am I ( kagō ). This is his triumphant refrain with each challenge.

So am I ( kagō ).

This is his triumphant refrain with each challenge.

Robertson: 2Co 11:23 - As one beside himself As one beside himself ( paraphronōn ). Present active participle of paraphroneō . Old verb from paraphrōn (para , phrēn ), beside oneR...

As one beside himself ( paraphronōn ).

Present active participle of paraphroneō . Old verb from paraphrōn (para , phrēn ), beside one’ s wits. Only here in N.T. Such open boasting is out of accord with Paul’ s spirit and habit.

Robertson: 2Co 11:23 - I more I more ( huper egō ). This adverbial use of huper appears in ancient Greek (Euripides). It has no effect on egō , not "more than I,"but "I more...

I more ( huper egō ).

This adverbial use of huper appears in ancient Greek (Euripides). It has no effect on egō , not "more than I,"but "I more than they."He claims superiority now to these "superextra apostles."

Robertson: 2Co 11:23 - More abundant More abundant ( perissoterōs ). See 2Co 7:15. No verbs with these clauses, but they are clear.

More abundant ( perissoterōs ).

See 2Co 7:15. No verbs with these clauses, but they are clear.

Robertson: 2Co 11:23 - In prisons In prisons ( en phulakais ). Plural also in 2Co 6:5. Clement of Rome ( Cor. V.) says that Paul was imprisoned seven times. We know of only five (Phil...

In prisons ( en phulakais ).

Plural also in 2Co 6:5. Clement of Rome ( Cor. V.) says that Paul was imprisoned seven times. We know of only five (Philippi, Jerusalem, Caesarea, twice in Rome), and only one before II Corinthians (Philippi). But Luke does not tell them all nor does Paul. Had he been in prison in Ephesus? So many think and it is possible as we have seen.

Robertson: 2Co 11:23 - Above measure Above measure ( huperballontōs ). Old adverb from the participle huperballontōn (huperballō , to hurl beyond). Here only in N.T.

Above measure ( huperballontōs ).

Old adverb from the participle huperballontōn (huperballō , to hurl beyond). Here only in N.T.

Robertson: 2Co 11:23 - In deaths oft In deaths oft ( en thanatois pollakis ). He had nearly lost his life, as we know, many times (2Co 1:9.; 2Co 4:11).

In deaths oft ( en thanatois pollakis ).

He had nearly lost his life, as we know, many times (2Co 1:9.; 2Co 4:11).

Robertson: 2Co 11:24 - Five times received I forty stripes save one Five times received I forty stripes save one ( pentakis tesserakonta para mian elabon ). The Acts and the Epistles are silent about these Jewish flog...

Five times received I forty stripes save one ( pentakis tesserakonta para mian elabon ).

The Acts and the Epistles are silent about these Jewish floggings (Mat 27:36). See note on Luk 12:47 for omission of plēgas (stripes). Thirty-nine lashes was the rule for fear of a miscount (Deu 25:1-3). Cf. Josephus ( Ant. IV. 8, 1, 21).

Robertson: 2Co 11:25 - Thrice was I beaten with rods Thrice was I beaten with rods ( tris errabdisthēn ). Roman (Gentile) punishment. It was forbidden to Roman citizens by the Lex Porcia , but Paul ...

Thrice was I beaten with rods ( tris errabdisthēn ).

Roman (Gentile) punishment. It was forbidden to Roman citizens by the Lex Porcia , but Paul endured it in Philippi (Act 16:23, Act 16:37), the only one of the three named in Acts. First aorist passive of rabdizō , from rabdos , rod, Koiné[28928]š word, in N.T. only here and Act 16:22 which see.

Robertson: 2Co 11:25 - Once was I stoned Once was I stoned ( hapax elithasthēn ). Once for all hapax means. At Lystra (Act 14:5-19). On lithazō Koiné[28928]š verb from lithos , s...

Once was I stoned ( hapax elithasthēn ).

Once for all hapax means. At Lystra (Act 14:5-19). On lithazō Koiné[28928]š verb from lithos , see note on Act 5:26.

Robertson: 2Co 11:25 - Thrice I suffered shipwreck Thrice I suffered shipwreck ( tris enauagēsa ). First aorist active of nauageō , from nauagos , shipwrecked (naus , ship, agnumi , to break). Old...

Thrice I suffered shipwreck ( tris enauagēsa ).

First aorist active of nauageō , from nauagos , shipwrecked (naus , ship, agnumi , to break). Old and common verb, in N.T. only here and 1Ti 1:19. We know nothing of these. The one told in Acts 27 was much later. What a pity that we have no data for all these varied experiences of Paul.

Robertson: 2Co 11:25 - Night and day Night and day ( nuchthēmeron ) Rare word. Papyri give nuktēmar with the same idea (night-day).

Night and day ( nuchthēmeron )

Rare word. Papyri give nuktēmar with the same idea (night-day).

Robertson: 2Co 11:25 - Have I been in the deep Have I been in the deep ( en tōi buthōi pepoiēka ). Vivid dramatic perfect active indicative of poieō , "I have done a night and day in the d...

Have I been in the deep ( en tōi buthōi pepoiēka ).

Vivid dramatic perfect active indicative of poieō , "I have done a night and day in the deep."The memory of it survives like a nightmare. Buthos is old word (only here in N.T.) for bottom, depth of the sea, then the sea itself. Paul does not mean that he was a night and day under the water, not a Jonah experience, only that he was far out at sea and shipwrecked. This was one of the three shipwrecks-already named.

Robertson: 2Co 11:26 - In journeyings In journeyings ( hodoiporiais ). Locative case of old word, only here in N.T. and Joh 4:6, from hodoiporos , wayfarer.

In journeyings ( hodoiporiais ).

Locative case of old word, only here in N.T. and Joh 4:6, from hodoiporos , wayfarer.

Robertson: 2Co 11:26 - In perils In perils ( kindunois ). Locative case of kindunos , old word for danger or peril. In N.T. only this verse and Rom 8:35. The repetition here is very ...

In perils ( kindunois ).

Locative case of kindunos , old word for danger or peril. In N.T. only this verse and Rom 8:35. The repetition here is very effective without the preposition en (in) and without conjunctions (asyndeton). They are in contrasted pairs. The rivers of Asia Minor are still subject to sudden swellings from floods in the mountains. Cicero and Pompey won fame fighting the Cilician pirates and robbers (note lēistōn , not kleptōn , thieves, brigands or bandits on which see Mat 26:55). The Jewish perils (ek genous , from my race) can be illustrated in Act 9:23, Act 9:29; Act 13:50; Act 14:5; Act 17:5, Act 17:13; Act 18:12; Act 23:12; Act 24:27, and they were all perils in the city also. Perils from the Gentiles (ex ethnōn ) we know in Philippi (Act 16:20) and in Ephesus (Act 19:23.). Travel in the mountains and in the wilderness was perilous in spite of the great Roman highways.

Robertson: 2Co 11:26 - Among false brethren Among false brethren ( en pseudadelphois ). Chapters 2 Corinthians 10; 11 throw a lurid light on this aspect of the subject.

Among false brethren ( en pseudadelphois ).

Chapters 2 Corinthians 10; 11 throw a lurid light on this aspect of the subject.

Robertson: 2Co 11:27 - In labour and travail In labour and travail ( kopōi kai mochthōi ). Both old words for severe work, combined here as in 1Th 2:9; 2Th 3:8, "by toil and moil"(Plummer). ...

In labour and travail ( kopōi kai mochthōi ).

Both old words for severe work, combined here as in 1Th 2:9; 2Th 3:8, "by toil and moil"(Plummer). The rest of the list is like the items in 2Co 6:4.

Robertson: 2Co 11:27 - In cold In cold ( en psuchei ). Old word from psuchō , to cool by blowing. See Act 28:2. See the picture of the aged Paul later in the Roman dungeon (2Ti 4...

In cold ( en psuchei ).

Old word from psuchō , to cool by blowing. See Act 28:2. See the picture of the aged Paul later in the Roman dungeon (2Ti 4:9-18).

Robertson: 2Co 11:28 - Besides those things that are without Besides those things that are without ( chōris tōn parektos ). Probably, "apart from those things beside these just mentioned."Surely no man ever...

Besides those things that are without ( chōris tōn parektos ).

Probably, "apart from those things beside these just mentioned."Surely no man ever found glory in such a peck of troubles as Paul has here recounted. His list should shame us all today who are disposed to find fault with our lot.

Robertson: 2Co 11:28 - That which presseth upon me daily That which presseth upon me daily ( hē epistasis moi hē kath' hēmeran ). For this vivid word epistasis see note on Act 24:12, the only other ...

That which presseth upon me daily ( hē epistasis moi hē kath' hēmeran ).

For this vivid word epistasis see note on Act 24:12, the only other place in the N.T. where it occurs. It is like the rush of a mob upon Paul.

Robertson: 2Co 11:28 - Anxiety for all the churches Anxiety for all the churches ( hē merimna pasōn tōn ekklēsiōn ). Objective genitive after merimna (distractions in different directions, ...

Anxiety for all the churches ( hē merimna pasōn tōn ekklēsiōn ).

Objective genitive after merimna (distractions in different directions, from merizō ) for which word see Mat 13:22. Paul had the shepherd heart. As apostle to the Gentiles he had founded most of these churches.

Robertson: 2Co 11:29 - I burn I burn ( puroumai ). Present passive indicative of puroō , old verb to inflame (from pur , fire). When a brother stumbles, Paul is set on fire with...

I burn ( puroumai ).

Present passive indicative of puroō , old verb to inflame (from pur , fire). When a brother stumbles, Paul is set on fire with grief.

Robertson: 2Co 11:30 - The things that concern my weakness The things that concern my weakness ( ta tēs astheneias mou ). Like the list above.

The things that concern my weakness ( ta tēs astheneias mou ).

Like the list above.

Robertson: 2Co 11:31 - I am not lying I am not lying ( ou pseudomai ). The list seems so absurd and foolish that Paul takes solemn oath about it (cf. 2Co 1:23). For the doxology see note ...

I am not lying ( ou pseudomai ).

The list seems so absurd and foolish that Paul takes solemn oath about it (cf. 2Co 1:23). For the doxology see note on Rom 1:25, note on Rom 9:5.

Robertson: 2Co 11:32 - The governor under Aretas The governor under Aretas ( ho ethnarchēs Hareta ). How it came to pass that Damascus, ruled by the Romans after b.c. 65, came at this time to be u...

The governor under Aretas ( ho ethnarchēs Hareta ).

How it came to pass that Damascus, ruled by the Romans after b.c. 65, came at this time to be under the rule of Aretas, fourth of the name, King of the Nabatheans (2 Maccabees 5:8), we do not know. There is an absence of Roman coins in Damascus from a.d. 34 to 62. It is suggested (Plummer) that Caligula, to mark his dislike for Antipas, gave Damascus to Aretas (enemy of Antipas).

Robertson: 2Co 11:32 - Guarded Guarded ( ephrourei ). Imperfect active of phroureō , old verb (from phrouros , a guard) to guard by posting sentries. In Act 9:24 we read that the...

Guarded ( ephrourei ).

Imperfect active of phroureō , old verb (from phrouros , a guard) to guard by posting sentries. In Act 9:24 we read that the Jews kept watch to seize Paul, but there is no conflict as they cooperated with the guard set by Aretas at their request.

Robertson: 2Co 11:32 - To seize To seize ( piasai ). Doric first aorist active infinitive of piezō (Luk 6:38) for which see note on Act 3:7.

To seize ( piasai ).

Doric first aorist active infinitive of piezō (Luk 6:38) for which see note on Act 3:7.

Robertson: 2Co 11:33 - Through a window Through a window ( dia thuridos ). For this late word see note on Act 20:9, the only N.T. example.

Through a window ( dia thuridos ).

For this late word see note on Act 20:9, the only N.T. example.

Robertson: 2Co 11:33 - Was I let down Was I let down ( echalasthēn ). First aorist passive of chalaō , the very word used by Luke in Act 9:25.

Was I let down ( echalasthēn ).

First aorist passive of chalaō , the very word used by Luke in Act 9:25.

Robertson: 2Co 11:33 - In a basket In a basket ( en sarganēi ). Old word for rope basket whereas Luke (Act 9:25) has en sphuridi (the word for the feeding of the 4,000 while kophin...

In a basket ( en sarganēi ).

Old word for rope basket whereas Luke (Act 9:25) has en sphuridi (the word for the feeding of the 4,000 while kophinos is the one for the 5,000). This was a humiliating experience for Paul in this oldest city of the world whither he had started as a conqueror over the despised Christians.

Vincent: 2Co 11:1 - Folly Folly As my boasting may seem to you. Ironically spoken of that legitimate self-vindication demanded by the circumstances. Rev., foolishness .

Folly

As my boasting may seem to you. Ironically spoken of that legitimate self-vindication demanded by the circumstances. Rev., foolishness .

Vincent: 2Co 11:1 - Bear with me Bear with me ( ἀνέχεσθε ) Some render as indicative: ye do bear with me .

Bear with me ( ἀνέχεσθε )

Some render as indicative: ye do bear with me .

Vincent: 2Co 11:2 - I am jealous I am jealous ( ζηλῶ ) The translation is correct. The word is appropriate to the image which follows, in which Paul represents himself as t...

I am jealous ( ζηλῶ )

The translation is correct. The word is appropriate to the image which follows, in which Paul represents himself as the marriage-friend who has betrothed the bride to the bridegroom, and consequently shares the bridegroom's jealousy of his bride (see on Joh 3:29). Compare the Old-Testament passages in which God is represented as the spouse of His people: Isa 54:5; Isa 62:5; Jer 3:1; Eze 16:8; Hos 2:18, Hos 2:19. For the different senses of the word, see on envying , Jam 3:14. Theodoret's comment on the passage is: " I was your wooer for your husband, and the mediator of your marriage; through me you received the bridegroom's gifts; wherefore I am now affected with jealousy."

Vincent: 2Co 11:2 - I have espoused I have espoused ( ἡρμοσάμην ) Only here in the New Testament. Lit., have fitted together . Used in the classics of carpenter's ...

I have espoused ( ἡρμοσάμην )

Only here in the New Testament. Lit., have fitted together . Used in the classics of carpenter's or joiner's work; of arranging music, tuning instruments, and fitting clothes or armor. As here, of betrothing or taking to wife. The Septuagint usage is substantially the same.

Vincent: 2Co 11:2 - Present Present Compare Eph 5:27.

Present

Compare Eph 5:27.

Vincent: 2Co 11:3 - The serpent The serpent Paul's only allusion to the story of the serpent in Eden.

The serpent

Paul's only allusion to the story of the serpent in Eden.

Vincent: 2Co 11:3 - Eve Eve In accordance with the representation of the Church as the bride.

Eve

In accordance with the representation of the Church as the bride.

Vincent: 2Co 11:3 - Simplicity that is in Christ Simplicity that is in Christ Rev. adds, and the purity , following Westcott and Hort's text. Simplicity , single-hearted loyalty. In Chri...

Simplicity that is in Christ

Rev. adds, and the purity , following Westcott and Hort's text. Simplicity , single-hearted loyalty. In Christ; better, as Rev., towards (εἰς ).

Vincent: 2Co 11:4 - Another Jesus - another Spirit Another Jesus - another Spirit ( ἄλλον - ἕτερον ) Rev., another Jesus, a different Spirit. See on Mat 6:24. Another ...

Another Jesus - another Spirit ( ἄλλον - ἕτερον )

Rev., another Jesus, a different Spirit. See on Mat 6:24. Another denies the identity ; a different denies the similarity of nature . It is the difference of " individuality and kind " (Alford). See on Gal 1:6, Gal 1:7.

Vincent: 2Co 11:4 - Ye might well bear Ye might well bear ( καλῶς ἠνείχεσθε ) Following the reading which makes the verb in the imperfect tense, putting the matter ...

Ye might well bear ( καλῶς ἠνείχεσθε )

Following the reading which makes the verb in the imperfect tense, putting the matter as a supposed case. The Rev. follows the reading ἀνεχέσθε , present tense, and puts it as a fact: ye do well to bear . Lit., ye endure them finely . The expression is ironical. You gladly endure these false teachers, why do you not endure me?

Vincent: 2Co 11:5 - -- The very chiefest apostles (τῶν ὑπερλίαν ἀποστόλων ) Lit., those who are preeminently apostles . Not referring...

The very chiefest apostles (τῶν ὑπερλίαν ἀποστόλων ) Lit., those who are preeminently apostles . Not referring to the genuine apostles, but ironically to the false teachers , the false apostles of 2Co 11:13. Compare 2Co 12:11. Farrar renders the extra-super apostles .

Vincent: 2Co 11:6 - Rude Rude ( ἰδίωτης ) See on 1Co 14:16.

Rude ( ἰδίωτης )

See on 1Co 14:16.

Vincent: 2Co 11:6 - Have been made manifest Have been made manifest ( φανερωθέντες ) The correct reading is φανερώσαντες , active voice, we have made it ...

Have been made manifest ( φανερωθέντες )

The correct reading is φανερώσαντες , active voice, we have made it manifest .

Vincent: 2Co 11:7 - Abasing myself Abasing myself By working at his trade.

Abasing myself

By working at his trade.

Vincent: 2Co 11:7 - Preached the Gospel - freely Preached the Gospel - freely ( δωρεὰν ) Gratuitously. Rev., for nought , is not an improvement, but is quite as ambiguous as freely. W...

Preached the Gospel - freely ( δωρεὰν )

Gratuitously. Rev., for nought , is not an improvement, but is quite as ambiguous as freely. Without charge would be better. Paul's very self-denial in this matter had been construed to his injury by his opponents, as indicating his want of confidence in the Corinthian Church, and his making gain for himself under the guise of disinterestedness. It was also urged that a real apostle would not thus relinquish his right to claim subsistence from the Church. Hence his question, Did I commit a sin , etc.?

Vincent: 2Co 11:8 - I robbed I robbed ( ἐσύλησα ) Only here in the New Testament, though it appears in the verb ἱεροσυλέω to commit sacrilege , R...

I robbed ( ἐσύλησα )

Only here in the New Testament, though it appears in the verb ἱεροσυλέω to commit sacrilege , Rom 2:22, and in ἱεροσύλοι robbers of churches , Act 19:37. Originally to strip off , as arms from a slain foe, and thence, generally, to rob , plunder , with the accompanying notion of violence. Paul thus strongly expresses the fact that he had accepted from other churches more than their share, that he might not draw on the Corinthians.

Vincent: 2Co 11:8 - Wages Wages ( ὀψώνιον ) See on Rom 6:23.

Wages ( ὀψώνιον )

See on Rom 6:23.

Vincent: 2Co 11:9 - I was chargeable I was chargeable ( κατενάρκησα ) Only in this epistle. From νάρκη numbness , deadness ; also a torpedo or gymnotus , w...

I was chargeable ( κατενάρκησα )

Only in this epistle. From νάρκη numbness , deadness ; also a torpedo or gymnotus , which benumbs whatever touches it. Compare Homer: " His hand grew stiff at the wrist" (" Iliad," viii., 328). Meno says to Socrates: " You seem to me both in your appearance and in your power over others, to be very like the flat torpedo-fish (νάρκῃ ), who torpifies (ναρκᾶν ποιεῖ ) those who come near him with the touch, as you have now torpified (ναρκᾶν ) me, I think" (Plato, " Meno," 80). The compound verb used here occurs in Hippocrates in the sense of growing quite stiff . The simple verb occurs in the Sept., Gen 32:25, Gen 32:32, of Jacob's thigh, which was put out of joint and shrank . Compare Job 33:19. According to the etymology of the word, Paul would say that he did not benumb the Corinthians by his demand for pecuniary aid. Rev., rather mildly, I was not a burden .

Vincent: 2Co 11:10 - No man shall stop me of this boasting No man shall stop me of this boasting ( ἡ καύχησις αὕτη οὐ φραγήσεται εἰς ἐμὲ ) Lit., this bo...

No man shall stop me of this boasting ( ἡ καύχησις αὕτη οὐ φραγήσεται εἰς ἐμὲ )

Lit., this boasting shall not be blocked up as regards me . The boasting is that of preaching gratuitously. For the verb, compare Rom 3:19; Heb 11:33.

Vincent: 2Co 11:12 - I will do I will do Will continue to do; refuse to receive pay.

I will do

Will continue to do; refuse to receive pay.

Vincent: 2Co 11:12 - Cut off Cut off ( ἐκκόψω ) Lit., cut out . See on Luk 13:7, and compare Rom 11:24.

Cut off ( ἐκκόψω )

Lit., cut out . See on Luk 13:7, and compare Rom 11:24.

Vincent: 2Co 11:12 - Occasion Occasion ( τὴν ἀφορμὴν ) The force of the article must be carefully noted; the particular occasion of fault-finding which concern...

Occasion ( τὴν ἀφορμὴν )

The force of the article must be carefully noted; the particular occasion of fault-finding which concerned his pecuniary relations with the Corinthians. His refusal to receive pay cut out from among other causes of complaint this one.

Vincent: 2Co 11:12 - They may be found even as we They may be found even as we I can find no satisfactory explanation of this clause, and will not attempt to add to the hopeless muddle of the com...

They may be found even as we

I can find no satisfactory explanation of this clause, and will not attempt to add to the hopeless muddle of the commentators. It is evident that the false teachers had sought occasion for glorifying themselves in comparison with Paul; that they consequently caught eagerly at every pretext for disparaging him; and that this disparagement was in some way connected with Paul's refusal to receive compensation from the Corinthians. Further, that Paul's way of counteracting their attempts was by persisting in this refusal. The intimation in the last clause is apparently to the effect that by this course he will not only remove the occasion for attack, but that the result will show both his opponents and himself in their true light. Compare find and be found , 2Co 12:20.

Vincent: 2Co 11:13 - Transforming themselves Transforming themselves ( μετασχηματιζόμενοι ) Rev., better, fashioning , thus preserving the distinctive force of σχῆ...

Transforming themselves ( μετασχηματιζόμενοι )

Rev., better, fashioning , thus preserving the distinctive force of σχῆμα outward fashion , which forms part of the compound verb. See on Mat 17:2; see on 1Co 4:6.

Vincent: 2Co 11:14 - Satan Satan See on Luk 10:18. The rabbinical writings represent the devil rather as the enemy of man than of God or of good. They use none of the New-T...

Satan

See on Luk 10:18. The rabbinical writings represent the devil rather as the enemy of man than of God or of good. They use none of the New-Testament names for the Evil One except Satan , and contain no mention of a kingdom of Satan. Edersheim says: " Instead of the personified principle of evil to which there is response in us - we have only a clumsy and often a stupid hater." It is also to be observed that in the Septuagint the usage is limited to the enemy of man, as is that of διάβολος devil by which Satan is translated. See 1Ch 21:1; Est 7:4; Est 8:1; Psa 108:1-13 :(109) Psa 108:5; Job 1:6; Zec 3:1, Zec 3:2.

Vincent: 2Co 11:17 - Confidence Confidence ( ὑποστάσει ) See on 2Co 9:4.

Confidence ( ὑποστάσει )

See on 2Co 9:4.

Vincent: 2Co 11:20 - Bringeth you into bondage Bringeth you into bondage ( καταδουλοῖ ) Only here and Gal 2:4, where it is used of the efforts of the Jewish party to bring the chri...

Bringeth you into bondage ( καταδουλοῖ )

Only here and Gal 2:4, where it is used of the efforts of the Jewish party to bring the christian Church under the ceremonial law. Compare Gal 5:1.

Vincent: 2Co 11:20 - Devour Devour ( κατεσθίει ) Your property. Compare Mat 23:14.

Devour ( κατεσθίει )

Your property. Compare Mat 23:14.

Vincent: 2Co 11:20 - Take Take ( λαμβάνει ) A.V. supplies of you , evidently with reference to property, which has already been touched upon in devour . The ...

Take ( λαμβάνει )

A.V. supplies of you , evidently with reference to property, which has already been touched upon in devour . The meaning is to take as a prey , as Luk 5:5.

Vincent: 2Co 11:20 - Exalteth himself Exalteth himself ( ἐπαίρεται ) As 2Co 10:5. It is noticeable that these are the only two instances out of nineteen in the New Testam...

Exalteth himself ( ἐπαίρεται )

As 2Co 10:5. It is noticeable that these are the only two instances out of nineteen in the New Testament where the word is used figuratively.

Vincent: 2Co 11:20 - Smite you on the face Smite you on the face The climax of insult. Compare Mat 5:39; Luk 22:64; Act 23:2. Also the injunction to a bishop not to be a striker , 1Ti 3...

Smite you on the face

The climax of insult. Compare Mat 5:39; Luk 22:64; Act 23:2. Also the injunction to a bishop not to be a striker , 1Ti 3:3; Tit 1:7. Stanley notes the decree of the Council of Braga, a.d. 675, that no bishop, at his will and pleasure, shall strike his clergy.

Vincent: 2Co 11:21 - As concerning reproach As concerning reproach ( κατὰ ἀτιμίαν ) Better, Rev., by way of disparagement . Intensely ironical. Yes, you have borne w...

As concerning reproach ( κατὰ ἀτιμίαν )

Better, Rev., by way of disparagement . Intensely ironical. Yes, you have borne with these enslavers and devourers and smiters. I could never ask you to extend such toleration to me. I speak as one without position or authority, having shown myself weak as you know.

Vincent: 2Co 11:21 - I speak foolishly I speak foolishly ( ἐν ἀφροσύνῃ ) Rev., in foolishness . My pretensions are equal to theirs, but, of course, it is folly to ...

I speak foolishly ( ἐν ἀφροσύνῃ )

Rev., in foolishness . My pretensions are equal to theirs, but, of course, it is folly to advance them, and they amount to nothing. Yet, even speaking in this foolish way, I possess every qualification on which they plume themselves.

Vincent: 2Co 11:22 - Hebrews Hebrews See on Act 6:1.

Hebrews

See on Act 6:1.

Vincent: 2Co 11:22 - Israelites Israelites See on Act 3:12, and compare Phi 3:5, and the phrase Israel of God , Gal 6:16, and an Israelite indeed , Joh 1:48.

Israelites

See on Act 3:12, and compare Phi 3:5, and the phrase Israel of God , Gal 6:16, and an Israelite indeed , Joh 1:48.

Vincent: 2Co 11:22 - Seed of Abraham Seed of Abraham Compare Mat 3:9; Joh 8:33; Rom 9:7; Rom 11:1; Gal 3:16; Heb 2:16. The three names are arranged climactically, Hebrews pointing ...

Seed of Abraham

Compare Mat 3:9; Joh 8:33; Rom 9:7; Rom 11:1; Gal 3:16; Heb 2:16. The three names are arranged climactically, Hebrews pointing to the nationality; Israelites to the special relation to God's covenant; seed of Abraham to the messianic privilege. Compare with the whole, Phi 3:4, Phi 3:5.

Vincent: 2Co 11:23 - Ministers of Christ Ministers of Christ Referring to his opponents' claim to have a closer connection with Christ than he had. See the note on 1Co 1:12.

Ministers of Christ

Referring to his opponents' claim to have a closer connection with Christ than he had. See the note on 1Co 1:12.

Vincent: 2Co 11:23 - As a fool As a fool ( παραφρονῶν ) Only here in the New Testament. See the kindred παραφρονία madness , 2Pe 2:16. Lit., being b...

As a fool ( παραφρονῶν )

Only here in the New Testament. See the kindred παραφρονία madness , 2Pe 2:16. Lit., being beside myself Rev., as one beside myself . This expression is stronger than that in 2Co 11:21, because the statement which it characterizes is stronger. Up to this point Paul has been asserting equality with the other teachers. Now he asserts superiority " I more;" and ironically characterizes this statement from their stand-point as madness.

Vincent: 2Co 11:23 - More abundant More abundant ( περισσοτέρως ) Lit., more abundantly , as Rev.

More abundant ( περισσοτέρως )

Lit., more abundantly , as Rev.

Vincent: 2Co 11:23 - Stripes above measure Stripes above measure ( ὑπερβαλλόντως ) This peculiar form of suffering is emphasized by details. He specifies three Roman scour...

Stripes above measure ( ὑπερβαλλόντως )

This peculiar form of suffering is emphasized by details. He specifies three Roman scourgings, and five at the hands of the Jews. Of the former, only one is recorded, that at Philippi (Act 16:22, Act 16:23. See on Act 22:25), and none of the latter. The Jewish scourge consisted of two thongs made of calf's or ass's skin, passing through a hole in a handle. Thirteen blows were inflicted on the breast, thirteen on the right, and thirteen on the left shoulder. The law in Deu 25:3 permitted forty blows, but only thirty-nine were given, in order to avoid a possible miscount. During the punishment the chief judge read aloud Deu 28:58, Deu 28:59; Deu 29:9; Psalm 68:38, 39. The possibility of death under the infliction was contemplated in the provision which exonerated the executioner unless he should exceed the legal number of blows. Paul escaped Roman scourging at Jerusalem on the ground of his Roman citizenship. It is not related that he and Silas urged this privilege at Philippi until after the scourging. It is evident from the narrative that they were not allowed a formal hearing before the magistrates; and, if they asserted their citizenship, it may have been that their voices were drowned by the mob. That this plea did not always avail appears from the case cited by Cicero against Verres, that he scourged a Roman citizen in spite of his continued protest under the scourge, " I am a Roman citizen" (see on Act 16:37), and from well-known instances of the scourging of even senators under the Empire.

Vincent: 2Co 11:23 - Prisons Prisons At Philippi, and other places not recorded.

Prisons

At Philippi, and other places not recorded.

Vincent: 2Co 11:23 - Deaths Deaths Perils of death, as at Damascus, Antioch in Pisidia, Iconium, Lystra, Thessalonica, Beroea.

Deaths

Perils of death, as at Damascus, Antioch in Pisidia, Iconium, Lystra, Thessalonica, Beroea.

Vincent: 2Co 11:25 - Beaten with rods Beaten with rods Roman scourgings.

Beaten with rods

Roman scourgings.

Vincent: 2Co 11:25 - Stoned Stoned At Lystra, Act 14:19.

Stoned

At Lystra, Act 14:19.

Vincent: 2Co 11:25 - Thrice I suffered shipwreck Thrice I suffered shipwreck The shipwreck at Malta, being later, is, of course, not referred to; so that no one of these three is on record.

Thrice I suffered shipwreck

The shipwreck at Malta, being later, is, of course, not referred to; so that no one of these three is on record.

Vincent: 2Co 11:25 - A night and a day A night and a day ( νυχθήμερον ) A compound term occurring only here in the New Testament, and rarely in later Greek.

A night and a day ( νυχθήμερον )

A compound term occurring only here in the New Testament, and rarely in later Greek.

Vincent: 2Co 11:25 - Have I been in the deep Have I been in the deep ( ἐν τῷ βυθῷ πεποίηκα ) Lit., I have made (spent) a night and a day in the...

Have I been in the deep ( ἐν τῷ βυθῷ πεποίηκα )

Lit., I have made (spent) a night and a day in the deep . For a similar use of ποιέω to make , see Act 15:33; Act 18:23; Act 20:3; Jam 4:13. βυθός bottom or depth occurs only here. Of the event itself there is no record.

Vincent: 2Co 11:26 - Perils of rivers Perils of rivers From the sudden swelling of mountain streams or flooding of dry water-courses. " The rivers of Asia Minor, like all the rivers i...

Perils of rivers

From the sudden swelling of mountain streams or flooding of dry water-courses. " The rivers of Asia Minor, like all the rivers in the Levant, are liable to violent and sudden changes, and no district in Asia Minor is more singularly characterized by its water-floods than the mountainous tract of Pisidia, where rivers burst out at the bases of huge cliffs, or dash down wildly through narrow ravines" (Conybeare and Howson, i., ch. 6).

Vincent: 2Co 11:26 - Robbers Robbers The tribes inhabiting the mountains between the table-land of Asia Minor and the coast were notorious for robbery. Paul may have encounte...

Robbers

The tribes inhabiting the mountains between the table-land of Asia Minor and the coast were notorious for robbery. Paul may have encountered such on his journey to the Pisidian Antioch, Act 13:14.

Vincent: 2Co 11:26 - Mine own countrymen Mine own countrymen Conspiracies of the Jews at Damascus, Lystra, Thessalonica, Beroea, etc.

Mine own countrymen

Conspiracies of the Jews at Damascus, Lystra, Thessalonica, Beroea, etc.

Vincent: 2Co 11:26 - The Gentiles The Gentiles As at Philippi and Ephesus.

The Gentiles

As at Philippi and Ephesus.

Vincent: 2Co 11:26 - False brethren False brethren Judaizing Christians, as Gal 2:4.

False brethren

Judaizing Christians, as Gal 2:4.

Vincent: 2Co 11:27 - Watchings Watchings See on 2Co 6:5.

Watchings

See on 2Co 6:5.

Vincent: 2Co 11:28 - Those things that are without Those things that are without ( τῶν παρεκτὸς ) Some explain, external calamities ; others, the things which are left ...

Those things that are without ( τῶν παρεκτὸς )

Some explain, external calamities ; others, the things which are left out in the enumeration , as Mat 5:32; Act 26:29. Better, the latter, so that the literal meaning is, apart from the things which are beside and outside my enumeration : or, as Alford, not to mention those which are beside these . The word does not occur in classical Greek, and no instance of its usage in the former sense occurs in the New Testament or in the Septuagint. See Rev., margin.

Vincent: 2Co 11:28 - That which cometh upon me That which cometh upon me ( ἐπισύστασις ) Lit., a gathering together against . Both here and Act 24:12, the best texts read...

That which cometh upon me ( ἐπισύστασις )

Lit., a gathering together against . Both here and Act 24:12, the best texts read ἐπίστασις onset . Rev., that which presseth upon me . " The crowd of cares."

Farrar remarks upon 2Co 11:23-28, that it is " the most marvelous record ever written of any biography; a fragment beside which the most imperiled lives of the most suffering saints shrink into insignificance, and which shows us how fractional at the best is our knowledge of the details of St. Paul's life." Eleven of the occurrences mentioned here are not alluded to in Acts.

Vincent: 2Co 11:29 - Burn Burn With sorrow over the stumbling or with indignation over the cause. This and 1Co 7:9 are the only instances in which the word is used figurat...

Burn

With sorrow over the stumbling or with indignation over the cause. This and 1Co 7:9 are the only instances in which the word is used figuratively.

Vincent: 2Co 11:30 - The things which concern mine infirmities The things which concern mine infirmities ( τὰ τῆς ἀσθενείας μοῦ ) He will be attested as a true apostle by the suffer...

The things which concern mine infirmities ( τὰ τῆς ἀσθενείας μοῦ )

He will be attested as a true apostle by the sufferings which show his weakness, which make him contemptible in his adversaries' eyes, and not by the strength of which his opponents boast.

Vincent: 2Co 11:31 - Blessed, etc Blessed, etc. See on Rom 9:5, and compare Rom 1:25.

Blessed, etc.

See on Rom 9:5, and compare Rom 1:25.

Vincent: 2Co 11:32 - The governor The governor ( ἐθνάρχης ) Only here in the New Testament. A governor ruling in the name of a king: a prefect .

The governor ( ἐθνάρχης )

Only here in the New Testament. A governor ruling in the name of a king: a prefect .

Vincent: 2Co 11:32 - Aretas Aretas Or Hareth , the father-in-law of Herod Antipas. Hs capital was the rock-city of Petra, the metropolis of Arabia Petraea. Herod's unfaithf...

Aretas

Or Hareth , the father-in-law of Herod Antipas. Hs capital was the rock-city of Petra, the metropolis of Arabia Petraea. Herod's unfaithfulness to his daughter brought on a quarrel, in which Herod's army was defeated, to the great delight of the Jews. The further prosecution of the war by Roman troops was arrested by the death of Tiberius, and it is supposed that Caligula assigned Damascus as a free gift to Aretas.

Vincent: 2Co 11:32 - Kept with a garrison Kept with a garrison ( ἐφρούρει ) Imperfect tense, was maintaining a constant watch . Compare Act 9:24 : They watched t...

Kept with a garrison ( ἐφρούρει )

Imperfect tense, was maintaining a constant watch . Compare Act 9:24 : They watched the gates day and night .

Vincent: 2Co 11:32 - To apprehend To apprehend ( πιάσαι ) See on Act 3:7.

To apprehend ( πιάσαι )

See on Act 3:7.

Vincent: 2Co 11:33 - Through a window Through a window ( διὰ θυρίδος ) Only here and Act 20:9. Diminutive of θύρα a door . The same expression is used in Sept.,...

Through a window ( διὰ θυρίδος )

Only here and Act 20:9. Diminutive of θύρα a door . The same expression is used in Sept., Jos 2:15, of the escape of the spies from Jericho, and 1Sa 19:12, of David's escape from Saul by the aid of Michal.

Vincent: 2Co 11:33 - Basket Basket ( σαργάνῃ ) Lit., braided work ; a rope-basket or hamper . Luke, in his narrative of the incident, uses σπυρίς ...

Basket ( σαργάνῃ )

Lit., braided work ; a rope-basket or hamper . Luke, in his narrative of the incident, uses σπυρίς , for which see on Mat 14:20.

Wesley: 2Co 11:1 - I wish ye would bear So does he pave the way for what might otherwise have given offence.

So does he pave the way for what might otherwise have given offence.

Wesley: 2Co 11:1 - With my folly Of commending myself; which to many may appear folly; and really would be so, were it not on this occasion absolutely necessary.

Of commending myself; which to many may appear folly; and really would be so, were it not on this occasion absolutely necessary.

Wesley: 2Co 11:2 - For The cause of his seeming folly is expressed in this and the following verse; the cause why they should bear with him, 2Co 11:4.

The cause of his seeming folly is expressed in this and the following verse; the cause why they should bear with him, 2Co 11:4.

Wesley: 2Co 11:3 - But I fear Love is full of these fears.

Love is full of these fears.

Wesley: 2Co 11:3 - Lest as the serpent A most apposite comparison.

A most apposite comparison.

Wesley: 2Co 11:3 - Deceived Eve Simple, ignorant of evil.

Simple, ignorant of evil.

Wesley: 2Co 11:3 - By his subtilty Which is in the highest degree dangerous to such a disposition.

Which is in the highest degree dangerous to such a disposition.

Wesley: 2Co 11:3 - So your minds We might therefore be tempted, even if there were no sin in us.

We might therefore be tempted, even if there were no sin in us.

Wesley: 2Co 11:3 - Might be corrupted Losing their virginal purity.

Losing their virginal purity.

Wesley: 2Co 11:3 - From the simplicity that is in Christ That simplicity which is lovingly intent on him alone, seeking no other person or thing.

That simplicity which is lovingly intent on him alone, seeking no other person or thing.

Wesley: 2Co 11:4 - If indeed Any could show you another Saviour, a more powerful Spirit, a better gospel.

Any could show you another Saviour, a more powerful Spirit, a better gospel.

Wesley: 2Co 11:4 - Ye might well bear with him But this is impossible.

But this is impossible.

Wesley: 2Co 11:6 - If I am unskilful in speech If I speak in a plain, unadorned way, like an unlearned person. So the Greek word properly signifies.

If I speak in a plain, unadorned way, like an unlearned person. So the Greek word properly signifies.

Wesley: 2Co 11:7 - Have I committed an offence Will any turn this into an objection? In humbling myself - To work at my trade.

Will any turn this into an objection? In humbling myself - To work at my trade.

Wesley: 2Co 11:7 - That ye might be exalted To be children of God.

To be children of God.

Wesley: 2Co 11:8 - I spoiled other churches I, as it were, took the spoils of them: it is a military term. Taking wages (or pay, another military word) of them - When I came to you at first. And...

I, as it were, took the spoils of them: it is a military term. Taking wages (or pay, another military word) of them - When I came to you at first. And when I was present with you, and wanted - My work not quite supplying my necessities.

Wesley: 2Co 11:8 - I was chargeable to no man Of Corinth.

Of Corinth.

Wesley: 2Co 11:9 - For I choose to receive help from the poor Macedonians, rather than the rich Corinthians! Were the poor in all ages more generous than the rich?

I choose to receive help from the poor Macedonians, rather than the rich Corinthians! Were the poor in all ages more generous than the rich?

Wesley: 2Co 11:10 - This my boasting shall not be stopped For I will receive nothing from you.

For I will receive nothing from you.

Wesley: 2Co 11:11 - -- Do I refuse to receive anything of you, because I love you not? God knoweth that is not the case.

Do I refuse to receive anything of you, because I love you not? God knoweth that is not the case.

Wesley: 2Co 11:12 - Who desire any occasion To censure me. That wherein they boast, they may be found even as we - They boasted of being "burdensome to no man." But it was a vain boast in them, ...

To censure me. That wherein they boast, they may be found even as we - They boasted of being "burdensome to no man." But it was a vain boast in them, though not in the apostle.

Wesley: 2Co 11:14 - Satan himself is transformed Uses to transform himself; to put on the fairest appearances.

Uses to transform himself; to put on the fairest appearances.

Wesley: 2Co 11:15 - -- Therefore it is no great, no strange, thing; whose end, notwithstanding all their disguises, shall be according to their works.

Therefore it is no great, no strange, thing; whose end, notwithstanding all their disguises, shall be according to their works.

Wesley: 2Co 11:16 - I say again He premises a new apology to this new commendation of himself.

He premises a new apology to this new commendation of himself.

Wesley: 2Co 11:16 - Let no man think me a fool Let none think I do this without the utmost necessity. But if any do think me foolish herein, yet bear with my folly.

Let none think I do this without the utmost necessity. But if any do think me foolish herein, yet bear with my folly.

Wesley: 2Co 11:17 - I speak not after the Lord Not by an express command from him; though still under the direction of his Spirit.

Not by an express command from him; though still under the direction of his Spirit.

Wesley: 2Co 11:17 - But as it were foolishly In such a manner as many may think foolish.

In such a manner as many may think foolish.

Wesley: 2Co 11:18 - After the flesh That is, in external things.

That is, in external things.

Wesley: 2Co 11:19 - Being wise A beautiful irony.

A beautiful irony.

Wesley: 2Co 11:20 - For ye suffer Not only the folly, but the gross abuses, of those false apostles.

Not only the folly, but the gross abuses, of those false apostles.

Wesley: 2Co 11:20 - If a man enslave you Lord it over you in the most arbitrary manner.

Lord it over you in the most arbitrary manner.

Wesley: 2Co 11:20 - If he devour you By his exorbitant demands; not - withstanding his boast of not being burdensome.

By his exorbitant demands; not - withstanding his boast of not being burdensome.

Wesley: 2Co 11:20 - If he take from you By open violence.

By open violence.

Wesley: 2Co 11:20 - If he exalt himself By the most unbounded self - commendation.

By the most unbounded self - commendation.

Wesley: 2Co 11:20 - If he smite you on the face (A very possible case,) under pretence of divine zeal.

(A very possible case,) under pretence of divine zeal.

Wesley: 2Co 11:21 - I speak with regard to reproach, as though we had been weak I say, "Bear with me," even on supposition that the weakness be real which they reproach me with.

I say, "Bear with me," even on supposition that the weakness be real which they reproach me with.

Wesley: 2Co 11:22 - Are they Hebrews, Israelites, the seed of Abraham These were the heads on which they boasted.

These were the heads on which they boasted.

Wesley: 2Co 11:23 - -- I am more so than they.

I am more so than they.

Wesley: 2Co 11:23 - In deaths often Surrounding me in the most dreadful forms.

Surrounding me in the most dreadful forms.

Wesley: 2Co 11:24 - Five times I received from the Jews forty stripes save one Which was the utmost that the law allowed. With the Romans he sometimes pleaded his privilege as a Roman; but from the Jews he suffered all things.

Which was the utmost that the law allowed. With the Romans he sometimes pleaded his privilege as a Roman; but from the Jews he suffered all things.

Wesley: 2Co 11:25 - Thrice I have been shipwrecked Before his voyage to Rome.

Before his voyage to Rome.

Wesley: 2Co 11:25 - In the deep Probably floating on some part of the vessel.

Probably floating on some part of the vessel.

Wesley: 2Co 11:27 - In cold and nakedness Having no place where to lay my head; no convenient raiment to cover me; yet appearing before noble - men, governors, kings; and not being ashamed.

Having no place where to lay my head; no convenient raiment to cover me; yet appearing before noble - men, governors, kings; and not being ashamed.

Wesley: 2Co 11:28 - Beside the things which are from without Which I suffer on the account of others; namely, the care of all the churches - A more modest expression than if he had said, the care of the whole ch...

Which I suffer on the account of others; namely, the care of all the churches - A more modest expression than if he had said, the care of the whole church.

Wesley: 2Co 11:28 - All Even those I have not seen in the flesh. St. Peter himself could not have said this in so strong a sense.

Even those I have not seen in the flesh. St. Peter himself could not have said this in so strong a sense.

Wesley: 2Co 11:29 - Who So he had not only the care of the churches, but of every person therein. Is weak, and I am not weak - By sympathy, as well as by condescension.

So he had not only the care of the churches, but of every person therein. Is weak, and I am not weak - By sympathy, as well as by condescension.

Wesley: 2Co 11:29 - Who is offended Hindered in, or turned out of, the good way.

Hindered in, or turned out of, the good way.

Wesley: 2Co 11:29 - And I burn not Being pained as though I had fire in my bosom.

Being pained as though I had fire in my bosom.

Wesley: 2Co 11:30 - I will glory of the things that concern my infirmities Of what shows my weakness, rather than my strength.

Of what shows my weakness, rather than my strength.

Wesley: 2Co 11:32 - The governor under Aretas King of Arabia and Syria of which Damascus was a chief city, willing to oblige the Jews, kept the city - Setting guards at all the gates day and night...

King of Arabia and Syria of which Damascus was a chief city, willing to oblige the Jews, kept the city - Setting guards at all the gates day and night.

Wesley: 2Co 11:33 - Through a window Of an house which stood on the city wall.

Of an house which stood on the city wall.

JFB: 2Co 11:1 - Would to God Translate as Greek, "I would that."

Translate as Greek, "I would that."

JFB: 2Co 11:1 - bear with me I may ask not unreasonably to be borne with; not so the false apostles (2Co 11:4, 2Co 11:20).

I may ask not unreasonably to be borne with; not so the false apostles (2Co 11:4, 2Co 11:20).

JFB: 2Co 11:1 - my Not in the oldest manuscripts.

Not in the oldest manuscripts.

JFB: 2Co 11:1 - folly The Greek is a milder term than that for "foolishness" in 1Co 3:19; Mat 5:22; Mat 25:2. The Greek for "folly" here implies imprudence; the Greek for "...

The Greek is a milder term than that for "foolishness" in 1Co 3:19; Mat 5:22; Mat 25:2. The Greek for "folly" here implies imprudence; the Greek for "foolishness" includes the idea of perversity and wickedness.

JFB: 2Co 11:1 - and indeed bear A request (so 2Co 11:16). But the Greek and the sense favor the translation, "But indeed (I need not wish it, for) ye do bear with me"; still I wish y...

A request (so 2Co 11:16). But the Greek and the sense favor the translation, "But indeed (I need not wish it, for) ye do bear with me"; still I wish you to bear with me further, while I enter at large into self-commendations.

JFB: 2Co 11:2 - For I am jealous The justification of his self-commendations lies in his zealous care lest they should fall from Christ, to whom he, as "the friend of the Bridegroom" ...

The justification of his self-commendations lies in his zealous care lest they should fall from Christ, to whom he, as "the friend of the Bridegroom" (Joh 3:29), has espoused them; in order to lead them back from the false apostles to Christ, he is obliged to boast as an apostle of Christ, in a way which, but for the motive, would be "folly."

JFB: 2Co 11:2 - godly jealousy Literally, "jealousy of God" (compare 2Co 1:12, "godly sincerity," literally, "sincerity of God"). "If I am immoderate, I am immoderate to God" [BENGE...

Literally, "jealousy of God" (compare 2Co 1:12, "godly sincerity," literally, "sincerity of God"). "If I am immoderate, I am immoderate to God" [BENGEL]. A jealousy which has God's honor at heart (1Ki 19:10).

JFB: 2Co 11:2 - I . . . espoused you Paul uses a Greek term applied properly to the bridegroom, just as he ascribes to himself "jealousy," a feeling properly belonging to the husband; so ...

Paul uses a Greek term applied properly to the bridegroom, just as he ascribes to himself "jealousy," a feeling properly belonging to the husband; so entirely does he identify himself with Christ.

JFB: 2Co 11:2 - present you as a chaste virgin to Christ At His coming, when the heavenly marriage shall take place (Mat 25:6; Rev 19:7, Rev 19:9). What Paul here says he desires to do, namely, "present" the...

At His coming, when the heavenly marriage shall take place (Mat 25:6; Rev 19:7, Rev 19:9). What Paul here says he desires to do, namely, "present" the Church as "a chaste virgin" to Christ, Christ Himself is said to do in the fuller sense. Whatever ministers do effectively, is really done by Christ (Eph 5:27-32). The espousals are going on now. He does not say "chaste virgins"; for not individual members, but the whole body of believers conjointly constitute the Bride.

JFB: 2Co 11:3 - I fear (2Co 12:20); not inconsistent with love. His source of fear was their yielding character.

(2Co 12:20); not inconsistent with love. His source of fear was their yielding character.

JFB: 2Co 11:3 - subtilty The utter foe of the "simplicity" which is intent on ONE object, Jesus, and seeks none "other," and no "other" and different Spirit (2Co 11:4); but lo...

The utter foe of the "simplicity" which is intent on ONE object, Jesus, and seeks none "other," and no "other" and different Spirit (2Co 11:4); but loves him with tender SINGLENESS OF AFFECTION. Where Eve first gave way, was in mentally harboring for a moment the possibility insinuated by the serpent, of GOD not having her truest interests at heart, and of this "other" professing friend being more concerned for her than God.

JFB: 2Co 11:3 - corrupted So as to lose their virgin purity through seducers (2Co 11:4). The same Greek stands for "minds" as for "thoughts" (2Co 10:5, also see on 2Co 10:5); i...

So as to lose their virgin purity through seducers (2Co 11:4). The same Greek stands for "minds" as for "thoughts" (2Co 10:5, also see on 2Co 10:5); intents of the will, or mind. The oldest manuscripts after "simplicity," add, "and the purity" or "chastity."

JFB: 2Co 11:3 - in Christ Rather, "that is towards Christ."

Rather, "that is towards Christ."

JFB: 2Co 11:4 - if, &c. Which in fact is impossible. However, if it were possible, ye might then bear with them (see on 2Co 11:1). But there can be no new Gospel; there is bu...

Which in fact is impossible. However, if it were possible, ye might then bear with them (see on 2Co 11:1). But there can be no new Gospel; there is but the one which I first preached; therefore it ought not to be "borne" by you, that the false teachers should attempt to supersede me.

JFB: 2Co 11:4 - he that cometh The high-sounding title assumed by the false teachers, who arrogated Christ's own peculiar title (Greek, Mat 11:3, and Heb 10:37), "He that is coming....

The high-sounding title assumed by the false teachers, who arrogated Christ's own peculiar title (Greek, Mat 11:3, and Heb 10:37), "He that is coming." Perhaps he was leader of the party which assumed peculiarly to be "Christ's" (2Co 10:7; 1Co 1:12); hence his assumption of the title.

JFB: 2Co 11:4 - preacheth . . . receive Is preaching . . . ye are receiving.

Is preaching . . . ye are receiving.

JFB: 2Co 11:4 - Jesus The "Jesus" of Gospel history. He therefore does not say "Christ," which refers to the office.

The "Jesus" of Gospel history. He therefore does not say "Christ," which refers to the office.

JFB: 2Co 11:4 - another . . . another Greek, "another Jesus . . . a different Spirit . . . a different Gospel." Another implies a distinct individual of the same kind; different implies on...

Greek, "another Jesus . . . a different Spirit . . . a different Gospel." Another implies a distinct individual of the same kind; different implies one quite distinct in kind.

JFB: 2Co 11:4 - which ye have not received From us.

From us.

JFB: 2Co 11:4 - spirit . . . received . . . gospel . . . accepted The will of man is passive in RECEIVING the "Spirit"; but it is actively concurrent with the will of God (which goes before to give the good will) in ...

The will of man is passive in RECEIVING the "Spirit"; but it is actively concurrent with the will of God (which goes before to give the good will) in ACCEPTING the "Gospel."

JFB: 2Co 11:4 - ye might well bear with him There would be an excuse for your conduct, though a bad one (for ye ought to give heed to no Gospel other than what ye have already heard from me, Gal...

There would be an excuse for your conduct, though a bad one (for ye ought to give heed to no Gospel other than what ye have already heard from me, Gal 1:6-7); but the false teachers do not even pretend they have "another Jesus" and a "different Gospel" to bring before you; they merely try to supplant me, your accredited Teacher. Yet ye not only "bear with" them, but prefer them.

JFB: 2Co 11:5 - For My claim is superior to that of the false teachers, "For," &c.

My claim is superior to that of the false teachers, "For," &c.

JFB: 2Co 11:5 - I suppose I reckon [ALFORD].

I reckon [ALFORD].

JFB: 2Co 11:5 - I was not Greek, "That I have not been, and am not."

Greek, "That I have not been, and am not."

JFB: 2Co 11:5 - the very chiefest apostles James, Peter, and John, the witnesses of Christ's transfiguration and agony in Gethsemane. Rather, "those overmuch apostles," those surpassers of the ...

James, Peter, and John, the witnesses of Christ's transfiguration and agony in Gethsemane. Rather, "those overmuch apostles," those surpassers of the apostles in their own esteem. This sense is proved by the fact that the context contains no comparison between him and the apostles, but only between him and the false teachers; 2Co 11:6 also alludes to these, and not to the apostles; compare also the parallel phrase, "false apostles" (see on 2Co 11:13 and 2Co 12:11) [ALFORD].

JFB: 2Co 11:6 - rude Greek, "a common man"; a "laic"; not rhetorically trained; unskilled in finish of diction. 1Co 2:1-4, 1Co 2:13; 2Co 10:10-11, shows his words were not...

Greek, "a common man"; a "laic"; not rhetorically trained; unskilled in finish of diction. 1Co 2:1-4, 1Co 2:13; 2Co 10:10-11, shows his words were not without weight, though his "speech" was deficient in oratorical artifice. "Yet I am not so in my knowledge" (2Co 12:1-5; Eph 3:1-5).

JFB: 2Co 11:6 - have been . . . made manifest Read with the oldest manuscripts, "We have made things (Gospel truths) manifest," thus showing our "knowledge." English Version would mean, I leave it...

Read with the oldest manuscripts, "We have made things (Gospel truths) manifest," thus showing our "knowledge." English Version would mean, I leave it to yourselves to decide whether I be rude in speech . . . : for we have been thoroughly (literally, "in everything") made manifest among you (literally, "in respect to you"; "in relation to you"). He had not by reserve kept back his "knowledge" in divine mysteries from them (2Co 2:17; 2Co 4:2; Act 20:20, Act 20:27).

JFB: 2Co 11:6 - in all things The Greek rather favors the translation, "among all men"; the sense then is, we have manifested the whole truth among all men with a view to your bene...

The Greek rather favors the translation, "among all men"; the sense then is, we have manifested the whole truth among all men with a view to your benefit [ALFORD]. But the Greek in Phi 4:12, "In each thing and in all things," sanctions English Version, which gives a clearer sense.

JFB: 2Co 11:7 - Have I Literally, "OR have I?" Connected with 2Co 11:6, "Or will any of you make it an objection that I have preached to you gratuitously?" He leaves their g...

Literally, "OR have I?" Connected with 2Co 11:6, "Or will any of you make it an objection that I have preached to you gratuitously?" He leaves their good feeling to give the answer, that this, so far from being an objection, was a decided superiority in him above the false apostles (1Co 9:6-15).

JFB: 2Co 11:7 - abasing myself In my mode of living, waiving my right of maintenance, and earning it by manual labor; perhaps with slaves as his fellow laborers (Act 18:3; Phi 4:12)...

In my mode of living, waiving my right of maintenance, and earning it by manual labor; perhaps with slaves as his fellow laborers (Act 18:3; Phi 4:12).

JFB: 2Co 11:7 - ye . . . exalted Spiritually, by your admission to Gospel privileges.

Spiritually, by your admission to Gospel privileges.

JFB: 2Co 11:7 - because "in that."

"in that."

JFB: 2Co 11:7 - gospel of God "of God" implies its divine glory to which they were admitted.

"of God" implies its divine glory to which they were admitted.

JFB: 2Co 11:7 - freely "without charge."

"without charge."

JFB: 2Co 11:8 - I robbed That is, took from them in order to spare you more than what was their fair share of contribution to my maintenance, for example, the Philippian Churc...

That is, took from them in order to spare you more than what was their fair share of contribution to my maintenance, for example, the Philippian Church (Phi 4:15-16).

JFB: 2Co 11:8 - wages "subsidy."

"subsidy."

JFB: 2Co 11:8 - to do you service Greek, "with a view to ministration to you"; compare "supplied" (Greek, "in addition"), 2Co 11:9, implying, he brought with him from the Macedonians, ...

Greek, "with a view to ministration to you"; compare "supplied" (Greek, "in addition"), 2Co 11:9, implying, he brought with him from the Macedonians, supplies towards his maintenance at Corinth; and (2Co 11:9) when those resources failed ("when I wanted") he received a new supply, while there, from the same source.

JFB: 2Co 11:9 - wanted "was in want."

"was in want."

JFB: 2Co 11:9 - chargeable Greek, "burdensome," literally, "to torpify," and so to oppress. JEROME says it is a Cilician word (2Co 12:14, 2Co 12:16).

Greek, "burdensome," literally, "to torpify," and so to oppress. JEROME says it is a Cilician word (2Co 12:14, 2Co 12:16).

JFB: 2Co 11:9 - the brethren which came Rather, as Greek, "the brethren when they came." Perhaps Timotheus and Silas (Act 8:1, Act 8:5). Compare Phi 4:15-16, which refers to donations receiv...

Rather, as Greek, "the brethren when they came." Perhaps Timotheus and Silas (Act 8:1, Act 8:5). Compare Phi 4:15-16, which refers to donations received from the Philippians (who were in Macedonia) at two distinct periods ("once and again"), one at Thessalonica, the other after his departure from Macedonia, that is, when he came into Achaia to Corinth (from the church in which city he would receive no help); and this "in the beginning of the Gospel," that is, at its first preaching in these parts. Thus all three, the two Epistles and history, mutually, and no doubt undesignedly, coincide; a sure test of genuineness.

JFB: 2Co 11:9 - supplied Greek, "supplied in addition," namely, in addition to their former contributions; or as BENGEL, in addition to the supply obtained by my own manual la...

Greek, "supplied in addition," namely, in addition to their former contributions; or as BENGEL, in addition to the supply obtained by my own manual labor.

JFB: 2Co 11:10 - -- Greek, "There is (the) truth of Christ in me that," &c. (Rom 9:1).

Greek, "There is (the) truth of Christ in me that," &c. (Rom 9:1).

JFB: 2Co 11:10 - no man shall stop me of The oldest manuscripts read, "This boasting shall not be shut (that is, stopped) as regards me." "Boasting is as it were personified . . . shall not h...

The oldest manuscripts read, "This boasting shall not be shut (that is, stopped) as regards me." "Boasting is as it were personified . . . shall not have its mouth stopped as regards me" [ALFORD].

JFB: 2Co 11:11 - -- Love is often offended at its favors being not accepted, as though the party to whom they are offered wished to be under no obligation to the offerer.

Love is often offended at its favors being not accepted, as though the party to whom they are offered wished to be under no obligation to the offerer.

JFB: 2Co 11:12 - I will do I will continue to decline help.

I will continue to decline help.

JFB: 2Co 11:12 - occasion Greek, "the occasion," namely, of misrepresenting my motives, which would be afforded to my detractors, if I accepted help.

Greek, "the occasion," namely, of misrepresenting my motives, which would be afforded to my detractors, if I accepted help.

JFB: 2Co 11:12 - that wherein they glory, they may be found even as we BENGEL joins this clause with "the occasion," namely, of glorying or boasting; the occasion "that they may be found (a point wherein they glory) even ...

BENGEL joins this clause with "the occasion," namely, of glorying or boasting; the occasion "that they may be found (a point wherein they glory) even as we," that is, quite as disinterested, or virtually, quite as gain-seeking and self-seeking. It cannot mean that the false teachers taught gratuitously even as Paul (compare 2Co 11:20; 1Co 9:12). ALFORD less clearly explains by reference to 2Co 11:18, &c., where the "glorying" here is taken up and described as "glorying after the flesh"; thus it means, that in the matters of which they beast they may be found even as we, that is, we may been a fair and equal footing; that there may be no adventitious comparisons made between us, arising out of misrepresentations of my course of procedure, but that in every matter of boasting we may be fairly compared and judged by facts; FOR (2Co 11:13) realities they have none, no weapons but misrepresentation, being false apostles.

JFB: 2Co 11:13 - For Reason why he is unwilling they should be thought like him [BENGEL].

Reason why he is unwilling they should be thought like him [BENGEL].

JFB: 2Co 11:13 - such They and those like them.

They and those like them.

JFB: 2Co 11:13 - false apostles Those "overmuch apostles" (see on 2Co 11:5) are no apostles at all.

Those "overmuch apostles" (see on 2Co 11:5) are no apostles at all.

JFB: 2Co 11:13 - deceitful workers Pretending to be "workmen" for the Lord, and really seeking their own gain.

Pretending to be "workmen" for the Lord, and really seeking their own gain.

JFB: 2Co 11:14 - is transformed Rather, "transforms himself" (compare Job 1:6); habitually; the first occasion of his doing so was in tempting Eve. "Himself" is emphatical: If their ...

Rather, "transforms himself" (compare Job 1:6); habitually; the first occasion of his doing so was in tempting Eve. "Himself" is emphatical: If their master himself, who is the "prince of darkness," the most alien to light, does so, it is less marvellous in the case of them who are his servants (Luk 22:54; Eph 6:12).

JFB: 2Co 11:15 - no great thing No difficult matter.

No difficult matter.

JFB: 2Co 11:15 - if his ministers also As well as himself.

As well as himself.

JFB: 2Co 11:15 - righteousness Answering to "light" (2Co 11:14); the manifestation wherewith God reveals Himself in Christ (Mat 6:33; Rom 1:17).

Answering to "light" (2Co 11:14); the manifestation wherewith God reveals Himself in Christ (Mat 6:33; Rom 1:17).

JFB: 2Co 11:15 - end The test of things is the end which strips off every specious form into which Satan's agents may now "transform" themselves (compare Phi 3:19, Phi 3:2...

The test of things is the end which strips off every specious form into which Satan's agents may now "transform" themselves (compare Phi 3:19, Phi 3:21).

JFB: 2Co 11:15 - according to their works Not according to their pretensions.

Not according to their pretensions.

JFB: 2Co 11:16 - I say again Again taking up from 2Co 11:1 the anticipatory apology for his boasting.

Again taking up from 2Co 11:1 the anticipatory apology for his boasting.

JFB: 2Co 11:16 - if otherwise But if ye will not grant this; if ye will think me a fool.

But if ye will not grant this; if ye will think me a fool.

JFB: 2Co 11:16 - yet as a fool "yet even as a fool receive me"; grant me the indulgent hearing conceded even to one suspected of folly. The Greek denotes one who does not rightly us...

"yet even as a fool receive me"; grant me the indulgent hearing conceded even to one suspected of folly. The Greek denotes one who does not rightly use his mental powers; not having the idea of blame necessarily attached to it; one deceived by foolish vanities, yet boasting himself [TITTMANN], (2Co 11:17, 2Co 11:19).

JFB: 2Co 11:16 - that I The oldest manuscripts read, "that I, too," namely, as well as they, may boast myself.

The oldest manuscripts read, "that I, too," namely, as well as they, may boast myself.

JFB: 2Co 11:17 - not after the Lord By inspired guidance he excepts this "glorying" or "boasting" from the inspired authoritativeness which belongs to all else that he wrote; even this b...

By inspired guidance he excepts this "glorying" or "boasting" from the inspired authoritativeness which belongs to all else that he wrote; even this boasting, though undesirable in itself, was permitted by the Spirit, taking into account its aim, namely, to draw off the Corinthians from their false teachers to the apostle. Therefore this passage gives no proof that any portion of Scripture is uninspired. It merely guards against his boasting being made a justification of boasting in general, which is not ordinarily "after the Lord," that is, consistent with Christian humility.

JFB: 2Co 11:17 - foolishly Greek, "in foolishness."

Greek, "in foolishness."

JFB: 2Co 11:17 - confidence of boasting (2Co 9:4).

(2Co 9:4).

JFB: 2Co 11:18 - many Including the "false teachers."

Including the "false teachers."

JFB: 2Co 11:18 - after the flesh As fleshly men are wont to boast, namely, of external advantages, as their birth, doings, &c. (compare 2Co 11:22).

As fleshly men are wont to boast, namely, of external advantages, as their birth, doings, &c. (compare 2Co 11:22).

JFB: 2Co 11:18 - I will glory also That is, I also will boast of such fleshly advantages, to show you that even in these I am not their inferiors, and therefore ought not to be supplant...

That is, I also will boast of such fleshly advantages, to show you that even in these I am not their inferiors, and therefore ought not to be supplanted by them in your esteem; though these are not what I desire to glory in (2Co 10:17).

JFB: 2Co 11:19 - gladly Willingly. Irony. A plea why they should "bear with" (2Co 11:1) him in his folly, that is, boasting; ye are, in sooth, so "wise" (1Co 4:8, 1Co 4:10; P...

Willingly. Irony. A plea why they should "bear with" (2Co 11:1) him in his folly, that is, boasting; ye are, in sooth, so "wise" (1Co 4:8, 1Co 4:10; Paul's real view of their wisdom was very different, 1Co 3:1-4) yourselves that ye can "bear with" the folly of others more complacently. Not only can ye do so, but ye are actually doing this and more.

JFB: 2Co 11:20 - For Ye may well "bear with" fools; for ye even "bear with" oppressors. Translate, "Ye bear with them."

Ye may well "bear with" fools; for ye even "bear with" oppressors. Translate, "Ye bear with them."

JFB: 2Co 11:20 - a man As the false apostles do.

As the false apostles do.

JFB: 2Co 11:20 - bring you into bondage To himself. Translate "brings," not "bring"; for the case is not merely a supposed case, but a case actually then occurring. Also "devours" (namely, b...

To himself. Translate "brings," not "bring"; for the case is not merely a supposed case, but a case actually then occurring. Also "devours" (namely, by exactions, Mat 23:24; Psa 53:4), "takes," "exalts," "smites."

JFB: 2Co 11:20 - take of you So the Greek for "take" is used for "take away from" (Rev 6:4). ALFORD translates, as in 2Co 12:16, "catches you."

So the Greek for "take" is used for "take away from" (Rev 6:4). ALFORD translates, as in 2Co 12:16, "catches you."

JFB: 2Co 11:20 - exalt himself Under the pretext of apostolic dignity.

Under the pretext of apostolic dignity.

JFB: 2Co 11:20 - smite you on the face Under the pretext of divine zeal. The height of insolence on their part, and of servile endurance on yours (1Ki 22:24; Neh 13:25; Luk 22:64; Act 23:2;...

Under the pretext of divine zeal. The height of insolence on their part, and of servile endurance on yours (1Ki 22:24; Neh 13:25; Luk 22:64; Act 23:2; 1Ti 3:3).

JFB: 2Co 11:21 - as concerning reproach Rather, "by way of dishonor (that is, self-disparagement) I say it."

Rather, "by way of dishonor (that is, self-disparagement) I say it."

JFB: 2Co 11:21 - as though we . . . weak In not similarly (2Co 11:20) showing our power over you. "An ironical reminiscence of his own abstinence when among them from all these acts of self-e...

In not similarly (2Co 11:20) showing our power over you. "An ironical reminiscence of his own abstinence when among them from all these acts of self-exaltation at their expense" (as if such abstinence was weakness) [ALFORD]. The "we" is emphatically contrasted with the false teachers who so oppressively displayed their power. I speak so as though WE had been weak when with you, because we did not show our power this way. Howbeit (we are not really weak; for), whereinsoever any is bold . . . I am bold also.

JFB: 2Co 11:22 - Hebrews . . . Israelites . . . the seed of Abraham A climax. "Hebrews," referring to the language and nationality; "Israelites," to the theocracy and descent from Israel, the "prince who prevailed with...

A climax. "Hebrews," referring to the language and nationality; "Israelites," to the theocracy and descent from Israel, the "prince who prevailed with God" (Rom 9:4); "the seed of Abraham," to the claim to a share in the Messiah (Rom 11:1; Rom 9:7). Compare Phi 3:5, "An Hebrew of the Hebrews," not an Hellenist or Greek-speaking Jew, but a Hebrew in tongue, and sprung from Hebrews.

JFB: 2Co 11:23 - I speak as a fool Rather, as Greek, "I speak as if beside myself"; stronger than "as a fool."

Rather, as Greek, "I speak as if beside myself"; stronger than "as a fool."

JFB: 2Co 11:23 - I am more Namely, in respect to the credentials and manifestations of my ministry, more faithful and self-denying; and richer in tokens of God's recognition of ...

Namely, in respect to the credentials and manifestations of my ministry, more faithful and self-denying; and richer in tokens of God's recognition of my ministry. Old authorities read the order thus, "In prisons above measures, in stripes more abundantly" (English Version, less accurately, "more frequent"). Acts 16:23-40 records one case of his imprisonment with stripes. CLEMENT OF ROME [First Epistle to the Corinthians] describes him as having suffered bonds seven times.

JFB: 2Co 11:23 - in death oft (2Co 4:10; Act 9:23; Act 13:50; Act 14:5-6, Act 14:19; Act 17:5, Act 17:13).

JFB: 2Co 11:24 - -- Deu 25:3 ordained that not more than forty stripes should be inflicted To avoid exceeding this number, they gave one short of it: thirteen strokes wit...

Deu 25:3 ordained that not more than forty stripes should be inflicted To avoid exceeding this number, they gave one short of it: thirteen strokes with a treble lash [BENGEL]. This is one of those minute agreements with Jewish usage, which a forger would have not been likely to observe.

JFB: 2Co 11:25 - -- The beating by Roman magistrates at Philippi (Act 16:23) is the only one recorded in Acts, which does not profess to give a complete journal of his li...

The beating by Roman magistrates at Philippi (Act 16:23) is the only one recorded in Acts, which does not profess to give a complete journal of his life, but only a sketch of it in connection with the design of the book, namely, to give an outline of the history of the Gospel Church from its foundation at Jerusalem, to the period of its reaching Rome, the capital of the Gentile world.

JFB: 2Co 11:25 - once was I stoned (Act 14:19).

JFB: 2Co 11:25 - thrice . . . shipwreck Before the shipwreck at Melita (Act 27:44). Probably in some of his voyages from Tarsus, where he stayed for some time after his conversion, and from ...

Before the shipwreck at Melita (Act 27:44). Probably in some of his voyages from Tarsus, where he stayed for some time after his conversion, and from which, as being a seafaring place, he was likely to make missionary voyages to adjoining places (Act 9:30; Act 11:25; Gal 1:21).

JFB: 2Co 11:25 - a night and a day . . . in the deep Probably in part swimming or in an open boat.

Probably in part swimming or in an open boat.

JFB: 2Co 11:26 - In Rather, "By": connected with 2Co 11:23, but now not with "in," as there, and as in 2Co 11:27, where again he passes to the idea of surrounding circums...

Rather, "By": connected with 2Co 11:23, but now not with "in," as there, and as in 2Co 11:27, where again he passes to the idea of surrounding circumstances or environments [ALFORD, ELLICOTT and others].

JFB: 2Co 11:26 - waters Rather, as Greek, "rivers," namely, perils by the flooding of rivers, as on the road often traversed by Paul between Jerusalem and Antioch, crossed as...

Rather, as Greek, "rivers," namely, perils by the flooding of rivers, as on the road often traversed by Paul between Jerusalem and Antioch, crossed as it is by the torrents rushing down from Lebanon. So the traveller Sport lost his life.

JFB: 2Co 11:26 - robbers Perhaps in his journey from Perga to Antioch in Pisidia. Pisidia was notorious for robbers; as indeed were all the mountains that divided the high lan...

Perhaps in his journey from Perga to Antioch in Pisidia. Pisidia was notorious for robbers; as indeed were all the mountains that divided the high land of Asia from the sea.

JFB: 2Co 11:26 - the heathen Gentiles.

Gentiles.

JFB: 2Co 11:26 - in the city Damascus, Act 9:24-25; Jerusalem, Act 9:29; Ephesus, Act 19:23.

Damascus, Act 9:24-25; Jerusalem, Act 9:29; Ephesus, Act 19:23.

JFB: 2Co 11:26 - false brethren (Gal 2:4).

(Gal 2:4).

JFB: 2Co 11:27 - fastings Voluntary, in order to kindle devotions (Act 13:2-3; Act 14:23; 1Co 9:27); for they are distinguished from "hunger and thirst," which were involuntary...

Voluntary, in order to kindle devotions (Act 13:2-3; Act 14:23; 1Co 9:27); for they are distinguished from "hunger and thirst," which were involuntary [GROTIUS]. However, see on 2Co 6:5. The context refers solely to hardships, not to self-imposed devotional mortification. "Hunger and thirst" are not synonymous with "foodlessness" (as the Greek of "fasting" means), but are its consequences.

JFB: 2Co 11:27 - cold . . . nakedness "cold" resulting from "nakedness," or insufficient clothing, as the Greek often means: as "hunger and thirst" result from "foodlessness." (Compare Act...

"cold" resulting from "nakedness," or insufficient clothing, as the Greek often means: as "hunger and thirst" result from "foodlessness." (Compare Act 28:2; Rom 8:35). "When we remember that he who endured all this was a man constantly suffering from infirm health (2Co 4:7-12; 2Co 12:7-10; Gal 4:13-14), such heroic self-devotion seems almost superhuman" [CONYBEARE and HOWSON].

JFB: 2Co 11:28 - without "Beside" trials falling on me externally, just recounted, there is "that which cometh upon me (literally, the impetuous concourse to me of business; p...

"Beside" trials falling on me externally, just recounted, there is "that which cometh upon me (literally, the impetuous concourse to me of business; properly, a crowd rising up against one again and again, and ready to bear him down), the care of all the churches" (including those not yet seen in the flesh, Col 2:1): an internal and more weighty anxiety. But the oldest manuscripts for "that which cometh," read, "the pressure": "the pressing care-taking" or "inspection that is upon me daily." ALFORD translates, "Omitting what is BESIDES"; namely, those other trials besides those recounted. But the Vulgate, ESTIUS, and BENGEL, support English Version.

JFB: 2Co 11:28 - the care The Greek implies, "my anxious solicitude for all the churches."

The Greek implies, "my anxious solicitude for all the churches."

JFB: 2Co 11:29 - I . . . weak In condescending sympathy with the weak (1Co 9:22). "Care generates sympathy, which causes the minister of Christ personally to enter into the feeling...

In condescending sympathy with the weak (1Co 9:22). "Care generates sympathy, which causes the minister of Christ personally to enter into the feelings of all his people, as if he stood in their position, so as to accommodate himself to all" [CALVIN].

JFB: 2Co 11:29 - offended By some stumbling-block put in his way by others: the "weak" is most liable to be "offended."

By some stumbling-block put in his way by others: the "weak" is most liable to be "offended."

JFB: 2Co 11:29 - I burn not The "I" in the Greek is emphatic, which it is not in the former clause, "I am not weak." I not only enter into the feeling of the party offended, but ...

The "I" in the Greek is emphatic, which it is not in the former clause, "I am not weak." I not only enter into the feeling of the party offended, but I burn with indignation at the offender, I myself taking up his cause as my own. "Who meets with a stumbling-block and I am not disturbed even more than himself" [NEANDER].

JFB: 2Co 11:30 - glory of . . . infirmities A striking contrast! Glorying or boasting of what others make matter of shame, namely, infirmities; for instance, his humbling mode of escape in a bas...

A striking contrast! Glorying or boasting of what others make matter of shame, namely, infirmities; for instance, his humbling mode of escape in a basket (2Co 11:33). A character utterly incompatible with that of an enthusiast (compare 2Co 12:5, 2Co 12:9-10).

JFB: 2Co 11:31 - -- This solemn asseveration refers to what follows. The persecution at Damascus was one of the first and greatest, and having no human witness of it to a...

This solemn asseveration refers to what follows. The persecution at Damascus was one of the first and greatest, and having no human witness of it to adduce to the Corinthians, as being a fact that happened long before and was known to few, he appeals to God for its truth. Luke (Act 9:25) afterwards recorded it (compare Gal 1:20), [BENGEL]. It may ALSO refer to the revelation in 2Co 12:1, standing in beautiful contrast to his humiliating escape from Damascus.

JFB: 2Co 11:32 - governor Greek, "Ethnarch": a Jewish officer to whom heathen rulers gave authority over Jews in large cities where they were numerous. He was in this case unde...

Greek, "Ethnarch": a Jewish officer to whom heathen rulers gave authority over Jews in large cities where they were numerous. He was in this case under Aretas, king of Arabia. Damascus was in a Roman province. But at this time, A.D. 38 or 39, three years after Paul's conversion, A.D. 36, Aretas, against whom the Emperor Tiberius as the ally of Herod Agrippa had sent an army under Vitellius, had got possession of Damascus on the death of the emperor, and the consequent interruption of Vitellius' operations. His possession of it was put an end to immediately after by the Romans [NEANDER]. Rather, it was granted by Caligula (A.D. 38) to Aretas, whose predecessors had possessed it. This is proved by our having no Damascus coins of Caligula or Claudius, though we do have of their immediate imperial predecessors and successors [ALFORD].

Clarke: 2Co 11:1 - Would to God ye could bear with me Would to God ye could bear with me - Οφελον ηνειχεσθε μου μικρον . As the word God is not mentioned here, it would have bee...

Would to God ye could bear with me - Οφελον ηνειχεσθε μου μικρον . As the word God is not mentioned here, it would have been much better to have translated the passage literally thus: I wish ye could bear a little with me. The too frequent use of this sacred name produces a familiarity with it that is not at all conducive to reverence and godly fear

Clarke: 2Co 11:1 - In my folly In my folly - In my seeming folly; for, being obliged to vindicate his ministry, it was necessary that he should speak much of himself, his sufferin...

In my folly - In my seeming folly; for, being obliged to vindicate his ministry, it was necessary that he should speak much of himself, his sufferings, and his success. And as this would appear like boasting; and boasting is always the effect of an empty, foolish mind; those who were not acquainted with the necessity that lay upon him to make this defense, might be led to impute it to vanity. As if he had said: Suppose you allow this to be folly, have the goodness to bear with me; for though I glory, I should not be a fool, 2Co 12:6. And let no man think me a fool for my boasting, 2Co 11:16.

Clarke: 2Co 11:2 - I am jealous over you, etc. I am jealous over you, etc. - The apostle evidently alludes either to the שושבינים shoshabinim or paranymphs among the Hebrews, whose off...

I am jealous over you, etc. - The apostle evidently alludes either to the שושבינים shoshabinim or paranymphs among the Hebrews, whose office is largely explained in the notes on Joh 3:29, and the observations at the end of that chapter (see note at Joh 3:36); or to the harmosyni , a sort of magistrates among the Lacedemonians who had the care of virgins, and whose business it was to see them well educated, kept pure, and properly prepared for married life

Clarke: 2Co 11:2 - That I may present you as a chaste virgin That I may present you as a chaste virgin - The allusion is still kept up; and there seems to be a reference to Lev 21:14, that the high priest must...

That I may present you as a chaste virgin - The allusion is still kept up; and there seems to be a reference to Lev 21:14, that the high priest must not marry any one that was not a pure virgin. Here, then, Christ is the high priest, the spouse or husband; the Corinthian Church the pure virgin to be espoused; the apostle and his helpers the shoshabinim , or harmosyni , who had educated and prepared this virgin for her husband, and espoused her to him. See the observations already referred to at the end of the third chapter of John. (Joh 3:36 (note))

Clarke: 2Co 11:3 - As the serpent beguiled Eve through his subtilty As the serpent beguiled Eve through his subtilty - This is a strong reflection on the false apostle and his teaching: he was subtle, πανουργ...

As the serpent beguiled Eve through his subtilty - This is a strong reflection on the false apostle and his teaching: he was subtle, πανουργος and by his subtlety ( πανουργια, from παν, all, and εργον, work; his versatility of character and conduct, his capability of doing all work, and accommodating himself to the caprices, prejudices, and evil propensities of those to whom he ministered) he was enabled to corrupt the minds of the people from the simplicity of the Gospel of Christ; or, to follow the metaphor, he had seduced the pure, chaste, well educated virgin, from her duty, affection, and allegiance to her one only true husband, the high priest, Jesus Christ. And here he seems to intimate that the serpent had seduced the mind of Eve from her affections and allegiance to Adam, her true husband; and certainly from God, her creator and governor. See at the end of the chapter (note).

Clarke: 2Co 11:4 - For if he that cometh For if he that cometh - The false apostle, who came after St. Paul had left Corinth

For if he that cometh - The false apostle, who came after St. Paul had left Corinth

Clarke: 2Co 11:4 - Preacheth another Jesus Preacheth another Jesus - Who can save more fully and more powerfully than that Jesus whom I have preached

Preacheth another Jesus - Who can save more fully and more powerfully than that Jesus whom I have preached

Clarke: 2Co 11:4 - Or if ye receive another spirit Or if ye receive another spirit - And if in consequence of believing in this new saviour ye receive another spirit, the gifts, graces, and consolati...

Or if ye receive another spirit - And if in consequence of believing in this new saviour ye receive another spirit, the gifts, graces, and consolations of which are greater than those which ye have received from the Holy Ghost, which has been given to you on your believing on the Christ whom we preached

Clarke: 2Co 11:4 - Or another Gospel Or another Gospel - Containing more privileges, spiritual advantages, and stronger excitements to holiness, than that which we have preached and whi...

Or another Gospel - Containing more privileges, spiritual advantages, and stronger excitements to holiness, than that which we have preached and which ye have accepted, ye might well bear with him. This would be a sufficient reason why you should not only bear with him, but prefer him to me

Others think that the last clause should be rendered, Ye might well bear with Me - notwithstanding he brought you another Jesus, spirit, and gospel, ye might bear with me, who have already ministered so long to and done so much for you. But the former sense seems best.

Clarke: 2Co 11:5 - I was not - behind the very chiefest apostles I was not - behind the very chiefest apostles - That is: The most eminent of the apostles have not preached Christ, ministered the spirit, explained...

I was not - behind the very chiefest apostles - That is: The most eminent of the apostles have not preached Christ, ministered the spirit, explained and enforced the doctrines of the Gospel in a more powerful and effectual manner than I have done.

Clarke: 2Co 11:6 - But though I be rude in speech But though I be rude in speech - Ιδιωτης τῳ λογῳ Though I speak like a common unlettered man, in plain unadorned phrase, studying...

But though I be rude in speech - Ιδιωτης τῳ λογῳ Though I speak like a common unlettered man, in plain unadorned phrase, studying none of the graces of eloquence; yet I am not unskilled in the most profound knowledge of God, of spiritual and eternal things, of the nature of the human soul, and the sound truths of the Gospel system: ye yourselves are witnesses of this, as in all these things I have been thoroughly manifested among you

Inspired men received all their doctrines immediately from God, and often the very words in which those doctrines should be delivered to the world; but in general the Holy Spirit appears to have left them to their own language, preventing them from using any expression that might be equivocal, or convey a contrary sense to that which God intended

That St. Paul wrote a strong, nervous, and sufficiently pure language, his own writings sufficiently testify; but the graces of the Greek tongue he appears not to have studied, or at least he did not think it proper to use them; for perhaps there is no tongue in the world that is so apt to seduce the understanding by its sounds and harmony, as the Greek. It is not an unusual thing for Greek scholars to the present day to be in raptures with the harmony of a Greek verse, the sense of which is but little regarded, and perhaps is little worth! I should suppose that God would prevent the inspired writers from either speaking or writing thus, that sound might not carry the hearer away from sense; and that the persuasive force of truth might alone prevail, and the excellence of the power appear to be of God and not of man. Taking up the subject in this point of view, I see no reason to have recourse to the supposition, or fable rather, that the apostle had an impediment in his speech, and that he alludes to this infirmity in the above passage.

Clarke: 2Co 11:7 - Have I committed an offense in abasing myself Have I committed an offense in abasing myself - Have I transgressed in labouring with my hands that I might not be chargeable to you? and getting my...

Have I committed an offense in abasing myself - Have I transgressed in labouring with my hands that I might not be chargeable to you? and getting my deficiencies supplied by contributions from other Churches, while I was employed in labouring for your salvation? Does your false apostle insinuate that I have disgraced the apostolic office by thus descending to servile labor for my support? Well; I have done this that you might be exalted - that you might receive the pure doctrines of the Gospel, and be exalted to the highest pitch of intellectual light and blessedness. And will you complain that I preached the Gospel gratis to you? Surely not. The whole passage is truly ironical.

Clarke: 2Co 11:8 - I robbed other Churches I robbed other Churches - This part of the sentence is explained by the latter, taking wages to do you service. The word οψωνιον signifies ...

I robbed other Churches - This part of the sentence is explained by the latter, taking wages to do you service. The word οψωνιον signifies the pay of money and provisions given daily to a Roman soldier. As if he had said: I received food and raiment, the bare necessaries of life, from other Churches while labouring for your salvation. Will you esteem this a crime?

Clarke: 2Co 11:9 - And when I was present with you And when I was present with you - The particle και which we translate and, should be rendered for in this place: For when I was with you, and w...

And when I was present with you - The particle και which we translate and, should be rendered for in this place: For when I was with you, and was in want, I was chargeable to no man. I preferred to be, for a time, even without the necessaries of life, rather than be a burden to you. To whom was this a reproach, to me or to you

Clarke: 2Co 11:9 - The brethren which came from Macedonia The brethren which came from Macedonia - He probably refers to the supplies which he received from the Church at Philippi, which was in Macedonia; o...

The brethren which came from Macedonia - He probably refers to the supplies which he received from the Church at Philippi, which was in Macedonia; of which he says, that in the beginning of the Gospel no Church communicated with me, as concerning giving and receiving, but you only; for even at Thessalonica ye sent once and again to my necessity, Phi 4:15, Phi 4:16. See the Introduction, Section 6.

Clarke: 2Co 11:10 - As the truth of Christ is in me As the truth of Christ is in me - Εστιν αληθεια Χριστου εν εμοι· The truth of Christ is in me. That is: I speak as becom...

As the truth of Christ is in me - Εστιν αληθεια Χριστου εν εμοι· The truth of Christ is in me. That is: I speak as becomes a Christian man, and as influenced by the Gospel of Christ. It is a solemn form of asseveration, if not to be considered in the sense of an oath

Clarke: 2Co 11:10 - In the regions of Achaia In the regions of Achaia - The whole of the Peloponnesus, or Morea, in which the city of Corinth stood. From this it appears that he had received no...

In the regions of Achaia - The whole of the Peloponnesus, or Morea, in which the city of Corinth stood. From this it appears that he had received no help from any of the other Churches in the whole of that district.

Clarke: 2Co 11:11 - Wherefore Wherefore - Why have I acted thus? and why do I propose to continue to act thus? is it because I love you not, and will not permit you to contribute...

Wherefore - Why have I acted thus? and why do I propose to continue to act thus? is it because I love you not, and will not permit you to contribute to my support? God knoweth the contrary; I do most affectionately love you.

Clarke: 2Co 11:12 - But what I do, etc. But what I do, etc. - I act thus that I may cut off occasion of glorying, boasting, or calumniating from them - the false prophets and his partisans...

But what I do, etc. - I act thus that I may cut off occasion of glorying, boasting, or calumniating from them - the false prophets and his partisans, who seek occasion - who would be glad that I should become chargeable to you, that it might in some sort vindicate them who exact much from you; for they bring you into bondage, and devour you, 2Co 11:20

Nothing could mortify these persons more than to find that the apostle did take nothing, and was resolved to take nothing; while they were fleecing the people. It is certain that the passage is not to be understood as though the false apostles took nothing from the people, to whatever disinterestedness they might pretend, for the apostle is positive on the contrary; and he was determined to act so that his example should not authorize these deceivers, who had nothing but their self-interest in view, to exact contribution from the people; so that if they continued to boast, they must be bound even as the apostle, taking nothing for their labors; which could never comport with their views of gain and secular profit.

Clarke: 2Co 11:13 - For such are false apostles For such are false apostles - Persons who pretend to be apostles, but have no mission from Christ

For such are false apostles - Persons who pretend to be apostles, but have no mission from Christ

Clarke: 2Co 11:13 - Deceitful workers Deceitful workers - They do preach and labor, but they have nothing but their own emolument in view

Deceitful workers - They do preach and labor, but they have nothing but their own emolument in view

Clarke: 2Co 11:13 - Transforming themselves Transforming themselves - Assuming as far as they possibly can, consistently with their sinister views, the habit, manner, and doctrine of the apost...

Transforming themselves - Assuming as far as they possibly can, consistently with their sinister views, the habit, manner, and doctrine of the apostles of Christ.

Clarke: 2Co 11:14 - And no marvel And no marvel - Και ου θαυμαστον· And no wonder; it need not surprise you what the disciples do, when you consider the character of...

And no marvel - Και ου θαυμαστον· And no wonder; it need not surprise you what the disciples do, when you consider the character of the master

Clarke: 2Co 11:14 - Satan himself is transformed into an angel of light Satan himself is transformed into an angel of light - As in 2Co 11:3 the apostle had the history of the temptation and fall of man particularly in v...

Satan himself is transformed into an angel of light - As in 2Co 11:3 the apostle had the history of the temptation and fall of man particularly in view, it is very likely that here he refers to the same thing. In what ever form Satan appeared to our first mother, his pretensions and professions gave him the appearance of a good angel; and by pretending that Eve should get a great increase of light, that is, wisdom and understanding, he deceived her, and led her to transgress. It is generally said that Satan has three forms under which he tempts men

1.    The subtle serpent

2.    The roaring lion

3.    The angel of light

He often, as the angel of light, persuades men to do things under the name of religion, which are subversive of it. Hence all the persecutions, faggots, and fires of a certain Church, under pretense of keeping heresy out of the Church; and hence all the horrors and infernalities of the inquisition. In the form of heathen persecution, like a lion he has ravaged the heritage of the Lord. And by means of our senses and passions, as the subtle serpent, he is frequently deceiving us, so that often the workings of corrupt nature are mistaken for the operations of the Spirit of God.

Clarke: 2Co 11:15 - Whose end shall be according to their works Whose end shall be according to their works - A bad way leads to a bad end. The way of sin is the way to hell.

Whose end shall be according to their works - A bad way leads to a bad end. The way of sin is the way to hell.

Clarke: 2Co 11:16 - Let no man think me a fool Let no man think me a fool - See the note on 2Co 11:1. As the apostle was now going to enter into a particular detail of his qualifications, natural...

Let no man think me a fool - See the note on 2Co 11:1. As the apostle was now going to enter into a particular detail of his qualifications, natural, acquired, and spiritual; and particularly of his labors and sufferings; he thinks it necessary to introduce the discourse once more as he did 2Co 11:1.

Clarke: 2Co 11:17 - I speak it not after the Lord I speak it not after the Lord - Were it not for the necessity under which I am laid to vindicate my apostleship, my present glorying would be incons...

I speak it not after the Lord - Were it not for the necessity under which I am laid to vindicate my apostleship, my present glorying would be inconsistent with my Christian profession of humility, and knowing no one after the flesh.

Clarke: 2Co 11:18 - Seeing that many glory after the flesh Seeing that many glory after the flesh - Boast of external and secular things.

Seeing that many glory after the flesh - Boast of external and secular things.

Clarke: 2Co 11:19 - Ye suffer fools gladly, seeing ye yourselves are wise Ye suffer fools gladly, seeing ye yourselves are wise - A very fine irony. Ye are so profoundly wise as to be able to discern that I am a fool. Well...

Ye suffer fools gladly, seeing ye yourselves are wise - A very fine irony. Ye are so profoundly wise as to be able to discern that I am a fool. Well, it would be dishonorable to you as wise men to fall out with a fool; you will therefore gladly bear with his impertinence and foolishness because of your own profound wisdom.

Clarke: 2Co 11:20 - For ye suffer For ye suffer - As you are so meek and gentle as to submit to be brought into bondage, to have your property devoured, your goods taken away, yourse...

For ye suffer - As you are so meek and gentle as to submit to be brought into bondage, to have your property devoured, your goods taken away, yourselves laid in the dust, so that others may exalt themselves over you, yea, and will bear from those the most degrading indignity; then of course, you will bear with one who has never insulted, defrauded, devoured, taken of you, exalted himself against you, or offered you any kind of indignity; and who only wishes you to bear his confident boasting, concerning matters which he can substantiate

The expressions in this verse are some evidence that the false apostle was a Judaizing teacher. You suffer, says the apostle, if a man, καταδουλοι, bring you into bondage, probably meaning to the Jewish rites and ceremonies, Gal 4:9; Gal 5:1. If he devour you; as the Pharisees did the patrimony of the widows, and for a pretense made long prayers; if a man take of you, exact different contributions, pretendedly for the temple at Jerusalem, etc. If he exalt himself, pretending to be of the seed of Abraham, infinitely higher in honor and dignity than all the families of the Gentiles; if he smite you on the face - treat you with indignity, as the Jews did the Gentiles, considering them only as dogs, and not fit to be ranked with any of the descendants of Jacob.

Clarke: 2Co 11:21 - I speak as concerning reproach I speak as concerning reproach - Dr. Whitby thus paraphrases this verse: "That which I said of smiting you upon the face, I speak as concerning the ...

I speak as concerning reproach - Dr. Whitby thus paraphrases this verse: "That which I said of smiting you upon the face, I speak as concerning the reproach they cast upon you as profane and uncircumcised, whereas they all profess to be a holy nation; as though we had been weak - inferior to them in these things, not able to ascribe to ourselves those advantages as well as they. Howbeit, whereinsoever any is bold, and can justly value himself on these advantages, I am bold also, and can claim the same distinctions, though I speak foolishly in setting any value on those things; but it is necessary that I should show that such men have not even one natural good that they can boast of beyond me."

Clarke: 2Co 11:22 - Are they Hebrews Are they Hebrews - Speaking the sacred language, and reading in the congregation from the Hebrew Scriptures? the same is my own language

Are they Hebrews - Speaking the sacred language, and reading in the congregation from the Hebrew Scriptures? the same is my own language

Clarke: 2Co 11:22 - Are they Israelites Are they Israelites - Regularly descended from Jacob, and not from Esau? I am also one

Are they Israelites - Regularly descended from Jacob, and not from Esau? I am also one

Clarke: 2Co 11:22 - Are they the seed of Abraham Are they the seed of Abraham - Circumcised, and in the bond of the covenant? So am I. I am no proselyte, but I am a Hebrew of the Hebrews both by fa...

Are they the seed of Abraham - Circumcised, and in the bond of the covenant? So am I. I am no proselyte, but I am a Hebrew of the Hebrews both by father and mother; and can trace my genealogy, through the tribe of Benjamin, up to the father of the faithful.

Clarke: 2Co 11:23 - Are they ministers of Christ Are they ministers of Christ - So we find that these were professors of Christianity; and that they were genuine Jews, and such as endeavored to inc...

Are they ministers of Christ - So we find that these were professors of Christianity; and that they were genuine Jews, and such as endeavored to incorporate both systems, and, no doubt, to oblige those who had believed to be circumcised; and this appears to have been the bondage into which they had brought many of the believing Corinthians

Clarke: 2Co 11:23 - I am more I am more - More of a minister of Christ than they are, and have given fuller proofs of it. I have suffered persecution for the cross of Christ, and...

I am more - More of a minister of Christ than they are, and have given fuller proofs of it. I have suffered persecution for the cross of Christ, and of the Jews too; and had I preached up the necessity of circumcision, I should have been as free from opposition as these are

Clarke: 2Co 11:23 - In labors more abundant In labors more abundant - Far from sitting down to take my ease in a Church already gathered into Christ; I travel incessantly, preach every where, ...

In labors more abundant - Far from sitting down to take my ease in a Church already gathered into Christ; I travel incessantly, preach every where, and at all risks, in order to get the heathen brought from the empire of darkness into the kingdom of God’ s beloved Son

Clarke: 2Co 11:23 - In stripes above measure In stripes above measure - Being beaten by the heathen, who had no particular rule according to which they scourged criminals; and we find, from Act...

In stripes above measure - Being beaten by the heathen, who had no particular rule according to which they scourged criminals; and we find, from Act 16:22, Act 16:23, that they beat Paul unmercifully with many stripes. See the note on Act 16:22

Clarke: 2Co 11:23 - In prisons more frequent In prisons more frequent - See Act 21:11, and the whole of the apostle’ s history; and his long imprisonment of at least two years at Rome, Act...

In prisons more frequent - See Act 21:11, and the whole of the apostle’ s history; and his long imprisonment of at least two years at Rome, Act 28:16, Act 28:30. It does not appear that there is any one instance of a false apostle having been imprisoned for the testimony of Christ; this was a badge of the true apostles

Clarke: 2Co 11:23 - In deaths oft In deaths oft - That is, in the most imminent dangers. See 1Co 15:31; 2Co 4:11. And see the apostle’ s history in the Acts.

In deaths oft - That is, in the most imminent dangers. See 1Co 15:31; 2Co 4:11. And see the apostle’ s history in the Acts.

Clarke: 2Co 11:24 - Of the Jews five times received I forty stripes save one Of the Jews five times received I forty stripes save one - That is, he was five times scourged by the Jews, whose law (Deu 25:3) allowed forty strip...

Of the Jews five times received I forty stripes save one - That is, he was five times scourged by the Jews, whose law (Deu 25:3) allowed forty stripes; but they, pretending to be lenient, and to act within the letter of the law, inflicted but thirty-nine

To except one stripe from the forty was a very ancient canon among the Jews, as we learn from Josephus, Antiq. lib. iv. ch. viii. sec. 21, who mentions the same thing: πληγας μιας λειπουσης τεσσαπακοντα· forty stripes, excepting one

The Mishna gives this as a rule, Mish., Maccoth, fol. 22, 10

"How often shall he, the culprit, be smitten

Ans. ארבעים תמר אתר forty stripes, wanting one; i.e. with the number which is highest to forty.

Frequently a man was scourged according to his ability to bear the punishment; and it is a canon in the Mishna, "That he who cannot bear forty stripes should receive only eighteen, and yet be considered as having suffered the whole punishment."They also thought it right to stop under forty, lest the person who counted should make a mistake, and the criminal get more than forty stripes, which would be injustice, as the law required only forty

The manner in which this punishment was inflicted is described in the Mishna, fol. 22, 2: "The two hands of the criminal are bound to a post, and then the servant of the synagogue either pulls or tears off his clothes till he leaves his breast and shoulders bare. A stone or block is placed behind him on which the servant stands; he holds in his hands a scourge made of leather, divided into four tails. He who scourges lays one third on the criminal’ s breast, another third on his right shoulder, and another on his left. The man who receives the punishment is neither sitting nor standing, but all the while stooping; and the man smites with all his strength, with one hand."The severity of this punishment depends on the nature of the scourge, and the strength of the executioner

It is also observed that the Jews did not repeat scourgings except for enormous offenses. But they had scourged the apostle five times; for with those murderers no quarter would be given to the disciples, as none was given to the Master. See Schoettgen.

Clarke: 2Co 11:25 - Thrice was I beaten with rods Thrice was I beaten with rods - This was under the Roman government, as their lictors beat criminals in this way. We hear of the apostle’ s bei...

Thrice was I beaten with rods - This was under the Roman government, as their lictors beat criminals in this way. We hear of the apostle’ s being treated thus once, namely at Philippi, Act 16:22. See Section 9 of the Introduction.

Clarke: 2Co 11:25 - Once was I stoned Once was I stoned - Namely, at Lystra, Act 14:19, etc

Once was I stoned - Namely, at Lystra, Act 14:19, etc

Clarke: 2Co 11:25 - A night and a day I have been in the deep A night and a day I have been in the deep - To what this refers we cannot tell; it is generally supposed that in some shipwreck not on record the ap...

A night and a day I have been in the deep - To what this refers we cannot tell; it is generally supposed that in some shipwreck not on record the apostle had saved himself on a plank, and was a whole day and night on the sea, tossed about at the mercy of the waves. Others think that βυθος, the deep, signifies a dungeon of a terrible nature at Cyzicum, in the Propontis, into which Paul was cast as he passed from Troas. But this is not likely.

Clarke: 2Co 11:26 - In journeyings often In journeyings often - He means the particular journeys which he took to different places, for the purpose of propagating the Gospel

In journeyings often - He means the particular journeys which he took to different places, for the purpose of propagating the Gospel

Clarke: 2Co 11:26 - In perils of waters In perils of waters - Exposed to great dangers in crossing rivers; for of rivers the original, ποταμων, must be understood

In perils of waters - Exposed to great dangers in crossing rivers; for of rivers the original, ποταμων, must be understood

Clarke: 2Co 11:26 - Of robbers Of robbers - Judea itself, and perhaps every other country, was grievously infested by banditti of this kind; and no doubt the apostle in his freque...

Of robbers - Judea itself, and perhaps every other country, was grievously infested by banditti of this kind; and no doubt the apostle in his frequent peregrinations was often attacked, but, being poor and having nothing to lose, he passed unhurt, though not without great danger

Clarke: 2Co 11:26 - In perils by mine own countrymen In perils by mine own countrymen - The Jews had the most rooted antipathy to him, because they considered him an apostate from the true faith, and a...

In perils by mine own countrymen - The Jews had the most rooted antipathy to him, because they considered him an apostate from the true faith, and also the means of perverting many others. There are several instances of this in the Acts; and a remarkable conspiracy against his life is related, Act 23:12, etc

Clarke: 2Co 11:26 - In perils by the heathen In perils by the heathen - In the heathen provinces whither he went to preach the Gospel. Several instances of these perils occur also in the Acts

In perils by the heathen - In the heathen provinces whither he went to preach the Gospel. Several instances of these perils occur also in the Acts

Clarke: 2Co 11:26 - In perils in the city In perils in the city - The different seditions raised against him; particularly in Jerusalem, to which Ephesus and Damascus may be added

In perils in the city - The different seditions raised against him; particularly in Jerusalem, to which Ephesus and Damascus may be added

Clarke: 2Co 11:26 - Perils in the wilderness Perils in the wilderness - Uninhabited countries through which he was obliged to pass in order to reach from city to city. In such places it is easy...

Perils in the wilderness - Uninhabited countries through which he was obliged to pass in order to reach from city to city. In such places it is easy to imagine many dangers from banditti, wild beasts, cold, starvation, etc

Clarke: 2Co 11:26 - Perils in the sea Perils in the sea - The different voyages he took in narrow seas, such as the Mediterranean, about dangerous coasts, and without compass

Perils in the sea - The different voyages he took in narrow seas, such as the Mediterranean, about dangerous coasts, and without compass

Clarke: 2Co 11:26 - False brethren False brethren - Persons who joined themselves to the Church, pretending faith in Christ, but intending to act as spies, hoping to get some matter o...

False brethren - Persons who joined themselves to the Church, pretending faith in Christ, but intending to act as spies, hoping to get some matter of accusation against him. He no doubt suffered much also from apostates.

Clarke: 2Co 11:27 - In weariness and painfulness In weariness and painfulness - Tribulations of this kind were his constant companions. Lord Lyttleton and others have made useful reflections on thi...

In weariness and painfulness - Tribulations of this kind were his constant companions. Lord Lyttleton and others have made useful reflections on this verse: "How hard was it for a man of a genteel and liberal education, as St. Paul was, to bear such rigours, and to wander about like a vagabond, hungry and almost naked, yet coming into the presence of persons of high life, and speaking in large and various assemblies on matters of the utmost importance!"Had not St. Paul been deeply convinced of the truth and absolute certainty of the Christian religion, he could not have continued to expose himself to such hardships.

Clarke: 2Co 11:28 - Beside those things that are without Beside those things that are without - Independently of all these outward things, I have innumerable troubles and mental oppressions

Beside those things that are without - Independently of all these outward things, I have innumerable troubles and mental oppressions

Clarke: 2Co 11:28 - Which cometh upon me Which cometh upon me - Ἡ επισυατασις· This continual press of business; this insurrection of cases to be heard, solved, and determi...

Which cometh upon me - Ἡ επισυατασις· This continual press of business; this insurrection of cases to be heard, solved, and determined, relative to the doctrine, discipline, state, persecution, and supply of all the Churches

All his perils were little in comparison of what he felt relative to the peace, government, and establishment of all the Churches among the Gentiles; for as he was the apostle of the Gentiles, the government of all the Churches among these fell in some sort on him, whether they were of his own planting or of the planting of others. See Col 2:1. None but a conscientious minister, who has at heart the salvation of souls, can enter into the apostle’ s feelings in this place.

Clarke: 2Co 11:29 - Who is weak Who is weak - What Church is there under persecution, with which I do not immediately sympathize? or who, from his weakness in the faith, and scrupu...

Who is weak - What Church is there under persecution, with which I do not immediately sympathize? or who, from his weakness in the faith, and scrupulousness of conscience, is likely to be stumbled, or turned out of the way, to whom I do not condescend, and whose burden I do not bear

Clarke: 2Co 11:29 - Who is offended Who is offended - Or likely to be turned out of the way, and I burn not with zeal to restore and confirm him? This seems to be the sense of these di...

Who is offended - Or likely to be turned out of the way, and I burn not with zeal to restore and confirm him? This seems to be the sense of these different questions.

Clarke: 2Co 11:30 - I will glory - which concern mine infirmities I will glory - which concern mine infirmities - I will not boast of my natural or acquired powers; neither in what God has done by me; but rather in...

I will glory - which concern mine infirmities - I will not boast of my natural or acquired powers; neither in what God has done by me; but rather in what I have suffered for him

Many persons have understood by infirmities what they call the indwelling sin of the apostle, and say that "he gloried in this, because the grace of Christ was the more magnified in his being preserved from ruin, notwithstanding this indwelling adversary."And to support this most unholy interpretation, they quote those other words of the apostle, 2Co 12:9 : Most gladly therefore will I rather glory in my infirmities, my indwelling corruptions, that the power of Christ, in chaining the fierce lion, may rest upon me. But it would be difficult to produce a single passage in the whole New Testament where the word ασθενεια, which we translate infirmity, has the sense of sin or moral corruption. The verb ασθενεω signifies to be weak, infirm, sick, poor, despicable through poverty, etc. And in a few places it is applied to weakness in the faith, to young converts, who are poor in religious knowledge, not yet fully instructed in the nature of the Gospel; Rom 4:19; Rom 14:1, Rom 14:2. And it is applied to the works of the law, to point out their inability to justify a sinner, Rom 8:3. But to inward sin, and inward corruption it is never applied. I am afraid that what these persons call their infirmities may rather be called their strengths; the prevailing and frequently ruling power of pride, anger, ill-will, etc.; for how few think evil tempers to be sins! The gentle term infirmity softens down the iniquity; and as St. Paul, so great and so holy a man, say they, had his infirmities, how can they expect to be without theirs? These should know that they are in a dangerous error; that St. Paul means nothing of the kind; for he speaks of his sufferings, and of these alone. One word more: would not the grace and power of Christ appear more conspicuous in slaying the lion than in keeping him chained? in destroying sin, root and branch; and filling the soul with his own holiness, with love to God and man, with the mind - all the holy heavenly tempers, that were in himself; than in leaving these impure and unholy tempers, ever to live and often to reign in the heart? The doctrine is discreditable to the Gospel, and wholly antichristian.

Clarke: 2Co 11:31 - The God and Father of our Lord The God and Father of our Lord - Here is a very solemn asseveration; an appeal to the ever blessed God for the truth of what he asserts. It is somet...

The God and Father of our Lord - Here is a very solemn asseveration; an appeal to the ever blessed God for the truth of what he asserts. It is something similar to his asseveration or oath in 2Co 11:10 of this chapter; see also Rom 9:5, and Gal 1:20. And from these and several other places we learn that the apostle thought it right thus to confirm his assertions on these particular occasions. But here is nothing to countenance profane swearing, or taking the name of God in vain, as many do in exclamations, when surprised, or on hearing something unexpected, etc.; and as others do who, conscious of their own falsity, endeavor to gain credit by appeals to God for the truth of what they say. St. Paul’ s appeal to God is in the same spirit as his most earnest prayer. This solemn appeal the apostle makes in reference to what he mentions in the following verses. This was a fact not yet generally known.

Clarke: 2Co 11:32 - In Damascus the governor under Aretas In Damascus the governor under Aretas - For a description of Damascus see the note on Act 9:2. And for the transaction to which the apostle refers s...

In Damascus the governor under Aretas - For a description of Damascus see the note on Act 9:2. And for the transaction to which the apostle refers see Act 9:23. As to King Aretas, there were three of this name. The first is mentioned 2 Maccabeans Act 9:8. The second by Josephus, Antiq. l. xiii. c. 15, sec. 2; and l. xvi. c. 1, sec. 4. The third, who is the person supposed to be referred to here, was the father-in-law of Herod Antipas, of whom see the notes, Act 9:23, etc

But it is a question of some importance, How could Damascus, a city of Syria, be under the government of an Arabian king? It may be accounted for thus: Herod Antipas, who married the daughter of Aretas, divorced her, in order to marry Herodias, his brother Philip’ s wife. Aretas, on this indignity offered to his family, made war upon Herod. Herod applied to Tiberius for help, and the emperor sent Vitellius to reduce Aretas, and to bring him alive or dead to Rome. By some means or other Vitellius delayed his operations, and in the meantime Tiberius died; and thus Aretas was snatched from ruin, Joseph., Antiq. lib. xviii. c. 5. What Aretas did in the interim is not known; but it is conjectured that he availed himself of the then favorable state of things, made an irruption into Syria, and seized on Damascus. See Rosenmuller; and see the introduction to this epistle, Section 2.

Clarke: 2Co 11:32 - The governor The governor - Εθναρχης· Who this ethnarch was, we cannot tell. The word ethnarch signifies the governor of a province, under a king or e...

The governor - Εθναρχης· Who this ethnarch was, we cannot tell. The word ethnarch signifies the governor of a province, under a king or emperor

Clarke: 2Co 11:32 - Desirous to apprehend me Desirous to apprehend me - The enemies of the apostle might have represented him to the governor as a dangerous spy, employed by the Romans.

Desirous to apprehend me - The enemies of the apostle might have represented him to the governor as a dangerous spy, employed by the Romans.

Clarke: 2Co 11:33 - Through a window in a basket Through a window in a basket - Probably the house was situated on the wall of the city. See the notes on this history, Act 9:23-25 (note) In 2Co 11:...

Through a window in a basket - Probably the house was situated on the wall of the city. See the notes on this history, Act 9:23-25 (note)

In 2Co 11:2 of this chapter the apostle most evidently alludes to the history of the temptation, and fall of Adam and Eve, as related in Gen 3:1, etc.; and which fall is there attributed to the agency of a being called נחש nachash , here, and in other places, translated οφις, serpent. In my notes on Genesis I have given many, and, as I judge, solid reasons, why the word cannot be understood literally of a serpent of any kind; and that most probably a creature of the simia or ape genus was employed by the devil on this occasion. The arguments on this subject appeared to me to be corroborated by innumerable probabilities; but I left the conjecture afloat, (for I did not give it a more decisive name), and placed it in the hands of my readers to adopt, reject, or amend, as their judgments might direct them. To several this sentiment appeared a monstrous heresy! and speedily the old serpent had a host of defenders. The very modest opinion, or conjecture, was controverted by some who were both gentlemen and scholars, and by several who were neither; by some who could not affect candour because they had not even the appearance of it, but would affect learning because they wished to be reputed wise. What reason and argument failed to produce they would supply with ridicule; and as monkey was a convenient term for this purpose, they attributed it to him who had never used it. What is the result? They no doubt believe that they have established their system; and their arguments are to them conclusive. They have my full consent; but I think it right to state that I have neither seen nor heard of any thing that has the least tendency to weaken my conjecture, or produce the slightest wavering in my opinion. Indeed their arguments, and mode of managing them, have produced a very different effect on my mind to what they designed. I am now more firmly persuaded of the probability of my hypothesis than ever. I shall, however, leave the subject as it is: I never proposed it as an article of faith; I press it on no man. I could fortify it with many additional arguments if I judged it proper; for its probability appears to me as strong as the utter improbability of the common opinion, to defend which its abettors have descended to insupportable conjectures, of which infidels have availed themselves, to the discredit of the sacred writings. To those who choose to be wise and witty, and wish to provoke a controversy, this is my answer: I am doing a great work, so that I cannot come down. Why should the work cease, while I leave it and come Down to You? Neh 6:3.

Calvin: 2Co 11:1 - Would that ye did bear with me 1.Would that ye did bear with me As he saw that the ears of the Corinthians were still in part pre-engaged, 793 he has recourse to another contrivanc...

1.Would that ye did bear with me As he saw that the ears of the Corinthians were still in part pre-engaged, 793 he has recourse to another contrivance, for he turns to express a wish, as persons do when they do not venture openly to entreat. 794 Immediately afterwards, however, as if gathering confidence, he nevertheless entreats the Corinthians to bear with his folly. He gives the name of folly to that splendid proclamation of his praises, which afterwards follows. Not as if he were a fool in glorying; for he was constrained to it by necessity, and besides, he restrained himself in such a manner, that no one could justly regard him as going beyond bounds; but as it is an unseemly thing to herald one’s own praises, and a thing that is foreign to the inclinations of a modest man, he speaks by way of concession.

What I have rendered in the imperative — bear with me, Chrysostom interprets as an affirmation, and certainly the Greek word is ambiguous, and either sense suits sufficiently well. As, however, the reasons that the Apostle subjoins are designed to induce the Corinthians to bear with him, and as we will find him afterwards expostulating with them again on the ground of their not conceding anything to him, I have followed the Old Interpreter. 795 By saying, Would that, etc., he had seemed to be distrustful; now, as if correcting that hesitation, he openly and freely commands.

Calvin: 2Co 11:2 - For I am jealous // For I have united you to one man // To present you as a chaste virgin 2.For I am jealous Mark why it is that he acts the fool, for jealousy hurries a man as it were headlong. “Do not demand that I should show the eq...

2.For I am jealous Mark why it is that he acts the fool, for jealousy hurries a man as it were headlong. “Do not demand that I should show the equable temper 796 of a man that is at ease, and not excited by any emotion, for that vehemence of vehemence of jealousy, with which I am inflamed towards you, does not suffer me to be at ease.” As, however, there are two kinds of jealousy — the one springs from self love, and of a wicked and perverse nature, while the other is cherished by us on God’s account, 797 he intimates of what sort his zeal is. For many are zealous — for themselves, not for God. That on the other hand, is the only pious and right zeal, that has an eye to God, that he may not be defrauded of the honors that of right belong to him.

For I have united you to one man That his zeal was of such a nature, he proves from the design of his preaching, for its tendency was to join them to Christ in marriage, and retain them in connection with him. 798 Here, however, he gives us in his own person a lively picture of a good minister; for One alone is the Bridegroom of the Church — the Son of God. All ministers are the friends of the Bridegroom, as the Baptist declares respecting himself. (Joh 3:29.) Hence all ought to be concerned, that the fidelity of this sacred marriage remain unimpaired and inviolable. This they cannot do, unless they are actuated by the dispositions of the Bridegroom, so that every one of them may be as much concerned for the purity of the Church, as a husband is for the chastity of his wife. Away then with coldness and indolence in this matter, for one that is cold 799 will never be qualified for this office. Let them, however, in the mean time, take care, not to pursue their own interest rather than that of Christ, that they may not intrude themselves into his place, lest while they give themselves out as his paranymphs, 800 they turn out to be in reality adulterers, by alluring the bride to love themselves.

To present you as a chaste virgin We are married to Christ, on no other condition than that we bring virginity as our dowry, and preserve it entire, so as to be free from all corruption. Hence it is the duty of ministers of the gospel to purify our souls, that they may be chaste virgins to Christ; otherwise they accomplish nothing. Now we may understand it as meaning, that they individually present themselves as chaste virgins to Christ, or that the minister presents the whole of the people, and brings them forward into Christ’s presence. I approve rather of the second interpretation. Hence I have given a different rendering from Erasmus. 801

Calvin: 2Co 11:3 - But I fear 3.But I fear He begins to explain, what is the nature of that virginity of which he has made mention — our cleaving to Christ alone, sincerely, w...

3.But I fear He begins to explain, what is the nature of that virginity of which he has made mention — our cleaving to Christ alone, sincerely, with our whole heart. God, indeed, everywhere requires from us, that we be joined with him in body and in spirit, and he warns us that he is a jealous God, (Exo 20:5,) to avenge with the utmost severity the wrong done to him, in the event of any one’s drawing back from him. This connection, however, is accomplished in Christ, as Paul teaches in Ephesians, (Eph 5:25.) He points out, however, at present the means of it — when we remain in the pure simplicity of the gospel, for, as in contracting marriages among men, there are written contracts 802 drawn out, so the spiritual connection between us and the Son of God is confirmed by the gospel, as a kind of written contract. 803 Let us maintain the fidelity, love, and obedience, that have been there promised by us; he will be faithful to us on his part.

Now Paul says that he is concerned, that the minds of the Corinthians may not be corrupted from the simplicity that is in Christ Paul, it is true, says in Greek εἰς Χριστόν , which Erasmus renders towards Christ, 804 but the Old Interpreter has come nearer, in my opinion, to Paul’s intention, 805 because by the simplicity that is in Christ is meant, that which keeps us in the unadulterated and pure doctrine of the gospel, and admits of no foreign admixtures 806 By this he intimates that men’s minds are adulterated, 807 whenever they turn aside, even in the least degree, to the one side or to the other, from the pure doctrine of Christ. Nor is it without good reason, for who would not condemn a matron as guilty of unchastity, so soon as she lends an ear to a seducer? So in like manner we, when we admit wicked and false teachers, who are Satan’s vile agents, show but too clearly, that we do not maintain conjugal fidelity towards Christ. We must also take notice of the term simplicity, for Paul’s fear was not, lest the Corinthians should all at once openly draw back altogether from Christ, but lest, by turning aside, by little and little, from the simplicity which they had learned, so as to go after profane and foreign contrivances, they should at length become adulterated.

He brings forward a comparison as the serpent beguiled Eve through his subtilty For if false teachers have a show of wisdom, if they have any power of eloquence for persuading, if they plausibly insinuate themselves into the minds of their hearers, and instill their poison by fawning artifices, it was in a similar way that Satan also beguiled Eve, as he did not openly declare himself to be an enemy, but crept in privily under a specious pretext.

Calvin: 2Co 11:4 - For if he that cometh 4.For if he that cometh He now reproves the Corinthians for the excessive readiness, which they showed to receive the false apostles. For while they ...

4.For if he that cometh He now reproves the Corinthians for the excessive readiness, which they showed to receive the false apostles. For while they were towards Paul himself excessively morose and irritable, 808 so that on any, even the least occasion, they were offended if he gave them even the slightest reproof, there was, on the other hand, nothing that they did not bear with, on the part of the false Apostles. They willingly endured their pride, haughtiness, and unreasonableness. An absurd reverence of this nature he condemns, because in the mean time they showed no discrimination or judgment. “How is it that they take 809 so much liberty with you, and you submit patiently to their control? Had they brought you another Christ, or another gospel, or another Spirit, different from what you received through my hands, I would assuredly approve of your regard for them, for they would be deserving of such honor. But as they have conferred upon you nothing, that I had not given you previously, what sort of gratitude do you show in all but adoring those, to whom you are indebted for nothing, while you despise me, through whom God has bestowed upon you so many and so distinguished benefits?” Such is the reverence that is shown even at this day by Papists towards their pretended Bishops. For while they are oppressed by their excessively harsh tyranny, 810 they submit to it without difficulty; but, at the same time, do not hesitate to treat Christ himself with contempt. 811

The expressions — another Christ, and another gospel, are made use of here in a different sense from what they bear in Gal 1:8. For another is used there in opposition to what is true and genuine, and hence it means false and counterfeit. Here, on the other hand, he means to say — “If the gospel had come to you through their ministry, and not through mine.”

Calvin: 2Co 11:5 - For I reckon that I am 5.For I reckon that I am He now convicts them of ingratitude, by removing the only thing that could serve as an excuse for them, for he shows that he...

5.For I reckon that I am He now convicts them of ingratitude, by removing the only thing that could serve as an excuse for them, for he shows that he is on a level, even with the chief of the Apostles. The Corinthians, therefore, were ungrateful 812 in not esteeming him more highly, after having found him, by experience, to be such; while, on the other hand, the authority that was justly due to him, they transferred to persons of no value. For the sake of modesty, however, he says that he reckons so, while the thing was known and manifest to all. His meaning, however, is, that God had honored his Apostleship with no less distinguished marks of favor, than that of John or Peter. Now the man that despises the gifts of God, which he himself recognizes, cannot clear himself from the charge of being spiteful and ungrateful. Hence, wherever you see the gifts of God, you must there reverence God himself: 813 I mean, that every one is worthy of honor, in so far as he is distinguished by graces received from God, and especially if any advantage has redounded to thee from them.

Calvin: 2Co 11:6 - But though I am rude // But everywhere 6.But though I am rude There was one thing 814 in which he might appear, at first view, to be inferior — that he was devoid of eloquence. This judg...

6.But though I am rude There was one thing 814 in which he might appear, at first view, to be inferior — that he was devoid of eloquence. This judgment, 815 therefore, he anticipates and corrects, while he acknowledges himself, indeed, to be rude and unpolished in speech, while at the same time he maintains that he has knowledge By speech here he means, elegance of expression; and by knowledge he means, the very substance of doctrine. For as man has both a soul and a body, so also in doctrine, there is the thing itself that is taught, and the ornament of expression with which it is clothed. Paul, therefore, maintains that he understands, what should be taught, and what is necessary to be known, though he is not an eloquent orator, so as to know how to set off his doctrine by a polished and eloquent manner of expression.

It is asked, however, whether elegance of speech 816 is not also necessary for Apostles; for how will they otherwise be prepared for teaching? Knowledge might perhaps suffice for others, but how could a teacher be dumb? I answer, that, while Paul acknowledges himself to be rude in speech, it is not as though he were a mere infant, but as meaning, that he was not distinguished by such splendid eloquence as others, to whom he yields the palm as to this, retaining for himself what was the principal thing — the reality itself, 817 while he leaves them talkativeness without gravity. If, however, any one should inquire, why it is that the Lord, who made men’s tongues, (Exo 4:11,) did not also endow so eminent an apostle with eloquence, that nothing might be wanting to him, I answer, that he was furnished with a sufficiency for supplying the want of eloquence. For we see and feel, what majesty there is in his writings, what elevation appears in them, what a weight of meaning is couched under them, what power is discovered in them. In fine, they are thunderbolts, not mere words. Does not the efficacy of the Spirit appear more clearly in a naked rusticity of words, (so to speak,) than under the disguise of elegance and ornament? Of this matter, however, we have treated more largely in the former Epistle. 818 In short, he admits, as far as words are concerned, what his adversaries allege by way of objection, while he denies in reality what they hold forth. Let us also learn, from his example, to prefer deeds to words, and, to use a barbarous but common proverb — “ Teneant alii quid nominis, nos autem quid rei ;” — “Let others know something of the name, but let us know something of the reality. 819 If eloquence is superadded, let it be regarded by us as something over and above; and farther, let it not be made use of for disguising doctrine, or adulterating it, but for unfolding it in its genuine simplicity.

But everywhere As there was something magnificent in placing himself on a level with the chief Apostles, that this may not be ascribed to arrogance, he makes the Corinthians judges, provided they judge from what they have themselves experienced; for they had known sufficiently well, from many proofs, that he did not boast needlessly, or without good reason. He means, therefore, that he needs not make use of words, inasmuch as reality and experience afford clear evidence of every thing that he was about to say 820

Calvin: 2Co 11:7 - Have I committed an offense? // Because I preached freely 7.Have I committed an offense? His humility was cast up to him by way of reproach, while it was an excellence that was deserving of no ordinary comme...

7.Have I committed an offense? His humility was cast up to him by way of reproach, while it was an excellence that was deserving of no ordinary commendation. Humility here means — voluntary abasement; for in conducting himself modestly, as if he had nothing in him that was particularly excellent, so that many looked upon him as one of the common people, he had done that for the advantage of the Corinthians. For the man was inflamed with so great a desire, 823 and so great an anxiety for their salvation, that he made a regard to himself a secondary consideration. Hence he says, that he had of his own accord made a surrender of his own greatness, that they might become great through his abasement. For his design was, that he might promote their salvation. He now indirectly charges them with ingratitude, in imputing to him as a fault so pious a disposition — not indeed for the purpose of reproaching him, but with the view of restoring them so much the better to a sound mind. And certainly, he wounded them more severely by speaking ironically, than if he had spoken in a simple way, and without a figure. He might have said, “What is this? Am I despised by you, because I have lowered myself for your advantage?” The questioning, however, which he makes use of, was more forcible for putting them to shame.

Because I preached freely This is a part of his abasement. For he had given up his own right, as though his condition had been inferior to that of others; but such was the unreasonableness of some of them, that they esteemed him the less on that account, as if he had been undeserving of remuneration. The reason, why he had given his services to the Corinthians gratuitously, is immediately subjoined — for he did not act in this manner everywhere, but, as we have seen in the former Epistle, 824 there was a danger of his furnishing the false Apostles with a handle against him.

Calvin: 2Co 11:8 - I robbed other churches 8.I robbed other churches He has intentionally, in my opinion, made use of an offensive term, that he might the more forcibly express the unreasonabl...

8.I robbed other churches He has intentionally, in my opinion, made use of an offensive term, that he might the more forcibly express the unreasonableness of the matter — in respect of his being despised by the Corinthians. “I have,” says he, “procured pay for myself from the spoils of others, that I might serve you. While I have thus spared you, how unreasonable it is to make me so poor a return!” It is, however, a metaphor, that is taken from what is customary among soldiers; for as conquerors take spoils from the nations that they have conquered, so every thing that Paul took from the Churches that he had gained to Christ was, in a manner, the spoils of his victories, though, at the same time, he never would have taken it from persons against their will, but what they contributed gratuitously was, in a manner, due by right of spiritual warfare. 825

Calvin: 2Co 11:9 - NO PHRASE Observe, however, that he says that he had been in want, for he would never have been a burden to them, had he not been constrained by necessity. H...

Observe, however, that he says that he had been in want, for he would never have been a burden to them, had he not been constrained by necessity. He, nevertheless, in the mean time, labored with his hands, as we have seen before, (1Co 4:12,) but, as the labor of his hands was not sufficient for sustaining life, something additional was contributed by the Macedonians. Accordingly he does not say, that his living had been furnished to him by the Macedonians, 826 but merely that they had supplied what was wanting. We have spoken elsewhere of the Apostle’s holy prudence and diligence in providing against dangers. Here we must take notice of the pious zeal of the Macedonians, who did not hesitate to contribute of their substance for his pay, that the gospel might be proclaimed to others, and those, too, that were wealthier than themselves. Ah! how few Macedonians are there in the present day, and on the other hand how many Corinthians you may find everywhere!

Calvin: 2Co 11:10 - The truth of Christ is in me 10.The truth of Christ is in me Lest any one should suspect, that Paul’s words were designed to induce the Corinthians to be more liberal to him in...

10.The truth of Christ is in me Lest any one should suspect, that Paul’s words were designed to induce the Corinthians to be more liberal to him in future, and endeavor to make amends for their error in the past, he affirms with an oath, that he would take nothing from them, or from others in Achaia, though it were offered to him. For this manner of expression — the truth of Christ is in me, is in the form of oath. Let me not be thought to have the truth of Christ in me if I do not retain this glorying among the inhabitants of Achaia. Now Corinth was in Achaia. 827

Calvin: 2Co 11:11 - Is it because I love you not? 11.Is it because I love you not? Those that we love, we treat with greater familiarity. Lest the Corinthians, therefore, should take it amiss, that h...

11.Is it because I love you not? Those that we love, we treat with greater familiarity. Lest the Corinthians, therefore, should take it amiss, that he refused their liberality, while he allowed himself to be assisted by the Macedonians, and even declared with an oath that he would do so still, he anticipates that suspicion also. And by the figure termed anthypophora, 828 he asks, as it were in their name, whether this is a token of a malevolent mind? He does not return a direct answer to the question, but the indirect answer that he returns has much more weight, inasmuch as he calls God to be a witness of his good disposition towards them. You see here, that in the course of three verses 829 there are two oaths, but they are lawful and holy, because they have a good design in view, and a legitimate reason is involved. Hence to condemn indiscriminately all oaths is to act the part of fanatics, who make no distinction between white and black. 830

Calvin: 2Co 11:12 - But what I do 12.But what I do He again explains the reason of his intention. 831 The false Apostles, with the view of alluring to themselves ignorant persons, too...

12.But what I do He again explains the reason of his intention. 831 The false Apostles, with the view of alluring to themselves ignorant persons, took no pay. Their serving gratuitously was a show of uncommon zeal. 832 If Paul had availed himself of his right, he would have given them occasion to raise their crest, as if they had been greatly superior to him. Paul, accordingly, that he might give them no occasion of doing injury, did himself, also, preach the Gospel, free of charge, and this is what he adds — that he is desirous to cut off occasion from those that desire occasion For the false Apostles were desirous to insinuate themselves by this artifice, and to detract, in proportion to this, from Paul’s credit, if they were superior to him in any respect. He says, that he will not give them this advantage. “They will be found,” says he, “on a level with us in that glorying which they would wish to have for themselves exclusively.” This, however, is a useful admonition in connection with cutting off occasion from the wicked, as often as they desire one. For this is the only way to overcome them — not in the way of furnishing them with arms through our imprudence. 833

Calvin: 2Co 11:13 - For such are false Apostles 13.For such are false Apostles While he has already taken away from them what they chiefly desired, yet, not contented with having put himself on a l...

13.For such are false Apostles While he has already taken away from them what they chiefly desired, yet, not contented with having put himself on a level with them with respect to that in which they were desirous to excel, he leaves them nothing for which they deserve any commendation. It was apparently a laudable thing to despise money, but he says, that they make use of a pretense for the purpose of deceiving, exactly as if a harlot were to borrow the apparel of a decent matron. For it was necessary to pull off the mask, which obscured the glory of God.

They are deceitful workers, says he, that is — they do not discover their wickedness at first view, but artfully insinuate themselves under some fair pretext. 834 Hence they require to be carefully and thoroughly sifted, lest we should receive persons as servants of Christ, as soon as any appearance of excellence is discovered. Nor does Paul in malice and envy put an unfavorable construction upon what might be looked upon as an excellence, but, constrained by their dishonesty, he unfolds to view the evil that lay hid, because there was a dangerous profanation of virtue in pretending to burn with greater zeal than all the servants of Christ.

Calvin: 2Co 11:14 - And no marvel 14.And no marvel It is an argument from the greater to the less. “If Satan, who is the basest of all beings, nay, the head and chief of all wicked ...

14.And no marvel It is an argument from the greater to the less. “If Satan, who is the basest of all beings, nay, the head and chief of all wicked persons, transforms himself, what will his ministers do? We have experience of both every day, for when Satan tempts us to evil, he does not profess to be what he really is. For he would lose his object, if we were made aware of his being a mortal enemy, and opposer of our salvation. Hence he always makes use of some cloak for the purpose of insnaring us, and does not immediately show his horns, (as the common expression is,) but rather makes it his endeavor to appear as an angel Even when he tempts us to gross crimes, he makes use, nevertheless, of some pretext that he may draw us, when we are off our guard, into his nets. What then, if he attacks us under the appearance of good, nay, under the very title of God? His life-guards imitate, as I have said, the same artifice. These are golden preambles — “Vicar of Christ” — “Successor of Peter” — “Servant of God’s servants,” but let the masks be pulled off, and who and what will the Pope be discovered to be? Scarcely will Satan himself, his master, surpass so accomplished a scholar in any kind of abomination. It is a well known saying as to Babylon, that she gives poison to drink in a golden cup. (Jer 51:7.) Hence we must be on our guard against masks.

Should any one now ask, “Shall we then regard all with suspicion?” I answer, that the Apostle did not by any means intend this; for there are marks of discrimination, which it were the part of stupidity, not of prudence, to overlook. He was simply desirous to arouse our attention, that we may not straightway judge of the lion from the skin 835 For if we are not hasty in forming a judgment, the Lord will order it so that the ears of the animal will be discovered ere long. Farther, he was desirous in like manner to admonish us, in forming an estimate of Christ’s servants, not to regard masks, but to seek after what is of more importance. Ministers of righteousness is a Hebraism for faithful and upright persons. 836

Calvin: 2Co 11:15 - Whose end shall be 15.Whose end shall be He adds this for the consolation of the pious. For it is the statement of a courageous man, who despises the foolish judgments ...

15.Whose end shall be He adds this for the consolation of the pious. For it is the statement of a courageous man, who despises the foolish judgments of men, and patiently waits for the day of the Lord. In the mean time, he shows a singular boldness of conscience, which does not dread the judgment of God.

Calvin: 2Co 11:16 - I say again // Otherwise now as a fool 16.I say again The Apostle has a twofold design. He has it partly in view to expose the disgusting vanity of the false Apostles, inasmuch as they wer...

16.I say again The Apostle has a twofold design. He has it partly in view to expose the disgusting vanity of the false Apostles, inasmuch as they were such extravagant trumpeters of their own praises; and farther, to expostulate with the Corinthians, because they shut him up to the necessity of glorying, contrary to the inclinations of his own mind. “ I say again,” says he. For he had abundantly shown previously, that there was no reason, why he should be despised. He had also shown at the same time, that he was very unlike others, and therefore ought not to have his grounds of glorying estimated according to the rule of their measure. Thus he again shows, for what purpose he had hitherto gloried — that he might clear his apostleship from contempt; for if the Corinthians had done their duty, he would not have said one word as to this matter.

Otherwise now as a fool “If I am reckoned by you a fool, allow me at least to make use of my right and liberty — that is, to speak foolishly after the manner of fools.” Thus he reproves the false Apostles, who, while they were exceedingly silly in this respect, were not merely borne with by the Corinthians, but were received with great applause. He afterwards explains what kind of folly it is — the publishing of his own praises. While they did so without end and without measure, he intimates that it was a thing to which he was unaccustomed; for he says, for a little while For I take this clause as referring to time, so that the meaning is, that Paul did not wish to continue it long, but assumed, as it were, for the moment, the person of another, and immediately thereafter laid it aside, as we are accustomed to pass over lightly those things that are foreign to our object, while fools occupy themselves constantly (ἐν παρέργοις) 837 in matters of inferior moment.

Calvin: 2Co 11:17 - What I speak, I speak not after the Lord 17.What I speak, I speak not after the Lord His disposition, it is true, had an eye to God, but the outward appearance 838 might seem unsuitable to a...

17.What I speak, I speak not after the Lord His disposition, it is true, had an eye to God, but the outward appearance 838 might seem unsuitable to a servant of the Lord. At the same time, the things that Paul confesses respecting himself, he, on the other hand, condemns in the false Apostles. 839 For it was not his intention to praise himself, but simply to contrast himself with them, with the view of humbling them. 840 Hence he transfers to his own person what belonged to them, that he may thus open the eyes of the Corinthians. What I have rendered boldness, is in the Greek ὑπόστασις , as to the meaning of which term we have spoken in the ninth chapter. (2Co 9:4.) Subject-matter 841 or substance, unquestionably, would not be at all suitable here. 842

Calvin: 2Co 11:18 - Since many glory // To glory after the flesh, 18.Since many glory The meaning is — Should any one say to me, by way of objection, that what I do is faulty, what then as to others? Are not the...

18.Since many glory The meaning is — Should any one say to me, by way of objection, that what I do is faulty, what then as to others? Are not they my leaders? Am I alone, or am I the first, in glorying according to the flesh? Why should that be reckoned praiseworthy in them, that is imputed to me as a fault?” So far then is Paul from ambition in recounting his own praises, that he is contented to be blamed on that account, provided he exposes the vanity of the false apostles.

To glory after the flesh, is to boast one’s self, rather in what has a tendency towards show, than in a good conscience. For the term flesh, here, has a reference to the world — when we seek after praise from outward masks, which have a showy appearance before the world, and are regarded as excellent. In place of this term he had a little before made use of the expression — in appearance. (2Co 10:7.)

Calvin: 2Co 11:19 - For ye bear with fools willingly 19.For ye bear with fools willingly He calls them wise — in my opinion, ironically. He was despised by them, which could not have been, had the...

19.For ye bear with fools willingly He calls them wise — in my opinion, ironically. He was despised by them, which could not have been, had they not been puffed up with the greatest arrogance 843 He says, therefore — “Since you are so wise, act the part of wise men in bearing with me, whom you treat with contempt, as you would a fool.” Hence I infer, that this discourse is not addressed to all indiscriminately, but some particular persons are reproved, who conducted themselves in an unkind manner. 844

Calvin: 2Co 11:20 - For ye bear with it, if any one 20.For ye bear with it, if any one There are three ways in which this may be understood. He may be understood as reproving the Corinthians in iron...

20.For ye bear with it, if any one There are three ways in which this may be understood. He may be understood as reproving the Corinthians in irony, because they could not endure any thing, as is usually the case with effeminate persons; or he charges them with indolence, because they had given themselves up to the false Apostles in a disgraceful bondage; or he repeats, as it were, in the person of another, what was spitefully affirmed respecting himself, 845 as if he claimed for himself a tyrannical authority over them. The second meaning is approved by Chrysostom, Ambrose, and Augustine, and hence it is commonly received; and, indeed, it corresponds best with the context, although the third is not less in accordance with my views. For we see, how he was calumniated from time to time by the malevolent, as if he domineered tyrannically, while he was very far from doing so. As, however, the other meaning is more generally received, I have no objection, that it should be held as the true one.

Now this statement will correspond with the preceding one in this way: “You bear with every thing from others, if they oppress you, if they demand what belongs to you, if they treat you disdainfully. Why then will you not bear with me, as they are in no respect superior to me?” For as to his saying that he is not weak, he means that he had been endowed by God with such excellent graces, that he ought not to be looked upon as of the common order. For the word weak has a more extensive signification, as we shall see again ere long.

It has been the invariable custom, and will be so to the end, to resist contumaciously 846 the servants of God, to get enraged on the least occasion, 847 to grumble and murmur incessantly, to complain of even a moderate strictness, 848 to hold all discipline in abhorrence; while, on the other hand, they put themselves under servile subjection to false apostles, impostors, or mere worthless pretenders, give them liberty to do any thing whatever, and patiently submit to and endure, whatever burden they may choose to impose upon them. Thus, at the present day, you will scarcely find one in thirty, who will put his neck willingly under Christ’s yoke, while all have endured with patience a tyranny so severe as that of the Pope. Those very persons are all at once in an uproar, 849 in opposition to the fatherly and truly salutary reproofs of their pastors, who, on the other hand, had formerly swallowed down quietly every kind of insult, even the most atrocious, from the monks. 850 Are not those worthy of Antichrist’s torturing rack, rather than of Christ’s mild sway, who have ears so tender and backward to listen to the truth? But thus it has been from the beginning.

Calvin: 2Co 11:21 - Nay, in whatsoever 21.Nay, in whatsoever Paul had asked, why the Corinthians showed more respect to others than to him, while he had not been by any means weak, that is...

21.Nay, in whatsoever Paul had asked, why the Corinthians showed more respect to others than to him, while he had not been by any means weak, that is, contemptible. He now confirms this, because, if a comparison had been entered upon, he would not have been inferior to any one in any department of honor.

Calvin: 2Co 11:22 - NO PHRASE 22. He now, by enumerating particular instances, lets them see more distinctly, that he would not by any means be found inferior, if matters came to...

22. He now, by enumerating particular instances, lets them see more distinctly, that he would not by any means be found inferior, if matters came to a contest. And in the first place, he makes mention of the glory of his descent, of which his rivals chiefly vaunted. “If,” says he, “they boast of illustrious descent, I shall be on a level with them, for I also am an Israelite, of the seed of Abraham.” This is a silly and empty boast, and yet Paul makes use of three terms to express it; nay more, he specifies, as it were, three different marks of excellence. By this repetition, in my opinion, he indirectly reproves their folly, inasmuch as they placed the sum-total 852 of their excellence in a thing that was so trivial, 853 and this boasting was incessantly in their mouth, so as to be absolutely disgusting, as vain men are accustomed to pour forth empty bravadoes as to a mere nothing.

As to the term Hebrews, it appears from Gen 11:15, that it denotes descent, and is derived from Heber; and farther, it is probable, that Abraham himself is so called in Gen 14:13, in no other sense than this — that he was descended from that ancestor. 854 Not altogether without some appearance of truth is the conjecture of those, who explain the term to mean those dwelling beyond the river. 855 We do not read, it is true, that any one was called so before Abraham, who had passed over the river, when he quitted his native country, and afterwards the appellation came to be a customary one among his posterity, as appears from the history of Joseph. The termination, however, shows that it is expressive of descent, and the passage, that I have quoted, abundantly confirms it. 856

Calvin: 2Co 11:23 - Are they ministers of Christ? // In labors 23.Are they ministers of Christ? Now when he is treating of matters truly praiseworthy, he is no longer satisfied with being on an equality with them...

23.Are they ministers of Christ? Now when he is treating of matters truly praiseworthy, he is no longer satisfied with being on an equality with them, but exalts himself above them. For their carnal glories he has previously been scattering like smoke by a breath of wind, 857 by placing in opposition to them those which he had of a similar kind; but as they had nothing of solid worth, he on good grounds separates himself from their society, when he has occasion to glory in good earnest. For to be a servant of Christ is a thing that is much more honorable and illustrious, than to be the first-born among all the first-born of Abraham’s posterity. Again, however, with the view of providing against calumnies, he premises that he speaks as a fool “Imagine this,” says he, “to be foolish boasting: it is, nevertheless, true.”

In labors By these things he proves that he is a more eminent servant of Christ, and then truly we have a proof that may be relied upon, when deeds instead of words are brought forward. He uses the term labors here in the plural number, and afterwards labor What difference there is between the former and the latter I do not see, unless perhaps it be, that he speaks here in a more general way, including those things that he afterwards enumerates in detail. In the same way we may also understand the term deaths to mean any kind of perils that in a manner threatened present death, instances of which he afterwards specifies. “I have given proof of myself in deaths often, in labors oftener still.” He had made use of the term deaths in the same sense in the first chapter. (2Co 1:10.)

Calvin: 2Co 11:24 - From the Jews 24.From the Jews It is certain that the Jews had at that time been deprived of jurisdiction, but as this was a kind of moderate punishment (as they t...

24.From the Jews It is certain that the Jews had at that time been deprived of jurisdiction, but as this was a kind of moderate punishment (as they termed it) it is probable that it was allowed them. Now the law of God was to this effect, that those who did not deserve capital punishment should be beaten in the presence of a judge, (Deu 25:2,) provided not more than forty stripes were inflicted, lest the body should be disfigured or mutilated by cruelty. Now it is probable, that in process of time it became customary to stop at the thirty-ninth lash, 858 lest perhaps they should on any occasion, from undue warmth, exceed the number prescribed by God. Many such precautions, 859 prescribed by the Rabbins, 860 are to be found among the Jews, which make some restriction upon the permission that the Lord had given. Hence, perhaps, in process of time, (as things generally deteriorate,) they came to think, that all criminals should be beaten with stripes to that number, though the Lord did not prescribe, how far severity should go, but where it was to stop; unless perhaps you prefer to receive what is stated by others, that they exercised greater cruelty upon Paul. This is not at all improbable, for if they had been accustomed ordinarily to practice this severity upon all, he might have said that he was beaten according to custom. Hence the statement of the number is expressive of extreme severity.

Calvin: 2Co 11:25 - Thrice was I beaten with rods 25.Thrice was I beaten with rods Hence it appears, that the Apostle suffered many things, of which no mention is made by Luke; for he makes mention o...

25.Thrice was I beaten with rods Hence it appears, that the Apostle suffered many things, of which no mention is made by Luke; for he makes mention of only one stoning, 861 one scourging, and one shipwreck. We have not, however, a complete narrative, nor is there mention made in it of every particular that occurred, but only of the principal things.

Calvin: 2Co 11:26 - NO PHRASE By perils from the nation he means those that befell him from his own nation, in consequence of the hatred, that was kindled against him among all ...

By perils from the nation he means those that befell him from his own nation, in consequence of the hatred, that was kindled against him among all the Jews. On the other hand, he had the Gentiles as his adversaries; and in the third place snares were laid for him by false brethren. Thus it happened, that

for Christ’s name’s sake he was hated by all.
(Mat 10:22.)

Calvin: 2Co 11:27 - NO PHRASE By fastings I understand those that are voluntary, as he has spoken previously of hunger and want. Such were the tokens by which he showed himsel...

By fastings I understand those that are voluntary, as he has spoken previously of hunger and want. Such were the tokens by which he showed himself, and on good grounds, to be an eminent servant of Christ. For how may we better distinguish Christ’s servants than by proofs so numerous, so various, and so important? On the other hand, while those effeminate boasters 862 had done nothing for Christ, and had suffered nothing for him, they, nevertheless, impudently vaunted.

It is asked, however, whether any one can be a servant of Christ, that has not been tried with so many evils, perils, and vexations? I answer, that all these things are not indispensably requisite on the part of all; 863 but where these things are seen, there is, undoubtedly, a greater and more illustrious testimony afforded. That man, therefore, who will be signalized by so many marks of distinction, will not despise those that are less illustrious, and less thoroughly tried, nor will he on that account be elated with pride; but still, whenever there is occasion for it, he will be prepared, after Paul’s example, to exult with a holy triumph, in opposition to pretenders 864 and worthless persons, provided he has an eye to Christ, not to himself — for nothing but pride or ambition could corrupt and tarnish all these praises. For the main thing is — that we serve Christ with a pure conscience. All other things are, as it were, additional.

Calvin: 2Co 11:28 - Besides those things that are without 28.Besides those things that are without “ Besides those things, ” says he, “which come upon me from all sides, and are as it were extraordina...

28.Besides those things that are without Besides those things, ” says he, “which come upon me from all sides, and are as it were extraordinary, what estimate must be formed of that ordinary burden that constantly presses upon me — the care that I have of all the Churches.” The care of all the Churches he appropriately calls his ordinary burden. For I have taken the liberty of rendering ἐπισύστασιν in this way, as it sometimes means — whatever presses upon us. 865

Whoever is concerned in good earnest as to the Church of God, stirs up himself and bears a heavy burden, which presses upon his shoulders. What a picture we have here of a complete minister, embracing in his anxieties and aims not one Church merely, or ten, or thirty, but all of them together, so that he instructs some, confirms others, exhorts others, gives counsel to some, and applies a remedy to the diseases of others! Now from Paul’s words we may infer, that no one can have a heartfelt concern for the Churches, without being harassed with many difficulties; for the government of the Church is no pleasant occupation, in which we may exercise ourselves agreeably and with delight of heart, 866 but a hard and severe warfare, as has been previously mentioned, (2Co 10:4,) — Satan from time to time giving us as much trouble as he can, and leaving no stone unturned to annoy us.

Calvin: 2Co 11:29 - Who is weak 29.Who is weak How many there are that allow all offenses to pass by unheeded — who either despise the infirmities of brethren, or trample them und...

29.Who is weak How many there are that allow all offenses to pass by unheeded — who either despise the infirmities of brethren, or trample them under foot! This, however, arises from their having no concern for the Church. For concern, undoubtedly, produces συμπάθειαν ( sympathy,) 867 which leads the Minister of Christ to participate in the feelings of all, 868 and put himself in the place of all, that he may suit himself to all.

Calvin: 2Co 11:30 - If he must glory 30.If he must glory Here we have the conclusion, drawn from all that has gone before — that Paul is more inclined to boast of those things that are...

30.If he must glory Here we have the conclusion, drawn from all that has gone before — that Paul is more inclined to boast of those things that are connected with his infirmity, that is, those things which might, in the view of the world, bring him contempt, rather than glory, as, for example, hunger, thirst, imprisonments, stonings, stripes, and the like — those things, in truth, that we are usually as much ashamed of, as of things that incur great dishonor. 869

Calvin: 2Co 11:31 - The God and Father 31.The God and Father As he was about to relate a singular feat, 870 which, at the same time, was not well known, he confirms it by making use of an ...

31.The God and Father As he was about to relate a singular feat, 870 which, at the same time, was not well known, he confirms it by making use of an oath. Observe, however, what is the form of a pious oath, 871 — when, for the purpose of declaring the truth, we reverently call God as our witness. Now this persecution was, as it were, Paul’s first apprenticeship, 872 as appears from Luke, (Act 9:23); but if, while yet a raw recruit, he was exercised in such beginnings, what shall we think of him, when a veteran soldier? As, however, flight gives no evidence of a valiant spirit, it may be asked, why it is that he makes mention of his flight? I answer, that the gates of the royal city having been closed, clearly showed with what rage the wicked were inflamed against him; and it was on no light grounds that they had been led to entertain such a feeling, 873 for if Paul had not fought for Christ with a new and unusual activity, the wicked would never have been thrown into such a commotion. His singular perseverance, however, shone forth chiefly in this — that, after escaping from so severe a persecution, he did not cease to stir up the whole world against him, by prosecuting fearlessly the Lord’s work.

It may be, however, that he proceeds to mock those ambitious men, who, while they had never had experience of any thing but applauses, favors, honorable salutations, and agreeable lodgings, wished to be held in the highest esteem. For, in opposition to this, he relates, that he was shut in, so that he could with difficulty save his life by a miserable and ignominious flight.

Some, however, ask, whether it was lawful for Paul to leap over the walls, inasmuch as it was a capital crime to do so? I answer, in the first place, that it is not certain, whether that punishment was sanctioned by law in the East; and farther, that even if it was so, Paul, nevertheless, was guilty of no crime, because he did not do this as an enemy, or for sport, but from necessity. For the law would not punish a man, that would throw himself down from the walls to save his life from the flames; and what difference is there between a fire, and a fierce attack from robbers? We must always, in connection with laws, have an eye to reason and equity. 874 This consideration will exempt Paul entirely from blame.

Defender: 2Co 11:2 - espoused you The true church of Christ, encompassing all who have received Him as Savior and Lord, is also called the bride of Christ. Paul, as the spiritual "fath...

The true church of Christ, encompassing all who have received Him as Savior and Lord, is also called the bride of Christ. Paul, as the spiritual "father" of the Corinthian Christians, desired to present his "daughter" pure and whole to the heavenly Bridegroom when He comes to claim her and take her to His Father's house, where He has prepared "mansions" for her (Joh 14:2, Joh 14:3). There are numerous other references to this unique espousal relation of the church to Christ (Joh 3:29; Eph 5:31, Eph 5:32; Rev 19:7-9; Rev 21:2, Rev 21:9), as well as numerous Old Testament references to Israel as the wife of Jehovah (Isa 54:5; Hos 2:19).

Defender: 2Co 11:2 - chaste virgin The very fact that the New Testament writers use the engagement relationship of the Bride to the Bridegroom as a representation of the ideal relation ...

The very fact that the New Testament writers use the engagement relationship of the Bride to the Bridegroom as a representation of the ideal relation of the church to Christ proves unequivocally that each human bride should come to her marriage as a chaste virgin; the same is equally true of the bridegroom. This is surely the best foundation for a godly home. God can and does forgive repentant sinners, but it is far better - especially in marriage - if this sin has never been committed at all."

Defender: 2Co 11:3 - serpent beguiled Eve Paul here asserts and confirms that the Genesis record of Eve's temptation and fall is true and historical, not allegorical. The "serpent" in Genesis ...

Paul here asserts and confirms that the Genesis record of Eve's temptation and fall is true and historical, not allegorical. The "serpent" in Genesis is explicitly identified as Satan, the arch deceiver (2Co 11:14), who turned Adam's bride against her Maker, in similar fashion to what he was now doing at Corinth, using false apostles (instead of a serpent's body) to turn His espoused Bride away from the soon-coming Bridegroom (Rev 12:9)."

Defender: 2Co 11:4 - another Jesus The fact that a preacher or teacher talks about "Jesus" means little, for false prophets and false teachers have always invoked His name whenever it s...

The fact that a preacher or teacher talks about "Jesus" means little, for false prophets and false teachers have always invoked His name whenever it suited their purposes, and they still do. There are the "buddy" Jesus of country music, the socialist Jesus of liberal theology, the esoteric Jesus of the New Age and the ritualistic Jesus of sacramentalism, but none of these Jesus-figures is the Savior. The true Jesus is the Creator of the universe, the Word made flesh, the one Sacrifice for sins forever, the resurrected Lord and our coming King.

Defender: 2Co 11:4 - another spirit There are many evil spirits at large in the world who would seek to counterfeit the Holy Spirit in the believer's experience if they could. We must "t...

There are many evil spirits at large in the world who would seek to counterfeit the Holy Spirit in the believer's experience if they could. We must "try the spirits." "Hereby know ye the Spirit of God: Every spirit that confesseth that Jesus Christ is come in the flesh is of God" (see note on 1Jo 4:2).

Defender: 2Co 11:4 - another gospel Paul warned against believing any man or even any angel who came preaching some other Gospel than the true saving Gospel of Christ which he had preach...

Paul warned against believing any man or even any angel who came preaching some other Gospel than the true saving Gospel of Christ which he had preached (Gal 1:6-9). That Gospel includes the fullness of the person and work of Christ, from eternity to eternity (see Mat 4:23, note; 1Co 15:1-4, note; Rev 14:6, Rev 14:9, note)."

Defender: 2Co 11:13 - false apostles True apostles had been chosen directly as such by the Lord Jesus Christ Himself, had performed true miracles (2Co 12:12), and had seen personally the ...

True apostles had been chosen directly as such by the Lord Jesus Christ Himself, had performed true miracles (2Co 12:12), and had seen personally the resurrected Christ (see notes on 1Co 9:1). There were at that time (and often since that time) men who falsely claimed to be apostles and some of these had come to Corinth trying to turn these recent converts of the Apostle Paul against him. It is important to remember that the apostolic era ended with the death of John, the last of the real apostles of Christ. Since that time, any man who has claimed to be an apostle, in some line of supposed "apostolic succession," has been a false apostle, and those who have followed him have been led astray. The Lord Jesus warned against "false Christs, and false prophets" (Mat 24:24), and here Paul warns against "false apostles;" Peter later warned against "false teachers" (2Pe 2:1). The test is always that of complete fidelity to Scripture and only Scripture as determinative for Christian faith and practice (Isa 8:20; 2Ti 3:15-17; and 2Pe 3:3, 2Pe 3:15-18)."

Defender: 2Co 11:14 - angel of light Satan originally was the highest of all the angels (see Isa 14:12-15, note; and Eze 28:12-15, note), and he still has great authority (Jud 1:9) and po...

Satan originally was the highest of all the angels (see Isa 14:12-15, note; and Eze 28:12-15, note), and he still has great authority (Jud 1:9) and power to produce great "signs and wonders." These, however, are "lying wonders" (2Th 2:9), intended, "if it were possible...(to) deceive the very elect" (Mat 24:24). One must always test such pretenders by their faithfulness to the inerrant Word of God and the full deity and sinless humanity of Jesus Christ, as well as their genuine Christian character and behavior. It was such a false "angel of light" who has deceived many founders of false religions (Mohammed, Joseph Smith, etc.)."

Defender: 2Co 11:15 - ministers of righteousness There are many who profess to be servants, or "ministers of righteousness," even appearing on occasion to work miracles, but these in themselves prove...

There are many who profess to be servants, or "ministers of righteousness," even appearing on occasion to work miracles, but these in themselves prove nothing. "He that doeth the will of my Father" (Mat 7:21) - that is the test, according to Jesus. "Many will say to me in that day, Lord, Lord, have we not prophesied in thy name? and in thy name have cast out devils? and in thy name done many wonderful works? And then I will profess unto them, I never knew you: depart form me, ye that work iniquity" (Mat 7:22, Mat 7:23).

Defender: 2Co 11:15 - their works Perhaps here Paul was also alluding to those Judaizers who were demanding that Christians adhere to the righteousness of the Law in order to attain sa...

Perhaps here Paul was also alluding to those Judaizers who were demanding that Christians adhere to the righteousness of the Law in order to attain salvation, undermining the great doctrine of salvation by grace. But those who seek salvation by works must then be judged by their works, and none can measure up to the divine standard (Gal 2:16). All who are judged "according to their works" shall be "cast into the lake of fire" (Rev 20:13, Rev 20:15)."

Defender: 2Co 11:17 - not after the Lord Paul is not denying divine inspiration of his words at this point but simply stating that boasting of one's pedigree and achievements was not normal a...

Paul is not denying divine inspiration of his words at this point but simply stating that boasting of one's pedigree and achievements was not normal and proper behavior for a Christian, even for an apostle. It is evident throughout this whole passage (2Co 11:16), that it was painfully embarrassing for him to have to recite his own qualifications in this way. However, the Corinthians had rendered it necessary by receiving the teachings of the fake apostles as superior to those of Paul and submitting themselves to their undeserved and even despotic leadership because of their professed superior qualifications to those of Paul. The Apostle Paul has surely set an example here for other true Christian leaders. Boasting of one's achievements and experiences is ill becoming to a Christian, the only exception being when it is necessary, for the sake of the testimony, to rebut the false claims of those who are thereby deceiving others and keeping them from believing God's Word."

Defender: 2Co 11:23 - I am more This remarkable catalog of Paul's sufferings endured in preaching the Gospel (2Co 11:23-33) certainly demonstrates the fulfillment and reality of his ...

This remarkable catalog of Paul's sufferings endured in preaching the Gospel (2Co 11:23-33) certainly demonstrates the fulfillment and reality of his original call (Act 9:15). It is only a representative list, not including all of his sufferings as described in Acts. On the other hand, it includes a number of items not mentioned in Acts, showing thereby that the book of Acts was not written as a biography of Paul or other apostles but, rather, to chronicle the spreading of the Gospel in the early years of Christianity."

TSK: 2Co 11:1 - Would // bear with me a // in // bear with me Would : Num 11:29; Jos 7:7; 2Ki 5:3; Act 26:29; 1Co 4:8 bear with me a : 2Co 11:4; Act 18:14; Heb 5:2 in : 2Co 11:16, 2Co 11:17, 2Co 11:19, 2Co 11:21,...

Would : Num 11:29; Jos 7:7; 2Ki 5:3; Act 26:29; 1Co 4:8

bear with me a : 2Co 11:4; Act 18:14; Heb 5:2

in : 2Co 11:16, 2Co 11:17, 2Co 11:19, 2Co 11:21, 2Co 5:13, 2Co 12:11; 1Co 1:21, 1Co 3:18, 1Co 4:10

bear with me : or, ye do bear with me

TSK: 2Co 11:2 - jealous // I have // I may // a chaste jealous : Gal 4:11, Gal 4:17-19; Phi 1:8; 1Th 2:11 I have : Gen 24:2-5, Gen 24:58-67; Psa 45:10,Psa 45:11; Isa 54:5, Isa 62:4, Isa 62:5; Hos 2:19, Hos...

TSK: 2Co 11:3 - I fear // as // so // the simplicity I fear : 2Co 11:29, 2Co 12:20,2Co 12:21; Psa 119:53; Gal 1:6, Gal 3:1, Gal 4:11; Phi 3:18, Phi 3:19 as : Gen 3:4, Gen 3:13; Joh 8:44; 1Ti 2:14; Rev 12...

TSK: 2Co 11:4 - preacheth // receive // another gospel // with him preacheth : Act 4:12; 1Ti 2:5 receive : 1Co 12:4-11; Gal 3:2; Eph 4:4, Eph 4:5 another gospel : Gal 1:7, Gal 1:8 with him : or, with me

preacheth : Act 4:12; 1Ti 2:5

receive : 1Co 12:4-11; Gal 3:2; Eph 4:4, Eph 4:5

another gospel : Gal 1:7, Gal 1:8

with him : or, with me

TSK: 2Co 11:5 - I was not I was not : 2Co 12:11, 2Co 12:12; 1Co 15:10; Gal 2:6-9

TSK: 2Co 11:6 - rude // not // but we rude : 2Co 10:10; 1Co 1:17, 1Co 1:21, 1Co 2:1-3, 1Co 2:13 not : Eph 3:4; 2Pe 3:15, 2Pe 3:16 but we : 2Co 4:2, 2Co 5:11, 2Co 7:2, 2Co 12:12

TSK: 2Co 11:7 - in in : 2Co 10:1, 2Co 12:13; Act 18:1-3, Act 20:34; 1Co 4:10-12, 1Co 9:6, 1Co 9:12, 1Co 9:14-18; 1Th 2:9; 2Th 3:8

TSK: 2Co 11:8 - -- 2Co 11:9; Phi 4:14-16

TSK: 2Co 11:9 - wanted // I was // the brethren // burdensome 2Co 11:8 wanted : 2Co 6:4, 2Co 9:12; Phi 2:25, Phi 4:11-14; Heb 11:37 I was : 2Co 12:13; Neh 5:15; Act 18:3, Act 20:33; 1Th 2:9; 2Th 3:8, 2Th 3:9 the ...

TSK: 2Co 11:10 - the truth // no man shall stop me of this boasting // the regions the truth : 2Co 11:31, 2Co 1:23, 2Co 12:19; Rom 1:9, Rom 9:1; Gal 1:20; 1Th 2:5, 1Th 2:10; 1Ti 2:7 no man shall stop me of this boasting : Gr. this bo...

the truth : 2Co 11:31, 2Co 1:23, 2Co 12:19; Rom 1:9, Rom 9:1; Gal 1:20; 1Th 2:5, 1Th 2:10; 1Ti 2:7

no man shall stop me of this boasting : Gr. this boasting shall not be stopped in me, 2Co 11:12, 2Co 11:16, 2Co 11:17, 2Co 10:15; 1Co 9:15-18

the regions : 2Co 1:1, 2Co 9:2; Act 18:12, Act 18:27; Rom 16:5; 1Co 16:15; 1Th 1:7, 1Th 1:8

TSK: 2Co 11:11 - because // God because : 2Co 6:11, 2Co 6:12, 2Co 7:3, 2Co 12:15 God : 2Co 11:10, 2Co 12:2, 2Co 12:3; Jos 22:22; Psa 44:21; Joh 2:24, Joh 2:25, Joh 21:17; Act 15:8; H...

TSK: 2Co 11:12 - what // that I may // them // they glory what : 2Co 11:9, 2Co 1:17; Job 23:13 that I may : 1Co 9:12; 1Ti 5:14 them : Gal 1:7; Phil. 1:15-30 they glory : 2Co 11:18, 2Co 5:12, 2Co 10:17; 1Co 5:...

what : 2Co 11:9, 2Co 1:17; Job 23:13

that I may : 1Co 9:12; 1Ti 5:14

them : Gal 1:7; Phil. 1:15-30

they glory : 2Co 11:18, 2Co 5:12, 2Co 10:17; 1Co 5:6; Gal 6:13, Gal 6:14

TSK: 2Co 11:13 - false // deceitful false : 2Co 11:15, 2Co 2:17, 2Co 4:2; Mat 25:24; Act 15:1, Act 15:24, Act 20:30; Rom 16:18; Gal 1:7, Gal 2:4, Gal 4:17; Gal 6:12; Eph 4:14; Phi 1:15, ...

TSK: 2Co 11:14 - for for : 2Co 11:3, 2Co 2:11; Gen 3:1-5; Mat 4:1-10; Gal 1:8; Rev 12:9

TSK: 2Co 11:15 - no // his // the ministers // whose no : 2Ki 5:13; 1Co 9:11 his : 2Co 11:13; Act 13:10; Eph 6:12; Rev 9:11, Rev 13:2, Rev 13:14, Rev 19:19-21, Rev 20:2, Rev 20:3, Rev 20:7-10 the ministe...

TSK: 2Co 11:16 - say // Let // receive me say : 2Co 11:1 Let : 2Co 11:21-23, 2Co 12:6, 2Co 12:11 receive me : or, suffer me, 2Co 11:1, 2Co 11:19

say : 2Co 11:1

Let : 2Co 11:21-23, 2Co 12:6, 2Co 12:11

receive me : or, suffer me, 2Co 11:1, 2Co 11:19

TSK: 2Co 11:17 - I speak it // foolishly I speak it : 1Co 7:6, 1Co 7:12 foolishly : 2Co 11:18-27, 2Co 9:4; Phi 3:3-6

I speak it : 1Co 7:6, 1Co 7:12

foolishly : 2Co 11:18-27, 2Co 9:4; Phi 3:3-6

TSK: 2Co 11:18 - many // I will many : 2Co 11:12, 2Co 11:21-23, 2Co 10:12-18; Jer 9:23, Jer 9:24; 1Co 4:10; 1Pe 1:24 I will : 2Co 12:5, 2Co 12:6, 2Co 12:9, 2Co 12:11

TSK: 2Co 11:19 - seeing seeing : 1Co 4:10, 1Co 8:1, 1Co 10:15; Rev 3:17

TSK: 2Co 11:20 - if a man bring // take // a man smite if a man bring : 2Co 1:24; Gal 2:4, Gal 4:3, Gal 4:9, Gal 4:25, Gal 5:1, Gal 5:10, Gal 6:12 take : Rom 16:17, Rom 16:18; Phi 3:19; 1Th 2:5 a man smite...

TSK: 2Co 11:21 - as though // whereinsoever // I speak as though : 2Co 10:1, 2Co 10:2, 2Co 10:10, 2Co 13:10 whereinsoever : 2Co 11:22-27; Phi 3:3-6 I speak : 2Co 11:17, 2Co 11:23

as though : 2Co 10:1, 2Co 10:2, 2Co 10:10, 2Co 13:10

whereinsoever : 2Co 11:22-27; Phi 3:3-6

I speak : 2Co 11:17, 2Co 11:23

TSK: 2Co 11:22 - Hebrews // the seed Hebrews : Exo 3:18, Exo 5:3, Exo 7:16, Exo 9:1, Exo 9:13, Exo 10:3; Act 22:3; Rom 11:1; Phi 3:5 the seed : Gen 17:8, Gen 17:9; 2Ch 20:7; Mat 3:9; Joh ...

TSK: 2Co 11:23 - ministers // I am // in labours // in stripes // in prisons // in deaths ministers : 2Co 3:6, 2Co 6:4; 1Co 3:5, 1Co 4:1; 1Th 3:2; 1Ti 4:6 I am : 2Co 11:5, 2Co 12:11, 2Co 12:12 in labours : 1Co 15:10; Col 1:29 in stripes : 2...

TSK: 2Co 11:24 - forty forty : Deu 25:2, Deu 25:3; Mat 10:17; Mar 13:9

TSK: 2Co 11:25 - I beaten // once // thrice I beaten : Act 16:22, Act 16:23, Act 16:33, Act 16:37, Act 22:24 once : Mat 21:35; Act 7:58, Act 7:59, Act 14:5, Act 14:19; Heb 11:37 thrice : Acts 27...

TSK: 2Co 11:26 - journeyings // in perils by mine // in perils by the // in perils in the city journeyings : Act 9:23, Act 9:26-30, Act 11:25, Act 11:26, 13:1-14:28, Act 15:2-4, Act 15:40,Act 15:41, 16:1-18:1; Act 18:18-23, Act 19:1, Act 20:1-6;...

TSK: 2Co 11:27 - weariness // in watchings // in hunger // fastings // nakedness weariness : 2Co 11:23, 2Co 6:5; Act 20:5-11, Act 20:34, Act 20:35; 1Th 2:9; 2Th 3:8 in watchings : Act 20:31 in hunger : Jer 38:9; 1Co 4:11, 1Co 4:12;...

TSK: 2Co 11:28 - those // the care those : 2Co 11:23-27 the care : Act 15:36, Act 15:40,Act 15:41, Act 18:23, Act 20:2, 18-35; Rom 1:14, Rom 11:13, Rom 15:16, Rom 16:4; Col 2:1

TSK: 2Co 11:29 - is weak // and I burn is weak : 2Co 2:4, 2Co 2:5, 2Co 7:5, 2Co 7:6, 2Co 13:9; Ezr 9:1-3; Rom 12:15, Rom 15:1; 1Co 8:13, 1Co 9:22, 1Co 12:26; Gal 6:2; 1Th 3:5-8 and I burn :...

TSK: 2Co 11:30 - must // I will must : 2Co 11:16-18, 2Co 12:1, 2Co 12:11; Pro 25:27, Pro 27:2; Jer 9:23, Jer 9:24 I will : 2Co 12:5-10; Col 1:24

TSK: 2Co 11:31 - God // which // knoweth God : 2Co 1:3, 2Co 1:23; Joh 10:30, Joh 20:17; Rom 1:9, Rom 9:1; Eph 1:3, Eph 3:14; Gal 1:2, Gal 1:3; Col 1:3; 1Th 2:5; 1Pe 1:3 which : Neh 9:5; Psa 4...

TSK: 2Co 11:32 - Damascus // Aretas Damascus : 2Co 11:26; Act 9:24, Act 9:25 Aretas : This Aretas was an Arabian king, and the father-in-law of Herod Antipas, upon whom he made war in co...

Damascus : 2Co 11:26; Act 9:24, Act 9:25

Aretas : This Aretas was an Arabian king, and the father-in-law of Herod Antipas, upon whom he made war in consequence of his having divorced his daughter. Herod applied to Tiberius for help, who sent Vitellius to reduce Aretas, and to bring him alive or dead to Rome. By some means or other Vitellius delayed his operations, and in the mean time Tiberius died; and it is probable that Aretas, who was thus snatched from ruin, availed himself of the favourable state of things, and seized on Damascus, which had belonged to his ancestors.

TSK: 2Co 11:33 - I let I let : Jos 2:18; 1Sa 19:12

I let : Jos 2:18; 1Sa 19:12

kecilkan semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per Ayat)

Poole: 2Co 11:1 - -- 2Co 11:1-4 Paul unwillingly entereth upon a commendation of himself, out of jealousy lest the Corinthians should be perverted by false apostles fro...

2Co 11:1-4 Paul unwillingly entereth upon a commendation of

himself, out of jealousy lest the Corinthians should

be perverted by false apostles from the pure doctrine

of Christ.

2Co 11:5,6 He showeth that he was in all respects equal to the

chiefest apostles.

2Co 11:7-15 That he declined being chargeable to them, not for

want of love toward them, but to cut off occasion

from those deceitful workers of taking shelter under

his example.

2Co 11:16-22 That he was not inferior to those, whom they so patiently

submitted to, in any of their boasted pretogatives,

2Co 11:23-33 but as a minister of Christ, in labours and

sufferings for the gospel’ s sake, was abundantly

their superior.

That which the apostle here calls his folly was his speaking so much in his own commendation; which indeed is no better than folly, unless there be a great reason; which was here, for it was the false teachers, vilifying his person and office, that put him upon it. The verb in the latter part of the verse, may be read either imperatively, (and so we translate it), as if it were an entreaty of them to excuse him in speaking so much good of himself; or indicatively, you do bear with me.

Poole: 2Co 11:2 - godly jealousy Jealousy is a passion in a person which makes him impatient of any rival or partner in the thing or person beloved. The apostle tells them, that he ...

Jealousy is a passion in a person which makes him impatient of any rival or partner in the thing or person beloved. The apostle tells them, that he was jealous over them, and thereby lets them know, that he so passionately loved them, as that he was not patient that any should pretend more kindness to them than he had for them; and withal, that he had some fear of them, lest they should be perverted and drawn away from the simplicity of the gospel; upon this account he calls it a

godly jealousy For (saith he) I have been instrumental to bring you to Christ; this he calls an espousing of them, the union of persons with Christ being expressed in Scripture under the notion of a marriage, Eph 5:23 , &c. And he expresseth his earnest desire to present them to Christ uncorrupted, like a chaste virgin

Poole: 2Co 11:3 - -- In all jealousy there is a mixture of love and fear: the apostle’ s love to this church, together with his earnest desire to present them in th...

In all jealousy there is a mixture of love and fear: the apostle’ s love to this church, together with his earnest desire to present them in the day of judgment unto Christ pure and uncorrupted, caused him to write; because he was afraid, lest that as the serpent by his subtlety deceived Eve, so some subtle seducers should corrupt them, and so withdraw them from the simplicity of their faith in Christ, and obedience to him. This danger was partly from the pagan philosophers, mixing their philosophical notions with the plain doctrine of the gospel; and partly from some that were tenacious of the Judaical rites, and would not understand the abolition of the ceremonial law.

Poole: 2Co 11:4 - ye might well bear How our translators have interpreted kalwv hneicesye , ye might well bear I cannot tell: the words manifestly are to be interpreted, you have well...

How our translators have interpreted kalwv hneicesye ,

ye might well bear I cannot tell: the words manifestly are to be interpreted, you have well borne, and so are plainly a reflection upon some in this church, who had patiently endured false teachers, who had preached other doctrine than what Paul had preached. And this the apostle giveth as a reason of his fear, lest they should be corrupted and drawn away from the simplicity of the gospel. This certainly is more obviously the sense of the words, than what others incline to, who make the sense this: If any other could come to you, who could preach to you a better Jesus, a more excellent Saviour, than we have done; or a more excellent spirit than him whom you have received; or a more excellent doctrine than the doctrine of the gospel, which we have preached; you might bear with him. For I see no pretence to interpret the verb as in the potential mood, it is manifestly the indicative mood; and declareth, not what they might do, but what they had done; which made the apestle jealous of them, lest they should be perverted. And our Saviour, Joh 5:43 , hath taught us, that those who with the most difficulty receive those who come to them in God’ s name, are always most easy to receive those who come in their own name, without any due authority or commission from God.

Poole: 2Co 11:5 - -- The apostle, doubtless, meaneth those that were the true apostles of our Lord. those who were immediately sent out by him to preach the gospel, behi...

The apostle, doubtless, meaneth those that were the true apostles of our Lord. those who were immediately sent out by him to preach the gospel, behind whom the apostle was not, either in respect of ministerial gifts and graces, or in respect of labours, or in respect of success which God had given him in his work. One method that false teachers used to vilify Paul, was by magnifying some others of the apostles above him, and preferring them before him; which makes him, both here, and in Gal 2:1-21 , and Rom 11:13 , to magnify his office, by showing them, there was no reason why they should make a difference between him and other apostles; for he had the same immediate call, was intrusted with the same power, furnished and adorned with the same gifts, in labours (as he elsewhere saith) he had been more than they all; nor had God been wanting in giving him success in his labours, proportionable to the chiefest of them: so as he was not a whit behind them.

Poole: 2Co 11:6 - But though I be rude in speech // Yet not in knowledge // But we have been throughly made manifest among you in all things But though I be rude in speech admit (saith the apostle) that I be no orator, speaking to you in high language, or in a neat style and phrase; either...

But though I be rude in speech admit (saith the apostle) that I be no orator, speaking to you in high language, or in a neat style and phrase; either having no faculty that way, or, if I have, yet choosing rather to speak plainly, and home to your consciences, than floridly, to tickle your ears with a fine sound and chiming of words.

Yet not in knowledge yet, I bless God, I am not defective in knowledge; and, as God hath enlightened me with a large knowledge of his will, so I have communicated to you the whole counsel of God.

But we have been throughly made manifest among you in all things and in all things, which may declare me an apostle, one sent of Christ about the business of the gospel, I have been made manifest amongst you; preaching amongst you the whole doctrine of the gospel, and having been an instrument to convert many of you from paganism to Christianity.

Poole: 2Co 11:7 - -- What is it that hath made you take such offence at me; seeing you cannot say, that either in my call, or in my gifts and graces, or in my labours, o...

What is it that hath made you take such offence at me; seeing you cannot say, that either in my call, or in my gifts and graces, or in my labours, or in the success of my labours, I have been inferior to the chiefest of the apostles? Doth this offend you, that for your sake I have veiled my authority, and departed from my right? Which makes some of you say, I am base in presence. Is it for my putting you to no charge in my preaching the gospel? This was a thing wherein he gloried, and told them, 1Co 9:6,12,15 , that he would rather die, than have his glorying void in this particular.

Poole: 2Co 11:8 - -- He interpreteth the term of robbed other churches by a taking wages of them; which indeed is no robbery, as he had proved, 1Co 9:1-27 . All the ...

He interpreteth the term of robbed other churches by a taking wages of them; which indeed is no robbery, as he had proved, 1Co 9:1-27 . All the robbery that was in it lay in this, that his maintenance, in strictness of right, should have been proportionably from this, as well as from other churches; but for some reasons (which he thinks fit to conceal) he refused to receive any thing from this church; but spared them, and lived upon the maintenance he had from other churches, while he was doing them service. Either he saw the members of this church were poor, or that there were some in this clulrch who would sooner have taken advantage to reproach him for it, and so have hindered the success of the gospel. Whatever it was that caused the apostle to do it, certain it is, that he did it, and make it a great piece of his glorying.

Poole: 2Co 11:9 - -- The word which we translate chargeable signifies to benumb; I benumbed no man: or, (as others), I was not myself more benumbed in any thing. If we ...

The word which we translate chargeable signifies to benumb; I benumbed no man: or, (as others), I was not myself more benumbed in any thing. If we take it in the first mentioned sense, it lets us see a reason why Paul refused to take wages of the church of Corinth, test he should cool and benumb them as to the receiving of the gospel, when they saw it would prove chargeable to them. If in the latter sense, the apostle seems to reflect upon such whom wages only edged to their work, who preached merely for gain and filthy lucre. To distinguish himself from such hirelings, he tells them, that when he was with them, and laboured amongst them in preaching the gospel, he put them to no charge; yet he was not slothful in his work, but as laborious as those who did take wages. As to himself, he had want enough whilst he was amongst them; but the providence of God ordered him a supply from the churches of Macedonia, and by that means he kept himself from being burdensome to them; and, he tells them, so he was resolved that he would still be.

Poole: 2Co 11:10 - -- The apostle often repeateth this, glorying much in it, that in this region of Achaia he had preached the gospel without charge to the hearers: he di...

The apostle often repeateth this, glorying much in it, that in this region of Achaia he had preached the gospel without charge to the hearers: he did so also at Thessalonica, 1Th 2:5,6,9 ; but concerning them, he saith, what he no where saith of the Corinthians, that they received the word in much affliction; which might, probably, be the cause. It is most likely that he either discerned this people to be more covetous, and too much lovers of their money: or that there was a generation among them, who, if he had taken wages for his labours, would have reproached him as one that was a hireling, and who did all that he did for money. And, indeed, himself seemeth in the next verses to give this as a reason.

Poole: 2Co 11:11 - -- Can you possibly interpret my not being chargeable to you, as proceeding from a want of love in me to you? God knoweth the contrary.

Can you possibly interpret my not being chargeable to you, as proceeding from a want of love in me to you? God knoweth the contrary.

Poole: 2Co 11:12 - That wherein they glory, they may be found even as we I know (saith the apostle) that there are some amongst you who, out of their hatred to me, would seek any occasion to asperse me to justify themselv...

I know (saith the apostle) that there are some amongst you who, out of their hatred to me, would seek any occasion to asperse me to justify themselves. If I had (as I might) have taken wages amongst you for my labours, they would either have taken occasion from it to have aspersed me, (as doing what I did from a mercenary spirit), or at least to have justified themselves in their exactings upon you. I had a mind to prevent any such occasions of boasting.

That wherein they glory, they may be found even as we: it should seem by these words, that some teachers in this church, being (possibly) men of estates, required no maintenance of the people; and would have taken advantage against the apostle, if he had taken any: or, possibly, some others exacted upon them unreasonably, who, had Paul taken wages, would have justified themselves by his example. The apostle therefore was resolved to cut off from them any pretence or occasion of boasting, and to do whatever any of them did, in sparing the Corinthians as to the business of their purses.

Poole: 2Co 11:13 - For such are false apostles // Deceitful workers // Transforming themselves into the apostles of Christ For such are false apostles that is, persons pretending to be sent of Christ, but were indeed never sent of him. Deceitful workers persons whose wo...

For such are false apostles that is, persons pretending to be sent of Christ, but were indeed never sent of him.

Deceitful workers persons whose work is but to cheat and deceive you; and that both with reference to their call and authority which they pretend to, and also to the doctrine which they bring.

Transforming themselves into the apostles of Christ they were never apostles of Christ, only they put themselves into such a shape and form, that they might have more advantage to deceive.

Poole: 2Co 11:14 - into an angel of light It is not at all to be wondered, that the emissaries of Satan dissemble, and pretend themselves to be what they are not, for even Satan himself, who...

It is not at all to be wondered, that the emissaries of Satan dissemble, and pretend themselves to be what they are not, for even Satan himself, who is the prince of darkness, in order to the deceiving and seducing of souls, transformeth himself

into an angel of light that is, puts on the appearance and form of a good angel. He calls them angels of light, because they were wont to appear in a lightsome brightness; or because of that glory in which they behold the face of God; or because of those great measures of heavenly knowledge which those blessed spirits have. All tempted souls have an experiment of this; for none is tempted to evil under the appearance of evil, (evil as evil being what a reasonable soul cannot be courted to). The devil therefore, in all his temptations to sin, though his end be to ruin and destroy, yet appeareth as an angel of light; moving the soul to evil under the notion and appearance of good.

Poole: 2Co 11:15 - his ministers // of righteousness // according to their works It is no wonder if there be like servants, like masters: and as the devil, in order to the deceiving of souls, pretends to what he is not, viz. a fr...

It is no wonder if there be like servants, like masters: and as the devil, in order to the deceiving of souls, pretends to what he is not, viz. a friend to them; so those who seek their own profit, not your good, show themselves to be

his ministers driving the same design with him, also do the like, and change their shapes, pretending themselves to be ministers of the gospel, and to aim at the good of your souls, by teaching you the way

of righteousness but God will one day judge of their works, and their reward at last will be

according to their works

Poole: 2Co 11:16 - I say again, Let no man think me a fool // If otherwise, yet as a fool receive me, that I may boast myself a little I say again, Let no man think me a fool: I know that he, who is much in magnifying and praising himself, ordinarily is judged to be a fool; but thoug...

I say again, Let no man think me a fool: I know that he, who is much in magnifying and praising himself, ordinarily is judged to be a fool; but though I do so, let me not lie under that imputation. There is a time for all things; a time for a man to cease from his own praises, and a time for him to praise himself. The time for the latter is, when the glory of God, or our own just vindication, is concerned; both which concurred here: the apostle was out of measure vilifled by these false apostles; and the glory of God was eminently concerned, that so great an apostle and instrument in promoting the gospel, should not be exposed to contempt, as a mean and despicable person, or as an impostor and deceiver.

If otherwise, yet as a fool receive me, that I may boast myself a little but if you will judge me a fool, be it so; yet receive me as such, while I boast a little.

Poole: 2Co 11:17 - That which I speak, I speak it not after the Lord // But as it were foolishly, in this confidence of boasting That which I speak, I speak it not after the Lord I do not pretend to have any special command of God, to speak what I shall now say in my own commen...

That which I speak, I speak it not after the Lord I do not pretend to have any special command of God, to speak what I shall now say in my own commendation; God hath left that to our liberty, which we may use, or not use, as circumstances of time, place, and occasion direct. Or, I do not speak according to the ordinary practice of Christians and ministers of the gospel; whose ordinary practice is to abase and vilify, not to exalt and set forth themselves, according to the more general rules of the word. Yet what the apostle saith was not contrary to the Lord, or to the directions of his word, which hath no where commanded us to vilify ourselves, or to conceal what God hath wrought in us and by us.

But as it were foolishly, in this confidence of boasting: this my confident boasting hath an appearance of foolishness in it, though really it be not so; for nothing can be truly called foolishness, which hath a direct and immediate tendency to the glory of God, and is designed for that end.

Poole: 2Co 11:18 - many that glory after the flesh // I will glory also By the flesh is meant, carnal and external things; which though they be the gifts and favours of God, yet do not at all commend a man to God. The a...

By the flesh is meant, carnal and external things; which though they be the gifts and favours of God, yet do not at all commend a man to God. The apostle saith, there are

many that glory after the flesh and there needs must be such in all places, because there are many that walk after the flesh: now, it is but natural for men to boast and glory in those attainments, which it hath been the business of their lives to pursue after. Such there were, doubtless, in this famous church, who gloried that they were native Jews, or in their riches, or in their knowledge and learning. Now, though (saith the apostle) I know there is nothing in these things truly to be gloried in, yet, others glorying in them:

I will glory also and let them know, that if I thought these things worth the glorying in, I have as much to glory in of that nature as any of them have.

Poole: 2Co 11:19 - -- Ye freely suffer others foolishly glorying and boasting of themselves, therefore do ye suffer me therein to judge yourselves wise, and it belongs to...

Ye freely suffer others foolishly glorying and boasting of themselves, therefore do ye suffer me therein to judge yourselves wise, and it belongs to the wise to bear with such as are not so wise as themselves.

Poole: 2Co 11:20 - devour If any domineer over you, as if you were their slaves, or if any bring you into subjection to the rites of the ceremonial law; if they devour and ...

If any domineer over you, as if you were their slaves, or if any bring you into subjection to the rites of the ceremonial law; if they

devour and make a prey of you, take wages of you, and do nothing without hire; if they carry themselves proudly, exalting themselves above you; nay, if they

smite you you will suffer and bear with such: this is more than to bear with a little folly and indiscretion in me. This is observable, that men of corrupt hearts and loose lives will better bear with teachers that will humour and spare them in their lusts, than with such as are faithful to their souls in instructing and reproving them, though they carry themselves with the greatest innocency and justice towards them.

Poole: 2Co 11:21 - -- I speak as to those reproaches they cast on me, who am by them represented to you as though I were weak and contemptible; as indeed I am, as to my p...

I speak as to those reproaches they cast on me, who am by them represented to you as though I were weak and contemptible; as indeed I am, as to my person, but not as to my doctrine, and the miracles I have wrought amongst you. And being some of them are so confident in boasting what they are, and what they have done and suffered; let me be a little bold as well as they, in telling you what I am, and what I have done and suffered.

Poole: 2Co 11:22 - Are they Hebrews? so am I // Are they Israelites? // So am I // Are they the seed of Abraham? so am I Are they Hebrews? so am I: this would incline us to think, that some, at least, of those corrupt teachers, upon whom the apostle hath so much reflect...

Are they Hebrews? so am I: this would incline us to think, that some, at least, of those corrupt teachers, upon whom the apostle hath so much reflected, were Jews; who had endeavoured to corrupt the Gentile churches with their traditions, and imposing on them the ceremonial rites of the Jewish church. Others think otherwise, and that the words import no more than this; Do they glory in the antiquity of their stock and parentage, as descending from Abraham? I have as much upon that account to glory in as they; for although I was born, not in Judea, but in Tarsus, a city of Cilicia, Act 22:3 , yet I was a Jew, an Hebrew of the Hebrews, Phi 3:5 .

Are they Israelites? Will they derive from Jacob, to whom God gave the name of Israel, from whence all his posterity were called Israelites?

So am I ( saith he), I can derive from Jacob as well as they.

Are they the seed of Abraham? so am I: will they glory in this, that they are the seed of Abraham? (this was a great boast of the Jews, as we learn from Mat 3:9 , and Joh 8:1-59 ); saith the apostle, I have on that account as much to glory in as they. Some here inquire: What difference there is in these three things? For to be a Hebrew, and an Israelite, and of the seed of Abraham, seem all to signify the same thing. Nor indeed have we any need to assign any difference, it seemeth to be but the same thing amplified in three phrases. But others distinguish more subtlely, and think the first may signify a glorying in the ancientness of their pedigree, or in their ability to speak in the Hebrew tongue; the second, may refer to the nation of which they were; the third, to the promise made to Abraham and his seed.

Poole: 2Co 11:23 - In labours more abundant // In stripes above measure, in prisons more frequent // In deaths oft Will they glory in this, that they are ministers of Christ employed as the servants of Christ in preaching the gospel? I should not boast about thi...

Will they glory in this, that they are ministers of Christ employed as the servants of Christ in preaching the gospel? I should not boast about this, (in that I may seem to speak as a fool ), but I am much more a minister than they, both with respect to my call to the work, and also my performing of it. I had a more immediate call and mission to the work than what they can boast of, and I have done more in that work than any of them have done.

In labours more abundant I have travelled more to preach it, I have laboured more in the propagation of it.

In stripes above measure, in prisons more frequent I have suffered more for the preaching of it, I have been oftener whipped, oftener imprisoned, than any of them ever were: see 2Co 6:4,5 .

In deaths oft I have been oftener in hazard of my life: he calls dangers threatening death, deaths, as 2Co 1:10 .

Poole: 2Co 11:24 - -- God, to restrain the passions of his people, which might carry them out to cruelty in the punishments of malefactors, forbade the Jewish magistrates...

God, to restrain the passions of his people, which might carry them out to cruelty in the punishments of malefactors, forbade the Jewish magistrates to give any malefactor above forty stripes; (so many they might give them by the Divine law, Deu 25:3 ); but they had made an order, that none should receive above thirty-nine. This was amongst their constitions which they called sepimenta legis, hedges to the Divine law; which indeed was a violation of the law: for that did not oblige them to give every malefactor, that had not deserved death, so many stripes; it gave them only a liberty to go so far, but they were not to exceed. Some think, that they punished every such malefactor with thirty-nine stripes: others, more rationally, think, that they did not so, but thirty-nine was the highest number they laid upon any. And it is most probable, that, out of their hatred to the apostle, they laid as many stripes upon him as their constitution would suffer them to do.

Poole: 2Co 11:25 - Thrice was I beaten with rods // Once was I stoned // Thrice I suffered shipwreck // A night and a day I have been in the deep Thrice was I beaten with rods this was by the pagans, for the Jews whipped malefactor with a whip which had three cords. We read of one of these time...

Thrice was I beaten with rods this was by the pagans, for the Jews whipped malefactor with a whip which had three cords. We read of one of these times. Act 16:23 ; and of a second, Act 22:24 , when the captain commanded he should be so punished, but he avoided it, by pleading he was a citizen of Rome.

Once was I stoned: of his stoning, read Act 14:19 , it was by a popular tumult at Lystra.

Thrice I suffered shipwreck: we read but of one time that Paul suffered shipwreck, Act 27:18 ; which was none of the three times here mentioned, for it was after the writing of this Epistle. But though many of the acts and sufferings of this apostle were written, yet all were not.

A night and a day I have been in the deep: some by the deep here understand the inner prison, mentioned Act 16:24 , or some deep dungeon; but more probably he means, some time when, after a shipwreck, he might be put twenty-four hours to swim up and down the sea upon some broken part of the ship. It refers to some eminent danger Paul was in, of which the Scripture in no other place maketh mention particularly.

Poole: 2Co 11:26 - In journeyings often // In perils of waters // Of robbers // By mine own countrymen // In the city // In the wilderness // In the sea // Among false brethren In journeyings often in travellings from place to place for the propagation of the gospel. In perils of waters in the Greek, rivers, which were man...

In journeyings often in travellings from place to place for the propagation of the gospel.

In perils of waters in the Greek, rivers, which were many in those countries through which he travelled.

Of robbers such as waited to rob passengers by the high-way.

By mine own countrymen the Jews, who were mortal enemies to Paul, whom they looked upon as an apostate from their religion.

In the city in many cities where he preached the gospel, as we find in the Acts of the Apostles.

In the wilderness in wildernesses through which he was forced to pass.

In the sea storms and shipwrecks.

Among false brethren false teachers and private persons, who corrupted the Christian religion, and were as great enemies to the apostle as any he had.

Poole: 2Co 11:27 - weariness and painfulness The apostle reckons up several afflictive evils, ordinarily incident to such as travel in foreign countries. Of this nature were the weariness and ...

The apostle reckons up several afflictive evils, ordinarily incident to such as travel in foreign countries. Of this nature were the

weariness and painfulness the hunger and thirst the cold and nakedness, here mentioned. He also mentioneth the watchings and fastings, as voluntary acts of discipline, which he used for the end mentioned, 1Co 9:27 , for the keeping under his body, and bringing it into subjection, and that he might the better attend and discharge the work of the ministry.

Poole: 2Co 11:28 - Beside // all the By the things that are without, the apostle meaneth either those evils which happened to him from persons that had nto relation to the Christian ...

By the things that are without, the apostle meaneth either those evils which happened to him from persons that had nto relation to the Christian church, but were persons without, ( as the phrase is used, 1Co 5:13 ), or else such kinds of troubles and afflictions as very little influenced his mind, but only affected his outward man: such were his labours, travels, journeyings, imprisonment, stripes before mentioned.

Beside these (he saith) there lay upon him an inward care and solicitude for

all the Christian churches and this was a daily care. For an apostle differed from an ordinary pastor, not only in his immediate call from Christ, but also in his work; there lay an obligation upon such to go up and down preaching the gospel, and they further had, both a power, and also an obligation, to superintend all other churches, and to direct the affairs of them relating to order and government: and thereupon they were mightily concerned about their doing well or ill.

Poole: 2Co 11:29 - Who // Is weak // and I am not weak // Who is offended // and I burn not Who may be either, what church? Or, what particular Christian in any church? Is weakasyenei , through outward afflictions, or in respect of inward s...

Who may be either, what church? Or, what particular Christian in any church?

Is weakasyenei , through outward afflictions, or in respect of inward spiritual troubles,

and I am not weak and I do not sympathize with that church, or with that person?

Who is offended or scandalized, under temptations to be seduced and fall into sin,

and I burn not and I am not on fire with a holy zeal for the glory of God, and the good of his soul, if possible to keep him upright? By which the apostle doth not only show us what was his own holy temper, but what should be the temper of every faithful minister, as to his province, or that part of the church over which he is concerned to watch; viz. to have a true compassion to every member of it, to watch over his flock, inquiring diligently into the state of it; to have a quick sense of any evils under which they, or any of them, labour. This is indeed the duty of ever private member, but more especially of him whose office is to feed any part of the flock of Christ, Rom 12:15 . In this the members of the spiritual, mystical body of Christ should answer to the members of the body natural, to which our apostle before resembled it.

Poole: 2Co 11:30 - -- The apostle here calleth the things which he had suffered for the gospel, and the propagation of it, his infirmities; and saith, that he chose th...

The apostle here calleth the things which he had suffered for the gospel, and the propagation of it, his infirmities; and saith, that he chose those things to glory in. He would not glory of the divers tongues with which he spake, nor of the miracles which he had wrought; but being by the ill tongues of his adversaries put upon glorying, he chose to glory of what he had suffered for God. For as the mighty power of Christ was seen in supporting him, and carrying him through so many hazards and difficulties; so these things, probably, were such as his adversaries could not much glory in. Besides, that these things had not that natural tendency to lift up his mind above its due measures, as gifts had, which sometimes puff up (as the apostle saith concerning knowledge); and also these were things which flesh and blood commonly starleth at, and flieth from: that his gifts and miraculous operations spake the power of God in him, and the kindness of God to him, in enabling him to such effects, rather than any goodness in himself; but his patient bearing the cross spake in him great measures of faith, patience, and self-denial, and love to God; and so really were greater and truer causes of boasting, than those things could be.

Poole: 2Co 11:31 - blessed for evermore Whether this phrase be the form of an oath, or a mere assertion of God’ s knowledge of the heart, is a point not worth the arguing. If we look ...

Whether this phrase be the form of an oath, or a mere assertion of God’ s knowledge of the heart, is a point not worth the arguing. If we look upon it in the former notion, it is no profane oath, because made in the name of God; nor no vain oath, because it is used in a grave and serious matter, and for the satisfaction of those who were not very easy to believe the apostle in this matter. But I had rather take it as a solemn assertion of God’ s particular knowledge of the truth of his heart in what he had said. The term

blessed for evermore may either be applied to the Father, or to Jesus Christ. It is applied to the Creator, Rom 1:25 , and to Jesus Christ, Rom 9:5 . It is here so used, as that it is applicable either to the First or Second Person. The usage of it in these three texts, is an undeniable argument to prove the Godhead of Christ. The apostle, in these words, seemeth rather to refer to what he had said before, of his various labours and sufferings, than to that which followeth; which was but a single thing, and a danger rather than a suffering.

Poole: 2Co 11:32-33 - -- Ver. 32,33. Luke hath shortly given us the history of this danger, Act 9:23-25 . Soon after Paul was converted from the Jewish to the Christian relig...

Ver. 32,33. Luke hath shortly given us the history of this danger, Act 9:23-25 . Soon after Paul was converted from the Jewish to the Christian religion, he, disputing with the Jews which dwelt at Damascus, confounded them by his arguments, proving Jesus was the Christ, as we read there, Act 9:21 . This so enraged them, as that they sought to kill him, Act 9:23 . And (as we learn from this text) to effect their design, they had by some acts or other brought over the governor to favour their design; which, governor was a substitute under Aretas the king, who was father-in-law to Herod; for (as Josephus tells us) Herod put away his wife, the daughter of this Aretas, when he took Herodias. The Jews had got this deputy heathen governor so much on their side, that he shut up the gates, keeping his soldiers in arms. But (as St. Luke tells us, Act 9:24 ) Paul coming to the knowledge of this design, though they watched the gates day and night, yet he found a way of escape by the help of those Christians, who at that time were in Damascus; Act 9:25 : The disciples took him by night, and let him down by the wall in a basket. Two questions are started upon this passage of Paul’ s life:

1. Whether it was lawful for him to flee? But besides the particular licence our Lord, in this case, had given his first ministers, Mat 10:23 , Paul did in this case no more than what divines make lawful for a more ordinary minister, viz. to flee, when the persecution was directed against him in particular, leaving sufficient supply behind him.

2. The second question raised is: Whether, it being against human laws to go over the walls of a city or garrison, Paul did not sin in this escape? But that is easily answered; for:

a) This was lawful in some cases.

b) God’ s glory, and the good of souls, were more concerned in Paul’ s life, than to have it sacrificed to a punctilio of obedience to a human law made upon a mere politic consideration.

Haydock: 2Co 11:1 - My folly My folly. So he calls his reciting his own praises, which commonly speaking, is looked upon as a piece of folly and vanity; though the apostle was ...

My folly. So he calls his reciting his own praises, which commonly speaking, is looked upon as a piece of folly and vanity; though the apostle was constrained to do it, for the good of the souls committed to his charge. (Challoner)

Haydock: 2Co 11:2 - With the jealousy of God // To present you With the jealousy of God, or that came from God: it may also signify a great, or godly jealousy. --- To present you, that is, the Church of Corinth...

With the jealousy of God, or that came from God: it may also signify a great, or godly jealousy. ---

To present you, that is, the Church of Corinth, a chaste virgin to Christ, as the whole Catholic Church is called the chaste spouse of Christ. See Matthew ix. 13.; Apocalypse xxi. 2. (Witham) ---

I cannot suffer these false prophets thus to destroy what has been prepared with so much labour, but I am not jealous for my own sake; it is for the honour of God; for I do not wish to prepare this spouse for myself, but for God. (Tirinus) ---

It is a duty incumbent on me to preserve you in the purity of the faith you have received, to present you to him as a virgin, holy, and free from every spot or blemish, and hence arise my fear and solicitude, lest by insinuating and designing men, you suffer yourselves to be drawn away from the simplicity of your faith in Christ Jesus, the Lord.

Haydock: 2Co 11:3 - So your minds shall be corrupted So your minds shall be corrupted by those false teachers, from the simplicity in Christ, from the sincerity and purity of the gospel doctrine. (Wit...

So your minds shall be corrupted by those false teachers, from the simplicity in Christ, from the sincerity and purity of the gospel doctrine. (Witham)

Haydock: 2Co 11:4 - You might well bear You might well bear with him. These new teachers pretended at least to preach only the doctrine of Christ. St. Paul tells them, they might in some ...

You might well bear with him. These new teachers pretended at least to preach only the doctrine of Christ. St. Paul tells them, they might in some measure be excused, if they preached a new doctrine, or another gospel that brought them greater blessings, or another Spirit accompanied with greater spiritual gifts, than they had already received by his preaching. But I think, and may say, I have nothing less than the greatest apostles, and you have received the same blessings from me, as others from them. (Witham)

Haydock: 2Co 11:5 - For I suppose For I suppose. Many understand this as spoken ironically, and alluding to the false apostles, who called themselves great. But it ought rather to b...

For I suppose. Many understand this as spoken ironically, and alluding to the false apostles, who called themselves great. But it ought rather to be understood in a literal sense, that God had performed as many and great miracles by his hands, as by any of the apostles. St. Paul here wished to refute those who called themselves the disciples of Peter, and other apostles. (Calmet)

Haydock: 2Co 11:6 - Though I be rude in speech Though I be rude in speech, (as St. Jerome also thought) in my expressions in the Greek tongue, yet not in knowledge, the chief or only thing to be...

Though I be rude in speech, (as St. Jerome also thought) in my expressions in the Greek tongue, yet not in knowledge, the chief or only thing to be regarded. Nay, St. Paul's adversaries acknowledged that his letters were weighty and strong. (chap. x. ver. 11.) St. John Chrysostom in many places, and St. Augustine, lib. iv. de Doct. Christians, chap. vi. and vii tom. 3. p. 68. and seq., shews at large the solid rhetoric and eloquence of St. Paul, even in this and the next chapter. (Witham)

Haydock: 2Co 11:7 - Did I commit a fault? Did I commit a fault? &c. It is a kind of reproach to them, and by the figure, called irony, with a reflection on the false preachers, who some way ...

Did I commit a fault? &c. It is a kind of reproach to them, and by the figure, called irony, with a reflection on the false preachers, who some way or other, got themselves handsomely maintained, while St. Paul neither took, nor would take any thing of them, that his adversaries might not have an occasion to say, he did as they did, or that they only did as he did. And lest they should suspect that he would receive nothing from them, because he did not love them (as men sometimes refuse presents from those whom they do not love) he appeals to God, how much he loves them. But he will have this to boast of against his adversaries, those false apostles and crafty labourers, who cunningly endeavoured to transform themselves, that they might be thought the apostles of Christ, insinuating themselves into their favour, and receiving at least presents from them, which St. Paul would not do, though it was but reasonable that he should live by the gospel. See 1 Corinthians chap. ix. (Witham)

Haydock: 2Co 11:10 - The truth of Christ is in me The truth of Christ is in me. This is a kind of asseveration; I assure you by the truth of Christ, which is in me, that what I say is true, and that...

The truth of Christ is in me. This is a kind of asseveration; I assure you by the truth of Christ, which is in me, that what I say is true, and that no one can deny it in Achaia. (Theodoret)

Haydock: 2Co 11:12 - -- St. Paul declares that he will continue to receive nothing for his preaching and his labours, that the false apostles may not glory in their disintere...

St. Paul declares that he will continue to receive nothing for his preaching and his labours, that the false apostles may not glory in their disinterestedness; or rather, that he will not, by receiving any thing, authorize by his example, these new teachers, who only seek their own ease, to live on the Church, and to receive their support from it. (St. Augustine and Estius)

Haydock: 2Co 11:16 - Otherwise take me as one foolish Otherwise take me as one foolish. St. Paul divers times excuses himself for mentioning thins in his own commendation: he owns that this in itself, a...

Otherwise take me as one foolish. St. Paul divers times excuses himself for mentioning thins in his own commendation: he owns that this in itself, and unless it were necessary, might be blamed as folly, that it would not be according to God, but he declares himself forced by them to it, and that he will speak nothing but the truth. See chap. xii. ver. 6. 11. He tells them that they bear with others that are foolish, even with those false preachers that endeavour to bring them into slavery by their domineering carriage, by making them perhaps subject to the yoke of the Mosaical law. Who devour them, that is, their goods and substance, who take from them, who in a manner strike them on the face, (ver. 20.) he means a metaphorical striking them, that is, by imperious ways, and insolent language. (Witham)

Haydock: 2Co 11:19 - -- I trust that you will permit me to speak in my own praise, since as wise as you are, you have permitted others, who have not greater wisdom than mysel...

I trust that you will permit me to speak in my own praise, since as wise as you are, you have permitted others, who have not greater wisdom than myself. And if it be folly to praise one's self, as you have pardoned them, I trust you will also pardon me. (Calmet)

Haydock: 2Co 11:20 - -- St. Paul still continues to speak ironically, that they will permit him to praise himself in his own justification, since they have permitted these fa...

St. Paul still continues to speak ironically, that they will permit him to praise himself in his own justification, since they have permitted these false teachers to reduce them to bondage under the law, to devour their substance, and to behave haughtily to them, striking them on the face, &c. (Calmet)

Haydock: 2Co 11:21 - I speak according to dishonour, as if we had been weak in this part I speak according to dishonour, as if we had been weak in this part. The interpreters are divided on this verse; the sense seems to be, I speak what...

I speak according to dishonour, as if we had been weak in this part. The interpreters are divided on this verse; the sense seems to be, I speak what others took upon as dishonourable in us, that we had not the like authority over you as these false teachers, and therefore could not keep you in such subjection as they have done. But yet I must tell you, that wherein if any man is bold, I am bold also; that is, I have no less motives to domineer and boast, than they have. And then he proceeds to particulars. (Witham)

Haydock: 2Co 11:23 - They are ministers of Christ: I am more They are ministers of Christ: I am more. To wit, an apostle chosen and sent by Jesus Christ, appointed in a special manner to be the apostle of the ...

They are ministers of Christ: I am more. To wit, an apostle chosen and sent by Jesus Christ, appointed in a special manner to be the apostle of the Gentiles, your apostle. (Witham)

Haydock: 2Co 11:24 - -- The Jews had power under the Romans to inflict punishments, not indeed capital, but corporal, such as flogging, &c. See Mark xiii. 9. The law, in D...

The Jews had power under the Romans to inflict punishments, not indeed capital, but corporal, such as flogging, &c. See Mark xiii. 9. The law, in Deuteronomy xxv. 3. permitted, but did not command, forty stripes to be inflicted; it strictly forbad that number to be exceeded.

Haydock: 2Co 11:25 - Thrice I suffered shipwreck Thrice I suffered shipwreck. This was before the shipwreck in his voyage to Rome, by which we make take notice, that St. Luke, in the Acts, omits a ...

Thrice I suffered shipwreck. This was before the shipwreck in his voyage to Rome, by which we make take notice, that St. Luke, in the Acts, omits a great many things relating to St. Paul; as also when he adds,[1] a night and a day I was in the depth of the sea. We do not read expressed in the Greek, of the sea; but the Greek word is observed to imply the same: and so it is understood by St. John Chrysostom who gives these two expositions; first, that he was truly and literally in the middle of the sea. Secondly, that he was floating or swimming in the sea after shipwreck, which seems the more common interpretation. (Witham) ---

St. Paul could have avoided that disgrace, as a Roman. See Acts xxiii.; but in Acts xvi. he refused to claim his privilege, that he might have an opportunity of converting the guard of the prison. (Pastorini)

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[BIBLIOGRAPHY]

Nocte et die in profundo maris sui, Greek: en to butho pepoieka.

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Haydock: 2Co 11:28 - My daily instance My daily instance. The labours that come in, and press upon me every day. (Challoner)

My daily instance. The labours that come in, and press upon me every day. (Challoner)

Gill: 2Co 11:1 - Would to God you could bear with me a little // bear with me a little in my folly // and indeed bear with me Would to God you could bear with me a little,.... The false apostles boasted so much of their gifts, abilities, and usefulness, that the apostle found...

Would to God you could bear with me a little,.... The false apostles boasted so much of their gifts, abilities, and usefulness, that the apostle found himself under a necessity of saying some things in his own defence, for the honour of God, and the good of this church; which otherwise his modesty would not have permitted him, and which he saw would be accounted and censured as folly in him by others; and therefore he entreats their patience a little while, and that they would suffer him to say a few things in vindication of his character, and not be offended; though it would be in commendation of himself, which, were he not forced to, would look vain and foolish: and therefore says,

bear with me a little in my folly, and which he presses with importunity,

and indeed bear with me; he insists upon it, he urges it as what he must not be denied in; for could he have avoided it, he would not have done it; but such was the case, that if he did not do it, he must greatly suffer in his character and usefulness; the members of this church would be in great danger from these false apostles, and the honour and glory of Christ lay greatly at stake; which when considered, he hoped his request would be granted: the last clause may be rendered, but also ye do bear with me; signifying that they had done so already, and continued to do so, and therefore he could not but encourage himself, that they still would bear with him a little longer, and in a few things more.

Gill: 2Co 11:2 - For I am jealous over you with godly jealousy // for I have espoused you to one husband // that I may present you as a chaste virgin to Christ For I am jealous over you with godly jealousy,.... He lets them know it was not so much on his own account, or at all with any selfish views, or for a...

For I am jealous over you with godly jealousy,.... He lets them know it was not so much on his own account, or at all with any selfish views, or for any secular interest of his own, that he was so concerned, but it was "a godly jealousy", or a "zeal of God"; which he was inspired with by God, and which was for the honour and glory of God, even Jesus Christ, who is God overall; and for their real good and spiritual welfare, as a church of Christ, that possessed him, which put him upon saying what he was about to do; and what affected him the more was, when he considered himself as a friend of the bridegroom, who had been concerned in the betrothing of them to Christ:

for I have espoused you to one husband; by whom is meant Christ, as the following clause explains it: Christ stands in the relation of an husband to the church catholic and universal; to the whole general assembly and church of the firstborn, whose names are written in heaven; even to all the elect of God, that ever were, are, or shall be; and so he does to particular congregated churches, as he did to this church at Corinth, and so he does to every individual believer: which character he responds to, by loving them with a love prior to theirs, a love of complacency and delight, which is single, special, and peculiar, strong and affectionate, wonderful and inconceivable, constant, and what will last for ever; by sympathizing with them under all their afflictions, temptations, desertions, and exercises of every kind; by nourishing and cherishing them, which phrases are expressive of the spiritual food and clothing he provides for them, of that intimate communion he admits them to, and of that whole care he takes of them; by paying all their debts, supplying all their wants, supporting them with his right hand, protecting them against all their enemies, giving them grace here, and glory hereafter; and, last of all, by interesting them in his person, and all that he has, in all the blessings and promises of the covenant in his wisdom, righteousness, sanctification, and redemption. The act of espousing, the apostle here, with respect to this church, takes to himself, though in another sense, and which is the principal one, it is ascribed to Christ himself, who betroths all his to himself in righteousness, in judgment, in lovingkindness, and tender mercies; he saw them in his Father's purposes and decrees, in all the glory they were designed to be brought unto, when he loved them as his Father did, and desired them for his spouse and bride, which was granted to him; and then secretly in covenant betrothed them to himself, and ever after looked upon them as in a conjugal relation to him; wherefore though they fell in Adam, and became guilty and filthy, he gave himself for them as his church and bride, to sanctify and cleanse them, that he might present them to himself, just such a glorious church he had seen them before. In consequence of this, the Spirit of God attends the ministration of the Gospel, to the conversion of each of these souls, when they become willing to be the Lord's, and give their free and full consent to have him for their husband; and this is the day of their open espousal to him, and in this the apostle had, and other ministers of the Gospel have a concern; he was a means, in the hands of the Spirit, of their regeneration, a minister by whom they believed, an instrument in directing their souls to Christ, by setting forth his unsearchable riches, the glory of his person, and fulness of his grace: as Abraham's servant set forth the greatness of his master, and the large possessions his son was heir to, and brought out his bracelets and ear rings, his jewels of gold and silver, and thereby gained his point, a wife for Isaac; so the Spirit of God going along with the ministration of the apostle so wrought upon these Corinthians, as to give up themselves to the Lord, and take him for their head and husband, Saviour and Redeemer. This was the concern the apostle had herein, and his view, desire, and hope were, to set them before Christ their husband, pure and incorrupt:

that I may present you as a chaste virgin to Christ; that is, single in their love to, him, strictly adhering to him, and him only, as standing in such a relation to them; pure in the principles of faith, sincere and upright in their worship, and holy in their lives and conversations; nothing was more desirable to him than this, that he might thus present them to Christ at the great day; whereby it would appear, that his labour was not in vain in the Lord: now having been concerned in this affair of espousing them to Christ, and they not yet presented to him, or took home by him, he could not, as things were circumstanced, but entertain a godly jealousy over them in his own breast, lest the false apostles should draw them aside in any degree from their love to Christ, and faith in him.