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Teks -- 1 Samuel 17:1-58 (NET)

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Konteks
David Kills Goliath
17:1 The Philistines gathered their troops for battle. They assembled at Socoh in Judah. They camped in Ephes Dammim, between Socoh and Azekah. 17:2 Saul and the Israelite army assembled and camped in the valley of Elah, where they arranged their battle lines to fight against the Philistines. 17:3 The Philistines were standing on one hill, and the Israelites on another hill, with the valley between them. 17:4 Then a champion came out from the camp of the Philistines. His name was Goliath; he was from Gath. He was close to seven feet tall. 17:5 He had a bronze helmet on his head and was wearing scale body armor. The weight of his bronze body armor was five thousand shekels. 17:6 He had bronze shin guards on his legs, and a bronze javelin was slung over his shoulders. 17:7 The shaft of his spear was like a weaver’s beam, and the iron point of his spear weighed six hundred shekels. His shield bearer was walking before him. 17:8 Goliath stood and called to Israel’s troops, “Why do you come out to prepare for battle? Am I not the Philistine, and are you not the servants of Saul? Choose for yourselves a man so he may come down to me! 17:9 If he is able to fight with me and strike me down, we will become your servants. But if I prevail against him and strike him down, you will become our servants and will serve us.” 17:10 Then the Philistine said, “I defy Israel’s troops this day! Give me a man so we can fight each other!” 17:11 When Saul and all the Israelites heard these words of the Philistine, they were upset and very afraid. 17:12 Now David was the son of this Ephrathite named Jesse from Bethlehem in Judah. He had eight sons, and in Saul’s days he was old and well advanced in years. 17:13 Jesse’s three oldest sons had followed Saul to war. The names of the three sons who went to war were Eliab, his firstborn, Abinadab, the second oldest, and Shammah, the third oldest. 17:14 Now David was the youngest. While the three oldest sons followed Saul, 17:15 David was going back and forth from Saul in order to care for his father’s sheep in Bethlehem. 17:16 Meanwhile for forty days the Philistine approached every morning and evening and took his position. 17:17 Jesse said to his son David, “Take your brothers this ephah of roasted grain and these ten loaves of bread; go quickly to the camp to your brothers. 17:18 Also take these ten portions of cheese to their commanding officer. Find out how your brothers are doing and bring back their pledge that they received the goods. 17:19 They are with Saul and the whole Israelite army in the valley of Elah, fighting with the Philistines.” 17:20 So David got up early in the morning and entrusted the flock to someone else who would watch over it. After loading up, he went just as Jesse had instructed him. He arrived at the camp as the army was going out to the battle lines shouting its battle cry. 17:21 Israel and the Philistines drew up their battle lines opposite one another. 17:22 After David had entrusted his cargo to the care of the supply officer, he ran to the battlefront. When he arrived, he asked his brothers how they were doing. 17:23 As he was speaking with them, the champion named Goliath, the Philistine from Gath, was coming up from the battle lines of the Philistines. He spoke the way he usually did, and David heard it. 17:24 When all the men of Israel saw this man, they retreated from his presence and were very afraid. 17:25 The men of Israel said, “Have you seen this man who is coming up? He does so to defy Israel. But the king will make the man who can strike him down very wealthy! He will give him his daughter in marriage, and he will make his father’s house exempt from tax obligations in Israel.” 17:26 David asked the men who were standing near him, “What will be done for the man who strikes down this Philistine and frees Israel from this humiliation? For who is this uncircumcised Philistine, that he defies the armies of the living God?” 17:27 The soldiers told him what had been promised, saying, “This is what will be done for the man who can strike him down.” 17:28 When David’s oldest brother Eliab heard him speaking to the men, he became angry with David and said, “Why have you come down here? To whom did you entrust those few sheep in the desert? I am familiar with your pride and deceit! You have come down here to watch the battle!” 17:29 David replied, “What have I done now? Can’t I say anything?” 17:30 Then he turned from those who were nearby to someone else and asked the same question, but they gave him the same answer as before. 17:31 When David’s words were overheard and reported to Saul, he called for him. 17:32 David said to Saul, “Don’t let anyone be discouraged. Your servant will go and fight this Philistine!” 17:33 But Saul replied to David, “You aren’t able to go against this Philistine and fight him! You’re just a boy! He has been a warrior from his youth!” 17:34 David replied to Saul, “Your servant has been a shepherd for his father’s flock. Whenever a lion or bear would come and carry off a sheep from the flock, 17:35 I would go out after it, strike it down, and rescue the sheep from its mouth. If it rose up against me, I would grab it by its jaw, strike it, and kill it. 17:36 Your servant has struck down both the lion and the bear. This uncircumcised Philistine will be just like one of them. For he has defied the armies of the living God!” 17:37 David went on to say, “The Lord who delivered me from the lion and the bear will also deliver me from the hand of this Philistine!” Then Saul said to David, “Go! The Lord will be with you.” 17:38 Then Saul clothed David with his own fighting attire and put a bronze helmet on his head. He also put body armor on him. 17:39 David strapped on his sword over his fighting attire and tried to walk around, but he was not used to them. David said to Saul, “I can’t walk in these things, for I’m not used to them.” So David removed them. 17:40 He took his staff in his hand, picked out five smooth stones from the stream, placed them in the pouch of his shepherd’s bag, took his sling in hand, and approached the Philistine. 17:41 The Philistine kept coming closer to David, with his shield bearer walking in front of him. 17:42 When the Philistine looked carefully at David, he despised him, for he was only a ruddy and handsome boy. 17:43 The Philistine said to David, “Am I a dog, that you are coming after me with sticks?” Then the Philistine cursed David by his gods. 17:44 The Philistine said to David, “Come here to me, so I can give your flesh to the birds of the sky and the wild animals of the field!” 17:45 But David replied to the Philistine, “You are coming against me with sword and spear and javelin. But I am coming against you in the name of the Lord of hosts, the God of Israel’s armies, whom you have defied! 17:46 This very day the Lord will deliver you into my hand! I will strike you down and cut off your head. This day I will give the corpses of the Philistine army to the birds of the sky and the wild animals of the land. Then all the land will realize that Israel has a God 17:47 and all this assembly will know that it is not by sword or spear that the Lord saves! For the battle is the Lord’s, and he will deliver you into our hand.” 17:48 The Philistine drew steadily closer to David to attack him, while David quickly ran toward the battle line to attack the Philistine. 17:49 David reached his hand into the bag and took out a stone. He slung it, striking the Philistine on the forehead. The stone sank deeply into his forehead, and he fell down with his face to the ground. 17:50 David prevailed over the Philistine with just the sling and the stone. He struck down the Philistine and killed him. David did not even have a sword in his hand. 17:51 David ran and stood over the Philistine. He grabbed Goliath’s sword, drew it from its sheath, killed him, and cut off his head with it. When the Philistines saw their champion was dead, they ran away. 17:52 Then the men of Israel and Judah charged forward, shouting a battle cry. They chased the Philistines to the valley and to the very gates of Ekron. The Philistine corpses lay fallen along the Shaaraim road to Gath and Ekron. 17:53 When the Israelites returned from their hot pursuit of the Philistines, they looted their camp. 17:54 David took the head of the Philistine and brought it to Jerusalem, and he put Goliath’s weapons in his tent. 17:55 Now as Saul watched David going out to fight the Philistine, he asked Abner, the general in command of the army, “Whose son is this young man, Abner?” Abner replied, “As surely as you live, O king, I don’t know.” 17:56 The king said, “Find out whose son this boy is!” 17:57 So when David returned from striking down the Philistine, Abner took him and brought him before Saul. He still had the head of the Philistine in his hand. 17:58 Saul said to him, “Whose son are you, young man?” David replied, “I am the son of your servant Jesse in Bethlehem.”
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Abinadab the Levite who received the ark back from the Philistines,the son of Jesse, David's brother,the son of Saul of Benjami
 · Abner a man of Benjamin in Saul and David's time
 · Azekah a town in the western foothills of Judah
 · Bethlehem a town 8 km south of Jerusalem,a town of Zebulun 10 km west of Nazareth and 15 km SW of Cana SMM,a town of Judah 8 km south. of Jerusalem
 · Bethlehemite a resident of the town of Bethlehem
 · David a son of Jesse of Judah; king of Israel,son of Jesse of Judah; king of Israel
 · Ekron a town in the western foothills of Judah,residents of the town of Ekron
 · Elah a chief of Edom,the valley where David killed Goliath,son and successor of Baasha, king of Israel (about 900 BC),father of Hoshea, the last king of Israel about 700 BC,son of Caleb the son of Jephunneh of Judah,son of Uzzi (Michri Benjamin) who led his clan back from exile
 · Eliab son of Helon; Moses' officer over the tribe of Zebulun,son of Pallu of Reuben; father of Dathan and Abiram,son of Jesse; brother of David,a Levite worship leader in David's time,a Gadite officer of Saul's who defected to David,son of Nahath/Toah/Tohu of Levi; Samuel's great grandfather
 · Ephes-dammim a place in Judah between Soco and Azekah; 10-15 km east of Gath
 · Ephes-Dammim a place in Judah between Soco and Azekah; 10-15 km east of Gath
 · Ephrathite member(s) of the clan of Ephrathah
 · Gath a town of the Anakim and Philistines in Judah 12 km south. of Ekron
 · Goliath a Philistine giant from Gath,a Philistine giant from Gath killed by Elhanan.
 · Israel a citizen of Israel.,a member of the nation of Israel
 · Israelite a citizen of Israel.,a member of the nation of Israel
 · Jerusalem the capital city of Israel,a town; the capital of Israel near the southern border of Benjamin
 · Jesse a son of Obed; the father of David the king and ancestor of Jesus,son of Obed of Judah; father of David
 · Judah the son of Jacob and Leah; founder of the tribe of Judah,a tribe, the land/country,a son of Joseph; the father of Simeon; an ancestor of Jesus,son of Jacob/Israel and Leah; founder of the tribe of Judah,the tribe of Judah,citizens of the southern kingdom of Judah,citizens of the Persian Province of Judah; the Jews who had returned from Babylonian exile,"house of Judah", a phrase which highlights the political leadership of the tribe of Judah,"king of Judah", a phrase which relates to the southern kingdom of Judah,"kings of Judah", a phrase relating to the southern kingdom of Judah,"princes of Judah", a phrase relating to the kingdom of Judah,the territory allocated to the tribe of Judah, and also the extended territory of the southern kingdom of Judah,the Province of Judah under Persian rule,"hill country of Judah", the relatively cool and green central highlands of the territory of Judah,"the cities of Judah",the language of the Jews; Hebrew,head of a family of Levites who returned from Exile,a Levite who put away his heathen wife,a man who was second in command of Jerusalem; son of Hassenuah of Benjamin,a Levite in charge of the songs of thanksgiving in Nehemiah's time,a leader who helped dedicate Nehemiah's wall,a Levite musician who helped Zechariah of Asaph dedicate Nehemiah's wall
 · Philistines a sea people coming from Crete in 1200BC to the coast of Canaan
 · Saul the sixth king of Edom,son of Simeon and a Canaanite woman,son of Uzziah of Kohath son of Levi
 · Sha-Araim a town of Simeon in the lowlands of Judah
 · Shammah son of Reuel son of Esau,son of Jesse, older brother of King David,son of Agee the Hararite; one of David's military elite,a man from Harod who was one of David's military elite,a Hararite man; one of David's military elite
 · Socoh a town in the western foothills of Judah, 25 km SW of Jerusalem (OS),a town in Solomon's third district 25 km NW of Shechem (OS),a town in the hills of Judah, about 15 km SW of Hebron (OS)


Topik/Tema Kamus: David | Saul | Philistines | ELHANAN | Jesse | Goliath | JAARE-OREGIM | Boasting | Israel | WAR; WARFARE | Suffering | SAMUEL, BOOKS OF | Championship | Armies | Decision | Courage | Bear | Sling | Shepherd | PALESTINE, 2 | selebihnya
Daftar Isi

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Wesley , JFB , Clarke , Defender , TSK

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Poole , PBC , Haydock , Gill

Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki
NET Notes , Geneva Bible

Catatan Rentang Ayat
Maclaren , MHCC , Matthew Henry , Keil-Delitzsch , Constable , Guzik

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per frasa)

Wesley: 1Sa 17:1 - Gathered, &c. _Probably they had heard, that Samuel had forsaken Saul, and that Saul himself was unfit for business. The enemies of the church are watchful to take ...

_Probably they had heard, that Samuel had forsaken Saul, and that Saul himself was unfit for business. The enemies of the church are watchful to take all advantages, and they never have greater advantage, than when her protectors have provoked God's Spirit and prophets to leave them.

Wesley: 1Sa 17:4 - Six cubits At least, nine feet, nine inches high. And this is not strange; for besides the giants mentioned in Scripture, Herodotus, Diodorus Siculus, and Pliny,...

At least, nine feet, nine inches high. And this is not strange; for besides the giants mentioned in Scripture, Herodotus, Diodorus Siculus, and Pliny, make mention of persons seven cubits high.

Wesley: 1Sa 17:5 - Coat of mail Made of brass plates laid over one another, like the scales of a fish.

Made of brass plates laid over one another, like the scales of a fish.

Wesley: 1Sa 17:5 - The weight, &c. The common shekel contained a fourth part of an ounce; and so five thousand shekels made one thousand two hundred and fifty ounces, or seventy - eight...

The common shekel contained a fourth part of an ounce; and so five thousand shekels made one thousand two hundred and fifty ounces, or seventy - eight pounds: which weight is not unsuitable to a man of such vast strength as his height speaks him to be.

Wesley: 1Sa 17:6 - Greaves Boots.

Boots.

Wesley: 1Sa 17:7 - Beam On which the weavers fasten their web. It was like this for thickness. And though the whole weight of Goliath's armour may seem prodigious; yet it is ...

On which the weavers fasten their web. It was like this for thickness. And though the whole weight of Goliath's armour may seem prodigious; yet it is not so much by far as one Athanatus did manage: of whom Pliny relates, That he saw him come into the theatre with arms weighing twelve thousand ounces.

Wesley: 1Sa 17:7 - A shield Probably for state: for he that was clad in brass, little needed a shield.

Probably for state: for he that was clad in brass, little needed a shield.

Wesley: 1Sa 17:8 - Come down That the battle may be decided by us two alone.

That the battle may be decided by us two alone.

Wesley: 1Sa 17:11 - Afraid This may seem strange, considering the glorious promises, and their late experience of divine assistance. And where was Jonathan, who in the last war ...

This may seem strange, considering the glorious promises, and their late experience of divine assistance. And where was Jonathan, who in the last war had so bravely engaged an whole army of the Philistines? Doubtless he did not feel himself so stirred up of God as he did at that time. As the best, so the bravest of men, are no more than what God makes them. Jonathan must sit still now, because this honour is reserved for David.

Wesley: 1Sa 17:12 - Old man Therefore he went not himself to the camp.

Therefore he went not himself to the camp.

Wesley: 1Sa 17:15 - Went From Saul's court: where having relieved Saul, he was permitted to go to his father's house, to be sent for again upon occasion.

From Saul's court: where having relieved Saul, he was permitted to go to his father's house, to be sent for again upon occasion.

Wesley: 1Sa 17:18 - Pledge That is, bring me some token of their welfare.

That is, bring me some token of their welfare.

Wesley: 1Sa 17:19 - Fighting That is, in a posture and readiness to fight with them; as it is explained, 1Sa 17:20-21.

That is, in a posture and readiness to fight with them; as it is explained, 1Sa 17:20-21.

Wesley: 1Sa 17:20 - Went, &c. _Jesse little thought of sending his son to the camp, just at that critical juncture. But the wise God orders the time and all the circumstances of af...

_Jesse little thought of sending his son to the camp, just at that critical juncture. But the wise God orders the time and all the circumstances of affairs, so as to serve the designs of his own glory.

Wesley: 1Sa 17:24 - Fled One Philistine could never have thus put ten thousand Israelites to flight, unless their rock, being forsaken by them, had justly sold them and shut t...

One Philistine could never have thus put ten thousand Israelites to flight, unless their rock, being forsaken by them, had justly sold them and shut them up.

Wesley: 1Sa 17:25 - Free Free from all those tributes and charges which either the court or the camp required.

Free from all those tributes and charges which either the court or the camp required.

Wesley: 1Sa 17:28 - Naughtiness Thy false - confidence, and vain gloried curiosity. See the folly and wickedness of envy! How groundless its jealousies are, how unjust its censures, ...

Thy false - confidence, and vain gloried curiosity. See the folly and wickedness of envy! How groundless its jealousies are, how unjust its censures, how unfair it representations? God preserve us from such a spirit!

Wesley: 1Sa 17:29 - A cause Of my thus speaking? Is this giant invincible? Is our God unable to oppose him, and subdue him? However David is not deterred from his undertaking, by...

Of my thus speaking? Is this giant invincible? Is our God unable to oppose him, and subdue him? However David is not deterred from his undertaking, by the hard words of Eliab. They that undertake public services must not think it strange, if they be opposed by those from whom they had reason to expect assistance, but must humbly go on with their work, in the face, not only of their enemies threats, but of their friends slights, suspicions, and censures.

Wesley: 1Sa 17:30 - He tarried For being secretly moved by God's spirit to undertake the combat. He speaks with divers persons about it, that it might come to the king's ear.

For being secretly moved by God's spirit to undertake the combat. He speaks with divers persons about it, that it might come to the king's ear.

Wesley: 1Sa 17:32 - Let no man's heart, &c. _It would have reflected upon his prince to say, Let not thy heart fail: therefore he speaks in general terms, Let no man's heart fail. A little sheph...

_It would have reflected upon his prince to say, Let not thy heart fail: therefore he speaks in general terms, Let no man's heart fail. A little shepherd, come but this morning from keeping sheep, has more courage than all the mighty men of Israel! Thus doth God often do great things for his people by the weak things of the world.

Wesley: 1Sa 17:33 - A youth Not above 20 years old; and a novice, a raw and unexperienced soldier.

Not above 20 years old; and a novice, a raw and unexperienced soldier.

Wesley: 1Sa 17:37 - The Lord, &c. _The lion and the bear were only enemies to me and my sheep, and it was in defence of them I attacked them. But this Philistine is an enemy to my God ...

_The lion and the bear were only enemies to me and my sheep, and it was in defence of them I attacked them. But this Philistine is an enemy to my God and his people, and it is for their honour that I attack him.

Wesley: 1Sa 17:38 - Armour With armour taken out of his armoury. He seems to speak of some military vestments which were then used in war, and were contrived for defence; such a...

With armour taken out of his armoury. He seems to speak of some military vestments which were then used in war, and were contrived for defence; such as buff - coats are now.

Wesley: 1Sa 17:39 - Proved them I have no skill or experience in the managements of this kind of arms.

I have no skill or experience in the managements of this kind of arms.

Wesley: 1Sa 17:40 - Staff His shepherd's staff. These arms in themselves were contemptible, yet chosen by David; because he had no skill to use other arms; because he had inwar...

His shepherd's staff. These arms in themselves were contemptible, yet chosen by David; because he had no skill to use other arms; because he had inward assurance of the victory, even by these weapons; and because such a conquest would be more honourable to God, and most shameful, and discouraging to the Philistines.

Wesley: 1Sa 17:41 - Drew near Probably a signal was made, that his challenge was accepted.

Probably a signal was made, that his challenge was accepted.

Wesley: 1Sa 17:42 - Fair Not having so much as the countenance of a martial person.

Not having so much as the countenance of a martial person.

Wesley: 1Sa 17:43 - Dog Dost thou think to beat me as easily as thou wouldst thy dog?

Dost thou think to beat me as easily as thou wouldst thy dog?

Wesley: 1Sa 17:46 - A God Heb. that God, the only true God, is for Israel; or on Israel's side, and against you. Or, that Israel hath a God, a God indeed, one who is able to he...

Heb. that God, the only true God, is for Israel; or on Israel's side, and against you. Or, that Israel hath a God, a God indeed, one who is able to help them; and not such an impotent idol as you serve.

Wesley: 1Sa 17:47 - Saveth That is, that he can save without these arms, and with the most contemptible weapons.

That is, that he can save without these arms, and with the most contemptible weapons.

Wesley: 1Sa 17:47 - The battle That is, the events of war are wholly in his power.

That is, the events of war are wholly in his power.

Wesley: 1Sa 17:47 - He will David speaks thus confidently, because he was assured of it by a particular inspiration.

David speaks thus confidently, because he was assured of it by a particular inspiration.

Wesley: 1Sa 17:48 - Drew nigh Like a stalking mountain.

Like a stalking mountain.

Wesley: 1Sa 17:48 - Ran So far was he from fear!

So far was he from fear!

Wesley: 1Sa 17:49 - Forehead Probably the proud giant had lift up that part of his helmet which covered his fore - head; in contempt of David and his weapons, and by the singular ...

Probably the proud giant had lift up that part of his helmet which covered his fore - head; in contempt of David and his weapons, and by the singular direction of providence.

Wesley: 1Sa 17:51 - David took Hence it appears, that David was not a little man, as many fancy; but a man of considerable bulk and strength, because he was able to manage a giant's...

Hence it appears, that David was not a little man, as many fancy; but a man of considerable bulk and strength, because he was able to manage a giant's sword. The stone threw him down to the earth, and bereaved him of sense and motion; but there remained some life in him, which the sword took away, and so compleated the work. God is greatly glorified, when his proud enemies are cut off with their own sword.

Wesley: 1Sa 17:55 - Whose son David had been some considerable time dismissed from Saul's court, and was returned home. And therefore it is not strange, if Saul for the present had...

David had been some considerable time dismissed from Saul's court, and was returned home. And therefore it is not strange, if Saul for the present had forgot David. Besides the distemper of Saul's mind might make him forgetful; and that David might be now much changed, both in his countenance and in his habit.

Wesley: 1Sa 17:55 - I cannot tell Abner's employment was generally in the camp, when David was at the court; and when Abner was there, he took little notice of a person so much inferio...

Abner's employment was generally in the camp, when David was at the court; and when Abner was there, he took little notice of a person so much inferior to him as David was.

JFB: 1Sa 17:1 - the Philistines gathered together their armies Twenty-seven years after their overthrow at Michmash. Having now recovered their spirits and strength, they sought an opportunity of wiping out the in...

Twenty-seven years after their overthrow at Michmash. Having now recovered their spirits and strength, they sought an opportunity of wiping out the infamy of that national disaster, as well as to regain their lost ascendency over Israel.

JFB: 1Sa 17:1 - Shocoh Now Shuweikeh, a town in the western plains of Judah (Jos 15:35), nine Roman miles from Eleutheropolis, toward Jerusalem [ROBINSON].

Now Shuweikeh, a town in the western plains of Judah (Jos 15:35), nine Roman miles from Eleutheropolis, toward Jerusalem [ROBINSON].

JFB: 1Sa 17:1 - Azekah A small place in the neighborhood.

A small place in the neighborhood.

JFB: 1Sa 17:1 - Ephes-dammim Or, "Pas-dammim" (1Ch 11:13), "the portion" or "effusion of blood," situated between the other two.

Or, "Pas-dammim" (1Ch 11:13), "the portion" or "effusion of blood," situated between the other two.

JFB: 1Sa 17:2 - valley of Elah That is, "the Terebinth," now Wady Er-Sumt [ROBINSON]. Another valley somewhat to the north, now called Wady Beit Hanina, has been fixed on by the tra...

That is, "the Terebinth," now Wady Er-Sumt [ROBINSON]. Another valley somewhat to the north, now called Wady Beit Hanina, has been fixed on by the tradition of ages.

JFB: 1Sa 17:4-11 - a champion Hebrew, a "man between two"; that is, a person who, on the part of his own people, undertook to determine the national quarrel by engaging in single c...

Hebrew, a "man between two"; that is, a person who, on the part of his own people, undertook to determine the national quarrel by engaging in single combat with a chosen warrior in the hostile army.

JFB: 1Sa 17:5 - helmet of brass The Philistine helmet had the appearance of a row of feathers set in a tiara, or metal band, to which were attached scales of the same material, for t...

The Philistine helmet had the appearance of a row of feathers set in a tiara, or metal band, to which were attached scales of the same material, for the defense of the neck and the sides of the face [OSBORN].

JFB: 1Sa 17:5 - a coat of mail A kind of corslet, quilted with leather or plates of metal, reaching only to the chest, and supported by shoulder straps, leaving the shoulders and ar...

A kind of corslet, quilted with leather or plates of metal, reaching only to the chest, and supported by shoulder straps, leaving the shoulders and arms at full liberty.

JFB: 1Sa 17:6 - greaves of brass Boots, terminating at the ankle, made in one plate of metal, but round to the shape of the leg, and often lined with felt or sponge. They were useful ...

Boots, terminating at the ankle, made in one plate of metal, but round to the shape of the leg, and often lined with felt or sponge. They were useful in guarding the legs, not only against the spikes of the enemy, but in making way among thorns and briers.

JFB: 1Sa 17:6 - a target of brass A circular frame, carried at the back, suspended by a long belt which crossed the breast from the shoulders to the loins.

A circular frame, carried at the back, suspended by a long belt which crossed the breast from the shoulders to the loins.

JFB: 1Sa 17:7 - staff of his spear Rather under five feet long, and capable of being used as a javelin (1Sa 19:10). It had an iron head.

Rather under five feet long, and capable of being used as a javelin (1Sa 19:10). It had an iron head.

JFB: 1Sa 17:7 - one bearing a shield In consequence of their great size and weight, the Oriental warrior had a trusty and skilful friend, whose office it was to bear the large shield behi...

In consequence of their great size and weight, the Oriental warrior had a trusty and skilful friend, whose office it was to bear the large shield behind which he avoided the missile weapons of the enemy. He was covered, cap-a-pie, with defensive armor, while he had only two offensive weapons--a sword by his side and a spear in his hand.

JFB: 1Sa 17:8-11 - I defy the armies of Israel . . .; give me a man, that we may fight together In cases of single combat, a warrior used to go out in front of his party, and advancing towards the opposite ranks, challenge someone to fight with h...

In cases of single combat, a warrior used to go out in front of his party, and advancing towards the opposite ranks, challenge someone to fight with him. If his formidable appearance, or great reputation for physical strength and heroism, deterred any from accepting the challenge, he used to parade himself within hearing of the enemy's lines, specify in a loud, boastful, bravado style, defying them, and pouring out torrents of abuse and insolence to provoke their resentment.

JFB: 1Sa 17:17 - Take now for thy brethren an ephah of this parched corn, and these ten loaves In those times campaigns seldom lasted above a few days at a time. The soldiers were volunteers or militia, who were supplied with provisions from tim...

In those times campaigns seldom lasted above a few days at a time. The soldiers were volunteers or militia, who were supplied with provisions from time to time by their friends at home.

JFB: 1Sa 17:18 - carry these ten cheeses to the captain To enlist his kind attention. Oriental cheeses are very small; and although they are frequently made of so soft a consistence as to resemble curds, th...

To enlist his kind attention. Oriental cheeses are very small; and although they are frequently made of so soft a consistence as to resemble curds, those which David carried seem to have been fully formed, pressed, and sufficiently dried to admit of their being carried.

JFB: 1Sa 17:18 - take their pledge Tokens of the soldiers' health and safety were sent home in the convenient form of a lock of their hair, or piece of their nail, or such like.

Tokens of the soldiers' health and safety were sent home in the convenient form of a lock of their hair, or piece of their nail, or such like.

JFB: 1Sa 17:20 - David left the sheep with a keeper This is the only instance in which the hired shepherd is distinguished from the master or one of his family.

This is the only instance in which the hired shepherd is distinguished from the master or one of his family.

JFB: 1Sa 17:20 - trench Some feeble attempt at a rampart. It appears (see Margin) to have been formed by a line of carts or chariots, which, from the earliest times, was the ...

Some feeble attempt at a rampart. It appears (see Margin) to have been formed by a line of carts or chariots, which, from the earliest times, was the practice of nomad people.

JFB: 1Sa 17:22 - left his carriage in the hand of the keeper of the carriage To make his way to the standard of Judah.

To make his way to the standard of Judah.

JFB: 1Sa 17:25 - make his father's house free in Israel His family should be exempted from the impositions and services to which the general body of the Israelites were subjected.

His family should be exempted from the impositions and services to which the general body of the Israelites were subjected.

JFB: 1Sa 17:34-36 - a lion, and a bear There were two different rencontres, for those animals prowl alone. The bear must have been a Syrian bear, which is believed to be a distinct species,...

There were two different rencontres, for those animals prowl alone. The bear must have been a Syrian bear, which is believed to be a distinct species, or perhaps a variety, of the brown bear. The beard applies to the lion alone. Those feats seem to have been performed with no weapons more effective than the rude staves and stones of the field, or his shepherd's crook.

JFB: 1Sa 17:37 - The Lord that delivered me It would have been natural for a youth, and especially an Oriental youth, to make a parade of his gallantry. But David's piety sank all consideration ...

It would have been natural for a youth, and especially an Oriental youth, to make a parade of his gallantry. But David's piety sank all consideration of his own prowess and ascribed the success of those achievements to the divine aid, which he felt assured would not be withheld from him in a cause which so intimately concerned the safety and honor of His people.

JFB: 1Sa 17:37 - Saul said unto David, Go, and the Lord be with thee The pious language of the modest but valiant youth impressed the monarch's heart. He felt that it indicated the true military confidence for Israel, a...

The pious language of the modest but valiant youth impressed the monarch's heart. He felt that it indicated the true military confidence for Israel, and, therefore, made up his mind, without any demur, to sanction a combat on which the fate of his kingdom depended, and with a champion supporting his interests apparently so unequal to the task.

JFB: 1Sa 17:38-39 - Saul armed David with his armour The ancient Hebrews were particularly attentive to the personal safety of their warriors, and hence Saul equipped the youthful champion with his own d...

The ancient Hebrews were particularly attentive to the personal safety of their warriors, and hence Saul equipped the youthful champion with his own defensive accoutrements, which would be of the best style. It is probable that Saul's coat of mail, or corslet, was a loose shirt, otherwise it could not have fitted both a stripling and a man of the colossal stature of the king.

JFB: 1Sa 17:40 - brook Wady.

Wady.

JFB: 1Sa 17:40 - bag Or scrip for containing his daily food.

Or scrip for containing his daily food.

JFB: 1Sa 17:40 - sling The sling consisted of a double rope with a thong, probably of leather, to receive the stone. The slinger held a second stone in his left hand. David ...

The sling consisted of a double rope with a thong, probably of leather, to receive the stone. The slinger held a second stone in his left hand. David chose five stones, as a reserve, in case the first should fail. Shepherds in the East carry a sling and stones still, for the purpose of driving away, or killing, the enemies that prowl about the flock.

JFB: 1Sa 17:42-47 - the Philistine said . . . said David to the Philistine When the two champions met, they generally made each of them a speech, and sometimes recited some verses, filled with allusions and epithets of the mo...

When the two champions met, they generally made each of them a speech, and sometimes recited some verses, filled with allusions and epithets of the most opprobrious kind, hurling contempt and defiance at one another. This kind of abusive dialogue is common among the Arab combatants still. David's speech, however, presents a striking contrast to the usual strain of these invectives. It was full of pious trust, and to God he ascribed all the glory of the triumph he anticipated.

JFB: 1Sa 17:49 - smote the Philistine in his forehead At the opening for the eyes--that was the only exposed part of his body.

At the opening for the eyes--that was the only exposed part of his body.

JFB: 1Sa 17:51 - cut off his head Not as an evidence of the giant's death, for his slaughter had been effected in presence of the whole army, but as a trophy to be borne to Saul. The h...

Not as an evidence of the giant's death, for his slaughter had been effected in presence of the whole army, but as a trophy to be borne to Saul. The heads of slain enemies are always regarded in the East as the most welcome tokens of victory.

JFB: 1Sa 17:52 - Shaaraim (See Jos 15:36).

(See Jos 15:36).

JFB: 1Sa 17:54 - tent The sacred tabernacle. David dedicated the sword of Goliath as a votive offering to the Lord.

The sacred tabernacle. David dedicated the sword of Goliath as a votive offering to the Lord.

JFB: 1Sa 17:55-58 - Saul . . . said unto Abner . . . whose son is this youth? A young man is more spoken of in many Eastern countries by his father's name than his own. The growth of the beard, and other changes on a now full-gr...

A young man is more spoken of in many Eastern countries by his father's name than his own. The growth of the beard, and other changes on a now full-grown youth, prevented the king from recognizing his former favorite minstrel [1Sa 16:23].

Clarke: 1Sa 17:1 - Now the Philistines gathered together Now the Philistines gathered together - Calmet thinks that this war happened eight years after the anointing of David, and ten or twelve years after...

Now the Philistines gathered together - Calmet thinks that this war happened eight years after the anointing of David, and ten or twelve years after the war with the Amalekites. We have already seen that there was war between Saul and the Philistines all his days. See 1Sa 14:52

Clarke: 1Sa 17:1 - Shochoh and Azekah Shochoh and Azekah - Places which lay to the south of Jerusalem and to the west of Bethlehem; about five leagues from the former. Ephes-dammim was s...

Shochoh and Azekah - Places which lay to the south of Jerusalem and to the west of Bethlehem; about five leagues from the former. Ephes-dammim was somewhere in the vicinity, but it is not known where. See Calmet.

Clarke: 1Sa 17:2 - The valley of Elah The valley of Elah - Some translate this the turpentine valley, or the valley of the terebinth trees; and others, the valley of oaks. The situation ...

The valley of Elah - Some translate this the turpentine valley, or the valley of the terebinth trees; and others, the valley of oaks. The situation of this valley is well known.

Clarke: 1Sa 17:3 - The Philistines stood on a mountain The Philistines stood on a mountain - These were two eminences or hills, from which they could see and talk with each other.

The Philistines stood on a mountain - These were two eminences or hills, from which they could see and talk with each other.

Clarke: 1Sa 17:4 - There went out a champion There went out a champion - Our word champion comes from campus, the field; Campio est enim ille qui pugnat in campo, hoc est, in castris , "Champio...

There went out a champion - Our word champion comes from campus, the field; Campio est enim ille qui pugnat in campo, hoc est, in castris , "Champion is he, properly, who fights in the field; i.e., in camps."A man well skilled in arms, strong, brave, and patriotic

But is this the meaning of the original איש הבנים ish habbenayim , a middle man, the man between two; that is, as here, the man who undertakes to settle the disputes between two armies or nations. So our ancient champions settled disputes between contending parties by what was termed camp fight, hence the campio or champion. The versions know not well what to make of this man. The Vulgate calls him sir spurius , "a bastard;"the Septuagint, ανηρ δυνατος, "a strong or powerful man;"the Targum, גברא מביניהון gabra mibbeyneyhon , "a man from between them;"the Arabic, rujil jibar , "a great or gigantic man;"the Syriac is the same; and Josephus terms him ανηρ παμμεγεθιστατος, "an immensely great man."The Vulgate has given him the notation of spurius or bastard, because it considered the original as expressing a son of two, i.e., a man whose parents are unknown. Among all these I consider our word champion, as explained above, the best and most appropriate to the original terms

Clarke: 1Sa 17:4 - Whose height was six cubits and a span Whose height was six cubits and a span - The word cubit signifies the length from cubitus , the elbow, to the top of the middle finger, which is gen...

Whose height was six cubits and a span - The word cubit signifies the length from cubitus , the elbow, to the top of the middle finger, which is generally rated at one foot six inches. The span is the distance from the top of the middle finger to the end of the thumb, when extended as far as they can stretch on a plain; this is ordinarily nine inches. Were we sure that these were the measures, and their extent, which are intended in the original words, we could easily ascertain the height of this Philistine; it would then be nine feet nine inches, which is a tremendous height for a man

But the versions are not all agreed in his height. The Septuagint read τεσƒσαρων πηχεων και σπιθαμης, four cubits and a span; and Josephus reads the same. It is necessary however to observe that the Septuagint, in the Codex Alexandrinus, read with the Hebrew text. But what was the length of the ancient cubit? This has been variously computed; eighteen inches, twenty inches and a half, and twenty-one inches. If we take the first measurement, he was nine feet nine; if the second, and read palm instead of span, with the Vulgate and others, he was ten feet seven inches and a half; if we take the last, which is the estimate of Graevius, with the span, he was eleven feet three inches; or if we go to the exactest measurement, as laid down in Bishop Cumberland’ s tables, where he computes the cubit at 21.888 inches, the span at 10.944 inches, and the palm at 3.684 inches, then the six cubits and the span will make exactly 11 feet 10.272 inches. If we take the palm instead of the span, then the height will be 11 feet 3.012 inches. But I still think that the nine feet nine inches is the most reasonable.

Clarke: 1Sa 17:5 - He was armed with a coat of mail He was armed with a coat of mail - The words in the original, שרון קשקשים shiryon kaskassim , mean a coat of mail formed of plates of bra...

He was armed with a coat of mail - The words in the original, שרון קשקשים shiryon kaskassim , mean a coat of mail formed of plates of brass overlapping each other, like the scales of a fish, or tiles of a house. This is the true notion of the original terms

With thin plates of brass or iron, overlapping each other, were the ancient coats of mail formed in different countries; many formed in this way may be now seen in the tower of London

Clarke: 1Sa 17:5 - The weight - five thousand shekels The weight - five thousand shekels - Following Bishop Cumberland’ s tables, and rating the shekel at two hundred and nineteen grains, and the R...

The weight - five thousand shekels - Following Bishop Cumberland’ s tables, and rating the shekel at two hundred and nineteen grains, and the Roman ounce at four hundred and thirty-eight grains, we find that Goliath’ s coat of mail, weighing five thousand shekels, was exactly one hundred and fifty-six pounds four ounces avoirdupois. A vast weight for a coat of mail, but not all out of proportion to the man.

Clarke: 1Sa 17:6 - Greaves of brass upon his legs Greaves of brass upon his legs - This species of armor may be seen on many ancient monuments. It was a plate of brass (though perhaps sometimes form...

Greaves of brass upon his legs - This species of armor may be seen on many ancient monuments. It was a plate of brass (though perhaps sometimes formed of laminae or plates, like the mail) which covered the shin or fore part of the leg, from the knee down to the instep, and was buckled with straps behind the leg. From ancient monuments we find that it was commonly worn only on one leg. Vegetius, de Re Militari, says, Pedites Scutati etiam ferreas ocreas in dextris cruribus copebantur accipere . "The foot soldiers, called Scutati, from their particular species of shield, were obliged to use iron greaves on their right legs."One of these may be seen in the monument of the gladiator Buto, in Montfaucon; and another in the Mosaic pavement at Bognor, in Surrey

Clarke: 1Sa 17:6 - A target of brass between his shoulders A target of brass between his shoulders - When not actually engaged, soldiers threw their shields behind their back, so that they appeared to rest o...

A target of brass between his shoulders - When not actually engaged, soldiers threw their shields behind their back, so that they appeared to rest or hang between the shoulders

There are different opinions concerning this piece of armor, called here כידון kidon . Some think it was a covering for the shoulders; others, that it was a javelin or dart; others, that it was a lance; some, a club; and others, a sword. It is certainly distinguished from the shield, 1Sa 17:41, and is translated a spear, Jos 8:18.

Clarke: 1Sa 17:7 - The staff on his spear was like a weaver’ s beam The staff on his spear was like a weaver’ s beam - Either like that on which the warp is rolled, or that on which the cloth is rolled. We know ...

The staff on his spear was like a weaver’ s beam - Either like that on which the warp is rolled, or that on which the cloth is rolled. We know not how thick this was, because there were several sorts of looms, and the sizes of the beams very dissimilar. Our woollen, linen, cotton, and silk looms are all different in the size of their beams; and I have seen several that I should not suppose too thick, though they might be too short, for Goliath’ s spear

Clarke: 1Sa 17:7 - His spear’ s head weighed six hundred shekels of iron His spear’ s head weighed six hundred shekels of iron - That is, his spear’ s head was of iron, and it weighed six hundred shekels; this, ...

His spear’ s head weighed six hundred shekels of iron - That is, his spear’ s head was of iron, and it weighed six hundred shekels; this, according to the former computation, would amount to eighteen pounds twelve ounces

Clarke: 1Sa 17:7 - And one bearing a shield And one bearing a shield - הצנה hatstsinnah , from צן tsan , pointed or penetrating, if it do not mean some kind of a lance, must mean a shi...

And one bearing a shield - הצנה hatstsinnah , from צן tsan , pointed or penetrating, if it do not mean some kind of a lance, must mean a shield, with what is called the umbo , a sharp protuberance, in the middle, with which they could as effectually annoy their enemies as defend themselves. Many of the old Highland targets were made with a projecting dagger in the center. Taking the proportions of things unknown to those known, the armor of Goliath is supposed to have weighed not less than two hundred and seventy-two pounds thirteen ounces! Plutarch informs us that the ordinary weight of a soldier’ s panoply, or complete armor, was one talent, or sixty pounds; and that one Alcimus, in the army of Demetrius, was considered as a prodigy, because his panoply weighed two talents, or one hundred and twenty pounds.

Clarke: 1Sa 17:8 - I a Philistine I a Philistine - The Targum adds much to this speech. This is the substance: "I am Goliath the Philistine of Gath, who killed the two sons of Eli, H...

I a Philistine - The Targum adds much to this speech. This is the substance: "I am Goliath the Philistine of Gath, who killed the two sons of Eli, Hophni and Phinehas the priests; and led into captivity the ark of the covenant of Jehovah, and placed it in the temple of Dagon my god; and it remained in the cities of the Philistines seven months. Also, in all our battles I have gone at the head of the army, and we conquered and cut down men, and laid them as low as the dust of the earth; and to this day the Philistines have not granted me the honor of being chief of a thousand men. And ye, men of Israel, what noble exploit has Saul, the son of Kish, of Gibeah, done, that ye should have made him king over you? If he be a hero, let him come down himself and fight with me; but if he be a weak or cowardly man, then choose you out a man that he may come down to me."

Clarke: 1Sa 17:9 - Then will we be your servants Then will we be your servants - Of this stipulation we hear nothing farther.

Then will we be your servants - Of this stipulation we hear nothing farther.

Clarke: 1Sa 17:10 - I defy I defy - אני חרפתי ani cheraphti , "I strip and make bare,"the armies of Israel; for none dared to fight him. From the Dhunoor Veda Shastra...

I defy - אני חרפתי ani cheraphti , "I strip and make bare,"the armies of Israel; for none dared to fight him. From the Dhunoor Veda Shastra it appears that, among the Hindoos, it was common, before the commencement of an engagement, to challenge the enemy by throwing out some terms of abuse, similar to those used by Goliath. We find this also in Homer: his heroes scold each other heartily before they begin to fight. See on 1Sa 17:43 (note).

Clarke: 1Sa 17:11 - Saul and all Israel - were dismayed Saul and all Israel - were dismayed - They saw no man able to accept the challenge.

Saul and all Israel - were dismayed - They saw no man able to accept the challenge.

Clarke: 1Sa 17:12 - -- The 12th verse, to the 31st inclusive, are wanting in the Septuagint; as also the 41st verse; and from the 54th to the end; with the first five verses...

The 12th verse, to the 31st inclusive, are wanting in the Septuagint; as also the 41st verse; and from the 54th to the end; with the first five verses of 1 Samuel 18, and the 9th, 10th, 11th, 17th, 18th, and 19th of the same

All these parts are found in the Codex Alexandrinus; but it appears that the MS. from which the Codex Alexandrinus was copied, had them not. See observations at the end of this chapter, 1Sa 17:58 (note). Dr. Kennicott has rendered it very probable that these portions are not a genuine part of the text

Notwithstanding what Bishop Warburton and others have done to clear the chronology of the present printed Hebrew, it is impossible to make a clear consistent sense of the history, unless these verses are omitted. Let any one read the eleventh verse in connection with the thirty-second, leave out the forty-first, and connect the fifty-fourth with the sixth of 1 Samuel 18, and he will be perfectly convinced that there is nothing wanting to make the sense complete; to say nothing of the other omissions noted above. If the above be taken in as genuine, the ingenuity of man has hitherto failed to free the whole from apparent contradiction and absurdity. I must confess that where every one else has failed, I have no hope of succeeding: I must, therefore, leave all farther attempts to justify the chronology; and refer to those who have written for and against the genuineness of this part of the common Hebrew text. At the end of the chapter I shall introduce some extracts from Kennicott and Pilkington: and leave the whole with the unprejudiced and discerning reader.

Clarke: 1Sa 17:18 - Carry these ten cheeses Carry these ten cheeses - Cheeses of milk, says the margin. In the East they do not make what we call cheese: they press the milk but slightly, and ...

Carry these ten cheeses - Cheeses of milk, says the margin. In the East they do not make what we call cheese: they press the milk but slightly, and carry it in rush baskets. It is highly salted, and little different from curds.

Clarke: 1Sa 17:19 - Fighting with the Philistines Fighting with the Philistines - See at the end of the chapter, 1Sa 17:58 (note).

Fighting with the Philistines - See at the end of the chapter, 1Sa 17:58 (note).

Clarke: 1Sa 17:29 - Is there not a cause? Is there not a cause? - הלוא דבר הוא halo dabar hu . I believe the meaning is what several of the versions express: I have spoken but a ...

Is there not a cause? - הלוא דבר הוא halo dabar hu . I believe the meaning is what several of the versions express: I have spoken but a word. And should a man be made an offender for a word?

Clarke: 1Sa 17:32 - And David said And David said - This properly connects with the eleventh verse.

And David said - This properly connects with the eleventh verse.

Clarke: 1Sa 17:33 - Thou art but a youth Thou art but a youth - Supposed to be about twenty-two or twenty-three years of age.

Thou art but a youth - Supposed to be about twenty-two or twenty-three years of age.

Clarke: 1Sa 17:34 - Thy servant kept his father’ s sheep Thy servant kept his father’ s sheep - He found it necessary to give Saul the reasons why he undertook this combat; and why he expected to be v...

Thy servant kept his father’ s sheep - He found it necessary to give Saul the reasons why he undertook this combat; and why he expected to be victorious

1.    I have courage to undertake it, and strength to perform it

2.    Both have been tried in a very signal manner

(1). A lion came upon my flock, and seized a lamb; I ran after him, he attacked me, I seized hold of him by his shaggy locks, smote and slew him, and delivered the lamb

(2). A bear came in the same way, and I attacked and slew him

3.    This, with whom I am to fight, is a Philistine, an uncircumcised man; one who is an enemy to God: God therefore will not be on his side. On that ground I have nothing to fear

4.    He has defied the armies of the Lord; and has in effect defied Jehovah himself: therefore the battle is the Lord’ s, and he will stand by me

5.    I have perfect confidence in his protection and defense; for they that trust in him shall never be confounded

6.    I conclude, therefore, that the Lord, who delivered me out of the paw of the lion, and out of the paw of the bear, will deliver me out of the hand of the Philistine.

Clarke: 1Sa 17:35 - -- The slaying of the lion and the bear mentioned here, must have taken place at two different times; perhaps the verse should be read thus: I went out a...

The slaying of the lion and the bear mentioned here, must have taken place at two different times; perhaps the verse should be read thus: I went out after him, (the lion). and smote him, etc. And when he (the bear) rose up against me, I caught him by the beard and slew him.

Clarke: 1Sa 17:37 - Go, and the Lord be with thee Go, and the Lord be with thee - Saul saw that these were reasonable grounds of confidence, and therefore wished him success.

Go, and the Lord be with thee - Saul saw that these were reasonable grounds of confidence, and therefore wished him success.

Clarke: 1Sa 17:38 - Saul armed David Saul armed David - He knew that although the battle was the Lord’ s, yet prudent means should be used to secure success.

Saul armed David - He knew that although the battle was the Lord’ s, yet prudent means should be used to secure success.

Clarke: 1Sa 17:39 - I cannot go with these I cannot go with these - In ancient times it required considerable exercise and training to make a man expert in the use of such heavy armor; armor ...

I cannot go with these - In ancient times it required considerable exercise and training to make a man expert in the use of such heavy armor; armor which in the present day scarcely a man is to be found who is able to carry; and so it must have been then, until that practice which arises from frequent use had made the proprietor perfect. I have not proved them says David: I am wholly unaccustomed to such armor and it would be an encumbrance to me.

Clarke: 1Sa 17:40 - He took his staff He took his staff - What we would call his crook

He took his staff - What we would call his crook

Clarke: 1Sa 17:40 - Five smooth stones -

1.    Had they been rough or angular, they would not have passed easily through the air, and their asperities would, in the course of their passage, have given them a false direction

2.    Had they not been smooth, they could not have been readily despatched from the sling

A shepherd’ s bag Five smooth stones - 1.    Had they been rough or angular, they would not have passed easily through the air, and their asperities wo...

Five smooth stones -

1.    Had they been rough or angular, they would not have passed easily through the air, and their asperities would, in the course of their passage, have given them a false direction

2.    Had they not been smooth, they could not have been readily despatched from the sling

A shepherd’ s bag - That in which he generally carried his provisions while keeping the sheep in the open country

Clarke: 1Sa 17:40 - And his sling And his sling - The sling, both among the Greeks and Hebrews, has been a powerful offensive weapon. See what has been said on Jdg 20:16 (note). It i...

And his sling - The sling, both among the Greeks and Hebrews, has been a powerful offensive weapon. See what has been said on Jdg 20:16 (note). It is composed of two strings and a leathern strap; the strap is in the middle, and is the place where the stone or bullet lies. The string on the right end of the strap is firmly fastened to the hand; that on the left is held between the thumb and middle joint of the fore finger. It is then whirled two or three times round the head; and when discharged, the finger and thumb let go their hold of the left end string. The velocity and force of the sling are in proportion to the distance of the strap, where the bullet lies, from the shoulder joint. Hence the ancient Baleares, or inhabitants of Majorca and Minorca, are said to have had three slings of different lengths, the longest they used when the enemy was at the greatest distance; the middle one, on their nearer approach; and the shortest, when they came into the ordinary fighting distance in the field. The shortest is the most certain, though not the most powerful. The Balearians are said to have had one of their slings constantly bound about their head, to have used the second as a girdle, and to have carried the third always in their hand. See Diod. Sic. lib. v., c. 18, p. 286, edit. Bipont

In the use of the sling it requires much practice to hit the mark; but when once this dexterity is acquired, the sling is nearly as fatal as the musket or bow; see on 1Sa 17:49 (note). David was evidently an expert marksman; and his sling gave him greatly the advantage over Goliath; an advantage of which the giant does not seem to have been aware. He could hit him within any speaking distance, if he missed once, he had as many chances as he had stones; and after all, being unencumbered with armor, young, and athletic, he could have saved his life by flight. Against him the Philistine could do but little, except in close fight; it is true he appears to have had a javelin or missile spear, (see on 1Sa 17:6 (note)), but David took care to prevent the use of all such weapons, by giving him the first blow.

Clarke: 1Sa 17:41 - The man that bare the shield The man that bare the shield - See on 1Sa 17:7 (note).

The man that bare the shield - See on 1Sa 17:7 (note).

Clarke: 1Sa 17:42 - He disdained him He disdained him - He held him in contempt; he saw that he was young, and from his ruddy complexion supposed him to be effeminate.

He disdained him - He held him in contempt; he saw that he was young, and from his ruddy complexion supposed him to be effeminate.

Clarke: 1Sa 17:43 - Am I a dog, that thou comest to me with staves? Am I a dog, that thou comest to me with staves? - It is very likely that Goliath did not perceive the sling, which David might have kept coiled up w...

Am I a dog, that thou comest to me with staves? - It is very likely that Goliath did not perceive the sling, which David might have kept coiled up within his hand

Clarke: 1Sa 17:43 - Cursed David by his gods Cursed David by his gods - Prayed his gods to curse him. This long parley between David and Goliath is quite in the style of those times. A Hindoo s...

Cursed David by his gods - Prayed his gods to curse him. This long parley between David and Goliath is quite in the style of those times. A Hindoo sometimes in a fit of anger says to his enemy, The goddess Kalee shall devour thee! May Doorga destroy thee! Homer’ s heroes have generally an altercation before they engage; and sometimes enter into geographical and genealogical discussions, and vaunt and scold most contemptibly.

Clarke: 1Sa 17:44 - Come to me, and I will give thy flesh Come to me, and I will give thy flesh - He intended, as soon as he could lay hold on him, to pull him to pieces.

Come to me, and I will give thy flesh - He intended, as soon as he could lay hold on him, to pull him to pieces.

Clarke: 1Sa 17:45 - Thou comest to me with a sword Thou comest to me with a sword - I come to thee with the name ( בשם beshem ) of Jehovah of hosts; the God of the armies of Israel. What Goliath ...

Thou comest to me with a sword - I come to thee with the name ( בשם beshem ) of Jehovah of hosts; the God of the armies of Israel. What Goliath expected from his arms, David expected from the ineffable name.

Clarke: 1Sa 17:46 - This day will the Lord deliver thee into mine hand This day will the Lord deliver thee into mine hand - This was a direct and circumstantial prophecy of what did take place.

This day will the Lord deliver thee into mine hand - This was a direct and circumstantial prophecy of what did take place.

Clarke: 1Sa 17:47 - For the battle is the Lord’ s For the battle is the Lord’ s - It is the Lord’ s war: you are fighting against him and his religion, as the champion of your party; I am ...

For the battle is the Lord’ s - It is the Lord’ s war: you are fighting against him and his religion, as the champion of your party; I am fighting for God, as the champion of his cause.

Clarke: 1Sa 17:48 - The Philistine arose The Philistine arose - This was an end of the parley; the Philistine came forward to meet David, and David on his part ran forward to meet the Phili...

The Philistine arose - This was an end of the parley; the Philistine came forward to meet David, and David on his part ran forward to meet the Philistine.

Clarke: 1Sa 17:49 - Smote the Philistine in his forehead Smote the Philistine in his forehead - Except his face, Goliath was everywhere covered over with strong armor. Either he had no beaver to his helmet...

Smote the Philistine in his forehead - Except his face, Goliath was everywhere covered over with strong armor. Either he had no beaver to his helmet, or it was lifted up so as to expose his forehead; but it does not appear that the ancient helmets had any covering for the face. The Septuagint however supposes that the stone passed through the helmet, and sank into his forehead: Και διεδυ ὁ λιθος δια της περικεφαλαιας εις το μετωπον αυτου, "and the stone passed through his helmet, and sank into his skull."To some this has appeared perfectly improbable; but we are assured by ancient writers that scarcely any thing could resist the force of the sling

Diodorus Siculus, lib. v., c. 18, p. 287, edit. Bipont, says "The Baleares, in time of war, sling greater stones than any other people, and with such force, that they seem as if projected from a catapult. Διο και κατα τας τειχομαχιας εν ταις προσβολαις τυπτοντες τους προ των επαλξεων εφεστωτας κατατραυματιζουσιν· εν δε ταις παραταξεσι τους τε θυρεους, και τα κρανη, και παν σκεπαστηριον ὁπλον συντριβουσι. Κατα δε την ευστοχιαν οὑτως ακριβεις εισιν, ὡστε κατα το πλειστον μη ἁμαρτανειν του προκειμενου σκοπου Therefore, in assaults made on fortified towns, they grievously wound the besieged; and in battle they break in pieces the shields, helmets, and every species of armor by which the body is defended. And they are such exact marksmen that they scarcely ever miss that at which they aim."The historian accounts for their great accuracy and power in the use of the sling, from this circumstance: Αιτιαι δε τουτων, κ.τ.λ. "They attain to this perfection by frequent exercise from their childhood; for while they are young and under their mother’ s care, they are obliged to learn to sling; for they fasten bread for a mark at the top of the pole; and till the child hit the bread he must remain fasting; and when he has hit it, the mother gives it to him to eat."- Ibid

I have given these passages at large, because they contain several curious facts, and sufficiently account for the force and accuracy with which David slung his stone at Goliath. We find also in the μη ἁμαρτανειν, not miss the mark, of the historian, the true notion of ἁμαρτανειν, to sin, which I have contended for elsewhere. He who sins, though he aims thereby at his gratification and profit, misses the mark of present and eternal felicity.

Clarke: 1Sa 17:51 - When the Philistines saw their champion was dead, they fled When the Philistines saw their champion was dead, they fled - They were panic-struck; and not being willing to fulfill the condition which was stipu...

When the Philistines saw their champion was dead, they fled - They were panic-struck; and not being willing to fulfill the condition which was stipulated by Goliath, they precipitately left the field. The Israelites took a proper advantage of these circumstances, and totally routed their enemies.

Clarke: 1Sa 17:54 - David took the head of the Philistine David took the head of the Philistine - It has been already remarked that this, with the following verses, and the five first verses of the eighteen...

David took the head of the Philistine - It has been already remarked that this, with the following verses, and the five first verses of the eighteenth chapter, are omitted by the Septuagint. See the observations at the end, 1Sa 17:58 (note).

Clarke: 1Sa 17:58 - Whose son art thou, thou young man? Whose son art thou, thou young man? - That Saul should not know David with whom he had treated a little before, and even armed him for the combat, a...

Whose son art thou, thou young man? - That Saul should not know David with whom he had treated a little before, and even armed him for the combat, and that he should not know who his father was, though he had sent to his father for permission to David to reside constantly with him, (1Sa 16:22), is exceedingly strange! I fear all Bishop Warburton’ s attempts to rectify the chronology by assumed anticipations, will not account for this. I must honestly confess they do not satisfy me; and I must refer the reader to what immediately follows on the authenticity of the verses which concern this subject

On the subject of that large omission in the Septuagint of which I have spoken on 1Sa 17:12, I here subjoin the reasons of Mr. Pilkington and Dr. Kennicott for supposing it to be an interpolation of some rabbinical writer, added at a very early period to the Hebrew text

"Had every version of the Hebrew text,"says Mr. Pilkington, "agreed to give a translation of this passage, as we now find, the attempts of clearing it from its embarrassments would have been attended with very great difficulties; but, as in several other cases before mentioned, so here, the providence of God seems to have so far secured the credit of those who were appointed to be the penmen of the oracles of truth, that the defense of their original records may be undertaken upon good grounds, and supported by sufficient evidence. For we are now happily in possession of an ancient version of these two chapters, which appears to have been made from a Hebrew copy, which had none of the thirty-nine verses which are here supposed to have been interpolated, nor was similar to what we have at present in those places which are here supposed to have been altered. This version is found in the Vatican copy of the Seventy, which whoever reads and considers, will find the accounts there given regular, consistent, and probable. It will be proper, therefore, to examine the several parts where such alterations are supposed to have been made in the Hebrew text, in order to produce such other external or internal evidence, as shall be necessary to support the charge of interpolation, which ought not to be laid merely upon the authority of any single version

"The first passage, which is not translated in the Vatican copy of the Greek version, is from the 11th to the 32d verse of the 17th chapter wherein we have an account

1. Of David’ s being sent to the camp to visit his brethren

2. Of his conversation with the men of Israel, relating to Goliath’ s challenge; and their informing him of the premium Saul had offered to any one that should accept it, and come off victorious

3. Of Eliab’ s remarkable behavior to his brother David, upon his making this inquiry. And

4. Of Saul’ s being made acquainted with what David had said upon this occasion

"It is obvious to remark upon this passage: -

"1. That, after David had been of so much service to the king, in causing the evil spirit to depart from him; after its being recorded how greatly Saul loved him, and that he had made him his armor-bearer; after the king had sent to Jesse to signify his intention of keeping his son with him; all of which are particularly mentioned in the latter part of the preceding chapter; the account of his keeping his father’ s sheep afterwards, and being sent to his brethren upon this occasion, must appear to be somewhat improbable

2. That what is here said of the premium that Saul had offered to him who should conquer the Philistine, is not well consistent with the accounts afterwards given, of which we shall have occasion to take particular notice

3. That Eliab’ s behavior, as here represented, is not only remarkable but unaccountable and absurd. And

4. That the inquiries of a young man, who is not said to have declared any intentions of accepting the challenge of the Philistine, would scarcely have been related to the king

But now, if this passage be supposed to have been interpolated, we must see how the connection stands upon its being omitted.

"1Sa 17:11. ‘ When Saul and all Israel heard these words of the Philistine, they were dismayed, and greatly afraid.’

"1Sa 17:32. ‘ Then David said unto Saul, Let no man’ s heart fail because of him; thy servant will go and fight with this Philistine.’

"No connection can be more proper, and in this view David is represented as being at that time an attendant upon the king; and when we had been told just before, (1Sa 16:21), that Saul had made him his armor-bearer, we might justly expect to find him with him when the battle was set in array; 1Sa 17:2. In this connection David is also represented as fully answering the character before given of him: ‘ A mighty valiant man, and a man of war,’ 1Sa 16:18, and ready to fight with the giant upon the first proposal, (for the account of the Philistine presenting himself forty days is in this passage here supposed to have been interpolated, 1Sa 17:16). I shall leave it to the critical Hebrew reader to make what particular remarks he may think proper in respect to the style and manner of expression in these twenty verses, and let Jesse go for an old man amongst men in the days of Saul, etc."- Pilkington’ s Remarks upon several Passages of Scripture, p. 62

"The authorities,"says Dr. Kennicott, "here brought to prove this great interpolation are the internal evidence arising from the context, and the external arising from the Vatican copy of the Greek version. But how then reads the Alexandrian MS.? The remarks acknowledge that this MS. agrees here with the corrupted Hebrew; and therefore was probably translated, in this part, from some late Hebrew copy which had thus been interpolated; see pages 72, 75. Now that these two MSS. do contain different readings in some places, I observed in pages 398-404, and 414. And in this 17th chapter of Samuel, 1Sa 17:4, the Alexandrian MS. says, agreeably to the present Hebrew, that the height of Goliath was six cubits and a span, i.e., above eleven feet; but the Vatican MS., agreeably to Josephus, that it was four cubits and a span, i.e., near eight feet. And in 1Sa 17:43, what the Vatican renders he cursed David by his gods, the Alexandrian renders by his idols. But though the Hebrew text might be consulted and a few words differently rendered by the transcriber of one of these MSS., or by the transcribers of the MSS. from which these MSS. were taken; yet, as these MSS. do contain, in this chapter, such Greek as is almost universally the same, (in verb, noun, and particle), I presume that they contain here the same translation with the designed alteration of a few words, and with the difference of the interpolated verses found in the Alexandrian MS

"But, after all, what if the Alexandrian MS., which now has these verses should itself prove them interpolated? What if the very words of this very MS. demonstrate that these verses were not in some former Greek MS.? Certainly if the Alexandrian MS. should be thus found, at last, not to contradict, but to confirm the Vatican in its omission of these twenty verses, the concurrence of these authorities will render the argument much more forcible and convincing

"Let us then state the present question; which is, Whether the twenty verses between 1Sa 17:11 and 1Sa 17:32, which are now in the Hebrew text, are interpolated? The Vatican MS. goes on immediately from the end of the 11th verse ( και εφοβηθησαν σφοδρα ) to 1Sa 17:32, which begins και ειπε Δαυιδ : whereas the 12th verse in the Hebrew begins, not with a speech, but with David’ s birth and parentage. If then the Alexandrian MS. begins its present 12th verse as the 32d verse begins, and as the 12th verse could not begin properly, I appeal to any man of judgment whether the transcriber was not certainly copying from a ME. in which the 32d verse succeeded the 11th verse; and if so, then from a MS. which had not these intermediate verses? Now that this is the fact, the case will at once appear upon examining the Alexandrian copy, where the 12th verse begins with ΚΑΙ ΕΙΠΕ ΔΑΥΙΔ ; as the 32d verse begins, and as the 12th verse could not begin properly

"The case seems clearly to be, that the transcriber, having wrote what is now in the 11th verse, was beginning what is now the 32d verse; when, after writing και ειπε Δαυιδ, he perceived that either the Hebrew, or some other Greek copy, or the margin of his own copy, had several intermediate verses: upon which, without blotting out the significant word ΕΙΠΕ, he goes on to write the addition: thus fortunately leaving a decisive proof of his own great interpolation. if this addition was in the margin of that MS. from which the Alexandrian was transcribed, it might be inserted by that transcriber; but if it was inserted either from the Hebrew, or from any other Greek copy, the transcriber of this MS. seems to have had too little learning for such a proceeding. If it was done by the writer of that former MS., then the interpolation may be a hundred or a hundred and fifty years older than the Alexandrian MS. Perhaps the earliest Christian writer who enlarges upon the strong circumstance of David’ s coming from the sheep to the army, is Chrysostom, in his homily upon David and Saul; so that it had then been long in some copies of the Greek version. The truth seems to be, that the addition of these twenty verses took its first rise from what Josephus had inserted in his variation and embellishment of this history; but that many circumstances were afterwards added to his additions

"For (and it is extremely remarkable) though Josephus has some, he has not half the improbabilities which are found at present in the sacred history: as for instance: Nothing of the armies being fighting in the valley, or fighting at all, when David was sent by his father, as in 1Sa 17:19. Nothing of the host going forth, and shouting for the battle, at the time of David’ s arrival, as in 1Sa 17:20. Nothing of all the men of Israel fleeing from Goliath, as in 1Sa 17:24; on the contrary, the two armies, (it should seem), continued upon their two mountains. Nothing of David’ s long conversation with the soldiers, 1Sa 17:25-27, in seasons so very improper, as, whilst they were shouting for the battle, or whilst they were fleeing from Goliath; and fleeing from a man after they had seen him and heard him twice in every day for forty days together, 1Sa 17:16, the two armies, all this long while, leaning upon their arms, and looking very peaceably at one another. Nothing of Goliath’ s repeating his challenge every morning and every evening, as in 1Sa 17:16. David, (it is said, 1Sa 17:23), happened to hear one of these challenges; but if he heard the evening challenge, it would have been then too late for the several transactions before, and the long pursuit after, Goliath’ s death; and David could not well hear the morning challenge, because he could scarce have arrived so early, after travelling from Beth-lehem to the army, (about fifteen miles), and bringing with him an ephah of parched corn, and ten loaves, and ten cheeses, as in 1Sa 17:17, 1Sa 17:18. Nothing of encouraging any man to fight Goliath, by an offer of the kinds daughter, 1Sa 17:25; which, as it seems from the subsequent history, had never been thought of; and which, had it been offered, would probably have been accepted by some man or other out of the whole army. Nothing of Eliab’ s reprimanding David for coming to see the battle, as in 1Sa 17:28; but for a very different reason; and, indeed, it is highly improbable that Eliab should treat him at all with contempt and scurrility, after having seen Samuel anoint him for the future king of Israel, see 1Sa 16:1-13. Nothing of a second conversation between David and the soldiers, as in 1Sa 17:30, 1Sa 17:31. Nothing of Saul and Abner’ s not knowing who was David’ s father, at the time of his going forth against the Philistine, as in 1Sa 17:55. Nothing of David’ s being introduced to the king by Abner, in form, after killing the Philistine, 1Sa 17:57, at a time when the king and the captain of the host had no leisure for complemental ceremony; but were set out, 1Sa 17:57, in immediate and full pursuit of the Philistines. Nor, lastly, is any notice taken here by Josephus of what now begins the 18th chapter, Jonathan’ s friendship for David, which is related elsewhere, and in a different manner; on the contrary, as soon as Josephus has mentioned Goliath’ s death, and told us that Saul and all Israel shouted, and fell at once upon the Philistines, and that, when the pursuit was ended, the head of Goliath was carried by David into his own tent, (and he could have then no tent of his own if he had not been then an officer in the army): I say, as soon as Josephus has recorded these circumstances, he goes on to Saul’ s envy and hatred of David, arising from the women’ s songs of congratulation; exactly as these capital parts of the history are connected in the Vatican MS. And with this circumstance I shall conclude these remarks; earnestly recommending the whole to the learned reader’ s attentive examination

"It must not however be forgot, that the learned F. Houbigant has, in his Bible, placed these twenty verses (from the 11th to the 32d) between hooks, as containing a passage which comes in very improperly

"If it be inquired as to this interpolation in Samuel, when it could possibly be introduced into the text? It may be observed that, about the time of Josephus, the Jews seem to have been fond of enlarging and, as they vainly thought, embellishing the sacred history, by inventing speeches, and prayers, and hymns, and also new articles of history, and these of considerable length; witness the several additions to the book of Esther; witness the long story concerning wine, women, and truth, inserted amidst parts of the genuine history of Ezra and Nehemiah, and worked up into what is now called the First Book of Esdras; witness the hymn of the three children in the fiery furnace, added to Daniel; and witness also the many additions in Josephus. Certainly, then, some few remarks might be noted by the Jews, and some few of their historical additions might be inserted in the margin of their Hebrew copies; which might afterwards be taken into the text itself by injudicious transcribers

"The history of David’ s conquest of the mighty and insulting Philistine is certainly very engaging; and it gives a most amiable description of a brave young man, relying with firm confidence upon the aid of the God of battle against the blaspheming enemy. It is not therefore very strange that some fanciful rabbin should be particularly struck with the strange circumstances of the Philistines daring to challenge all Israel; and David’ s cutting off the giant’ s head with the giant’ s own sword. And then, finding that Josephus had said that David came from the sheep to the camp, and happened to hear the challenge, the rabbin might think it very natural that David should be indignant against the giant, and talk valorously to the soldiers, and that the soldiers should mightily encourage David; and then, to be sure, this was the most lucky season to introduce the celebrated friendship of Jonathan for David; particularly when, according to these additions, Jonathan had seen Abner leading David in triumph to the king’ s presence; every one admiring the young hero, as he proudly advanced with the grim head of the Philistine in his hand. So that this multiform addition and fanciful embellishment of the rabbin reminds one of the motley absurdity described by the poet in the famous lines: -

Humano capiti cervicem pictor equina

Jungere si velit, et varias inducere plasmas , etc

"The passage supposed to be interpolated here, was in the Hebrew text before the time of Aquila; because there are preserved a few of the differences in those translations of it which were made by Aquila, Theodotion, and Symmachus. These verses, being thus acknowledged at that time, would doubtless be found in such copies as the Jews then declared to be genuine, and which they delivered afterwards to Origen as such. And that Origen did refer to the Jews for such copies as they held genuine, he allows in his epistle to Africanus; for there he speaks of soothing the Jews, in order to get pure copies from them."- Kennicott’ s Second Dissertation on the Hebrew Text, p. 419

In the general dissertation which Dr. Kennicott has prefixed to his edition of the Hebrew Bible, he gives additional evidence that the verses in question were not found originally in the Septuagint, and consequently not in the Hebrew copy used for that version. Several MSS. in the royal library at Paris either omit these verses or have them with asterisks or notes of dubiousness. And the collation by Dr. Holmes and his continuators has brought farther proof of the fact. From the whole, there is considerable evidence that these verses were not in the Septuagint in the time of Origen; and if they were not in the MSS. used by Origen, it is very probable they were not in that version at first; and if they were not in the Septuagint at first, it is very probable that they were not in the Hebrew text one hundred and fifty years before Christ; and if not then in the Hebrew text, it is very probable they were not in that text originally. See Dissertation on Gen., p. 9; and Remarks on Select Passages, p. 104

I have only to remark here, that the historical books of the Old Testament have suffered more by the carelessness or infidelity of transcribers than any other parts of the sacred volume; and of this the two books of Samuel, the two books of Kings, and the two books of Chronicles, give the most decided and unequivocal proofs. Of this also the reader has already had considerable evidence; and he will find this greatly increased as he proceeds

It seems to me that the Jewish copyists had not the same opinion of the Divine inspiration of those books as they had of those of the law and the prophets; and have therefore made no scruple to insert some of their own traditions, or the glosses of their doctors, in different parts; for as the whole must evidently appear to them as a compilation from their public records, they thought it no harm to make different alterations and additions from popular statements of the same facts, which they found in general circulation. This is notoriously the case in Josephus; this will account, and it does to me very satisfactorily, for many of the various readings now found in the Hebrew text of the historical books. They were held in less reverence, and they were copied with less care, and emended with less critical skill, than the pentateuch and the prophets; and on them the hands of careless, ignorant, and temerarious scribes, have too frequently been laid. To deny this, only betrays a portion of the same ignorance which was the parent of those disorders; and attempts to blink the question, though they may with some be an argument of zeal, yet with all the sincere and truly enlightened friends of Divine revelation, will be considered to be as dangerous as they are absurd

Where the rash or ignorant hand of man has fixed a blot on the Divine records, let them who in the providence of God are qualified for the task wipe it off; and while they have the thanks of all honest men, God will have the glory

There have been many who have affected to deny the existence of giants. There is no doubt that the accounts given of several are either fabulous or greatly exaggerated. But men of an extraordinary size are not uncommon even in our own day: I knew two brothers of the name of Knight, who were born in the same township with myself, who were seven feet six inches high; and another, in the same place, Charles Burns who was eight feet six! These men were well and proportionately made. I have known others of this height, whose limbs were out of all proportion; their knees bent in, and joints rickety

Ireland, properly speaking, is the only nation on the earth that produces Giants; and let me tell the poor, that this is the only nation in the world that may be said to live on potatoes; with little bread, and less flesh-meat

I have seen and entertained in my house the famous Polish dwarf, the Count Boruwlaski, who was about thirty-six inches high, every part of whose person was formed with the most perfect and delicate symmetry. The prodigious height and bulk of Charles Burns, and the astonishing diminutiveness of Count Boruwlaski, could not be properly estimated but by comparing both together. Each was a perfect man; and yet, in quantum, how disproportionate! Man is the only creature in whom the extremes of minuteness and magnitude are so apparent, and yet the proportion of the parts in each strictly correlative.

Defender: 1Sa 17:4 - height Goliath was well over nine feet tall, one of the last of the Anakim race of giants still residing in Gath (Jos 11:22)."

Goliath was well over nine feet tall, one of the last of the Anakim race of giants still residing in Gath (Jos 11:22)."

Defender: 1Sa 17:50 - slew him Superficially there seems to be a contradiction with 2Sa 21:19, where it says that a man named Elhanan killed Goliath. However, the translators quite ...

Superficially there seems to be a contradiction with 2Sa 21:19, where it says that a man named Elhanan killed Goliath. However, the translators quite properly inserted the fact that Elhanan killed "the brother of Goliath the Gittite," based on the fact that this is explicitly stated in 1Ch 20:5, even naming the giant slain by Elhanan as "Lahmi the brother of Goliath the Gittite." Most likely an early copyist somehow omitted the words "the brother of" from 2Sa 21:19."

Defender: 1Sa 17:54 - brought it to Jerusalem At this time, Jerusalem was still in the hands of the Jebusites. Later, after David defeated the Jebusites and made Jerusalem his capital, was when he...

At this time, Jerusalem was still in the hands of the Jebusites. Later, after David defeated the Jebusites and made Jerusalem his capital, was when he finally took the head to Jerusalem."

Defender: 1Sa 17:58 - Whose son art thou Saul had somehow not realized that this young man who had killed the mighty Goliath was the same one who had, some time previously, been his "armour-b...

Saul had somehow not realized that this young man who had killed the mighty Goliath was the same one who had, some time previously, been his "armour-bearer" (1Sa 16:18-21)."

TSK: 1Sa 17:1 - gathered // Shochoh // Azekah // Ephesdammim gathered : 1Sa 7:7, 1Sa 13:5, 1Sa 14:46, 1Sa 14:52; Jdg 3:3 Shochoh : Jos 15:35, Socoh, 2Ch 11:7, Shoco, 2Ch 28:18, Shocho Azekah : Jos 10:10, Jos 10:...

gathered : 1Sa 7:7, 1Sa 13:5, 1Sa 14:46, 1Sa 14:52; Jdg 3:3

Shochoh : Jos 15:35, Socoh, 2Ch 11:7, Shoco, 2Ch 28:18, Shocho

Azekah : Jos 10:10, Jos 10:11, Jos 15:35; Jer 34:7

Ephesdammim : or, the coast of Dammim, 1Ch 11:13, Pas-dammim

TSK: 1Sa 17:2 - the valley // set the battle in array the valley : 1Sa 17:19, 1Sa 21:9 set the battle in array : Heb. ranged the battle

the valley : 1Sa 17:19, 1Sa 21:9

set the battle in array : Heb. ranged the battle

TSK: 1Sa 17:4 - Goliath // of Gath // whose height // six cubits Goliath : 1Sa 17:23, 1Sa 21:9, 1Sa 21:10; 2Sa 21:19; 1Ch 20:5 of Gath : 1Sa 27:4; Jos 11:22; 2Sa 21:16-22; 1Ch 20:4-8 whose height : Deu 3:11; 1Ch 11:...

Goliath : 1Sa 17:23, 1Sa 21:9, 1Sa 21:10; 2Sa 21:19; 1Ch 20:5

of Gath : 1Sa 27:4; Jos 11:22; 2Sa 21:16-22; 1Ch 20:4-8

whose height : Deu 3:11; 1Ch 11:23; Amo 2:9

six cubits : According to Bp. Cumberland’ s calculation, the height of Goliath was about eleven feet ten inches; but Parkhurst estimating the ordinary cubit at seventeen inches and a half, calculates that he was nine feet six inches high. Few instances can be produced of men who can be compared with him. Pliny says, ""The tallest man that hath been seen in our days was one name Gabara, who, in the days of Claudius, the late Emperor, was brought out of Arabiacaps1 . hcaps0 e was nine feet nine inches.""Josephus mentions a Jew, named Eleazar, whom Vitellius sent to Rome, who was seven cubits, or ten feet two inches high. Becanus saw a man near ten feet, and a woman that was full ten feet. And, to mention no more, a man of the name of John Middleton, born at Hale, near Warrington, in Lancashire, in the reign of James the First, was more than nine feet high. Dr. Plott, in his history of Staffordshire, says, that ""his hand, from the carpus to the end of the middle finger, was seventeen inches, his palms eight inches and a half broad, and his whole height was nine feet three inches; wanting but six inches of the height of Goliath of Gath.""

TSK: 1Sa 17:5 - armed armed : Heb. clothed, 1Sa 17:38

armed : Heb. clothed, 1Sa 17:38

TSK: 1Sa 17:6 - target of brass target of brass : or, gorget, 1Ki 10:16; 2Ch 9:15

target of brass : or, gorget, 1Ki 10:16; 2Ch 9:15

TSK: 1Sa 17:7 - the staff the staff : 2Sa 21:19; 1Ch 11:23, 1Ch 20:5

the staff : 2Sa 21:19; 1Ch 11:23, 1Ch 20:5

TSK: 1Sa 17:8 - servants to Saul servants to Saul : 1Sa 17:26, 1Sa 8:17; 2Sa 11:11; 1Ch 21:3

servants to Saul : 1Sa 17:26, 1Sa 8:17; 2Sa 11:11; 1Ch 21:3

TSK: 1Sa 17:9 - and serve us and serve us : 1Sa 11:1

and serve us : 1Sa 11:1

TSK: 1Sa 17:10 - I defy // give me I defy : 1Sa 17:25, 1Sa 17:26, 1Sa 17:36, 1Sa 17:45; Num 23:7, Num 23:8; 2Sa 21:21, 2Sa 23:9; Neh 2:19 give me : Job 40:9-12; Psa 9:4, Psa 9:5; Pro 16...

TSK: 1Sa 17:11 - dismayed dismayed : Deu 31:8; Jos 1:9; Psa 27:1; Pro 28:1; Isa 51:12, Isa 51:13, Isa 57:11

TSK: 1Sa 17:12 - David // Ephrathite // eight sons David : 1Sa 17:58, 1Sa 16:1, 1Sa 16:18; Rth 4:22; Mat 1:6; Luk 3:31, Luk 3:32 Ephrathite : Gen 35:19; Psa 132:6; Mic 5:2; Mat 2:1, Mat 2:6 eight sons ...

TSK: 1Sa 17:13 - the names // Shammah the names : 1Sa 17:28, 1Sa 16:6-9; 1Ch 2:13 Shammah : 2Sa 13:3, 2Sa 13:32, 2Sa 21:21, Shimeah

the names : 1Sa 17:28, 1Sa 16:6-9; 1Ch 2:13

Shammah : 2Sa 13:3, 2Sa 13:32, 2Sa 21:21, Shimeah

TSK: 1Sa 17:14 - the youngest the youngest : 1Sa 16:11; Gen 25:23

the youngest : 1Sa 16:11; Gen 25:23

TSK: 1Sa 17:15 - returned returned : 1Sa 16:11, 1Sa 16:19-23

returned : 1Sa 16:11, 1Sa 16:19-23

TSK: 1Sa 17:16 - forty days forty days : Mat 4:2; Luk 4:2

forty days : Mat 4:2; Luk 4:2

TSK: 1Sa 17:17 - Take now // parched corn Take now : Mat 7:11; Luk 11:13 parched corn : 1Sa 25:18; Rth 2:14; 2Sa 17:28

Take now : Mat 7:11; Luk 11:13

parched corn : 1Sa 25:18; Rth 2:14; 2Sa 17:28

TSK: 1Sa 17:18 - carry // cheeses // their thousand // look carry : 1Sa 16:20 cheeses : Heb. cheeses of milk, 2Sa 17:29; Job 10:10 their thousand : Heb. a thousand look : Gen 37:14; Act 15:36; 1Th 3:5, 1Th 3:6

carry : 1Sa 16:20

cheeses : Heb. cheeses of milk, 2Sa 17:29; Job 10:10

their thousand : Heb. a thousand

look : Gen 37:14; Act 15:36; 1Th 3:5, 1Th 3:6

TSK: 1Sa 17:19 - the valley the valley : Dr. Richardson says, that in about twenty minutes, in an easterly direction, form the cave of St. John (which is about two hours or six m...

the valley : Dr. Richardson says, that in about twenty minutes, in an easterly direction, form the cave of St. John (which is about two hours or six miles, in a westerly direction, from Jerusalem), they came to the valley of Elah; which position seems to agree with that of Shochoh and Azekah. He describes it as ""a small valley, and the place of the encampment is pointed out where it narrows into a broad, deep ravine; part of it was in crop, and part of it was under the plough, which was drawn by a couple of oxen. A small stream, which had shrunk almost under its stony bed, passes through it from east to west, from which we are informed that David chose out five smooth stones, and hasted and ran to meet the haughty champion of Gath. A well of water under the bank, with a few olive trees above, on the north side of the valley, are said to mark the spot of the shepherd’ s triumph over his boasting antagonist. Saul and his men probably occupied the side of the valley which is nearest to Jerusalem, on which the ground is higher and more rugged than on the other side.""1Sa 17:19

TSK: 1Sa 17:20 - left the sheep // trench // fight left the sheep : 1Sa 17:28; Eph 6:1, Eph 6:2 trench : or, place of the carriage, 1Sa 26:5; Luk 19:43 fight : or, battle array, or place of fight

left the sheep : 1Sa 17:28; Eph 6:1, Eph 6:2

trench : or, place of the carriage, 1Sa 26:5; Luk 19:43

fight : or, battle array, or place of fight

TSK: 1Sa 17:22 - his carriage // saluted his brethren his carriage : Heb. the vessels from upon him saluted his brethren : Heb. asked his brethren of peace, Gen 37:14; Jdg 18:15; Mat 10:12, Mat 10:13; Luk...

his carriage : Heb. the vessels from upon him

saluted his brethren : Heb. asked his brethren of peace, Gen 37:14; Jdg 18:15; Mat 10:12, Mat 10:13; Luk 10:5, Luk 10:6

TSK: 1Sa 17:23 - according according : 1Sa 17:4-10

according : 1Sa 17:4-10

TSK: 1Sa 17:24 - him // sore him : Heb. his face, 1Sa 13:6, 1Sa 13:7 sore : 1Sa 17:11; Lev 26:36; Num 13:33; Deu 32:30; Isa 7:2, Isa 30:17

TSK: 1Sa 17:25 - the king // free in Israel the king : 1Sa 18:17-27; Jos 15:16; Rev 2:7, Rev 2:17, Rev 3:5, Rev 3:12, Rev 3:21 free in Israel : Ezr 7:24; Mat 17:26

TSK: 1Sa 17:26 - reproach // uncircumcised // defy reproach : 1Sa 11:2; Jos 7:8, Jos 7:9; 2Ki 19:4; Neh 5:9; Psa 44:13, Psa 74:18, Psa 79:12; Dan 9:16; Joe 2:19 uncircumcised : 1Sa 17:36, 1Sa 14:6 defy...

TSK: 1Sa 17:27 - So shall it So shall it : 1Sa 17:25

So shall it : 1Sa 17:25

TSK: 1Sa 17:28 - Eliab’ s anger // with // I know Eliab’ s anger : 1Sa 16:13; Gen 37:4, Gen 37:8, Gen 37:11; Pro 18:19, Pro 27:4; Ecc 4:4; Mat 10:36, Mat 27:18; Mar 3:21 with : 1Sa 17:20 I know :...

TSK: 1Sa 17:29 - -- Pro 15:1; Act 11:2-4; 1Co 2:15; 1Pe 3:9

TSK: 1Sa 17:30 - manner manner : Heb. word, 1Sa 17:26, 1Sa 17:27

manner : Heb. word, 1Sa 17:26, 1Sa 17:27

TSK: 1Sa 17:31 - sent for him sent for him : Heb. took him, Pro 22:29; The preceding twenty verses, from the 1Sa 17:12 to the 1Sa 17:31 inclusive, the 1Sa 17:41, and from the 1Sa 1...

sent for him : Heb. took him, Pro 22:29; The preceding twenty verses, from the 1Sa 17:12 to the 1Sa 17:31 inclusive, the 1Sa 17:41, and from the 1Sa 17:54 to the end of this chapter, with the first 1Sa 18:1 and the 1Sa 18:9, 10th, 11th, 1Sa 18:17, 18th, and 19th, of chapter 18, are all wanting in the Vatican copy of the LXX; and they are supposed by Dr. Kennicott, and others, to be an interpolation. But, as Bp. Horsley observes, it appears, from many circumstances of the story, that David’ s combat with Goliath was many years prior to Saul’ s madness, and David’ s introduction to him as a musician. In the first place, David was quite a youth when he engaged with Goliath (1Sa 17:33 and 1Sa 17:42). When introduced to Saul he was of full age (1Sa 16:18). Again, this combat was his first appearance in public life, and his first military exploit (1Sa 17:36, 1Sa 17:38, 1Sa 17:39). When introduced as a musician, he was a man of established character, and a man of war (1Sa 16:18). Now the just conclusion is, that the last ten verses of 1Sa 16:14 have been misplaced; their true place being between the ninth and tenth verses of Jos 18:9. Let them be removed there, and the whole apparent disorder will be removed.

TSK: 1Sa 17:32 - Let // thy Let : Num 13:30, Num 14:9; Deu 20:1-3; Isa 35:4; Heb 12:12 thy : 1Sa 14:6, 1Sa 16:18; Jos 14:12; Psa 3:6, Psa 27:1-3

TSK: 1Sa 17:33 - Thou art not // for thou art but Thou art not : Num 13:31; Deu 9:2; Psa 11:1; Rev 13:4 for thou art but : 1Sa 17:42, 1Sa 17:56

Thou art not : Num 13:31; Deu 9:2; Psa 11:1; Rev 13:4

for thou art but : 1Sa 17:42, 1Sa 17:56

TSK: 1Sa 17:34 - lamb lamb : or, kid

lamb : or, kid

TSK: 1Sa 17:35 - smote him smote him : Jdg 14:5, Jdg 14:6; 2Sa 23:20; Psa 91:13; Dan 6:22; Amo 3:12; Act 28:4-6; 2Ti 4:17, 2Ti 4:18

TSK: 1Sa 17:36 - this // seeing this : 1Sa 17:26; Eze 32:19, Eze 32:27-32; Rom 2:28, Rom 2:29 seeing : 1Sa 17:10; Isa 10:15, Isa 36:8-10, Isa 36:15, Isa 36:18, Isa 37:22, Isa 37:23, ...

TSK: 1Sa 17:37 - The Lord // Go The Lord : 1Sa 7:12; Psa 11:1, Psa 18:16, Psa 18:17, Psa 63:7, Psa 77:11, Psa 138:3, Psa 138:7, Psa 138:8; 2Co 1:9, 2Co 1:10; 2Ti 4:17, 2Ti 4:18 Go : ...

TSK: 1Sa 17:38 - armed David with his armour armed David with his armour : Heb. clothed David with his clothes, 1Sa 17:5

armed David with his armour : Heb. clothed David with his clothes, 1Sa 17:5

TSK: 1Sa 17:39 - put them off put them off : Hos 1:7; Zec 4:6; 2Co 10:4, 2Co 10:5

put them off : Hos 1:7; Zec 4:6; 2Co 10:4, 2Co 10:5

TSK: 1Sa 17:40 - staff // brook // bag staff : Jdg 3:31, Jdg 7:16-20, Jdg 15:15, Jdg 15:16, Jdg 20:16; 1Co 1:27-29 brook : or, valley bag : Heb. vessel, Mat 10:10

staff : Jdg 3:31, Jdg 7:16-20, Jdg 15:15, Jdg 15:16, Jdg 20:16; 1Co 1:27-29

brook : or, valley

bag : Heb. vessel, Mat 10:10

TSK: 1Sa 17:42 - disdained // a youth disdained : 1Ki 20:18; 2Ki 18:23, 2Ki 18:24; Neh 4:2-4; Psa 123:3, Psa 123:4; 2Co 11:27-29 a youth : 1Sa 17:33, 1Sa 16:12

TSK: 1Sa 17:43 - Am // cursed Am : 1Sa 24:14; 2Sa 3:8, 2Sa 9:8, 2Sa 16:9; 2Ki 8:13 cursed : Gen 27:29; Num 22:6, Num 22:11, Num 22:12; Jdg 9:27; Pro 26:2

TSK: 1Sa 17:44 - Come to me // I will give Come to me : 1Ki 20:10, 1Ki 20:11; Pro 18:12; Ecc 9:11, Ecc 9:12; Jer 9:23; Eze 28:2, Eze 28:9, Eze 28:10; Eze 39:17-20 I will give : Parallel instanc...

Come to me : 1Ki 20:10, 1Ki 20:11; Pro 18:12; Ecc 9:11, Ecc 9:12; Jer 9:23; Eze 28:2, Eze 28:9, Eze 28:10; Eze 39:17-20

I will give : Parallel instances of vaunting occur in some writers of a more recent date. - The conspirators against the emperor Maximinus having slain him, his son, and several of his best friends, threw out their bodies to be devoured by dogs and the fowls of the air. This custom appears to have been frequently threatened; and, however shocking to human feelings, was often carried into effect.

TSK: 1Sa 17:45 - Thou comest // in the name // defied Thou comest : Psa 44:6 in the name : 2Sa 22:33-35; 2Ch 32:8; Psa 3:8, Psa 18:2, Psa 20:5-7, Psa 118:10, Psa 118:11, Psa 124:8; Psa 125:1; Pro 18:10; 2...

TSK: 1Sa 17:46 - will the Lord // deliver thee // take thine // carcases // all the earth will the Lord : Deu 7:2, Deu 7:23, Deu 9:2, Deu 9:3; Jos 10:8 deliver thee : Heb. shut thee up, Psa 31:8 take thine : 1Sa 17:51 carcases : 1Sa 17:44; ...

TSK: 1Sa 17:47 - saveth not // the battle saveth not : Psa 33:16, Psa 33:17, Psa 44:6, Psa 44:7; Pro 21:30, Pro 21:31; Hos 1:7 the battle : 1Sa 14:6; 2Ch 20:15-17; Psa 46:11; Isa 9:7; Zec 4:6;...

TSK: 1Sa 17:48 - David hasted David hasted : Psa 27:1; Pro 28:1

David hasted : Psa 27:1; Pro 28:1

TSK: 1Sa 17:49 - smote smote : 1Ki 22:34; 2Ki 9:24; 1Co 1:27, 1Co 1:28

TSK: 1Sa 17:50 - So David prevailed // but there was So David prevailed : The tradition of the combat between David and Goliath, in which the latter was killed, is preserved among the Arabs; for he is me...

So David prevailed : The tradition of the combat between David and Goliath, in which the latter was killed, is preserved among the Arabs; for he is mentioned in the Koran, where he is called Galut or Jalut. The Arabs also call the dynasty of the Philistine kings, who reigned in Palestine when the Hebrews came there, Galutiah, or Jalutiah. Achmed Al Fassi says, ""Those kings were as well known by the name of Jalaut, as the ancient kings of Egypt by that of Pharaoh. David killed the Jalaut who reigned in his time, and entirely rooted out the Philistines, the rest of whom fled into Africa, and from them descended the Brebers or Berbers, who inhabit the coast of Barbary.""It is remarkable that the Berbers themselves should acknowledge their descent from the Philistines. ""The name Goliath, which they pronounce Sghialud, is very common among the Brebers, and the history of the champion of the Philistines is very well known to the Moors. When children quarrel, and the bigger one challenges the smaller to fight the latter answers, ‘ Who will fight with you? Enta men ulid Sgialud . You are of the race of Golaith.’ The Jews who dwell among them, on the mountains, all call them Philistines.""1Sa 21:9, 1Sa 23:21; Jdg 3:31, Jdg 15:15

but there was : 1Sa 17:39, 1Sa 13:22

TSK: 1Sa 17:51 - his sword // cut off // fled his sword : 1Sa 21:9; 2Sa 23:21; Est 7:10; Psa 7:15, Psa 7:16; Heb 2:14 cut off : 1Sa 17:46 fled : Heb 11:34

TSK: 1Sa 17:52 - the men of Israel // valley the men of Israel : 1Sa 14:21, 1Sa 14:22; Jdg 7:23; 2Sa 23:10 valley : Jos 15:33-36, Jos 15:45, Jos 15:46

TSK: 1Sa 17:53 - they spoiled they spoiled : 2Ki 7:7-16; Jer 4:20, Jer 30:16

they spoiled : 2Ki 7:7-16; Jer 4:20, Jer 30:16

TSK: 1Sa 17:54 - took the head took the head : 1Sa 21:9; Exo 16:33; Jos 4:7, Jos 4:8

took the head : 1Sa 21:9; Exo 16:33; Jos 4:7, Jos 4:8

TSK: 1Sa 17:55 - whose son whose son : 1Sa 17:58, 1Sa 16:21, 1Sa 16:22

whose son : 1Sa 17:58, 1Sa 16:21, 1Sa 16:22

TSK: 1Sa 17:57 - the head the head : 1Sa 17:54

the head : 1Sa 17:54

TSK: 1Sa 17:58 - Whose son // I am the son Whose son : To account for the apparent inconsistency of Saul not knowing David, see note at the end of 1Sa 17:31. I am the son : 1Sa 17:12, 1Sa 16:18...

Whose son : To account for the apparent inconsistency of Saul not knowing David, see note at the end of 1Sa 17:31.

I am the son : 1Sa 17:12, 1Sa 16:18, 1Sa 16:19

kecilkan semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per Ayat)

Poole: 1Sa 17:3 - On a mountain on the other side On a mountain on the other side where they had disposed and fortified their cams, that if the one should assault the other, the assailant should have...

On a mountain on the other side where they had disposed and fortified their cams, that if the one should assault the other, the assailant should have the disadvantage, and be obliged to fight from a lower place.

Poole: 1Sa 17:4 - A champion // Whose height was six cubits and a span A champion Heb. a man between two , either because he used to come forth, and stand between the two armies; or because he moved that the business sh...

A champion Heb. a man between two , either because he used to come forth, and stand between the two armies; or because he moved that the business should be decided between two, whereof he would be one.

Whose height was six cubits and a span which is not strange, for besides the giants mentioned in Scripture, Herodotus, Diodorus Siculus, and Pliny, and others, make mention of persons seven cubits high, which is near double to an ordinary man’ s height.

Poole: 1Sa 17:5 - -- The common shekel contained only a fourth part of an ounce; and so 5000 shekels made 1250 ounces, which make exactly 78 pounds; which weight is not ...

The common shekel contained only a fourth part of an ounce; and so 5000 shekels made 1250 ounces, which make exactly 78 pounds; which weight is not unsuitable to a man of such vast greatness and strength, as his height speaks him to be.

Poole: 1Sa 17:7 - A weaver’ s beam A weaver’ s beam on which the weavers fasten their web. It was like this for thickness; and for length, that he omits, as easy to be collected b...

A weaver’ s beam on which the weavers fasten their web. It was like this for thickness; and for length, that he omits, as easy to be collected by proportion to the rest. And though the whole weight of Goliath’ s armour may seem prodigious, yet it is not so much by far as one Athanatus did manage; of whom Pliny relates, that he saw him come into the theatre with arms weighing 12,000 ounces.

Poole: 1Sa 17:8 - -- That the battle may be decided by us two alone. Such offers were frequent in those times. And possibly he thought the valiant Jonathan, who had assa...

That the battle may be decided by us two alone. Such offers were frequent in those times. And possibly he thought the valiant Jonathan, who had assaulted a whole army, would never have refused this challenge. But God so ordered the matter, that none should accept it, because he would reserve this honour for David, as a step to his kingdom.

Poole: 1Sa 17:11 - -- Which may seem strange, considering the glorious promises, and their late experiences of Divine assistance. But the truth is, all men do so entirely...

Which may seem strange, considering the glorious promises, and their late experiences of Divine assistance. But the truth is, all men do so entirely depend upon God in all things, that when he withdraws his help, the most valiant and resolute persons cannot find their hearts nor hands, as daily experience shows.

Poole: 1Sa 17:12 - The son of that Ephrathite // He had eight sons The son of that Ephrathite i.e. of the man of Ephratah , or Beth-lehem , Gen 35:19 . He had eight sons: see on 1Sa 16:10 .

The son of that Ephrathite i.e. of the man of Ephratah , or Beth-lehem , Gen 35:19 .

He had eight sons: see on 1Sa 16:10 .

Poole: 1Sa 17:15 - From Saul From Saul either, 1. From Saul’ s court; where having been entertained by Saul, to relieve him in his melancholy fits, he was permitted to go t...

From Saul either,

1. From Saul’ s court; where having been entertained by Saul, to relieve him in his melancholy fits, he was permitted to go to his father’ s house, to be sent for again upon occasion. Or,

2. From Saul’ s camp, whither he used to come to visit his brethren; as appears from 1Sa 17:17 .

Poole: 1Sa 17:17 - Parched corn Parched corn a food then much in use, which they used to mix with water, or milk, or oil, &c.

Parched corn a food then much in use, which they used to mix with water, or milk, or oil, &c.

Poole: 1Sa 17:18 - Unto the captain of their thousand // Take their pledge Unto the captain of their thousand in whose power it was in a great measure, either to preserve them, or to expose them to utmost hazards. Take thei...

Unto the captain of their thousand in whose power it was in a great measure, either to preserve them, or to expose them to utmost hazards.

Take their pledge i.e. bring me some token of their welfare from them.

Poole: 1Sa 17:19 - -- i.e. In a posture and readiness to fight with them; as it is explained, 1Sa 17:20,21 . Men are oft said in Scripture to do what they intend and are ...

i.e. In a posture and readiness to fight with them; as it is explained, 1Sa 17:20,21 . Men are oft said in Scripture to do what they intend and are prepared to do, as hath been showed formerly by instances.

Poole: 1Sa 17:20 - To the trench // Shouted for the battle To the trench i.e. to the camp or army which was there intrenched. Shouted for the battle as the manner was, both to animate themselves, and to ter...

To the trench i.e. to the camp or army which was there intrenched.

Shouted for the battle as the manner was, both to animate themselves, and to terrify their enemies.

Poole: 1Sa 17:22 - His carriage His carriage the provisions which he had brought to his brethren.

His carriage the provisions which he had brought to his brethren.

Poole: 1Sa 17:25 - Make his father’ s house free It is observable, that Saul in his great distress doth not encourage himself in God, nor seek his counsel or favour by prayers and sacrifices, but e...

It is observable, that Saul in his great distress doth not encourage himself in God, nor seek his counsel or favour by prayers and sacrifices, but expects relief from men only. This was one effect and sign of the departure of God’ s Spirit from him.

Make his father’ s house free free from all those tributes and charges which either the court or the camp required.

Poole: 1Sa 17:26 - -- Why should you all be thus dismayed at him? he is but a man, and that of an accursed race, a stranger and enemy to God, and no way able to stand bef...

Why should you all be thus dismayed at him? he is but a man, and that of an accursed race, a stranger and enemy to God, and no way able to stand before them who have the living and almighty God for their strength and refuge.

Poole: 1Sa 17:28 - Eliab’ s anger was kindled // With whom hast thou left those few sheep? // Thy pride, and the naughtiness of thine heart Eliab’ s anger was kindled either because he thought him guilty of intolerable folly, and pride, and presumption, in pretending to such an attem...

Eliab’ s anger was kindled either because he thought him guilty of intolerable folly, and pride, and presumption, in pretending to such an attempt; or because he feared and concluded he would be certainly ruined in the enterprise; or rather, because he envied him the glory of so great an undertaking; and took this proffer of David’ s to be, what indeed it was, a reproach to himself, and to all the rest, that having the great God on their side, had not the faith or courage to fight with him.

With whom hast thou left those few sheep? thou art much fitter to tend sheep, than to appear in an army, or to fight with a giant.

Thy pride, and the naughtiness of thine heart thy self-confidence, and vain-glory, and curiosity.

Poole: 1Sa 17:29 - -- Either, 1. Of my coming; my father sent me on an errand. Or rather, 2. Of my thus speaking: is there not reason in what I say? Is this giant invin...

Either,

1. Of my coming; my father sent me on an errand. Or rather,

2. Of my thus speaking: is there not reason in what I say? Is this giant invincible? is our God unable to oppose him, and subdue him?

Poole: 1Sa 17:30 - -- For being secretly moved by God’ s Spirit to undertake the combat, he speaks with divers persons about it, that so it might come to the king...

For being secretly moved by God’ s Spirit to undertake the combat, he speaks with divers persons about it, that so it might come to the king’ s ear.

Poole: 1Sa 17:33 - But a youth But a youth either, 1. For age, to wit, comparatively to Goliath, being now not much above twenty years old, as is supposed. Or rather, 2. For mili...

But a youth either,

1. For age, to wit, comparatively to Goliath, being now not much above twenty years old, as is supposed. Or rather,

2. For military skill, as the words following explain it; as if he should say, Thou art but a novice, a raw and unexperienced soldier, and therefore unable to fight with him.

Poole: 1Sa 17:34 - There came a lion, and a bear There came a lion, and a bear not both together, but one after another, at several times.

There came a lion, and a bear not both together, but one after another, at several times.

Poole: 1Sa 17:35 - Smote him Smote him to wit, the lion, as appears by his beard; which having particularly mentioned, it was easily understood and believed, that he did the same...

Smote him to wit, the lion, as appears by his beard; which having particularly mentioned, it was easily understood and believed, that he did the same to the bear; which therefore it was needless to express.

Poole: 1Sa 17:36 - Slew both the lion and the bear Slew both the lion and the bear: this he is probably thought to have done after he was anointed; when he was endowed with singular gifts of God’...

Slew both the lion and the bear: this he is probably thought to have done after he was anointed; when he was endowed with singular gifts of God’ s Spirit; and, among others, with extraordinary courage of heart and strength of body.

Poole: 1Sa 17:37 - He will deliver me He will deliver me his good will is the same to me that it then was, and his power is not diminished. It is not strange that Saul consents to the com...

He will deliver me his good will is the same to me that it then was, and his power is not diminished. It is not strange that Saul consents to the combat, considering David’ s pious and convincing discourse, grounded upon sensible experience; and withal, the dangerous condition of the Israelitish affairs, and the absolute refusal of all other persons.

Poole: 1Sa 17:38 - With his armour With his armour either, 1. With Saul’ s own armour which he used to wear in battle; which seems not to agree with the extraordinary height of S...

With his armour either,

1. With Saul’ s own armour which he used to wear in battle; which seems not to agree with the extraordinary height of Saul’ s stature, 1Sa 10:23 ; nor is it like that Saul would disarm himself, when he was going forth to the battle, 1Sa 17:20,21 . Or,

2. With armour taken out of his armoury. Not that the whole armory of Saul was brought into the field; but that some chosen arms were taken out thence, and brought for any emergent occasion. Or rather,

3. With his vestments , or garments. For,

1. So the Hebrew word properly and usually signifies; and so this same word is translated, 1Sa 18:4 .

2. His armour is distinguished from this, and is particularly described in the following words. He seems therefore to speak of some military vestments which were then used in war, and were contrived for defence; such as buff-coats now are.

Poole: 1Sa 17:39 - I have not proved them I have not proved them I have no skill nor experience in the management of this kind of arms.

I have not proved them I have no skill nor experience in the management of this kind of arms.

Poole: 1Sa 17:40 - His staff // Chose him five smooth stones // Smooth stones His staff his shepherd’ s staff. These arms were in themselves contemptible, yet chosen by David; partly, because he had no skill to use other a...

His staff his shepherd’ s staff. These arms were in themselves contemptible, yet chosen by David; partly, because he had no skill to use other arms; partly, because he had inward assurance of the victory, even by these weapons; and partly, because such a conquest would be most honourable to God, and most shameful and discouraging to the Philistines.

Chose him five smooth stones that if one should fail him, he might make use of another.

Smooth stones because such stones would go most freely out of the sling; and consequently, with more force and certainty, directly to the mark which he aimed at. The sling was a sort of weapon not unusual in the fights of ancient times, and many arrived at great dexterity of slinging stones with great certainty; of which we have instances both in Scripture, as Jud 20:16 , and in Diodorus Siculus, and Livy, and other authors.

Poole: 1Sa 17:42 - -- Not having so much as the countenance of a martial person.

Not having so much as the countenance of a martial person.

Poole: 1Sa 17:43 - With staves // The Philistine cursed David With staves i.e. with a staff; the plural number for the singular; as Gen 21:7 46:7 . The Philistine cursed David he prayed that his god Dagon, and...

With staves i.e. with a staff; the plural number for the singular; as Gen 21:7 46:7 .

The Philistine cursed David he prayed that his god Dagon, and Ashtaroth, &c., would destroy him.

Poole: 1Sa 17:45 - In the name of the Lord of hosts // Whom thou hast defied In the name of the Lord of hosts i.e. by a commission from him, with confidence in him, and assurance of his help, and for the vindication of his hon...

In the name of the Lord of hosts i.e. by a commission from him, with confidence in him, and assurance of his help, and for the vindication of his honour.

Whom thou hast defied in defying that army and people whereof he is the Lord and Protector.

Poole: 1Sa 17:46 - -- Heb. that God , the only true God, is for Israel ; or on Israel’ s side, and against you. Or, that Israel hath a God , a God indeed, one who...

Heb. that God , the only true God, is for Israel ; or on Israel’ s side, and against you. Or, that Israel hath a God , a God indeed, one who is able to help them, and not such an impotent idol as you serve.

Poole: 1Sa 17:47 - That the Lord saveth not with sword and spear // The battle is the Lord’ s // He will give you into our hands That the Lord saveth not with sword and spear i.e. that he can save without these arms, and with the most contemptible weapons, such as mine seem to ...

That the Lord saveth not with sword and spear i.e. that he can save without these arms, and with the most contemptible weapons, such as mine seem to thee.

The battle is the Lord’ s i.e. the events of war are wholly in his power, to give success to whom and by what means he pleaseth.

He will give you into our hands: David speaks thus confidently, because he was assured of it by a particular inspiration from God.

Poole: 1Sa 17:49 - -- Either, 1. The stone pierced through his helmet; which such stones being slung would not seldom do; as even Diodorus Siculus relates. Or, 2. The s...

Either,

1. The stone pierced through his helmet; which such stones being slung would not seldom do; as even Diodorus Siculus relates. Or,

2. The stone might get in through one of those holes which are left in helmets, that he that wears it may see his way, and how to direct his blows. Or rather,

3. The proud giant had lift up that part of his helmet which covered his forehead; and that in contempt of David and his weapons, and by the singular direction of God’ s providence.

Poole: 1Sa 17:51 - David took his sword // Slew him // Quest // Answ David took his sword hence it appears that David was not a little man, as many fancy; but a man of considerable bulk and strength, because he was abl...

David took his sword hence it appears that David was not a little man, as many fancy; but a man of considerable bulk and strength, because he was able to manage a giant’ s sword; which also he did, both here and below, 1Sa 21:9 .

Slew him

Quest. How could this be, when he slew him before with the stone? 1Sa 17:50 .

Answ There he gives a general account of the event of the battle, and of the giant’ s death; but here he gives a particular relation of the manner and instrument of his death. The stone threw him down to the earth, and bereaved him of the use of his sense and motion; but there remained some life in him, (as frequently doth in such cases,) which the sword took away, and so completed the work.

Poole: 1Sa 17:53 - -- Heb. their camps , i.e. their camp; but he speaks of it in the plural number, because of the great extent and various quarters of their camp.

Heb. their camps , i.e. their camp; but he speaks of it in the plural number, because of the great extent and various quarters of their camp.

Poole: 1Sa 17:54 - Brought it to Jerusalem // In his tent Brought it to Jerusalem either to terrify the Jebusites, who yet held the fort of Zion, 2Sa 5:7 ; or for some other reason not recorded, nor now know...

Brought it to Jerusalem either to terrify the Jebusites, who yet held the fort of Zion, 2Sa 5:7 ; or for some other reason not recorded, nor now known.

In his tent i.e. in the tent which was erected for him in the camp, upon this occasion. There it was kept for the present, though afterwards it seems to have been translated to the tabernacle, where we find his sword, 1Sa 21 , and it is not unlikely the rest of his armour was there also.

Poole: 1Sa 17:55 - Whose son is this youth? // Quest // Answ // I cannot tell Whose son is this youth? Quest. How could David be unknown to Saul, with whom he had lived? 1Sa 16:21 . Answ That might well be, for divers reas...

Whose son is this youth?

Quest. How could David be unknown to Saul, with whom he had lived? 1Sa 16:21 .

Answ That might well be, for divers reasons, because David was not constantly with him, nor, as it seems, used by him, but upon extraordinary occasions, and desperate fits of melancholy; from which possibly he had been free for a good while, by God’ s special providence and care for his people Israel, that so he might be capable of governing and protecting them against the Philistines, who watched all opportunities against them, and at last broke forth into an open war. Thus David had been for some considerable time dismissed from Saul’ s court, and was returned home; and therefore it is not strange, if Saul had for the present forgotten David; for kings, because of the encumbrance of public business, and the multitude of persons who come to them on several occasions, may easily forget some persons; yea, such as have frequently been with them, especially their servants, whom they do not use to observe with so much attention and care as they do others. Add to this, that the distemper of Saul’ s mind might make him forgetful; and that David might now be much changed, both in his countenance and in his habit, from what he had before; and it is apparent, that the change of habits makes so great a difference, that it oft keeps us from the knowledge of those persons whom in other habits we very well know. Some give this answer, That this was the first time that Saul had seen David; and that David’ s exploit here recorded was performed before that which is recorded 1Sa 17:15 , though it be placed after it; but that is confuted by comparing 1Sa 18:1-3 .

I cannot tell which is not strange, because Abner’ s conversation and employment was generally in the camp, when David was at the court; and when Abner was there, he took little notice of a person so much inferior to him as David was.

PBC: 1Sa 17:40 - -- See Little: THE FIVE STONES

See Little: THE FIVE STONES

Haydock: 1Sa 17:1 - Up // Camp Up, or proceeding into the vale. (Menochius) --- Camp. Hebrew, "ranks, or armies."

Up, or proceeding into the vale. (Menochius) ---

Camp. Hebrew, "ranks, or armies."

Haydock: 1Sa 17:1 - Battle // Azeca // Dommim Battle. They perhaps had heard of Saul's malady, (Salien) and bore a constant hatred to the Israelites during his reign, chap. xiv. 52. --- Azeca, ...

Battle. They perhaps had heard of Saul's malady, (Salien) and bore a constant hatred to the Israelites during his reign, chap. xiv. 52. ---

Azeca, about 15 miles south of Jerusalem. ---

Dommim, or Phesdommim, 1 Paralipomenon xi. 13.

Haydock: 1Sa 17:2 - Terebinth Terebinth. Hebrew ela, "the oak." (Aquila)

Terebinth. Hebrew ela, "the oak." (Aquila)

Haydock: 1Sa 17:3 - Valley Valley of the Terebinth, which St. Jerome seems to call Magala, ver. 20.

Valley of the Terebinth, which St. Jerome seems to call Magala, ver. 20.

Haydock: 1Sa 17:4 - Base-born // Span Base-born. Hebrew, "of two sons," or of obscure origin. (Cornelius a Lapide) --- His parents are no where specified, as Arapha is not, as some pre...

Base-born. Hebrew, "of two sons," or of obscure origin. (Cornelius a Lapide) ---

His parents are no where specified, as Arapha is not, as some pretend, the name of his mother, but denotes that he was of the race of the Raphaim, 2 Kings xxi. 16. Some translate, a man who challenges to fight a duel, or one who comes into the midst as "a champion," to decide the cause of all the rest. Thus the Gaul defied the most valiant of the Romans, but was slain by M. Torquatus, Livy vii. Septuagint, "A strong man went out from the station," &c. Chaldean, "There came out from them, out of the camp of the Philistines, a man named Goliath." But many able interpreters adhere to the Vulgate. ---

Span, about 12½ feet, so that he was taller than two common men. Those who call in question the existence of giants, will surely have nothing to object to this formal proof from Scripture. (Calmet) ---

The Vatican Septuagint and Josephus read, however, "four cubits and a span," or near eight feet. (Kennicott) ---

Some reduce his height to 11 feet 3 inches, or even to 9 feet 9 inches, English. (Haydock) ---

His helmet weighed 15 pounds, avoirdupois; his collar, or buckler, about 30; the head of his spear (26 feet long) weighed about 38 pounds; his sword 4; his greaves on his legs 30; and his coat of mail 156: total, 273 pounds. (Button.) (Haydock) ---

Goliath was a figure of the devil, or of any arch-heretic, who provoketh the Church of God, but is slain by the humble with his own weapons. (Worthington)

Haydock: 1Sa 17:5 - Scales // Brass Scales, like those of fishes. Septuagint insinuate, that it was armed with things resembling fish-hooks; Greek: alisidoton, hamata. --- Brass, ...

Scales, like those of fishes. Septuagint insinuate, that it was armed with things resembling fish-hooks; Greek: alisidoton, hamata. ---

Brass, which was used for the armour of the ancients. Plutarch (in Demetrio) speaks of a coat of mail weighing forty pounds: the usual weight was twenty pounds. (Lipsius) ---

The strength of the giant must have borne proportion with his size. (Calmet)

Haydock: 1Sa 17:6 - Legs // Shoulders Legs, on the forepart, from the knee to the ankle. Vegetius observes, that the infantry wore such greaves of iron, only on one leg. (Calmet) --- S...

Legs, on the forepart, from the knee to the ankle. Vegetius observes, that the infantry wore such greaves of iron, only on one leg. (Calmet) ---

Shoulders, when he marched. (Menochius) -- Some understand a dart, &c., but without any proof. (Calmet)

Haydock: 1Sa 17:7 - Beam // Bearer Beam, which was of a very different construction from ours. Hostius concludes, that all the armour of Goliath must have weighed 272 pounds and 13 ou...

Beam, which was of a very different construction from ours. Hostius concludes, that all the armour of Goliath must have weighed 272 pounds and 13 ounces, including the buckler and spear which his armour-bearer carried before him. Plutarch allows a talent, or 60 pounds, for the usual weight of a soldier's armour. Alcimus was remarked in the army of Demetrius, for having double that weight. ---

Bearer. Hebrew, "one bearing a shield," or whose office it was to carry it, or any other part of the armour, when required. It would appear singular that the giant should have two bucklers, though David seems to specify two sorts, Psalm xxxiv. 2. This attendant might carry a large one, which would cover most part of the body, and was of service when a person had not to remove far from his place of battle. The buckler of Ajax was like a tower, and consisted of seven hides, covered with a plate of brass. (Homer, Iliad Greek: Z ) (Calmet)

Haydock: 1Sa 17:8 - Out // Servants // Hand Out; exulting, Ecclesiasticus xlvii. 5. (Menochius) --- Servants; I am free. (Haydock) --- Hand. Such combats were very common in ancient time...

Out; exulting, Ecclesiasticus xlvii. 5. (Menochius) ---

Servants; I am free. (Haydock) ---

Hand. Such combats were very common in ancient times. Paris and Menelaus, Hector and Ajax. The Horatii and Curiatii fought to decide the fate of contending nations. (Homer, Iliad Greek: g, and H. ) ---

(Livy i. 23.) (Calmet)

Haydock: 1Sa 17:9 - Us Us. It does not appear that this proposal was accepted or ratified by either party. The Israelites had still to pursue the enemy. (Estius)

Us. It does not appear that this proposal was accepted or ratified by either party. The Israelites had still to pursue the enemy. (Estius)

Haydock: 1Sa 17:12 - Now // Mentioned // Men Now, &c., to ver. 32. And when, is omitted in the Vatican Septuagint, which begins the latter verse thus, "And David said," as the Alexandrian cop...

Now, &c., to ver. 32. And when, is omitted in the Vatican Septuagint, which begins the latter verse thus, "And David said," as the Alexandrian copy does now the 12th, which leads Kennicott to suspect that the intermediate verses are an interpolation, formerly unknown to the Greek version. Houbigant includes these verses between crotchets, "that it may be understood that these are not of the same author as the rest, and that the sacred writer may not be accused of making useless repetitions." It has been observed in the last chapter, that David was the son of Isai, &c. "If, says he, this be omitted, there will be no vacuum in the context," as there is none in the Roman edition: ( 11 ) "they were greatly afraid. ( 32. ) And David said to Saul," &c. As he had been appointed Saul's armour-bearer, it was very natural to suppose that he would be near the king's person on such an occasion, rather than feeding sheep. We find also, that he had a tent of his own, (ver. 54) which he could not have had, if he had only come to bring provisions to his brethren. The unaccountable conduct of Eliab, the timidity of all Israel for forty days, &c., will thus be avoided. Josephus is supposed to have given occasion to this embellishment, though he takes no notice of many of those particulars which excite the surprise of Pilkington, Kennicott, &c. (Dis. ii. p. 421.) These verses were, however, in the Hebrew before the days of Aquila, &c., and Origen received them from the Jews as genuine. A Hebrew Bible, (1661) with marginal criticisms, by a Jew, includes these verses within parentheses, as interpolated, as well as from ver. 55 to chap. xviii. 6, observing that "the history consists at present of different and inconsistent accounts." The Syriac manuscript of Masius generally confirms the Vatican Septuagint (Morin) so that we conclude, that these verses are there asterisked on the authority of Origen, as not being in the original Greek, nor consequently in Hebrew. (ibid. p. 575.) ---

Mentioned. Hebrew, "Juda, whose name....and the man went among men, an old man in the days of Saul." We have already observed that the Alexandrian Septuagint seems to promise a speech, but defers till ver. 32, thus, "And David said, the son of an Ephrathite. He was from," &c. (Haydock) ---

Men. Chaldean, "He was an old man, whom they ranked among the young," as still vigorous. Jam senior, sed cruda seni viridisque senectus. (Calmet)

Haydock: 1Sa 17:13 - Battle Battle. In these wars, all attended as much as possible, chap. xvi. 10.

Battle. In these wars, all attended as much as possible, chap. xvi. 10.

Haydock: 1Sa 17:15 - Bethlehem Bethlehem, the king being relieved from his malady. "The greatest men formerly kept sheep." Ex antiquis illustrissimus quisque pastor erat. (Var...

Bethlehem, the king being relieved from his malady. "The greatest men formerly kept sheep." Ex antiquis illustrissimus quisque pastor erat. (Varro ii. 1.) In this profession, David found many opportunities of signalizing his courage against wild beasts. (Calmet)

Haydock: 1Sa 17:17 - Loaves Loaves. The soldiers at that time, and perhaps always among the Hebrews, lived at their own expense, as the tribute which was paid to the king was n...

Loaves. The soldiers at that time, and perhaps always among the Hebrews, lived at their own expense, as the tribute which was paid to the king was not sufficient to support large armies, ver. 25. (Calmet) ---

St. Paul insinuates, however, that soldiers were paid, 1 Corinthians ix. 7. (Haydock)

Haydock: 1Sa 17:18 - Cheeses // Placed Cheeses. Hebrew, "of milk." Septuagint, "pieces of soft cheese:" erts is no where else used to denote cheese. This was a present (Calmet) for (H...

Cheeses. Hebrew, "of milk." Septuagint, "pieces of soft cheese:" erts is no where else used to denote cheese. This was a present (Calmet) for (Hebrew) "the Chiliarch." ---

Placed, who is their immediate officer. (Haydock) ---

Hebrew, "how they are mixed:" their company. Septuagint, &c., "what they stand in need of." Symmachus, "Thou shalt receive their pay." Syriac and Arabic, "what news." Others would translate, "their pledge," or bill of divorce to their wives, that, in case they be made prisoners for three years, the latter may be allowed to marry. (Trad. Heb.[Hebrew tradition?]) (Calmet)

Haydock: 1Sa 17:19 - Fighting Fighting, or ready to engage. (Haydock)

Fighting, or ready to engage. (Haydock)

Haydock: 1Sa 17:20 - Magala Magala signifies, "the circle, or chariots." The Arabs still place their waggons and baggage round the camp, or in a circle. (Calmet) --- It may...

Magala signifies, "the circle, or chariots." The Arabs still place their waggons and baggage round the camp, or in a circle. (Calmet) ---

It may also be a proper name. (Menochius)

Haydock: 1Sa 17:22 - Brethren Brethren. This inquiry seems rather unseasonable, when all were shouting for battle. (Kennicott)

Brethren. This inquiry seems rather unseasonable, when all were shouting for battle. (Kennicott)

Haydock: 1Sa 17:24 - Exceedingly Exceedingly, though they had now heard him twice a-day for so long a time, (Kennicott) and came purposely to engage him and all the Philistine army. ...

Exceedingly, though they had now heard him twice a-day for so long a time, (Kennicott) and came purposely to engage him and all the Philistine army. Perhaps he proceeded farther than usual. (Haydock)

Haydock: 1Sa 17:25 - Tribute Tribute, and all public charges, which may be burdensome. (Calmet) --- It does not appear that these words are addressed to any one in particular, ...

Tribute, and all public charges, which may be burdensome. (Calmet) ---

It does not appear that these words are addressed to any one in particular, nor that the king had authorized such a declaration. (Haydock) ---

Yet the people all persisted in the same declaration, so that a promise must have been made. (Menochius) ---

It was never at least fulfilled. (Haydock) ---

Christ having overcome the devil, receives the Church for his spouse. (Worthington)

Haydock: 1Sa 17:28 - Battle Battle. This speech is too insulting, even though David might seem to have given vent to the sentiments of his soul with too much ardour; particular...

Battle. This speech is too insulting, even though David might seem to have given vent to the sentiments of his soul with too much ardour; particularly as Eliab knew that he had received the royal unction, (Calmet) if that were not kept a secret from him, chap. xvi. 13.

Haydock: 1Sa 17:29 - Sepak Sepak. Literally, "is it not a word" (Haydock) of no farther consequences? May I not speak my sentiments? (Calmet) as all others do. (Menochius) -...

Sepak. Literally, "is it not a word" (Haydock) of no farther consequences? May I not speak my sentiments? (Calmet) as all others do. (Menochius) ---

Is not the thing enough to excite the indignation even of the coldest person, to hear this monster insulting God's armies? The repeated inquiries of David, made people conclude that he was ready to fight the giant, (Haydock) though as yet he had made no such proposal, whence it seems more improbable that his words would be reported to the king. (Kennicott) ---

Protestants, "Is there not a cause?" (Haydock) ---

Have I not an order from my father to come? (Menochius)

Haydock: 1Sa 17:32 - Saul // In him Saul. Literally, "to him." But Hebrew and Septuagint have, "And David said to Saul," which makes the connection between this and ver. 11, more clea...

Saul. Literally, "to him." But Hebrew and Septuagint have, "And David said to Saul," which makes the connection between this and ver. 11, more clear. (Haydock) ---

In him, or on account of Goliath. (Menochius)

Haydock: 1Sa 17:33 - Boy Boy, compared with the giant, (Haydock) or Saul, though David might be about 22 years old, (Salien) or near 30. (Tirinus) --- St. Augustine and The...

Boy, compared with the giant, (Haydock) or Saul, though David might be about 22 years old, (Salien) or near 30. (Tirinus) ---

St. Augustine and Theodoret say only 14 or 16. (Menochius) ---

He had not yet been in the wars. (Calmet)

Haydock: 1Sa 17:35 - Them Them. He refers to two events, shewing his fortitude (Calmet) and generous disposition, which rendered him fit for command, as he was not afraid to ...

Them. He refers to two events, shewing his fortitude (Calmet) and generous disposition, which rendered him fit for command, as he was not afraid to expose his life to protect his charge. (Haydock) ---

The pastoral care is an apprenticeship for the throne to him who is designed to be at the head of the mild flock of men, as hunting with dogs conducts to martial exploits. (Philo in Vita Mosis.) ---

He who has overcome the spirit of pride and of carnal pleasures, signified by the lion and the bear, is able also to gain a victory over the devil. (Worthington)

Haydock: 1Sa 17:36 - I will....Philistine I will....Philistine. This is not in Hebrew or the Septuagint, and it is marked as an addition in the ancient manuscripts. (Calmet) --- Single com...

I will....Philistine. This is not in Hebrew or the Septuagint, and it is marked as an addition in the ancient manuscripts. (Calmet) ---

Single combats, to prevent the spilling of more blood, may sometimes be authorized by public authority. (Grotius)

Haydock: 1Sa 17:39 - Armour Armour. Hebrew, "he tried to go." Symmachus, "he went lame." Septuagint, "he laboured in walking once and twice." (Calmet) --- Salien supposes t...

Armour. Hebrew, "he tried to go." Symmachus, "he went lame." Septuagint, "he laboured in walking once and twice." (Calmet) ---

Salien supposes that the armour was not made for Saul, as he was much more bulky than young David. Yet we find that the latter could use the sword of the giant without difficulty. (St. Chrysostom, &c.) (Haydock)

Haydock: 1Sa 17:40 - Smooth Smooth. Louis de Dieu translates broken "pieces of stones," as he pretends, contrary to the common opinion, that rough stones are more suitable for ...

Smooth. Louis de Dieu translates broken "pieces of stones," as he pretends, contrary to the common opinion, that rough stones are more suitable for the sling. (Calmet) ---

The learned Jew, whom we have cited above, (ver. 12,) and several others, have inferred from this verse, that David seems to have just come from the flock. But Kennicott justly observes, that slingers were of great service in the army; and the "vessel of shepherds," the bag or scrip, might well be used to obtain the stones; as the staff, makel, denotes a military weapon. (Taylor, Conc.) (Diss. ii. p. 555.) David was very expert in using these weapons, and the ordinary armour was encumbering to him. (Haydock) ---

"Valour depends more on its own efforts than on armour," tegumentis. (St. Ambrose, Off. i.)

Haydock: 1Sa 17:43 - Gods Gods. Dagon or Baalim. (Menochius) -- Septuagint (Alexandrian) has, "idols." The beauty and accoutrements of David, made the rough warrior suppose...

Gods. Dagon or Baalim. (Menochius) -- Septuagint (Alexandrian) has, "idols." The beauty and accoutrements of David, made the rough warrior suppose that he was not coming to fight, but only to laugh at him and run away. (Haydock)

Haydock: 1Sa 17:44 - Earth Earth. The heroes of modern days refrain from such compliments. Homer frequently describes his champions making long speeches in praise of their fo...

Earth. The heroes of modern days refrain from such compliments. Homer frequently describes his champions making long speeches in praise of their former exploits. David displays his piety and confidence in God. (Calmet)

Haydock: 1Sa 17:47 - Battle Battle, whose armies thou hast defied, (ver. 45.; Haydock) or in general, He is the God of war, who grants victory to whom He pleases. (Calmet)

Battle, whose armies thou hast defied, (ver. 45.; Haydock) or in general, He is the God of war, who grants victory to whom He pleases. (Calmet)

Haydock: 1Sa 17:48 - Arose Arose. The Roman Triarii and the Gauls expected the hour of battle sitting. (Calmet)

Arose. The Roman Triarii and the Gauls expected the hour of battle sitting. (Calmet)

Haydock: 1Sa 17:49 - Forehead // Earth Forehead. "The soul....more probably resides in the callous body of the brain," (Eyre, Thesis 1797,) between the eyes. (Haydock) --- Earth, quite...

Forehead. "The soul....more probably resides in the callous body of the brain," (Eyre, Thesis 1797,) between the eyes. (Haydock) ---

Earth, quite lifeless, (Salien) or unable to resist. (Menochius) ---

The Balearic slingers scarcely ever missed their mark. (Livy, viii. 4.) The Chaldean supposes that David hit the eye, which was not covered with brass: but the stone might penetrate or kill Goliath through his helmet. Even a buckler is not capable of withstanding their violence. (Diodorus, v. 207.) See Judges xx. 16. (Calmet) ---

Pride sits on the forehead, and manifests itself by impudent behaviour. We must destroy it by humility, and by the cross of Christ. (St. Augustine) (Worthington)

Haydock: 1Sa 17:54 - Tent // Know not Tent, or tabernacle of the Lord, which David erected in his honour, at Jerusalem, many years afterwards. (Jun. Piscator, &c.) The lower part of Jer...

Tent, or tabernacle of the Lord, which David erected in his honour, at Jerusalem, many years afterwards. (Jun. Piscator, &c.) The lower part of Jerusalem was already in the hands of the Israelites. He might place the armour for the present in the tent of his brethren. We find that the sword was deposited in the tabernacle, at Nobe. (Calmet) See ver. 12. (Haydock) ---

The head was carried about to various cities. It would serve to strike terror into the Jebusites, at Jerusalem, and others. (Menochius) ---

The Vatican Septuagint, &c., immediately subjoin, chap. xviii. 6. Now, &c. Literally, "And the women dancing, came to meet David." (Haydock) ---

These three last verses occur only in the Alexandrian manuscript, though Theodoret (q. 43,) seems to have read them. In some other Greek copies, there is a long addition respecting David's combat. See the New Hexapla. These verses are found, however, in Hebrew, Chaldean, &c. It is astonishing that Saul should not have known David. He was now more interested to be acquainted with his family, as he had engaged to give him his daughter in marriage. We must reflect that his malady might have impaired his memory, and David was still growing, so that a few months absence might produce a wonderful alteration, &c. (Calmet) ---

Know not. Literally, "if I know." The different dress, in which David now appeared, gave rise to this ignorance. (Menochius) ---

Abner was not surely affected with the same malady as the king, who was obliged to ask David who was his father. But courtiers easily forget those from whom they have no expectations. (Haydock) ---

These strange proceedings make others conclude that this history is interpolated. (Kennicott) ---

Huet maintains the contrary. (Du Hamel) ---

Saul only enquires about David's parentage. (Mariana; Tirinus)

Gill: 1Sa 17:1 - Now the Philistines gathered together their armies to battle // and were gathered together at Shochoh // and pitched between Shochoh and Azekah // in Ephesdammim Now the Philistines gathered together their armies to battle,.... Josephus s says this was not long after the things related in the preceding chapter ...

Now the Philistines gathered together their armies to battle,.... Josephus s says this was not long after the things related in the preceding chapter were transacted; and very probably they had heard of the melancholy and distraction of Saul, and thought it a proper opportunity of avenging themselves on Israel for their last slaughter of them, and for that purpose gathered together their dispersed troops:

and were gathered together at Shochoh, which belongeth to Judah; a city of the tribe of Judah, Jos 15:35, which shows that, notwithstanding their last defeat, they had great footing in the land of Israel, or however had penetrated far into it in this march of theirs:

and pitched between Shochoh and Azekah; which were both in the same tribe, and near one another, of which See Gill on Jos 10:10; see Gill on Jos 15:35.

in Ephesdammim; which, by an apocope of the first letter, is called Pasdammim, 1Ch 11:13 which the Jews t say had this name because there blood ceased.

Gill: 1Sa 17:2 - And Saul and the men of Israel were gathered together // and pitched by the valley of Elah // and set the battle in array against the Philistines And Saul and the men of Israel were gathered together,.... He being cured, at least being better of his disorder, through the music of David, and alar...

And Saul and the men of Israel were gathered together,.... He being cured, at least being better of his disorder, through the music of David, and alarmed and aroused by the invasion of the Philistines, which might serve to dissipate any remains of it, or prevent its return, got together his forces:

and pitched by the valley of Elah; which Jerom u says Aquila and Theodotion interpret "the valley of the oak"; but the Vulgate Latin version, the valley of Terebinth; which, according to our countryman Sandys w, was four miles from Ramaosophim, where Samuel dwelt; for he says,"after four miles riding, we descended into the valley of Terebinth, famous, though little, for the slaughter of Goliath;''and in the Targum this valley is called the valley of Butma, which in the Arabic language signifies a "terebinth", or turpentine tree; though some translate it "the oak"; and, according to some modern travellers x, to this day it bears a name similar to that; for they say it is"now called the vale of Bitumen, very famous all over those parts for David's victory over Goliath:"

and set the battle in array against the Philistines; prepared to give them battle.

Gill: 1Sa 17:3 - And the Philistines stood on a mountain on the one side, and Israel stood on a mountain on the other side // and there was a valley between them And the Philistines stood on a mountain on the one side, and Israel stood on a mountain on the other side, Before the Israelites are said to encamp i...

And the Philistines stood on a mountain on the one side, and Israel stood on a mountain on the other side, Before the Israelites are said to encamp in or by the valley; but here they are said to take the higher ground, and face the Philistines, who were on a mountain or hill on the other side over against them, which Kimchi reconciles thus; the whole or the grand army lay encamped in the valley, and, they that were set in array, or the first ranks, the first battalion, ascended the mountain to meet the Philistines. Vatablus takes it to be the same mountain, that on one part of it the Philistines formed their first battalion, and the rest of the army was in the valley; and on the other part of the mountain the Israelites pitched their camp:

and there was a valley between them; the same as in the preceding verse.

Gill: 1Sa 17:4 - And there went out a champion out of the camp of the Philistines // named Goliath of Gath // whose height was six cubits and a span And there went out a champion out of the camp of the Philistines,.... Or a "middle person", or a man "between two" y; meaning either one that went and...

And there went out a champion out of the camp of the Philistines,.... Or a "middle person", or a man "between two" y; meaning either one that went and stood between the two armies of Israel and the Philistines, as the Jewish writers generally interpret it: or a "dueller" z, as others, with which our version agrees; one that proposed to fight a duel, and have the war decided by two persons, of which he would be one:

named Goliath of Gath; which was one of the places where the Anakims or giants were driven, and left, in the times of Joshua, and from whom this man descended, Jos 11:22.

whose height was six cubits and a span; and taking a cubit after the calculation of Bishop Cumberland a to be twenty one inches, and more, and a span to be half a cubit, the height of this man was eleven feet four inches, and somewhat more; which need not seem incredible, since the coffin of Orestea, the son of Agamemnon, is said b to be seven cubits long; and Eleazar, a Jew, who because of his size was called the giant, and was presented by Artabanus, king of the Parthians, to Tiberius Caesar, is said by Josephus c to be seven cubits high; and one Gabbara of Arabia, in the times of Claudius Caesar, measured nine feet nine inches, as Pliny d relates, and who elsewhere e speaks of a people in Ethiopia, called Syrbotae, who were eight cubits high; the Septuagint version makes Goliath to be only four cubits and a span high, and so Josephus f; that is, about eight feet.

Gill: 1Sa 17:5 - And he had an helmet of brass upon his head // and he was armed with a coat of mail // and the weight of the coat was five thousand shekels of brass And he had an helmet of brass upon his head,.... This was a piece of armour, which covered the head in the day of battle; these were usually made of t...

And he had an helmet of brass upon his head,.... This was a piece of armour, which covered the head in the day of battle; these were usually made of the skins of beasts, of leather, and which were covered with plates of iron, or brass; and sometimes made of all iron, or of brass g; as this seems to have been:

and he was armed with a coat of mail; which reached from the neck to the middle, and consisted of various plates of brass laid on one another, like the scales of fishes h, so close together that no dart or arrow could pierce between:

and the weight of the coat was five thousand shekels of brass: which made one hundred and fifty six pounds and a quarter of zygostatic or avoirdupois weight; and therefore he must be a very strong man indeed to carry such a weight. So the armour of the ancient Romans were all of brass, as this man's; their helmets, shields, greaves, coats of mail, all of brass, as Livy says i; and so in the age of the Grecian heroes j.

Gill: 1Sa 17:6 - And he had greaves of brass upon his legs // and a target of brass between his shoulders And he had greaves of brass upon his legs,.... Which were a sort of boots, or leg harnesses, which covered the thighs and legs down to the heels; such...

And he had greaves of brass upon his legs,.... Which were a sort of boots, or leg harnesses, which covered the thighs and legs down to the heels; such as Iolaus k and the Grecians usually wore, as described by Homer; which are supposed to be double the weight of the helmet, reckoned at fifteen pounds, so that these must weigh thirty pounds of avoirdupois weight:

and a target of brass between his shoulders; the Targum is,"a spear or shield of brass, which came out of the helmet, and a weight of brass upon his shoulders.''Jarchi says the same, and that it was in the form of a spear to defend the neck from the sword; it seems to be a corslet of brass, worn between the helmet and the coat of mail for the defence of the neck, supposed to weigh thirty pounds l.

Gill: 1Sa 17:7 - And the staff of his spear was like a weaver's beam // and his spear's head weighed six hundred shekels of iron // and one bearing a shield went before him And the staff of his spear was like a weaver's beam,.... The wooden part of it, held in the hand; this for thickness was like the beam in the weaver's...

And the staff of his spear was like a weaver's beam,.... The wooden part of it, held in the hand; this for thickness was like the beam in the weaver's loom, about which the warp, or else the web, is rolled; and it is conjectured that, in proportion to the stature of Goliath, his spear must be twenty six feet long, since Hector's in Homer m was eleven cubits, or sixteen feet and a half:

and his spear's head weighed six hundred shekels of iron; the iron part of the spear, the point of it, which has its name in Hebrew from a flame of fire, because when brandished it looks shining and flaming; and being the weight of six hundred shekels, amounted to eighteen pounds and three quarters of avoirdupois weight, and the whole spear is supposed to weigh thirty seven pounds and a half; and the whole of this man's armour is thought to weigh two hundred and seventy two pounds, thirteen ounces n; which was a prodigious weight for a man to carry, and go into battle with; and one may well wonder how he could be able with such a weight about him to move and lay about in an engagement; though this is nothing in comparison of the weight some men have carried. Pliny o tells us that he saw one Athanatus come into the theatre clothed with a leaden breastplate of five hundred pounds weight, and shod with buskins of the same weight:

and one bearing a shield went before him; which when engaged in battle he held in his own hand, and his sword in the other; the former was reckoned at thirty pounds, and the latter at four pounds, one ounce; though one would think he had no occasion for a shield, being so well covered with armour all over; so that the carrying of it before him might be only a matter of form and state. His spear is the only piece of armour that was of iron, all the rest were of brass; and Hesiod p, writing of the brazen age, says, their arms and their houses were all of brass, for then there was no iron; and so Lucretius q affirms that the use of brass was before iron; but both are mentioned together; see Gill on Gen 4:22, hence Mars is called χαλχεος αρης r.

Gill: 1Sa 17:8 - And he stood and cried unto the armies of Israel // and said unto them, why are ye come out to set your battle in array // am not I a Philistine, and you servants to Saul // choose you a man for you, and let him come down to me And he stood and cried unto the armies of Israel,.... He stood in the valley between the two armies, and cried with a loud voice that he might be hear...

And he stood and cried unto the armies of Israel,.... He stood in the valley between the two armies, and cried with a loud voice that he might be heard; and as he was of such a monstrous stature, no doubt his voice was very strong and sonorous; and as the battalions of Israel designed by armies were posted on the mountain or hill, his voice would ascend, and be the more easily heard:

and said unto them, why are ye come out to set your battle in array? either as wondering at their boldness, to set themselves in battle array against the Philistines; or rather suggesting that it was needless, since the dispute between them might be issued by a single combat:

am not I a Philistine, and you servants to Saul? a common Philistine, according to Jarchi; not a captain of a hundred, or of a thousand; and yet would fight anyone of them, their general officers, or be they who they would; or rather, as Abarbinel, he was a prince among the Philistines, and king of Gath; and though he was, and it was usual with great persons to engage with their equals, yet he did not insist on that; but would engage with any man, though of an inferior rank, even with any of Saul's servants; and by calling the Israelites the servants of Saul, he might have some respect to Saul's arbitrary government over them; and since they must be servants and slaves, it was as well to be servants to the Philistines as to him:

choose you a man for you, and let him come down to me; according to Jarchi and the Targumist, the challenge first respects Saul their king; that if he was a man of fortitude and courage, let him come and engage with him; if not, choose another, and send him down into the valley to fight with him. These same writers represent him as blustering and bragging that he killed the two sons of Eli, Hophni and Phinehas, took the ark captive, and carried it into the temple of Dagon; that he had been used to go out with the armies of the Philistines, and had obtained victories, and slain many, and yet had never been made captain of a thousand among them; all which is improbable, and some of it notoriously false; for in every battle after the taking of the ark the Philistines had been beaten.

Gill: 1Sa 17:9 - If he be able to fight with me, and to kill me, then will we be your servants // but if I prevail against him, and kill him, then shall ye be our servants, and serve us If he be able to fight with me, and to kill me, then will we be your servants,.... For which it does not appear he had any commission or authority to ...

If he be able to fight with me, and to kill me, then will we be your servants,.... For which it does not appear he had any commission or authority to say; nor did the Philistines think themselves obliged to abide by what he said, since, when he was slain, they did not yield themselves servants to the Israelites:

but if I prevail against him, and kill him, then shall ye be our servants, and serve us; to which terms also the Israelites did not consent; nor did David, who engaged with him, enter the fray on such conditions.

Gill: 1Sa 17:10 - And the Philistine said, I defy the armies of Israel this day // give me a man that we may fight together And the Philistine said, I defy the armies of Israel this day,.... Or "reproach" s them; that is, should they not accept his challenge, and send down ...

And the Philistine said, I defy the armies of Israel this day,.... Or "reproach" s them; that is, should they not accept his challenge, and send down a man to fight with them, he should then upbraid them with cowardice; and now he disdained them, as if there was not a man among them that dared to encounter with him:

give me a man that we may fight together; and so decide the controversy between us; such as were those duels fought between Paris and Menelaus in the Trojan war, and between the Lacedemonians and the Argives in the times of Orthryades, and between the Athenians and Romans by the Horatii and Curiatii, as Grotius observes.

Gill: 1Sa 17:11 - When Saul and all Israel heard these words of the Philistine // they were dismayed, and greatly afraid When Saul and all Israel heard these words of the Philistine,.... For they were delivered with such a tone and strength of voice, as to be heard very ...

When Saul and all Israel heard these words of the Philistine,.... For they were delivered with such a tone and strength of voice, as to be heard very generally, at least by many, and which soon was reported through the whole army:

they were dismayed, and greatly afraid; which may seem strange, when there were so many valiant men among them, as Saul himself, who had behaved with so much courage against the Ammonites, Philistines, and Amalekites; but now the Spirit of God was departed from him, and he was become timorous and fearful; and though he was much better than he had been, yet still he was not the man of spirit and resolution as before: there was also Abner, the general of his army, a very valiant man, a great man in Israel, and yet appears not on this occasion; and, what is more wonderful, Jonathan the son of Saul was present, as appears from 1Sa 18:1 who had not only smitten a garrison of the Philistines, but with one man more only had attacked another garrison, and routed the whole army of the Philistines, and yet now shows not his head against a single man: so it is when God cuts off the spirits of princes, or takes away their courage; victory over this man, and the glory of it, were reserved for David; and all this fear and dread throughout the armies of Israel were suffered, that he might appear the more glorious.

Gill: 1Sa 17:12 - Now David was the son of that Ephrathite of Bethlehemjudah // and he had eight sons // and the man went among men for an old man in the days of Saul Now David was the son of that Ephrathite of Bethlehemjudah, whose name was Jesse,.... Before made mention of, 1Ch 16:1. and he had eight sons; seve...

Now David was the son of that Ephrathite of Bethlehemjudah, whose name was Jesse,.... Before made mention of, 1Ch 16:1.

and he had eight sons; seven only are mentioned, 1Ch 2:13 one of them being, as is thought by some, a grandson, perhaps Jonadab the son of Shammah; or was a son by another woman, or died without children, as Jarchi, and therefore not mentioned:

and the man went among men for an old man in the days of Saul; the phrase, "among men", either signifies that he was ranked among old men, infirm and unfit for war, and so excused, and his sons went in his room, so Kimchi; or he was reckoned among men of the first rank, men of esteem, credit, and reputation, so Jarchi and R. Isaiah, with which agrees the Targum; or whenever he went abroad, he was attended by many men, had a large retinue, which sense Abarbinel mentions, and is that of Ben Gersom, and agrees with the Talmud t; but the Syriac and Arabic versions read "stricken in years", which seems most agreeable.

Gill: 1Sa 17:13 - And the three eldest sons of Jesse went and followed Saul to the battle // and the names of the three sons that went to the battle were Eliab the firstborn, and next unto him Abinadab, and the third Shammah And the three eldest sons of Jesse went and followed Saul to the battle,.... Either of their own accord, or rather at their father's motion, or howeve...

And the three eldest sons of Jesse went and followed Saul to the battle,.... Either of their own accord, or rather at their father's motion, or however with his knowledge and consent, who because he could not go himself, willed them to go; and these were forward, and some of the foremost that followed Saul to the battle, being zealous and well disposed to defend their king and country:

and the names of the three sons that went to the battle were Eliab the firstborn, and next unto him Abinadab, and the third Shammah; who are the three mentioned by name that passed before Samuel, when he came to anoint one of Jesse's sons to be king, 1Sa 16:6.

Gill: 1Sa 17:14 - And David was the youngest // and the three eldest followed Saul And David was the youngest,.... For the sake of whom this account is given of Jesse and his family, and who after this makes a considerable figure in ...

And David was the youngest,.... For the sake of whom this account is given of Jesse and his family, and who after this makes a considerable figure in the camp and court of Saul:

and the three eldest followed Saul; as before related, and which is repeated, that it might be observed that they only of Jesse's sons followed Saul; not David particularly, but who was providentially sent to the army at the time the Philistine was defying it.

Gill: 1Sa 17:15 - But David went, and returned from Saul // to feed his father's sheep at Bethlehem But David went, and returned from Saul,.... Or "from above Saul"; Josephus u says, the physicians of Saul advised to get a man to stand υπερ κε...

But David went, and returned from Saul,.... Or "from above Saul"; Josephus u says, the physicians of Saul advised to get a man to stand υπερ κεφαλνς, "over his head", and sing psalms and hymns to him; and Saul being recovered from his frenzy and melancholy, by means of David's music, he was dismissed from him, or had leave to go home, or he returned upon Saul's taking the field; though one would think, if he was now his armourbearer, he would have gone with him, see 1Sa 16:21. It seems that when he was called to the court of Saul, that he did not continue there, but was going and coming, was there at certain times when Saul wanted him; and so when in the camp he might go and return as there was occasion for it:

to feed his father's sheep at Bethlehem; for though he was anointed king, and was called to court, yet such was his humility, that he condescended to attend this employment of keeping sheep; and though Jesse knew all this, yet he kept him at home to this business, when it might be more reasonably thought he would have lain in the way of preferment, had he followed Saul to the camp, and appeared in the army; but he chose to leave things to the providence of God to work the way for him, and by which he was directed to take the following step, though perhaps without any design to his son's future promotion.

Gill: 1Sa 17:16 - And the Philistine drew near morning and evening // and presented himself forty days And the Philistine drew near morning and evening,.... Twice a day he came near the camp, within the hearing of it. The Jews w say, he took those seaso...

And the Philistine drew near morning and evening,.... Twice a day he came near the camp, within the hearing of it. The Jews w say, he took those seasons on purpose to disturb them in reading their "Shema", or "hear, O Israel", &c. and saying their prayers morning and evening:

and presented himself forty days; Successively, before the armies of Israel, daring them to send down a man to fight with him, and reproaching them for their cowardice in not doing it.

Gill: 1Sa 17:17 - And Jesse said unto David his son // take now for thy brethren an ephah of this parched corn // and these ten loaves of bread // and run to the camp to thy brethren And Jesse said unto David his son,.... His youngest son, that was at home with him keeping sheep; he had three more at home, and who were elder than D...

And Jesse said unto David his son,.... His youngest son, that was at home with him keeping sheep; he had three more at home, and who were elder than David, and yet he is directed by the providence of God to pick and send him on the following errand, there being work for him to do Jesse knew nothing of:

take now for thy brethren an ephah of this parched corn; pointing to a quantity of it in a certain place; this was wheat or barley dried in a furnace or oven, and ground into meal, and being mixed with water, or milk, or butter, or honey, or oil, was eaten, and reckoned very delicious; and besides this, there was another sort of "kali", the word here used, which was parched pulse, as beans, peas, &c. parched, and which to this day is by the Arabs called by this name x; of both which mention is made, 2Sa 17:28. Now an "ephah" was as much as ten men could eat in a day, it consisted of ten omers, Exo 16:16, and the number ten is after used of loaves and cheese:

and these ten loaves of bread; or cakes of bread, as Kimchi interprets it; pieces or morsels of bread, as the Targum; which seems not so agreeable as loaves or cakes, which are not in the text, but to be supplied:

and run to the camp to thy brethren; which, according to Bunting y, was four miles from Bethlehem; and whither it seems he went on foot, and is bid to make haste, and even to run, as his brethren might be in want of provision; and Jesse was very desirous of relieving them, and hearing from them as soon as possible; it is very likely he had a servant or servants to attend him, and assist in carrying this load of provision, which, with what follows, was too much for one man to run with.

Gill: 1Sa 17:18 - And carry these ten cheeses unto the captain of their thousand // and look how thy brethren fare // and take their pledge And carry these ten cheeses unto the captain of their thousand,.... Their chiliarch or colonel, who had the command of 1000 men, and under whom Jesse'...

And carry these ten cheeses unto the captain of their thousand,.... Their chiliarch or colonel, who had the command of 1000 men, and under whom Jesse's sons fought; Jarchi thinks this was Jonathan, who had 1000 men with him at Gibeah, and so now, 1Sa 13:2, these cheeses were sent by Jesse to the captain, to be distributed among his men, or a present to himself, that he might use his sons well who were under his command:

and look how thy brethren fare; whether in good health, in good spirits, and in safety:

and take their pledge; that is, if they had been obliged for want of money to pawn any of their clothes, or what they had with them to buy food with, that he would redeem and take up the pledge, by paying the money for which they were pawned; for it is thought that soldiers at this time were not maintained at the expense of the king and government, but at their own, and the families to which they belonged: though some are of opinion that this was some token which they had sent by a messenger to their father, by which he might know he came from them, so Ben Gersom; and which David was now to take with him, and return it; or a token that he was to bring from them, whereby he might be assured of their welfare; and so the Targum, "and bring their goodness", a token of their being in good health. The Jews z understand it of bills of divorce to be given to their wives, that if they should die in battle, or be taken captive, that their wives might marry after three years.

Gill: 1Sa 17:19 - Now Saul, and they // and all the men of Israel // were in the valley Elah // fighting with the Philistines Now Saul, and they,.... That is, the sons of Jesse, and brethren of David: and all the men of Israel; the soldiers in the army: were in the vall...

Now Saul, and they,.... That is, the sons of Jesse, and brethren of David:

and all the men of Israel; the soldiers in the army:

were in the valley Elah; or "by" it, near unto it; for they were set in array on the mountain on the side of it:

fighting with the Philistines; not actually engaged in battle, but drawn up for it; prepared and in readiness to engage whenever it was necessary, or they were obliged to it; and perhaps there might be now and then some skirmishes in the outer parts of the camp.

Gill: 1Sa 17:20 - And David rose up early in the morning // and left the sheep with a keeper // and took // and went, as Jesse had commanded him // and he came to the trench // as the host was going forth to the fight // and shouted for the battle And David rose up early in the morning,.... Being very ready and eager to obey his father's orders, and visit his brethren: and left the sheep with...

And David rose up early in the morning,.... Being very ready and eager to obey his father's orders, and visit his brethren:

and left the sheep with a keeper; which showed his care and faithfulness in the discharge of his office; he was not unmindful of his father's sheep, any more than of his commands:

and took; the ephah of parched corn, the ten loaves, and the ten cheeses:

and went, as Jesse had commanded him; went and carried them to the camp, according to his orders:

and he came to the trench; foss or ditch, which was cast up all around the army, partly to prevent the enemy falling on them before, and partly to prevent deserters from them behind; or the word signifying a wagon or carriage, which is here used, this might be a fence around the camp made of wagons fastened to each other; though it may only signify, the camp itself, which lay in a circular form, with proper guards about it to watch the enemy. Now David came up to it just

as the host was going forth to the fight; preparing and getting every thing ready to the battle, and in motion, and upon the march to meet the enemy:

and shouted for the battle; which was usually done when about to make the onset, to animate the soldiers, and strike the greater terror into the enemy; and this noise was sometimes made with the voice in a hideous and howling way, and was called "barritus" a by the Romans; with the Trojans it was like the noise of cranes in the air b; it was also attended with the clashing of shields and spears c; with the Persians, it was a rough, boisterous, and confused noise d.

Gill: 1Sa 17:21 - For Israel and all the Philistines had put the battle in array // army against army For Israel and all the Philistines had put the battle in array,.... Both sides prepared for it, and drew up in line of battle: army against army; r...

For Israel and all the Philistines had put the battle in array,.... Both sides prepared for it, and drew up in line of battle:

army against army; rank against rank, battalion against battalion, the right wing of the one against the left of the other, &c.

Gill: 1Sa 17:22 - And David left his carriage in the hand the keeper of the carriage // and ran into the army // and came and saluted his brethren And David left his carriage in the hand the keeper of the carriage,.... That is, he left load of provisions he brought with him in the hand of the kee...

And David left his carriage in the hand the keeper of the carriage,.... That is, he left load of provisions he brought with him in the hand of the keeper of the bag and baggage of the army, their clothes, and such like things; not having an opportunity to deliver them to his brethren, who were just going to engage in battle:

and ran into the army; which showed the valour and courage of David, who chose rather to expose himself in battle, than to abide with the keeper of the carriages:

and came and saluted his brethren; asked them of their welfare, in his father's name and his own.

Gill: 1Sa 17:23 - And as he talked with them // behold, there came up the champion, the Philistine of Gath, Goliath by name // out of the armies of the Philistines // and spake according to the same words // and David heard them And as he talked with them,.... About their health, and the errand he came upon, and the message of his father to them, and how it was with him, who s...

And as he talked with them,.... About their health, and the errand he came upon, and the message of his father to them, and how it was with him, who sent them his best wishes:

behold, there came up the champion, the Philistine of Gath, Goliath by name: of whom see 1Sa 17:4; he came out of the valley, and drew near to the mountain the Israelites were descending:

out of the armies of the Philistines: from the plains where they were encamped, as Kimchi, though they seem to have been encamped on a mountain as the Israelites were; or from the ranks of the Philistines; according to the marginal reading, he came out of one of the battalions that were set in array:

and spake according to the same words; which he had spoken time after time forty days successively, namely, what is expressed 1Sa 17:8,

and David heard them; and observed them.

Gill: 1Sa 17:24 - And all the men of Israel, when they saw the man // fled from him, and were sore afraid And all the men of Israel, when they saw the man,.... Even as it should seem before they heard him; knowing who he was, and what he was about to say, ...

And all the men of Israel, when they saw the man,.... Even as it should seem before they heard him; knowing who he was, and what he was about to say, having seen and heard him forty days running:

fled from him, and were sore afraid; it is pretty much a whole army should be afraid of one man, and flee from him; they must be greatly forsaken of God, and given up by him, see Deu 32:30; but perhaps they were not so much afraid of personal danger from him, as that they could not bear to hear his blasphemy.

Gill: 1Sa 17:25 - And the men of Israel said // have ye seen this man that is come up // surely to defy Israel is he come up // and it shall be that the man who killeth him // the king will enrich him with great riches // and will give him his daughter to be his wife // and make his father's house free in Israel And the men of Israel said,.... To one another: have ye seen this man that is come up? taken notice of him, and observed him? surely to defy Isr...

And the men of Israel said,.... To one another:

have ye seen this man that is come up? taken notice of him, and observed him?

surely to defy Israel is he come up; to challenge them to fight with him, and upbraid them with cowardice that they did not:

and it shall be that the man who killeth him; this, and what follows, they said to encourage any person to engage with him, though none of them cared to encounter him themselves:

the king will enrich him with great riches; give him a large gratuity, make a present of a great sum of money to him:

and will give him his daughter to be his wife, in like manner as Caleb promised to give his daughter in marriage to the person that should take Kirjathsepher, Jdg 1:12,

and make his father's house free in Israel; from all tributes, taxes, levies, impositions, king's service, and duty; or, as the Targum,"make his father's house freemen, nobles;''raise it to the rank of nobility.

Gill: 1Sa 17:26 - And David spake to the men that stood by him // saying, what shall be done to the man that killeth this Philistine // and taketh away the reproach from Israel // for who is this uncircumcised Philistine, that he should defy the armies of the living God And David spake to the men that stood by him,.... Who were next to him, looking upon the Philistine, and hearing what he said: saying, what shall b...

And David spake to the men that stood by him,.... Who were next to him, looking upon the Philistine, and hearing what he said:

saying, what shall be done to the man that killeth this Philistine,

and taketh away the reproach from Israel? which he asked not for the sake of the reward, but to observe the necessity there was of some man's engaging with him, and killing him, or otherwise it would be a reproach to Israel, and to signify that he had an inclination to attempt it:

for who is this uncircumcised Philistine, that he should defy the armies of the living God? there were two things which provoked David, and raised indignation in him against this man; the one was, the character of the person that reproached, a Philistine, an uncircumcised person, a profane man, that had no true religion in him, an alien from the commonwealth of Israel, and a stranger to the covenants of promise; and the other was the persons whom he reproached, the armies of the living God, of the King of kings, and Lord of lords; and which in effect was reproaching the Lord himself, and which David, filled with zeal for God, and for his people, could not bear; and the consideration of these things animated him to engage with him, not doubting of success.

Gill: 1Sa 17:27 - And the people answered him after this manner // saying, so shall it be done to the man that killeth him And the people answered him after this manner,.... Told him what was proposed to be done in honour to the man that should attempt to kill him, and suc...

And the people answered him after this manner,.... Told him what was proposed to be done in honour to the man that should attempt to kill him, and succeed:

saying, so shall it be done to the man that killeth him; as before related, that he should be enriched, marry the king's daughter, and his family be ennobled, 1Sa 17:25.

Gill: 1Sa 17:28 - And Eliab his eldest brother heard when he spake unto the men // and Eliab's anger was kindled against David // and he said, why comest thou down hither // and with whom hast thou left those few sheep in the wilderness // I know thy pride, and the haughtiness of thine heart // for thou art come down that thou mightest see the battle And Eliab his eldest brother heard when he spake unto the men,.... Heard the questions he put to them, by which he perceived his inclination: and E...

And Eliab his eldest brother heard when he spake unto the men,.... Heard the questions he put to them, by which he perceived his inclination:

and Eliab's anger was kindled against David; because what he had said carried in it a tacit reproach of him, and others, that they had not the courage, and did not attempt to encounter with the Philistine; or the displeasure he expressed was either out of affection to him, fearing, or being assured almost he would perish in the enterprise; or rather out of envy to him, lest succeeding in so bold an action, he should gain superior glory to him, and the rest of his brethren, who yet was the youngest of them:

and he said, why comest thou down hither? for though David had talked with his brethren, or had begun to talk with them, yet he had not sufficiently explained the reasons of his coming:

and with whom hast thou left those few sheep in the wilderness? the wilderness of Judea, or some wilderness near Bethlehem; by this he would not only insinuate a charge of unfaithfulness, in not taking care of his father's flock committed to him; but his view was to make him look little and mean in the eyes of the people, that in the family he belonged to he was thought to be fit for nothing but to keep sheep, and those but a small flock, and in doing this was negligent and careless:

I know thy pride, and the haughtiness of thine heart; that he was too proud to keep sheep, and wanted to advance himself in the army, and make a figure there, and thereby gratify his vanity and ambition, which was the reverse of David's character; for, such was his humility, that, though he was anointed king, and had been preferred in Saul's court, yet condescended with all readiness to keep his father's sheep; and what he now proposed was not from any bad principle in his heart, but purely for the glory of God, and the honour of the people of Israel, who were both reproached:

for thou art come down that thou mightest see the battle: out of curiosity, and to take every advantage and opportunity of signalizing and making himself famous.

Gill: 1Sa 17:29 - And David said, what have I now done // is there not a cause And David said, what have I now done?.... That is criminal and blameworthy; as if he should say, I have only expressed an indignation against this unc...

And David said, what have I now done?.... That is criminal and blameworthy; as if he should say, I have only expressed an indignation against this uncircumcised Philistine, and a concern for the glory of God, and the honour of the people of Israel:

is there not a cause? either for his coming to the camp, being sent by his father; or of his expressing himself with indignation at the Philistine's defiance of the armies of Israel. Some take the sense to be, that he had done nothing, he had not committed any fact; it was mere words what he had said, he had attempted nothing, and therefore there was no reason to bear so hard upon him; to this purpose is the Targum,"what have I done as yet? is it not a word "only" which I have spoken?''but the former sense seems best.

Gill: 1Sa 17:30 - And he turned from him towards another // and spake after the same manner // and the people answered him again after the former manner And he turned from him towards another,.... From his brother Eliab, to another person right against him, and directed his discourse to him: and spa...

And he turned from him towards another,.... From his brother Eliab, to another person right against him, and directed his discourse to him:

and spake after the same manner: as in 1Sa 17:26; inquiring what encouragement would he given to a man that should attempt to kill the Philistine, and expressing his concern to hear the armies of the living God defied by such a wretch:

and the people answered him again after the former manner; telling him what gratuities and honours would be conferred on such a person, as in 1Sa 17:25; and the design of his talking to one, and to another, was, that what he had said might spread and reach to the ears of Saul, to whom in modesty he did not choose to apply himself.

Gill: 1Sa 17:31 - And when the words were heard which David spake // they rehearsed them before Saul // and he sent for him And when the words were heard which David spake,.... To one, and to another, and these reported to other persons, and so they went from one to another...

And when the words were heard which David spake,.... To one, and to another, and these reported to other persons, and so they went from one to another through many hands:

they rehearsed them before Saul; coming to the ears of some of his courtiers and counsellors, or officers about him, they told him what such an one had said:

and he sent for him; to his tent or pavilion where he was, to talk with him on this subject. The whole of 1Sa 17:11 is wanting in the Septuagint version, according to the Vatican exemplar; and these "twenty" verses are thought, by some e, to be an interpolation; and it must be owned there are difficulties in them, and that the connection of 1Sa 17:11 with the following is very clear and consistent, as also is 1Sa 17:50 left out in the same version; and likewise the last four of the chapter, 1Sa 17:55, and five with which the next begins, 1Sa 18:1.

Gill: 1Sa 17:32 - And David said to Saul, let no man's heart fail because of him // thy servant will go and fight with this Philistine And David said to Saul, let no man's heart fail because of him,.... The Philistine, though so gigantic, mighty, and blustering: this he said within hi...

And David said to Saul, let no man's heart fail because of him,.... The Philistine, though so gigantic, mighty, and blustering: this he said within himself, so Kimchi; as David perceived the hearts of most, if not all, did, since none dared to go out and fight him, but on the contrary fled from him:

thy servant will go and fight with this Philistine; and therefore there need be no thought, care, or concern to look out for another man.

Gill: 1Sa 17:33 - And Saul said to David, thou art not able to go against this Philistine to fight with him // for thou art but a youth // and he a man of war from his youth And Saul said to David, thou art not able to go against this Philistine to fight with him,.... Had neither strength of body, nor skill in military aff...

And Saul said to David, thou art not able to go against this Philistine to fight with him,.... Had neither strength of body, nor skill in military affairs, to encounter with a man of his stature, and warlike genius and practice:

for thou art but a youth; some say about fourteen or sixteen years of age, but very probably about twenty, and not more, and so not only weak, but inexpert in the art of fighting:

and he a man of war from his youth; a gigantic man, trained up in, inured to, and expert in the affairs of war; so that David could not, on any account, be a competitor with him, and a match for him.

Gill: 1Sa 17:34 - And David said unto Saul // thy servant kept his father's sheep // and there came a lion and a bear, and took a lamb out of the flock And David said unto Saul,.... In answer to his objection of inability to encounter with one so superior to him; and this answer is founded on experien...

And David said unto Saul,.... In answer to his objection of inability to encounter with one so superior to him; and this answer is founded on experience and facts, and shows that he was not so weak and inexpert as Saul took him to be:

thy servant kept his father's sheep; which he was not ashamed to own, and especially as it furnished him with an stance of his courage, bravery, and success, and which would be convincing to Saul:

and there came a lion and a bear, and took a lamb out of the flock; not that they came together; though Kimchi so interprets it, "a lion with a bear"; but these are creatures that do not use to go together; and besides, both could not be said with propriety to take one and the same lamb out of the flock: to which may be added, that David in 1Sa 17:35 speaks only of one, out of whose mouth he took the lamb; wherefore the words may be rendered, "a lion or a bear" f; and if the copulative "and" is retained, the meaning can only be, that at different times they would come and take a lamb, a lion at one time, and a bear at another.

Gill: 1Sa 17:35 - And I went out after him // and smote him // and delivered it out of his mouth // and when he arose against me // I caught him by his beard // and smote him, and slew him And I went out after him,.... Whether a lion or a bear; but mention after being made of his beard, a lion rather is meant: and smote him; with his ...

And I went out after him,.... Whether a lion or a bear; but mention after being made of his beard, a lion rather is meant:

and smote him; with his fist, or rather with his shepherd's staff:

and delivered it out of his mouth; snatched it out from thence, or obliged him to drop it, by beating him:

and when he arose against me; after he had let go the lamb, threatening to tear him in pieces for attempting to disturb him in his prey, and take it away from him:

I caught him by his beard; such as lions have; hence a lion is often called in Homer g λις ηευγενειος, the well-bearded lion. Kimchi thinks the beard with the nether jaw is meant, which David caught hold on:

and smote him, and slew him; tore him to pieces, as Samson did, Jdg 14:5, or slew him with some weapon in his hand.

Gill: 1Sa 17:36 - Thy servant slew both the lion and the bear // And this uncircumcised Philistine shall be as one of them // seeing he hath defied the armies of the living God Thy servant slew both the lion and the bear,.... At different times, and several of them at one time or another; whenever any of them came into the fl...

Thy servant slew both the lion and the bear,.... At different times, and several of them at one time or another; whenever any of them came into the flock, he used to lay hold on them and kill them, with all the ease imaginable. The Jews suppose this phrase denotes many of them h.

And this uncircumcised Philistine shall be as one of them; as he was like them in nature, savage, cruel and unclean, so he would be in his end, killed as they; of this David was fully persuaded and assured in mind having an impulse from the Spirit of God, by which he was certified of it:

seeing he hath defied the armies of the living God; so that as he justly deserved to die, he made no doubt of it it would be his case.

Gill: 1Sa 17:37 - And David said moreover // the Lord that delivered me out of the paw of the lion, and out of the paw of the bear // he will deliver me out of the hand of this Philistine // and Saul // said unto David, go, and the Lord be with thee And David said moreover,.... For the further confirmation of it, and as more strongly expressing his faith of it; not as owing to any natural strength...

And David said moreover,.... For the further confirmation of it, and as more strongly expressing his faith of it; not as owing to any natural strength or skill of his, but to the power of God, of whose assistance he made no question:

the Lord that delivered me out of the paw of the lion, and out of the paw of the bear; for to him he ascribes his deliverance from those savage creatures, and his victory over them, and on him he relied for help and salvation in the present case:

he will deliver me out of the hand of this Philistine; David did not go forth in his own name and strength, but in the name and strength of the Lord of hosts:

and Saul; seeing him so positive, and fully assured of victory:

said unto David, go, and the Lord be with thee; to help and assist him, to deliver him out of the hand of the Philistine, and give him victory over him; the Targum is,"the Word of the Lord be for thy help.''

Gill: 1Sa 17:38 - And Saul armed David with his armour // and he put an helmet of brass upon his head // also he armed him with a coat of mail And Saul armed David with his armour,.... Not with what he wore himself; for it cannot be thought he would strip himself of his armour in the field of...

And Saul armed David with his armour,.... Not with what he wore himself; for it cannot be thought he would strip himself of his armour in the field of battle, and when just going to it; and besides what suited the one would not be fit for the other, their bulk and stature being different i but this was some armour Saul had brought with him, besides what he himself wore, to furnish any with that might want it:

and he put an helmet of brass upon his head; such an one, though not so large as Goliath had, these being usually made of brass; See Gill on 1Sa 17:5,

also he armed him with a coat of mail; which probably was of brass also, and like that of Goliath's too, only lesser, 1Sa 17:5.

Gill: 1Sa 17:39 - And David girded his, sword upon his armour // and he assayed to go // for he had not proved it // and David said unto Saul, I cannot go with these, for I have not proved them // and David put them off him And David girded his, sword upon his armour,.... Which Saul also perhaps furnished him with: and he assayed to go; made an attempt, and had a mind ...

And David girded his, sword upon his armour,.... Which Saul also perhaps furnished him with:

and he assayed to go; made an attempt, and had a mind to go thus accoutred; he at first showed an inclination to go in such an habit, but afterwards would not:

for he had not proved it; as warriors were wont to do; so Achilles did i; he never made trial of such armour before, he had not been used to it, and knew not how to behave in it, or walk with it on him; it was an encumbrance to him: Abarbinel renders it, "but he had not proved it"; he would have gone with it but for that reason; the Targum is,"because there was no miracle in them;''because if he had made use of this, there would have been no appearance of a miracle in getting the victory over the Philistine, as was by using only a sling and stones:

and David said unto Saul, I cannot go with these, for I have not proved them; he thought fit to acquaint Saul with it that he could not go thus accoutred, and his reason for it, lest he should be offended with him:

and David put them off him; took off the helmet from his head, ungirt the sword upon his armour, and stripped himself of his coat of mail, and went forth entirely unarmed.

Gill: 1Sa 17:40 - And he took his staff in his hand // and chose him five smooth stones out of the brook // and put them in a shepherd's bag which he had, even in a scrip // and his sling was in his hand // and he drew near to the Philistine And he took his staff in his hand,.... His shepherd's staff, which he used in keeping his father's sheep, and chose rather to appear in the habit of a...

And he took his staff in his hand,.... His shepherd's staff, which he used in keeping his father's sheep, and chose rather to appear in the habit of a shepherd than of a soldier:

and chose him five smooth stones out of the brook; which ran in the valley, which became smooth by lying in the water running over them; and which being smooth were fitter for his purpose, being the more easily cast out of the sling; though De Dieu is of opinion that these were parts or pieces of stones, cleft ones, which were rough and rugged, and which would more easily and firmly be fixed in the forehead of the Philistine:

and put them in a shepherd's bag which he had, even in a scrip; in which he had been wont to put things he needed for the good of the flock, and was such as travellers put their food in; and this might also be the use of it with shepherds; but, according to the Ethiopic interpreters k, it was that piece of the leather in the midst of the sling, in which the slingers used to put the stones, that they might stick the more firmly:

and his sling was in his hand; which he intended to use in slinging the stone or stones he had in his scrip; and which was an exercise he had been accustomed to in all likelihood, and for which the Benjaminites his neighbours, of the next tribe, were very famous:

and he drew near to the Philistine; marched towards him, thereby signifying that he accepted his challenge, and would enter the list with him.

Gill: 1Sa 17:41 - And the Philistine came on, and drew near unto David // and the man that bare the shield went before him And the Philistine came on, and drew near unto David,.... By slow paces, because of the weight of his armour, and bulk of his body, yet with a haughty...

And the Philistine came on, and drew near unto David,.... By slow paces, because of the weight of his armour, and bulk of his body, yet with a haughty air, and a proud gait:

and the man that bare the shield went before him; See Gill on 1Sa 17:7.

Gill: 1Sa 17:42 - And when the Philistine looked about, and saw David, he disdained him // for he was but a youth // and ruddy, and of a fair countenance And when the Philistine looked about, and saw David, he disdained him,.... He looked about for his antagonist, to take a view of him, what sort of a m...

And when the Philistine looked about, and saw David, he disdained him,.... He looked about for his antagonist, to take a view of him, what sort of a man he was, expecting to see one much like himself; but observing a puny young man, he despised him in his heart, and perhaps looked upon it as an affront to him to send such a man to fight with him:

for he was but a youth; his age was one reason why he despised him, being, as before observed, about twenty years of age, and not come to his full strength, a stripling, as he is called, 1Sa 17:56, another reason follows:

and ruddy, and of a fair countenance; looked effeminate, had not the appearance of a soldier, of a weather beaten veteran, exposed to heat and cold, and inured to hardships.

Gill: 1Sa 17:43 - And the Philistine said unto David, am I a dog // that thou comest to me with staves // and the Philistine cursed David by his gods And the Philistine said unto David, am I a dog?.... Truly David did not think him much better, because of his impudence, impurity, and barking blasph...

And the Philistine said unto David, am I a dog?.... Truly David did not think him much better, because of his impudence, impurity, and barking blasphemy against God, and the armies of Israel; the Targum is,"am I a despised dog?''

verily he was by David:

that thou comest to me with staves? or with a staff, the plural for the singular, to beat him with it as a dog is beaten, and as David used to beat his dog with, while keeping his father's sheep, when the dog he had with him did not do his business as he should; he says nothing of his sling and stones, they being out of sight:

and the Philistine cursed David by his gods: by Dagon and others; he made an imprecation by them, and wished the greatest evils might befall him from them; he devoted him to them, and doubted not to make a sacrifice of him.

Gill: 1Sa 17:44 - And the Philistine said to David, come to me // and I will give thy flesh unto the fowls of the air, and to the beasts of the field And the Philistine said to David, come to me,.... He seems to have stood still, disdaining: to take another step towards such a pitiful combatant, and...

And the Philistine said to David, come to me,.... He seems to have stood still, disdaining: to take another step towards such a pitiful combatant, and therefore bids him come up to him, and he would soon dispatch him; unless he said this, because David was light and nimble, and he heavy and unwieldy because of his bigness, and the burden of armour on him, and therefore could not make such haste as he wished to destroy his adversary, of which he made no doubt:

and I will give thy flesh unto the fowls of the air, and to the beasts of the field; the wild beasts he means; though Jarchi thinks he spoke improperly, since it is not the way of the beasts of the field, as sheep, oxen, &c. to devour a man, or even to eat any flesh; and therefore he observes, when David comes, he uses another word, which signifies the wild beasts of the earth, and so we render it, 1Sa 17:46; but Kimchi shows that even these are comprehended in the word here used, see Isa 18:6.

Gill: 1Sa 17:45 - Then said David to the Philistine // thou comest to me with a sword, and with a spear, and with a shield // but I come to thee in the name of the Lord of hosts, the God of the armies of Israel, whom thou hast defied Then said David to the Philistine,.... In answer to the contempt he held him in, and to the threatening words he gave him: thou comest to me with a...

Then said David to the Philistine,.... In answer to the contempt he held him in, and to the threatening words he gave him:

thou comest to me with a sword, and with a spear, and with a shield; the word for "shield" is not the same with that so rendered, 1Sa 17:41; which his armourbearer carried before him, but with that translated a "target", which was between his shoulders, 1Sa 17:6; however, they were all weapons of war, either defensive or offensive:

but I come to thee in the name of the Lord of hosts, the God of the armies of Israel, whom thou hast defied; the Lord of all hosts, in heaven and in earth in general, and in particular the God of the armies of Israel; which he was at the head of, led on, protected and defended, having a kind and merciful regard unto them, and which this Philistine had defied, reproached, and blasphemed; and now David was come, by a commission from this great Jehovah, to vindicate his honour, and to avenge his people on him: he had asked for a man, and now the Lord of hosts, as the Jews l observe, comes forth as a man of war, for the battle was his, as in 1Sa 17:47; and David was his messenger, and came in his name, and was the man into whose hands he should be given.

Gill: 1Sa 17:46 - This day will the Lord deliver thee into mine hands // and I will smite thee, and take thine head from thee // and I will give the carcasses of the host of the Philistines this day unto the fowls of the air, and to the wild beasts of the earth // that all the earth may know there is a God in Israel This day will the Lord deliver thee into mine hands,.... Of which he was assured by divine inspiration, by the impulse of the Spirit of God upon him; ...

This day will the Lord deliver thee into mine hands,.... Of which he was assured by divine inspiration, by the impulse of the Spirit of God upon him; or otherwise he could not have expressed himself with such certainty, and have given the particulars of what he should do, as in the following clauses:

and I will smite thee, and take thine head from thee; and yet he had no weapon in his hand to do it with, 1Sa 17:50, but it was revealed to him that he should do it, and he believed it; though the Philistine no doubt looked upon all this as romantic:

and I will give the carcasses of the host of the Philistines this day unto the fowls of the air, and to the wild beasts of the earth; not only this man's carcass, which should fall and become a prey to fowls and wild beasts, but the carcasses of the Philistine army, which fleeing upon the fall of their champion, and pursued by the Israelites as they were, would be cut off, and become the food of wild creatures, see 1Sa 17:52; though some think the plural is put for the singular, and that it only means his carcass, who was a Philistine; but the host of the Philistines, carries it to the other sense: and this would be done:

that all the earth may know there is a God in Israel; not only the land of Canaan or Palestine, but the whole earth, and all the inhabitants of it, who should hear of the fall of this giant by such means, and of the rout of the Philistine army upon it; the report of which no doubt was spread far, and near.

Gill: 1Sa 17:47 - And all this assembly shall know // that the Lord saveth not with sword and spear // for the battle is the Lord's // and he will give you into our hands And all this assembly shall know,.... The congregation of Israel, and church of the living God, great part of which were now gathered together, and we...

And all this assembly shall know,.... The congregation of Israel, and church of the living God, great part of which were now gathered together, and were spectators of this wonderful event:

that the Lord saveth not with sword and spear; that is, by outward means and instruments, by arms and armed men; he does not save by them only, or by them always; he can save as well without them as with them:

for the battle is the Lord's; it is under his direction; the issue and event of it depend on his will, and are owing to him; or, as the Targum,"from the Lord is the victory of wars,''it is he that gives it to whom he pleases:

and he will give you into our hands; not only this Philistine into the hands of David, but the army of them into the hands of the Israelites; David knew, and was assured of this by the Lord, and it was on this he relied, and was what animated him to engage with this champion in the manner he did.

Gill: 1Sa 17:48 - And it came to pass, when the Philistine arose // and came and drew nigh to meet David // that David hasted and ran toward the army // to meet the Philistine And it came to pass, when the Philistine arose,.... Or prepared for the encounter, and was in all probability in great wrath and fury at hearing what ...

And it came to pass, when the Philistine arose,.... Or prepared for the encounter, and was in all probability in great wrath and fury at hearing what David said, and which hastened him to it:

and came and drew nigh to meet David; as fast as his unwieldy body, and heavy load of armour on him, would admit of:

that David hasted and ran toward the army; the army of the Philistines, from whence this champion came:

to meet the Philistine; to get up to him before he could draw his sword, or put himself in a posture to make use of any weapon to strike at David with.

Gill: 1Sa 17:49 - And David put his hand in his bag // and took thence a stone // and slang it, and smote the Philistine in his forehead // that the stone sunk into his forehead // and he fell upon his face to the earth And David put his hand in his bag,.... The shepherd's scrip, in which he had put the five stones he took out of the brook: and took thence a stone;...

And David put his hand in his bag,.... The shepherd's scrip, in which he had put the five stones he took out of the brook:

and took thence a stone; and put it into his sling he had in his hand:

and slang it, and smote the Philistine in his forehead; it is made a difficulty of how he should smite him on his forehead, when he had a helmet of brass upon his head, 1Sa 17:5; in answer to this Kimchi observes, that some say, that when David said he would give his flesh to the fowls of the air, at the mention of that he looked upwards, and what was upon his forehead fell backwards, and then David slung and smote him; or he might put back his helmet to talk with David, and hear and be heard the better; and having nothing to fear from an unarmed man, might neglect to put it forward again; or there might be some open space left in the helmet for him to look through, in at which the stone might pass; so the Targum renders it, he smote him in the house of his eyes, so the stone passed through the eye hole into his brain: but after all, supposing his forehead ever so well covered, as the stone slung by David was under a divine direction, so as to hit a person in motion, it came with a divine power, which nothing could resist; and supposing this, of which there need no doubt, it could as easily pass through the helmet of brass, as pierce into his forehead and sink there; nor can this be thought the least incredible, if what Diodorus Siculus m relates of the Baleares be true, that they were so dexterous at slinging, that they not only would sling stones bigger than others could, and were so directed, that they seldom missed their mark, being inured to it from their youth, but would even in battle break in pieces shields, helmets, and all kinds of armour, with which bodies were covered:

that the stone sunk into his forehead; and so into his brain, as a stone is immersed and sinks in water, when thrown into it; with such force did it go, and with so much ease did it make its way, through the direction and power of God:

and he fell upon his face to the earth; Jarchi observes, that it was most natural for him to have fallen backwards, being struck upon his forehead; but so it was, that David might have no trouble to cut off his head, for by this means he fell nearer to him.

Gill: 1Sa 17:50 - So David prevailed over the Philistine with a sling and with a stone // and smote the Philistine, and slew him // but there was no sword in the hand of David So David prevailed over the Philistine with a sling and with a stone,.... And with them only, without any other warlike weapon: and smote the Phili...

So David prevailed over the Philistine with a sling and with a stone,.... And with them only, without any other warlike weapon:

and smote the Philistine, and slew him; smote him with the stone, which brought him to the ground, and then slew him with his own sword, as afterwards related:

but there was no sword in the hand of David; when he engaged with the Philistine, and smote him, for he had put off all his armour, 1Sa 17:39.

Gill: 1Sa 17:51 - Therefore David ran and stood upon the Philistine // and took his sword, and drew it out of the sheath thereof // and slew him // and cut off his head therewith // and when the Philistines saw their champion was dead // they fled Therefore David ran and stood upon the Philistine,.... Upon his carcass, as it lay prostrate on the ground, and trampled on him, in just contempt of h...

Therefore David ran and stood upon the Philistine,.... Upon his carcass, as it lay prostrate on the ground, and trampled on him, in just contempt of him who had defied, reproached, and despised the armies of Israel:

and took his sword, and drew it out of the sheath thereof; which no doubt was a very large one, and required a good deal of strength to unsheathe it, and use it; and therefore either David, though so very young, was naturally very strong, or he had at this time a more than ordinary measure of strength given him:

and slew him; for it seems that by the blow of the stone he was only stunned, and fell to the ground, but still had life in him, which David soon put an end to by his own sword:

and cut off his head therewith; by which it would appear to both armies looking on that his business was done, and he was thoroughly dispatched:

and when the Philistines saw their champion was dead; of which the cutting off his head was a demonstrative proof, and which they could discern at a distance:

they fled; being struck with a panic at this unexpected event, and no doubt by the Lord; for otherwise, had they given themselves the least time to reflect on their own numbers and strength, they had no just occasion to flee; their safety not depending on a single man, though ever so strong: upon this occasion David penned the ninth psalm; see Psa 9:1.

Gill: 1Sa 17:52 - And the men of Israel and of Judah arose // and shouted, and pursued the Philistines // until thou come to the valley, and to the gates of Ekron // and the wounded of the Philistines fell down by the way to Shaaraim // even unto Gath, and unto Ekron And the men of Israel and of Judah arose,.... From their encampment and entrenchment, or they prepared for a pursuit: and shouted, and pursued the ...

And the men of Israel and of Judah arose,.... From their encampment and entrenchment, or they prepared for a pursuit:

and shouted, and pursued the Philistines; shouted when they first set out, and continued shouting as they pursued, to animate their own troops, and terrify the enemy:

until thou come to the valley, and to the gates of Ekron; which was one of the five principalities of the Philistines; so that they pursued them to their own cities, and to the very gates of them:

and the wounded of the Philistines fell down by the way to Shaaraim; a city in the tribe of Judah, and seems to be the same with Sharaim; see Gill on Jos 15:36. Josephus says n, there were killed of the Philistines thirty thousand, and twice as many wounded:

even unto Gath, and unto Ekron; Josephus o has it, to the borders of Gath, and to the gates of Ashkelon, which were two other principalities of the Philistines; according to Bunting p, the whole chase was this, to the valley and river Sorek four miles; from thence to Ekron eight miles; to Ashkelon twenty miles, and to Gath twenty four miles; that is, from the place where Goliath was killed.

Gill: 1Sa 17:53 - And the children of Israel returned from chasing after the Philistines // and they spoiled their tents And the children of Israel returned from chasing after the Philistines,.... The remainder that escaped having got into their fortified cities: and ...

And the children of Israel returned from chasing after the Philistines,.... The remainder that escaped having got into their fortified cities:

and they spoiled their tents; which they left in their camp, all their armour, goods, money, and provisions, they found there, they seized upon as their prey and booty; these they did not stay to meddle with as soon as the Philistines fled, but first pursued them, and slew as many of them as they could, and then returned to the spoil; which was wisely done.

Gill: 1Sa 17:54 - And David took the head of the Philistine, and brought it to Jerusalem // but he put his armour in his tent And David took the head of the Philistine, and brought it to Jerusalem,.... After he had been introduced with it to Saul, and when he had passed throu...

And David took the head of the Philistine, and brought it to Jerusalem,.... After he had been introduced with it to Saul, and when he had passed through various cities in Israel, carrying the head in triumph; where he was congratulated by the women, who came out singing and dancing, and speaking highly in his commendation and praise: why he carried it to Jerusalem is not easy to say, this not being a royal city, nor was it wholly in the hands of the Israelites; part of it indeed was in the possession of Judah and Benjamin, but the stronghold of Zion was possessed by the Jebusites; and it is generally thought that it was to the terror of them that the head of Goliath was carried there. R. Joseph Kimchi thinks, that Nob, where the tabernacle was at this time, was surnamed Jerusalem, but for what reason cannot be said:

but he put his armour in his tent; not where the army was encamped before the engagement; for David had not his tent there, and beside the camp broke up upon this victory obtained; but rather in his tent or apartment at Bethlehem, when he returned thither, and where he laid up the armour he took from Goliath; though Abarbinel thinks, and so other Jews q, that by his tent is meant the tabernacle of the Lord, called David's, because of his attachment to it; and certain it is that the sword of Goliath was either now, or at least hereafter, laid up there, see 1Sa 21:9; where all that went to sacrifice might see it, and call to mind this wonderful instance of the power and goodness of God, and praise him for it.

Gill: 1Sa 17:55 - And when Saul saw David go forth against the Philistine // he said unto Abner, the captain of the host // Abner, whose son is this youth // and Abner said, as thy soul liveth, O king, I cannot tell And when Saul saw David go forth against the Philistine,.... Set out to meet him, and engage with him, as he might from the side of the mountain, wher...

And when Saul saw David go forth against the Philistine,.... Set out to meet him, and engage with him, as he might from the side of the mountain, where he was encamped:

he said unto Abner, the captain of the host; his own cousin, whom he had raised to this high post in the army, 1Sa 14:50,

Abner, whose son is this youth? it is thought strange by many that Saul should not know who he was, when he had been often at his court, and served him as a musician, and had been very useful to him, and he loved him, and made him his armourbearer, and even had just now conversed with him about encountering with the Philistine, and had clothed him with his own armour: to get rid of the former part of the objection, some have supposed that this event happened before David was his musician and armourbearer, and is by anticipation spoken of in 1Sa 16:14, but that the connection with this and the following chapter will not admit of; and besides, before this event, David is said to return home from Saul, 1Sa 17:15; so that it is certain he had been at Saul's court, and in his presence before: but to remove this seeming difficulty it may be observed, that Saul, having laboured under a disorder of body and mind, might easily forget David, and his serving him in the above capacity; and to which the multiplicity of business, and of persons in a court, might greatly contribute; and what with the distance of time, and the different habits in which David appeared, sometimes as a musician, and sometimes as a shepherd, and at other times as a soldier, and always as a servant, it is no wonder the king should not know him again; though after all it is not about his person that he inquires, but whose son he was, what was his father's name, and from what family he sprung; for though Saul was made acquainted with this in the time of his disorder, and therefore sent to his father Jesse for him, and afterwards desired leave for his continuance; yet this might slip out of his memory in a course of time, he having had no personal knowledge of Jesse, nor any correspondence with him, but just at that time; and it behoved him to know the pedigree of David, since, if he was victorious, he was not only to be enriched by him, but to have his daughter for wife, and his family ennobled:

and Abner said, as thy soul liveth, O king, I cannot tell; he swore by the life of Saul, as Joseph by the life of Pharaoh, that he knew nothing of him; which need not at all seem strange, that a general of an army, always employed in military affairs, and often abroad, should know nothing of a domestic servant of Saul's, under the character of a musician, and not always at court either; and still less that he should be ignorant of his family, and know nothing of his father, who lived in obscurity in Bethlehem, and was an old man in those days.

Gill: 1Sa 17:56 - And the king said, inquire thou whose son the stripling is. And the king said, inquire thou whose son the stripling is. Still the question is the same, being very desirous of knowing of what family he was, for...

And the king said, inquire thou whose son the stripling is. Still the question is the same, being very desirous of knowing of what family he was, for the reason before given; see Gill on 1Sa 17:55.

Gill: 1Sa 17:57 - And as David returned from the slaughter of the Philistine // Abner took him and brought him before Saul, with the head of the Philistine in his hand And as David returned from the slaughter of the Philistine,.... Carrying his head in triumph, and no doubt accompanied with the acclamations of the pe...

And as David returned from the slaughter of the Philistine,.... Carrying his head in triumph, and no doubt accompanied with the acclamations of the people:

Abner took him and brought him before Saul, with the head of the Philistine in his hand; to give an answer to the king's question concerning him, who could best do it himself; and that Saul might have the opportunity of rewarding him, according to his merit, for so great a piece of service he had done for Israel, of which the head in his hand was a sufficient proof.

Gill: 1Sa 17:58 - And Saul said unto him, whose son art thou, thou young man // and David answered, I am the son of thy servant Jesse the Bethlehemite And Saul said unto him, whose son art thou, thou young man?.... Still the question was such as did not necessarily imply ignorance of his person, bu...

And Saul said unto him, whose son art thou, thou young man?.... Still the question was such as did not necessarily imply ignorance of his person, but of his family:

and David answered, I am the son of thy servant Jesse the Bethlehemite; which doubtless refreshed the memory of Saul, and he quickly called to mind who he was. This interview was very probably at Gibeah of Saul, which was the place of his birth and residence, 1Sa 10:26, and where he kept his court, and to which he returned after the above victory was obtained.

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki

NET Notes: 1Sa 17:1 Heb “camps.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 17:2 Heb “to meet.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 17:3 Heb “Israel.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 17:4 Heb “his height was six cubits and a span” (cf. KJV, NASB, NRSV). A cubit was approximately eighteen inches, a span nine inches. So, accor...

NET Notes: 1Sa 17:5 Although the exact weight of Goliath’s defensive body armor is difficult to estimate in terms of modern equivalency, it was obviously quite heav...

NET Notes: 1Sa 17:6 Or “greaves.” These were coverings (probably lined for comfort) that extended from about the knee to the ankle, affording protection for t...

NET Notes: 1Sa 17:7 That is, about fifteen or sixteen pounds.

NET Notes: 1Sa 17:8 Following the imperative, the prefixed verbal form (either an imperfect or jussive) with the prefixed conjunction indicates purpose/result here.

NET Notes: 1Sa 17:10 Following the imperative, the cohortative verbal form indicates purpose/result here.

NET Notes: 1Sa 17:11 Heb “all Israel.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 17:12 The translation follows the Lucianic recension of the LXX and the Syriac Peshitta in reading “in years,” rather than MT “among men.&...

NET Notes: 1Sa 17:13 Heb “his.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 17:15 Heb “was going and returning.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 17:17 Heb “run.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 17:18 Heb “and their pledge take.” This probably refers to some type of confirmation that the goods arrived safely. See R. W. Klein, 1 Samuel (W...

NET Notes: 1Sa 17:19 Heb “all the men of Israel.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 17:20 Or “entrenchment.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 17:22 Heb “the guard of the equipment.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 17:23 Heb “according to these words.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 17:24 Or “fled.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 17:25 Heb “he is coming up.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 17:26 Heb “and turns aside humiliation from upon Israel.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 17:27 Heb “according to this word, saying.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 17:28 Heb “the wickedness of your heart.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 17:29 Heb “Is it not [just] a word?”

NET Notes: 1Sa 17:30 Heb “the people.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 17:31 Heb “he took him.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 17:32 Heb “Let not the heart of a man fall upon him.” The LXX reads “my lord,” instead of “a man.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 17:36 The LXX includes here the following words not found in the MT: “Should I not go and smite him, and remove today reproach from Israel? For who is...

NET Notes: 1Sa 17:37 Or “Go, and may the Lord be with you” (so NASB, NCV, NRSV).

NET Notes: 1Sa 17:39 Heb “he had not tested.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 17:40 This Hebrew word occurs only here and its exact meaning is not entirely clear. It refers to a receptacle of some sort and apparently was a common part...

NET Notes: 1Sa 17:41 Most LXX mss lack v. 41.

NET Notes: 1Sa 17:43 Sticks is a pejorative reference to David’s staff (v. 40); the same Hebrew word (מַקֵּל, maqqel) is used for...

NET Notes: 1Sa 17:44 Many medieval Hebrew mss have “the earth” here, instead of the MT’s “the field.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 17:48 Most LXX mss lack the second half of v. 48.

NET Notes: 1Sa 17:50 Verse 50 is a summary statement; v. 51 gives a more detailed account of how David killed the Philistine.

NET Notes: 1Sa 17:51 Most LXX mss lack the words “drew it from its sheath.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 17:52 Most of the LXX ms tradition has here “Gath.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 17:54 Heb “his”; the referent (Goliath) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

NET Notes: 1Sa 17:55 Most LXX mss lack 17:55–18:5.

NET Notes: 1Sa 17:58 For location see Map5 B1; Map7 E2; Map8 E2; Map10 B4.

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 17:4 And there ( a ) went out a champion out of the camp of the Philistines, named Goliath, of Gath, whose height [was] six cubits and a span. ( a ) Betwe...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 17:5 And [he had] an helmet of brass upon his head, and he [was] armed with a coat of mail; and the weight of the coat [was] five thousand ( b ) shekels of...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 17:15 But David ( c ) went and returned from Saul to feed his father's sheep at Bethlehem. ( c ) To serve Saul, (1Sa 16:19).

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 17:17 And Jesse said unto David his son, ( d ) Take now for thy brethren an ephah of this parched [corn], and these ten loaves, and run to the camp to thy b...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 17:18 And carry these ten cheeses unto the captain of [their] thousand, and look how thy brethren fare, and take their ( e ) pledge. ( e ) If they have lai...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 17:23 And as he talked with them, behold, there came up the champion, the Philistine of Gath, Goliath by name, out of the armies of the Philistines, and spa...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 17:25 And the men of Israel said, Have ye seen this man that is come up? surely to defy Israel is he come up: and it shall be, [that] the man who killeth hi...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 17:26 And David spake to the men that stood by him, saying, What shall be done to the man that killeth this Philistine, and taketh away the ( h ) reproach f...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 17:29 And David said, What have I now done? [Is there] not a ( i ) cause? ( i ) For his father's sending was a just occasion, and also he felt himself inwa...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 17:33 And Saul said to David, Thou art not ( k ) able to go against this Philistine to fight with him: for thou [art but] a youth, and he a man of war from ...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 17:34 And David said unto Saul, Thy servant kept his father's sheep, and there came a ( l ) lion, and a bear, and took a lamb out of the flock: ( l ) David...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 17:37 David said moreover, The LORD that delivered me out of the paw of the lion, and out of the paw of the bear, he will deliver me out of the hand of this...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 17:40 And he took his ( n ) staff in his hand, and chose him five smooth stones out of the brook, and put them in a shepherd's bag which he had, even in a s...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 17:43 And the Philistine said unto David, [Am] I a dog, that thou comest to me with staves? And the Philistine ( o ) cursed David by his gods. ( o ) He swo...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 17:46 This ( p ) day will the LORD deliver thee into mine hand; and I will smite thee, and take thine head from thee; and I will give the carcases of the ho...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 17:48 And it came to pass, when the Philistine arose, and came and drew nigh to meet David, that David ( q ) hasted, and ran toward the army to meet the Phi...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 17:55 And when Saul saw David go forth against the Philistine, he said unto Abner, the captain of the host, Abner, ( e ) whose son [is] this youth? And Abne...

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Rentang Ayat

Maclaren: 1Sa 17:32-51 - The Victory Of Unarmed Faith 1 Samuel 17:32-51 The scene of David's victory has been identified in the present Wady Es-Sunt, which still possesses one of the terebinth-trees which...

MHCC: 1Sa 17:1-11 - --Men so entirely depend upon God in all things, that when he withdraws his help, the most valiant and resolute cannot find their hearts or hands, as da...

MHCC: 1Sa 17:12-30 - --Jesse little thought of sending his son to the army at that critical juncture; but the wise God orders actions and affairs, so as to serve his designs...

MHCC: 1Sa 17:31-39 - --A shepherd lad, come the same morning from keeping sheep, had more courage than all the mighty men of Israel. Thus God often sends good words to his I...

MHCC: 1Sa 17:40-47 - --The security and presumption of fools destroy them. Nothing can excel the humility, faith, and piety which appear in David's words. He expressed his a...

MHCC: 1Sa 17:48-58 - --See how frail and uncertain life is, even when a man thinks himself best fortified; how quickly, how easily, and by how small a matter, the passage ma...

Matthew Henry: 1Sa 17:1-11 - -- It was not long ago that the Philistines were soundly beaten, and put to the worse, before Israel, and they would have been totally routed if Saul's...

Matthew Henry: 1Sa 17:12-30 - -- Forty days the two armies lay encamped facing one another, each advantageously posted, but neither forward to engage. Either they were parleying and...

Matthew Henry: 1Sa 17:31-39 - -- David is at length presented to Saul for his champion (1Sa 17:31) and he bravely undertakes to fight the Philistine (1Sa 17:32): Let no man's heart...

Matthew Henry: 1Sa 17:40-47 - -- We are now coming near this famous combat, and have in these verses the preparations and remonstrances made on both sides. I. The preparations made ...

Matthew Henry: 1Sa 17:48-58 - -- Here is 1. The engagement between the two champions, 1Sa 17:48. To this engagement the Philistine advanced with a great deal of state and gravity; i...

Keil-Delitzsch: 1Sa 17:1-54 - -- A war between the Philistines and the Israelites furnished David with theopportunity of displaying before Saul and all Israel, and greatly to theter...

Keil-Delitzsch: 1Sa 17:55-56 - -- Jonathan's friendship . - 1Sa 17:55-58. The account of the relationinto which David was brought to Saul through the defeat of Goliath isintroduced ...