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Teks -- 1 Corinthians 10:1-33 (NET)

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Learning from Israel’s Failures
10:1 For I do not want you to be unaware, brothers and sisters, that our fathers were all under the cloud and all passed through the sea, 10:2 and all were baptized into Moses in the cloud and in the sea, 10:3 and all ate the same spiritual food, 10:4 and all drank the same spiritual drink. For they were all drinking from the spiritual rock that followed them, and the rock was Christ. 10:5 But God was not pleased with most of them, for they were cut down in the wilderness. 10:6 These things happened as examples for us, so that we will not crave evil things as they did. 10:7 So do not be idolaters, as some of them were. As it is written, “The people sat down to eat and drink and rose up to play.” 10:8 And let us not be immoral, as some of them were, and twenty-three thousand died in a single day. 10:9 And let us not put Christ to the test, as some of them did, and were destroyed by snakes. 10:10 And do not complain, as some of them did, and were killed by the destroying angel. 10:11 These things happened to them as examples and were written for our instruction, on whom the ends of the ages have come. 10:12 So let the one who thinks he is standing be careful that he does not fall. 10:13 No trial has overtaken you that is not faced by others. And God is faithful: He will not let you be tried beyond what you are able to bear, but with the trial will also provide a way out so that you may be able to endure it.
Avoid Idol Feasts
10:14 So then, my dear friends, flee from idolatry. 10:15 I am speaking to thoughtful people. Consider what I say. 10:16 Is not the cup of blessing that we bless a sharing in the blood of Christ? Is not the bread that we break a sharing in the body of Christ? 10:17 Because there is one bread, we who are many are one body, for we all share the one bread. 10:18 Look at the people of Israel. Are not those who eat the sacrifices partners in the altar? 10:19 Am I saying that idols or food sacrificed to them amount to anything? 10:20 No, I mean that what the pagans sacrifice is to demons and not to God. I do not want you to be partners with demons. 10:21 You cannot cannot drink the cup of the Lord and the cup of demons. You cannot cannot take part in the table of the Lord and the table of demons. 10:22 Or are we trying to provoke the Lord to jealousy? Are we really stronger than he is?
Live to Glorify God
10:23 “Everything is lawful,” but not everything is beneficial. “Everything is lawful,” but not everything builds others up. 10:24 Do not seek your own good, but the good of the other person. 10:25 Eat anything that is sold in the marketplace without questions of conscience, 10:26 for the earth and its abundance are the Lord’s. 10:27 If an unbeliever invites you to dinner and you want to go, eat whatever is served without asking questions of conscience. 10:28 But if someone says to you, “This is from a sacrifice,” do not eat, because of the one who told you and because of conscience10:29 I do not mean mean yours but the other person’s. For why is my freedom being judged by another’s conscience? 10:30 If I partake with thankfulness, why am I blamed for the food that I give thanks for? 10:31 So whether you eat or drink, or whatever you do, do everything for the glory of God. 10:32 Do not give offense to Jews or Greeks or to the church of God, 10:33 just as I also try to please everyone in all things. I do not seek my own benefit, but the benefit of many, so that they may be saved.
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Gentile a non-Jewish person
 · Greek the language used by the people of Greece
 · Israel a citizen of Israel.,a member of the nation of Israel
 · Jews the people descended from Israel
 · Moses a son of Amram; the Levite who led Israel out of Egypt and gave them The Law of Moses,a Levite who led Israel out of Egypt and gave them the law


Topik/Tema Kamus: PAUL, THE APOSTLE, 5 | Backsliders | Expediency | Prudence | Commandments | Idolatry | Minister | Wicked | Temptation | Conscience | Charitableness | PAULINE THEOLOGY | Evil | SACRAMENTS | LORD'S SUPPER; (EUCHARIST) | Tolerance | Communion | Servanthood | Cup | TYPE | selebihnya
Daftar Isi

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Robertson , Vincent , Wesley , JFB , Clarke , Calvin , Defender , TSK

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Poole , PBC , Haydock , Gill

Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki
NET Notes , Geneva Bible

Catatan Rentang Ayat
Maclaren , MHCC , Matthew Henry , Barclay , Constable , College , McGarvey , Lapide

Lainnya
Evidence

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per frasa)

Robertson: 1Co 10:1 - For For ( gar ). Correct text, not de . Paul appeals to the experience of the Israelites in the wilderness in confirmation of his statement concerning hi...

For ( gar ).

Correct text, not de . Paul appeals to the experience of the Israelites in the wilderness in confirmation of his statement concerning himself in 1Co 9:26. and as a powerful warning to the Corinthians who may be tempted to flirt with the idolatrous practices of their neighbours. It is a real, not an imaginary peril.

Robertson: 1Co 10:1 - All under the cloud All under the cloud ( pantes hupo tēn nephelēn ). They all marched under the pillar of cloud by day (Exo 13:21; Exo 14:19) which covered the host...

All under the cloud ( pantes hupo tēn nephelēn ).

They all marched under the pillar of cloud by day (Exo 13:21; Exo 14:19) which covered the host (Num 14:14; Psa 105:39). This mystic cloud was the symbol of the presence of the Lord with the people.

Robertson: 1Co 10:2 - Were all baptized unto Moses in the cloud and in the sea Were all baptized unto Moses in the cloud and in the sea ( pantes eis ton Mōusēn ebaptisanto en tēi nephelēi kai en tēi thalassēi ). The ...

Were all baptized unto Moses in the cloud and in the sea ( pantes eis ton Mōusēn ebaptisanto en tēi nephelēi kai en tēi thalassēi ).

The picture is plain enough. The mystic cloud covered the people while the sea rose in walls on each side of them as they marched across. B K L P read ebaptisanto (causative first aorist middle, got themselves baptized) while Aleph A C D have ebaptisthēsan (first aorist passive, were baptized). The immersion was complete for all of them in the sea around them and the cloud over them. Moses was their leader then as Christ is now and so Paul uses eis concerning the relation of the Israelites to Moses as he does of our baptism in relation to Christ (Gal 3:27).

Robertson: 1Co 10:3 - The same spiritual meat The same spiritual meat ( to auto pneumatikon brōma ). Westcott and Hort needlessly bracket to auto . Brōma is food, not just flesh. The refere...

The same spiritual meat ( to auto pneumatikon brōma ).

Westcott and Hort needlessly bracket to auto . Brōma is food, not just flesh. The reference is to the manna (Exo 16:13.) which is termed "spiritual"by reason of its supernatural character. Jesus called himself the true bread from heaven (Joh 6:35) which the manna typified.

Robertson: 1Co 10:4 - For they drank of a spiritual rock that followed them For they drank of a spiritual rock that followed them ( epinon ek pneumatikēs akolouthousēs petras ). Change to the imperfect epinon shows thei...

For they drank of a spiritual rock that followed them ( epinon ek pneumatikēs akolouthousēs petras ).

Change to the imperfect epinon shows their continual access to the supernatural source of supply. The Israelites were blessed by the water from the rock that Moses smote at Rephidim (Exo 17:6) and at Kadesh (Num 20:11) and by the well of Beer (Num 21:16). The rabbis had a legend that the water actually followed the Israelites for forty years, in one form a fragment of rock fifteen feet high that followed the people and gushed out water. Baur and some other scholars think that Paul adopts this "Rabbinical legend that the water-bearing Rephidim rock journeyed onwards with the Israelites"(Findlay). That is hard to believe, though it is quite possible that Paul alludes to this fancy and gives it a spiritual turn as a type of Christ in allegorical fashion. Paul knew the views of the rabbis and made use of allegory on occasion (Gal 4:24).

Robertson: 1Co 10:4 - And the rock was Christ And the rock was Christ ( hē petra de ēn ho Christos ). He definitely states here in symbolic form the preexistence of Christ. But surely "we mus...

And the rock was Christ ( hē petra de ēn ho Christos ).

He definitely states here in symbolic form the preexistence of Christ. But surely "we must not disgrace Paul by making him say that the pre-incarnate Christ followed the march of Israel in the shape of a lump of rock"(Hofmann). He does mean that Christ was the source of the water which saved the Israelites from perishing (Robertson and Plummer) as he is the source of supply for us today.

Robertson: 1Co 10:5 - With most of them With most of them ( en tois pleiosin autōn ). "A mournful understatement,"for only two (Caleb and Joshua) actually reached the Promised Land (Num 1...

With most of them ( en tois pleiosin autōn ).

"A mournful understatement,"for only two (Caleb and Joshua) actually reached the Promised Land (Num 14:30-32). All the rest were rejected or adokimoi (1Co 9:27).

Robertson: 1Co 10:5 - Were overthrown Were overthrown ( katestrōthēsan ). First aorist passive indicative of katastrōnnumi , old compound verb, to stretch or spread down as of a cou...

Were overthrown ( katestrōthēsan ).

First aorist passive indicative of katastrōnnumi , old compound verb, to stretch or spread down as of a couch, to lay low (Euripides), as if by a hurricane. Powerful picture of the desolation wrought by the years of disobedience and wanderings in the desert by this verb quoted from Num 14:16.

Robertson: 1Co 10:6 - Were our examples Were our examples ( tupoi hēmōn egenēthēsan ). More exactly, examples for us (objective genitive hēmōn , not subjective genitive, of us)....

Were our examples ( tupoi hēmōn egenēthēsan ).

More exactly, examples for us (objective genitive hēmōn , not subjective genitive, of us). The word tupoi (our types) comes from tuptō , to strike, and meant originally the mark of a blow as the print of the nails (Joh 20:25), then a figure formed by a blow like images of the gods (Act 7:43), then an example to be imitated (1Pe 5:3; 1Ti 4:12; 1Th 1:7; 2Th 3:9), or to be avoided as here, and finally a type in a doctrinal sense (Rom 5:14; Heb 9:24).

Robertson: 1Co 10:6 - To the intent we should not lust after To the intent we should not lust after ( eis to mē einai hēmas epithumētas ). Purpose expressed by eis with the articular infinitive to einai...

To the intent we should not lust after ( eis to mē einai hēmas epithumētas ).

Purpose expressed by eis with the articular infinitive to einai and the accusative of general reference with epithumētas (lusters) in the predicate.

Robertson: 1Co 10:7 - Neither be ye idolaters Neither be ye idolaters ( mēde eidōlolatrai ginesthe ). Literally, stop becoming idolaters, implying that some of them had already begun to be. T...

Neither be ye idolaters ( mēde eidōlolatrai ginesthe ).

Literally, stop becoming idolaters, implying that some of them had already begun to be. The word eidōlolatrēs seems to be a Christian formation to describe the Christian view. Eating ta eidōlothuta might become a stepping-stone to idolatry in some instances.

Robertson: 1Co 10:7 - Drink Drink ( pein ). Short form for piein , sometimes even pin occurs (Robertson, Grammar , p. 204).

Drink ( pein ).

Short form for piein , sometimes even pin occurs (Robertson, Grammar , p. 204).

Robertson: 1Co 10:7 - To play To play ( paizein ). This old verb to play like a child occurs nowhere else in the N.T., but is common in the lxx and it is quoted here from Ex 32:6....

To play ( paizein ).

This old verb to play like a child occurs nowhere else in the N.T., but is common in the lxx and it is quoted here from Ex 32:6. In idolatrous festivals like that witnessed by Moses when he saw the people singing and dancing around the golden calf (Exo 32:18.).

Robertson: 1Co 10:8 - Neither let us commit fornication Neither let us commit fornication ( mēde porneuōmen ). More exactly, And let us cease practicing fornication as some were already doing (1Co 6:11...

Neither let us commit fornication ( mēde porneuōmen ).

More exactly, And let us cease practicing fornication as some were already doing (1Co 6:11; 1Co 7:2). The connection between idolatry and fornication was very close (see Jowett, Epistles of Paul , II, p. 70) and see about Baal-Peor (Num 25:1-9). It was terribly true of Corinth where prostitution was part of the worship of Aphrodite.

Robertson: 1Co 10:8 - In one day In one day ( miāi hēmerāi ). An item that adds to horror of the plague in Num 25:9 where the total number is 24,000 instead of 23,000 as here f...

In one day ( miāi hēmerāi ).

An item that adds to horror of the plague in Num 25:9 where the total number is 24,000 instead of 23,000 as here for one day.

Robertson: 1Co 10:9 - Neither let us tempt the Lord Neither let us tempt the Lord ( mēde ekpeirazōmen ton Kurion ). So the best MSS. instead of Christ. This compound occurs in lxx and in N.T. alway...

Neither let us tempt the Lord ( mēde ekpeirazōmen ton Kurion ).

So the best MSS. instead of Christ. This compound occurs in lxx and in N.T. always about Christ (here and Mat 4:7; Luk 4:12; Luk 10:25). Let us cease sorely (ek̇ ) tempting the Lord by such conduct.

Robertson: 1Co 10:9 - And perished by the serpents And perished by the serpents ( kai hupo tōn opheōn apōllunto ). Vivid imperfect middle (cf. aorist middle apōlonto in 1Co 10:10), were peri...

And perished by the serpents ( kai hupo tōn opheōn apōllunto ).

Vivid imperfect middle (cf. aorist middle apōlonto in 1Co 10:10), were perishing day by day. The story is told in Num 21:6. The use of hupo for agent with the intransitive middle of apollumi is regular. Note the Ionic uncontracted genitive plural opheōn rather than ophōn .

Robertson: 1Co 10:10 - Neither murmur ye Neither murmur ye ( mēde gogguzete ). Implying that some of them were murmuring. For this late picturesque onomatopoetic verb see note on Mat 20:11...

Neither murmur ye ( mēde gogguzete ).

Implying that some of them were murmuring. For this late picturesque onomatopoetic verb see note on Mat 20:11. The reference seems to be to Num 16:41. after the punishment of Korah.

Robertson: 1Co 10:10 - By the destroyer By the destroyer ( hupo tou olothreutou ). This word, from olothreuō (late verb from olethros , destruction) occurs only here, so far as known. T...

By the destroyer ( hupo tou olothreutou ).

This word, from olothreuō (late verb from olethros , destruction) occurs only here, so far as known. The reference is to the destroying angel of Exo 12:23 (ho olothreuōn ).

Robertson: 1Co 10:11 - Now these things happened unto them Now these things happened unto them ( tauta de sunebainon ekeinois ). Imperfect tense because they happened from time to time.

Now these things happened unto them ( tauta de sunebainon ekeinois ).

Imperfect tense because they happened from time to time.

Robertson: 1Co 10:11 - By way of example By way of example ( tupikōs ). Adverb in sense of tupoi in 1Co 10:6. Only instance of the adverb except in ecclesiastical writers after this time...

By way of example ( tupikōs ).

Adverb in sense of tupoi in 1Co 10:6. Only instance of the adverb except in ecclesiastical writers after this time, but adjective tupikos occurs in a late papyrus.

Robertson: 1Co 10:11 - For our admonition For our admonition ( pros nouthesian hēmōn ). Objective genitive (hēmōn ) again. Nouthesia is late word from noutheteō (see note on Ac...

For our admonition ( pros nouthesian hēmōn ).

Objective genitive (hēmōn ) again. Nouthesia is late word from noutheteō (see note on Act 20:31; note on 1Th 5:12 and note on 1Th 5:14) for earlier nouthetēsis and nouthetia .

Robertson: 1Co 10:11 - The ends of the ages have come The ends of the ages have come ( ta telē tōn aiōnōn katēntēken ). Cf. Heb 9:26 hē sunteleia tōn aiōnōn , the consummation of the ...

The ends of the ages have come ( ta telē tōn aiōnōn katēntēken ).

Cf. Heb 9:26 hē sunteleia tōn aiōnōn , the consummation of the ages (also Mat 13:40). The plural seems to point out how one stage succeeds another in the drama of human history. Katēntēken is perfect active indicative of katantaō , late verb, to come down to (see note on Act 16:1). Does Paul refer to the second coming of Christ as in 1Co 7:26? In a sense the ends of the ages like a curtain have come down to all of us.

Robertson: 1Co 10:12 - Lest he fall Lest he fall ( mē pesēi ). Negative purpose with mē and second aorist active subjunctive of piptō .

Lest he fall ( mē pesēi ).

Negative purpose with mē and second aorist active subjunctive of piptō .

Robertson: 1Co 10:13 - Hath taken Hath taken ( eilēphen ). Perfect active indicative of lambanō .

Hath taken ( eilēphen ).

Perfect active indicative of lambanō .

Robertson: 1Co 10:13 - But such as man can bear But such as man can bear ( ei mē anthrōpinos ). Except a human one. Old adjective meaning falling to the lot of man.

But such as man can bear ( ei mē anthrōpinos ).

Except a human one. Old adjective meaning falling to the lot of man.

Robertson: 1Co 10:13 - Above that ye are able Above that ye are able ( huper ho dunasthe ). Ellipsis, but plain. There is comfort in that God is faithful, trustworthy (pistos ).

Above that ye are able ( huper ho dunasthe ).

Ellipsis, but plain. There is comfort in that God is faithful, trustworthy (pistos ).

Robertson: 1Co 10:13 - The way of escape The way of escape ( tēn ekbasin ). "The way out"is always there right along with (sun ) the temptation. This old word only here in N.T. and Heb 13...

The way of escape ( tēn ekbasin ).

"The way out"is always there right along with (sun ) the temptation. This old word only here in N.T. and Heb 13:7 about death. It is cowardly to yield to temptation and distrustful of God.

Robertson: 1Co 10:14 - Wherefore Wherefore ( dioper ). Powerfully Paul applies the example of the Israelites to the perilous state of the Corinthians about idolatry. See note on 1Co ...

Wherefore ( dioper ).

Powerfully Paul applies the example of the Israelites to the perilous state of the Corinthians about idolatry. See note on 1Co 10:7 for word eidōlolatreia .

Robertson: 1Co 10:15 - As to wise men As to wise men ( hōs phronimois ). No sarcasm as in 2Co 11:19, but plea that they make proper use of the mind (phren ) given them.

As to wise men ( hōs phronimois ).

No sarcasm as in 2Co 11:19, but plea that they make proper use of the mind (phren ) given them.

Robertson: 1Co 10:16 - The cup of blessing The cup of blessing ( to potērion tēs eulogias ). The cup over which we pronounce a blessing as by Christ at the institution of the ordinance.

The cup of blessing ( to potērion tēs eulogias ).

The cup over which we pronounce a blessing as by Christ at the institution of the ordinance.

Robertson: 1Co 10:16 - A communion of the blood of Christ A communion of the blood of Christ ( Koinéōnia tou haimatos tou Christou ). Literally, a participation in (objective genitive) the blood of Christ...

A communion of the blood of Christ ( Koinéōnia tou haimatos tou Christou ).

Literally, a participation in (objective genitive) the blood of Christ. The word Koinéōnia is an old one from Koinéōnos , partner, and so here and Phi 2:1; Phi 3:10. It can mean also fellowship (Gal 2:9) or contribution (2Co 8:4; Phi 1:5). It is, of course, a spiritual participation in the blood of Christ which is symbolized by the cup. Same meaning for Koinéōnia in reference to "the body of Christ."

Robertson: 1Co 10:16 - The bread which we break The bread which we break ( ton arton hon klōmen ). The loaf. Inverse attraction of the antecedent (arton ) to the case (accusative) of the relativ...

The bread which we break ( ton arton hon klōmen ).

The loaf. Inverse attraction of the antecedent (arton ) to the case (accusative) of the relative (hon ) according to classic idiom (Robertson, Grammar , p. 488). Artos probably from arō , to join or fit (flour mixed with water and baked). The mention of the cup here before the bread does not mean that this order was observed for see the regular order of bread and then cup in 1Co 11:24-27.

Robertson: 1Co 10:17 - One bread One bread ( heis artos ). One loaf.

One bread ( heis artos ).

One loaf.

Robertson: 1Co 10:17 - Who are many Who are many ( hoi polloi ). The many.

Who are many ( hoi polloi ).

The many.

Robertson: 1Co 10:17 - We all We all ( hoi pantes ). We the all, the whole number, hoi pantes being in apposition with the subject we (hēmeis unexpressed).

We all ( hoi pantes ).

We the all, the whole number, hoi pantes being in apposition with the subject we (hēmeis unexpressed).

Robertson: 1Co 10:17 - Partake Partake ( metechomen ). Have a part with or in, share in. See 1Co 9:12; Heb 2:14; Heb 5:13 (partaking of milk).

Partake ( metechomen ).

Have a part with or in, share in. See 1Co 9:12; Heb 2:14; Heb 5:13 (partaking of milk).

Robertson: 1Co 10:17 - Of the one bread Of the one bread ( tou henos artou ). Of the one loaf, the article tou referring to one loaf already mentioned.

Of the one bread ( tou henos artou ).

Of the one loaf, the article tou referring to one loaf already mentioned.

Robertson: 1Co 10:17 - One body One body ( hen sōma ). Here the mystical spiritual body of Christ as in 1Co 12:12., the spiritual kingdom or church of which Christ is head (Col 1:...

One body ( hen sōma ).

Here the mystical spiritual body of Christ as in 1Co 12:12., the spiritual kingdom or church of which Christ is head (Col 1:18; Eph 5:23).

Robertson: 1Co 10:18 - After the flesh After the flesh ( kata sarka ). The literal Israel, the Jewish people, not the spiritual Israel (Israēl kata pneuma ) composed of both Jews and Ge...

After the flesh ( kata sarka ).

The literal Israel, the Jewish people, not the spiritual Israel (Israēl kata pneuma ) composed of both Jews and Gentiles, the true children of faith (Rom 2:28; Rom 9:8; Gal 3:7).

Robertson: 1Co 10:18 - Communion with the altar Communion with the altar ( Koinéōnoi tou thusiastēriou ). Same idea in Koinéōnoi participators in, partners in, sharers in (with objective ...

Communion with the altar ( Koinéōnoi tou thusiastēriou ).

Same idea in Koinéōnoi participators in, partners in, sharers in (with objective genitive). The word thusiastērion is from late verb thusiazō , to offer sacrifice, and that from thusia , sacrifice, and that from thuō , common verb to slay, to sacrifice (1Co 10:20). The Israelites who offer sacrifices have a spiritual participation in the altar.

Robertson: 1Co 10:19 - A thing sacrificed to idols A thing sacrificed to idols ( eidōlothuton ). See Act 15:29; note on 1Co 8:1, note on 1Co 8:4

A thing sacrificed to idols ( eidōlothuton ).

See Act 15:29; note on 1Co 8:1, note on 1Co 8:4

Robertson: 1Co 10:19 - Idol Idol ( eidōlon ). Image of a god. See note on Act 7:41; note on Act 15:20; note on 1Co 8:4; and note on 1Co 8:7.

Idol ( eidōlon ).

Image of a god. See note on Act 7:41; note on Act 15:20; note on 1Co 8:4; and note on 1Co 8:7.

Robertson: 1Co 10:20 - But I say that But I say that ( all' hoti ). The verb phēmi (I say) must be repeated from 1Co 10:19 before hoti .

But I say that ( all' hoti ).

The verb phēmi (I say) must be repeated from 1Co 10:19 before hoti .

Robertson: 1Co 10:20 - To demons, and not to God To demons, and not to God ( daimoniois kai ou theōi ). Referring to lxx text of Deuteronomy 32:17. It is probable that by ou theōi Paul means "...

To demons, and not to God ( daimoniois kai ou theōi ).

Referring to lxx text of Deuteronomy 32:17. It is probable that by ou theōi Paul means "to a no-god"as also in Deu 32:21 ep' ouk ethnei (by a no-people). This is Paul’ s reply to the heathen who claimed that they worshipped the gods represented by the images and not the mere wood or stone or metal idols. The word daimonia is an adjective daimonios from daimōn , an inferior deity, and with same idea originally, once in this sense in N.T. (Act 17:18). Elsewhere in N.T. it has the notion of evil spirits as here, those spiritual forces of wickedness (Eph 6:12) that are under the control of Satan. The word daimonia , so common in the Gospels, occurs in Paul’ s writings only here and 1Ti 4:1. Demonology is a deep and dark subject here pictured by Paul as the explanation of heathenism which is a departure from God (Rom 1:19-23) and a substitute for the worship of God. It is a terrible indictment which is justified by the licentious worship associated with paganism then and now.

Robertson: 1Co 10:21 - Ye cannot Ye cannot ( ou dunasthe ). Morally impossible to drink the Lord’ s cup and the cup of demons, to partake of the Lord’ s table and the table...

Ye cannot ( ou dunasthe ).

Morally impossible to drink the Lord’ s cup and the cup of demons, to partake of the Lord’ s table and the table of demons.

Robertson: 1Co 10:21 - Of the table of the Lord Of the table of the Lord ( trapezēs Kuriou ). No articles, but definite idea. Trapeza is from tetra (four) and peza (a foot), four-footed. He...

Of the table of the Lord ( trapezēs Kuriou ).

No articles, but definite idea. Trapeza is from tetra (four) and peza (a foot), four-footed. Here table means, as often, what is on the table. See Luk 22:30 where Jesus says "at my table"(epi tēs trapezēs mou ), referring to the spiritual feast hereafter. Here the reference is plainly to the Lord’ s Supper (Kuriakon deipnon , 1Co 11:20). See allusions in O.T. to use of the table in heathen idol feasts (Isa 65:11; Jer 7:18; Eze 16:18.; Eze 23:41). The altar of burnt-offering is called the table of the Lord in Mal 1:7 (Vincent).

Robertson: 1Co 10:22 - Provoke to jealousy Provoke to jealousy ( parazēloumen ). The very word used in Deu 32:21 of the insolence of the old Israelites. Quoted in Rom 10:19. Such double-deal...

Provoke to jealousy ( parazēloumen ).

The very word used in Deu 32:21 of the insolence of the old Israelites. Quoted in Rom 10:19. Such double-dealing now will do this very thing.

Robertson: 1Co 10:22 - Stronger than he Stronger than he ( ischuroteroi autou ). Comparative adjective followed by the ablative.

Stronger than he ( ischuroteroi autou ).

Comparative adjective followed by the ablative.

Robertson: 1Co 10:23 - See note on 1Co 6:12 for lawful (exestin ) and expedient (sumpherei ). @@Edify not See note on 1Co 6:12 for lawful (exestin ) and expedient (sumpherei ). @@Edify not ( ouk oikodomei ). Build up. Explanation of expedient (su...

See note on 1Co 6:12 for lawful (exestin ) and expedient (sumpherei ). @@Edify not ( ouk oikodomei ).

Build up. Explanation of expedient (sumpherei ).

Robertson: 1Co 10:24 - Let no man seek his own Let no man seek his own ( mēdeis to heautou zēteitō ). This is Paul’ s rule for social relations (1Co 13:5; Gal 6:2; Rom 14:7; Rom 15:2; P...

Let no man seek his own ( mēdeis to heautou zēteitō ).

This is Paul’ s rule for social relations (1Co 13:5; Gal 6:2; Rom 14:7; Rom 15:2; Phi 2:1.) and is the way to do what is expedient and what builds up.

Robertson: 1Co 10:24 - His neighbour’ s good His neighbour’ s good ( to tou heterou ). Literally, "the affair of the other man."Cf. ton heteron in Rom 13:8 for this idea of heteros like...

His neighbour’ s good ( to tou heterou ).

Literally, "the affair of the other man."Cf. ton heteron in Rom 13:8 for this idea of heteros like ho plēsion (the nigh man, the neighbour) in Rom 15:2. This is loving your neighbour as yourself by preferring your neighbour’ s welfare to your own (Phi 2:4).

Robertson: 1Co 10:25 - In the shambles In the shambles ( en makellōi ). Only here in N.T. A transliterated Latin word macellum , possibly akin to maceria and the Hebrew word for encl...

In the shambles ( en makellōi ).

Only here in N.T. A transliterated Latin word macellum , possibly akin to maceria and the Hebrew word for enclosure, though occurring in Ionic and Laconian and more frequent in the Latin. It occurs in Dio Cassius and Plutarch and in the papyri and inscriptions for "the provision market."Deissmann ( Light from the Ancient East , p. 276) says: "In the Macellum at Pompeii we can imagine to ourselves the poor Christians buying their modest pound of meat in the Corinthian Macellum (1Co 10:25), with the same life-like reality with which the Diocletian maximum tariff called up the picture of the Galilean woman purchasing her five sparrows."

Robertson: 1Co 10:25 - Asking no questions for conscience sake Asking no questions for conscience sake ( mēden anakrinontes dia tēn suneidēsin ). As to whether a particular piece of meat had been offered to...

Asking no questions for conscience sake ( mēden anakrinontes dia tēn suneidēsin ).

As to whether a particular piece of meat had been offered to idols before put in the market. Only a part was consumed in the sacrifices to heathen gods. The rest was sold in the market. Do not be over-scrupulous. Paul here champions liberty in the matter as he had done in 1Co 8:4.

Robertson: 1Co 10:26 - This verse gives the reason for Paul’ s advice. It is a quotation from Psa 24:1 and was a common form of grace before meals. @@Fulness This verse gives the reason for Paul’ s advice. It is a quotation from Psa 24:1 and was a common form of grace before meals. @@Fulness ( plēro...

This verse gives the reason for Paul’ s advice. It is a quotation from Psa 24:1 and was a common form of grace before meals. @@Fulness ( plērōma ).

Old word from plēroō , to fill, here that with which a thing is filled, whatever fills the earth.

Robertson: 1Co 10:27 - Biddeth you Biddeth you ( kalei humas ). To a general banquet, but not to a temple feast (1Co 8:10) which is prohibited. If a pagan invites Christians to their h...

Biddeth you ( kalei humas ).

To a general banquet, but not to a temple feast (1Co 8:10) which is prohibited. If a pagan invites Christians to their homes to a banquet, one is to act like a gentleman.

Robertson: 1Co 10:28 - But if any man say unto you But if any man say unto you ( ean de tis humin eipēi ). Condition of third class. Suppose at such a banquet a "weak"brother makes the point to you:...

But if any man say unto you ( ean de tis humin eipēi ).

Condition of third class. Suppose at such a banquet a "weak"brother makes the point to you: "This hath been offered in sacrifice"(touto hierothuton estin ). Hierothuton , late word in Plutarch, rare in inscriptions and papyri, only here in N.T.

Robertson: 1Co 10:28 - Eat not Eat not ( mē esthiete ). Present imperative with mē prohibiting the habit of eating then. Pertinent illustration to the point of doing what is ...

Eat not ( mē esthiete ).

Present imperative with mē prohibiting the habit of eating then. Pertinent illustration to the point of doing what is expedient and edifying.

Robertson: 1Co 10:28 - That shewed it That shewed it ( ton mēnusanta ). First aorist active articular participle (accusative case because of dia ) from mēnuō , old verb, to point o...

That shewed it ( ton mēnusanta ).

First aorist active articular participle (accusative case because of dia ) from mēnuō , old verb, to point out, to disclose. See Luk 20:37.

Robertson: 1Co 10:29 - For why is my liberty judged by another conscience? For why is my liberty judged by another conscience? ( hina ti gar hē eleutheria mou krinetai hupo allēs suneidēseōs̱ ). Supply genētai (...

For why is my liberty judged by another conscience? ( hina ti gar hē eleutheria mou krinetai hupo allēs suneidēseōs̱ ).

Supply genētai (deliberative subjunctive) after ti . Paul deftly puts himself in the place of the strong brother at such a banquet who is expected to conform his conscience to that of the weak brother who makes the point about a particular piece of meat. It is an abridgment of one’ s personal liberty in the interest of the weak brother. Two individualities clash. The only reason is love which builds up (1Co 8:2 and all of chapter 1Co 13:1-13). There is this eternal collision between the forces of progress and reaction. If they work together, they must consider the welfare of each other.

Robertson: 1Co 10:30 - -- @@Paul carries on the supposed objective to his principle of love. Why incur the risk of being evil spoken of (blasphēmoumai ) for the sake of main...

@@Paul carries on the supposed objective to his principle of love. Why incur the risk of being evil spoken of (blasphēmoumai ) for the sake of maintaining one’ s liberty? Is it worth it? See note on Rom 14:6 where Paul justifies the conscience of one who eats the meat and of one who does not. Saying grace over food that one should not eat seems inconsistent. We have this very word blaspheme in English.

Robertson: 1Co 10:31 - To the glory of God To the glory of God ( eis doxan theou ). This is the ruling motive in the Christian’ s life, not just having his own way about whims and prefere...

To the glory of God ( eis doxan theou ).

This is the ruling motive in the Christian’ s life, not just having his own way about whims and preferences.||

Robertson: 1Co 10:32 - Give no occasion of stumbling Give no occasion of stumbling ( aproskopoi ). Late word and in papyri, only three times in N.T. (here; Phi 1:10; Act 24:16). See note on Act 24:16. H...

Give no occasion of stumbling ( aproskopoi ).

Late word and in papyri, only three times in N.T. (here; Phi 1:10; Act 24:16). See note on Act 24:16. Here in active sense, not tripping others by being a stumbling-block, as in Sirach 32:21, but passive in Act 24:16.

Robertson: 1Co 10:33 - Mine own profit Mine own profit ( to emoutou sumpheron ). Old word from sumpherō , to bear together, and explains use of verb in 1Co 10:23.

Mine own profit ( to emoutou sumpheron ).

Old word from sumpherō , to bear together, and explains use of verb in 1Co 10:23.

Robertson: 1Co 10:33 - That they may be saved That they may be saved ( hina sōthōsin ). First aorist passive subjunctive of sōzō , to save, with hina purpose clause with same high motiv...

That they may be saved ( hina sōthōsin ).

First aorist passive subjunctive of sōzō , to save, with hina purpose clause with same high motive as in 1Co 9:22. This is the ruling passion of Paul in his dealings with men.

Vincent: 1Co 10:1 - Moreover Moreover ( δέ ) But the correct reading is γάρ for , introducing an illustration of rejection by God, and thus connecting what follows ...

Moreover ( δέ )

But the correct reading is γάρ for , introducing an illustration of rejection by God, and thus connecting what follows with the close of the last chapter. It is possible that I may be rejected, for the Israelites were.

Vincent: 1Co 10:1 - All All Strongly emphasized in contrast with most of them (A.V., many ) in 1Co 10:5. All enjoyed the privileges, but few improved them. The ...

All

Strongly emphasized in contrast with most of them (A.V., many ) in 1Co 10:5. All enjoyed the privileges, but few improved them. The word is repeated five times.

Vincent: 1Co 10:1 - Under the cloud Under the cloud The cloudy pillar which guided the Israelites. It is sometimes spoken of as covering the host. See Psa 105:39; Wis. 10:17; 19:7...

Under the cloud

The cloudy pillar which guided the Israelites. It is sometimes spoken of as covering the host. See Psa 105:39; Wis. 10:17; 19:7; Num 14:14.

Vincent: 1Co 10:2 - Baptized unto Moses Baptized unto Moses ( εἰς ) Rev., margin, into . See on Mat 28:19; see on Rom 6:3. They were introduced into a spiritual union with Moses, ...

Baptized unto Moses ( εἰς )

Rev., margin, into . See on Mat 28:19; see on Rom 6:3. They were introduced into a spiritual union with Moses, and constituted his disciples.

Vincent: 1Co 10:2 - Cloud - sea Cloud - sea The two together forming the type of the water of baptism. Bengel says: " The cloud and the sea are in their nature water." The clou...

Cloud - sea

The two together forming the type of the water of baptism. Bengel says: " The cloud and the sea are in their nature water." The cloud was diffused and suspended water.

Vincent: 1Co 10:3 - Spiritual meat Spiritual meat The manna, called spiritual because coming from heaven. See Psa 78:25; Joh 6:31; and on Rev 11:8; Rev 2:17.

Spiritual meat

The manna, called spiritual because coming from heaven. See Psa 78:25; Joh 6:31; and on Rev 11:8; Rev 2:17.

Vincent: 1Co 10:4 - Drink - spiritual drink Drink - spiritual drink Spiritual, like the meat, in being supernaturally given. The aorist tense denotes something past, yet without limiting it...

Drink - spiritual drink

Spiritual, like the meat, in being supernaturally given. The aorist tense denotes something past, yet without limiting it to a particular occasion. They drank at Rephidim (Exo 17:6), but they continued to drink spiritual drink, for -

Vincent: 1Co 10:4 - They drank They drank ( ἔπινον ) The imperfect tense denoting continued action - throughout their journey.

They drank ( ἔπινον )

The imperfect tense denoting continued action - throughout their journey.

Vincent: 1Co 10:4 - That spiritual rock That spiritual rock For that read a . Paul appears to recall a rabbinic tradition that there was a well formed out of the spring in Horeb, whi...

That spiritual rock

For that read a . Paul appears to recall a rabbinic tradition that there was a well formed out of the spring in Horeb, which gathered itself up into a rock like a swarm of bees, and followed the people for forty years; sometimes rolling itself, sometimes carried by Miriam, and always addressed by the elders, when they encamped, with the words, " Spring up, O well!" Num 21:17. Stanley says: " In accordance with this notion, the Rock of Moses, as pointed out by the local tradition of Mt. Sinai, is not a cleft in the mountain, but a detached fragment of rock about fifteen feet high, with twelve or more fissures in its surface, from which the water is said to have gushed out for the twelve tribes. This local tradition is as old as the Koran, which mentions this very stone."

Vincent: 1Co 10:4 - Was Christ Was Christ Showing that he does not believe the legend, but only uses it allegorically. The important point is that Christ the Word was with His ...

Was Christ

Showing that he does not believe the legend, but only uses it allegorically. The important point is that Christ the Word was with His people under the old covenant. " In each case we recognize the mystery of a 'real presence" ' (Ellicott). " God was in Christ" here, as from the beginning. The mosaic and the christian economies are only different sides of one dispensation, which is a gospel dispensation throughout. The Jewish sacraments are not mere types of ours. They are identical.

Vincent: 1Co 10:5 - Many Many ( τοῖς πλείοσιν ) The A.V. misses the force of the article, the many. Hence Rev., correctly, most of them . All peris...

Many ( τοῖς πλείοσιν )

The A.V. misses the force of the article, the many. Hence Rev., correctly, most of them . All perished save Caleb and Joshua.

Vincent: 1Co 10:5 - Overthrown Overthrown ( κατεστρώθησαν ) Only here in the New Testament. Lit., were strewn down along (the ground). The word belongs m...

Overthrown ( κατεστρώθησαν )

Only here in the New Testament. Lit., were strewn down along (the ground). The word belongs mostly to later Greek, though found in Herodotos in the general sense of slaying . So Euripides: " He laid low his wife and child with one dart" (" Hercules Furens," 1000). It is used of spreading a couch.

Vincent: 1Co 10:6 - Examples Examples ( τύποι ) See on 1Pe 5:3. The word may mean either an example , as 1Ti 4:12, or a type of a fact or of a spiritual truth. ...

Examples ( τύποι )

See on 1Pe 5:3. The word may mean either an example , as 1Ti 4:12, or a type of a fact or of a spiritual truth. Heb 9:24; Rom 5:14.

Vincent: 1Co 10:6 - We should not lust We should not lust ( μὴ εἶναι ἡμᾶς ἐπιθυμητὰς ) Lit., should not be desirers . Ἑπιθυμητής...

We should not lust ( μὴ εἶναι ἡμᾶς ἐπιθυμητὰς )

Lit., should not be desirers . Ἑπιθυμητής desirer , lover , only here in the New Testament. Frequent in the classics. The sins of the Israelites are connected with those of the Corinthians.

Vincent: 1Co 10:7 - Idolaters Idolaters Referring to the danger of partaking of the idol feasts.

Idolaters

Referring to the danger of partaking of the idol feasts.

Vincent: 1Co 10:7 - To play To play ( παίζειν ) The merrymaking generally which followed the feast, not specially referring to the dancing at the worship of the g...

To play ( παίζειν )

The merrymaking generally which followed the feast, not specially referring to the dancing at the worship of the golden calf. See Exo 32:19.

Vincent: 1Co 10:7 - Commit fornication Commit fornication Lasciviousness was habitually associated with idol-worship. The two are combined, Act 15:29. A thousand priests ministered at ...

Commit fornication

Lasciviousness was habitually associated with idol-worship. The two are combined, Act 15:29. A thousand priests ministered at the licentious rites of the temple of Venus at Corinth.

Vincent: 1Co 10:7 - Three and twenty thousand Three and twenty thousand A plain discrepancy between this statement and Num 25:9, where the number is twenty-four thousand. It may have been a l...

Three and twenty thousand

A plain discrepancy between this statement and Num 25:9, where the number is twenty-four thousand. It may have been a lapse of memory.

Vincent: 1Co 10:9 - Let us tempt Christ Let us tempt Christ ( ἐκπειράζωμεν τὸν Χριστόν ) The compound word is very significant, " to tempt out " (ἐκ ...

Let us tempt Christ ( ἐκπειράζωμεν τὸν Χριστόν )

The compound word is very significant, " to tempt out " (ἐκ ); tempt thoroughly ; try to the utmost . It occurs in three other places: Mat 4:7; Luk 4:12; Luk 10:25; and, in every case, is used of tempting or testing Christ. Compare Psa 77:18 (Sept.). For Christ read Κύριον the Lord .

Vincent: 1Co 10:10 - Murmur Murmur ( γογγύζετε ) See on Joh 6:41.

Murmur ( γογγύζετε )

See on Joh 6:41.

Vincent: 1Co 10:10 - The destroyer The destroyer ( τοῦ ὀλοθρευτοῦ ) The destroying angel, who is called ὁ ὀλοθρεύων , Exo 12:23.

The destroyer ( τοῦ ὀλοθρευτοῦ )

The destroying angel, who is called ὁ ὀλοθρεύων , Exo 12:23.

Vincent: 1Co 10:11 - Happened Happened ( συνέβαινον ) The imperfect tense marks the successive unfolding of the events.

Happened ( συνέβαινον )

The imperfect tense marks the successive unfolding of the events.

Vincent: 1Co 10:11 - For ensamples For ensamples ( τύποι ) The best texts read τυπικῶς by way of figure .

For ensamples ( τύποι )

The best texts read τυπικῶς by way of figure .

Vincent: 1Co 10:11 - Admonition Admonition ( νουθεσίαν ) See on the kindred verb to warn , Act 20:31.

Admonition ( νουθεσίαν )

See on the kindred verb to warn , Act 20:31.

Vincent: 1Co 10:11 - Ends of the world Ends of the world ( τὰ τέλη τῶν αἰώνων ) Lit., ends of the ages . So Rev. Synonymous with ἡ συντέλει...

Ends of the world ( τὰ τέλη τῶν αἰώνων )

Lit., ends of the ages . So Rev. Synonymous with ἡ συντέλεια τῶν αἰώνων the consummation of the ages , Heb 9:26. The phrase assumes that Christ's second coming is close at hand, and therefore the end of the world. Ellicott acutely remarks that the plural, ends , marks a little more distinctly the idea of each age of preparation having passed into the age that succeeded it, so that now all the ends of the ages have come down to them.

Vincent: 1Co 10:11 - Are come Are come ( κατήντηκεν ) See on Act 26:7. Compare Eph 4:13; Phi 3:11.

Are come ( κατήντηκεν )

See on Act 26:7. Compare Eph 4:13; Phi 3:11.

Vincent: 1Co 10:13 - Temptation Temptation ( πειρασμὸς ) See on Mat 6:13.

Temptation ( πειρασμὸς )

See on Mat 6:13.

Vincent: 1Co 10:13 - Common to man Common to man ( ἀνθρώπινος ) The word means what belongs to men , human . It occurs mostly in this epistle; once in Rom 6:1...

Common to man ( ἀνθρώπινος )

The word means what belongs to men , human . It occurs mostly in this epistle; once in Rom 6:19, meaning after the manner of men , popularly (see note). See Jam 3:7; 1Pe 2:13; 1Co 2:4, 1Co 2:13; 1Co 4:3. It may mean here a temptation which is human , i.e., incident or common to man, as A.V., or, inferentially, a temptation adapted to human strength ; such as man can bear , Rev. The words are added as an encouragement, to offset the warning " let him that thinketh," etc. They are in danger and must watch, but the temptation will not be beyond their strength.

Vincent: 1Co 10:13 - A way to escape A way to escape ( τὴν ἔκβασιν ) Rev., better, the way of escape . The word means an egress , a way out . In classi...

A way to escape ( τὴν ἔκβασιν )

Rev., better, the way of escape . The word means an egress , a way out . In classical Greek, especially, of a way out of the sea. Hence, in later Greek, of a landing-place . Compare Xenophon: " The ford that was over against the outlet leading to the mountains" (" Anabasis," iv. 3, 20). For the sense of issue or end , see on Heb 13:7. The words with the temptation and the way of escape imply an adjustment of the deliverance to each particular case.

Vincent: 1Co 10:13 - To bear To bear Not the same as escape. Temptation which cannot be fed must be endured . Often the only escape is through endurance . See Jam 1:12.

To bear

Not the same as escape. Temptation which cannot be fed must be endured . Often the only escape is through endurance . See Jam 1:12.

Vincent: 1Co 10:14 - Idolatry Idolatry Notice the article: the idolatry, the temptation of which is constantly present in the idol-feasts.

Idolatry

Notice the article: the idolatry, the temptation of which is constantly present in the idol-feasts.

Vincent: 1Co 10:15 - Wise Wise ( φρονίμοις ) See on wisdom , Luk 1:17; see on wisely , Luk 16:8. The warning against the sacrificial feasts and the allusion i...

Wise ( φρονίμοις )

See on wisdom , Luk 1:17; see on wisely , Luk 16:8. The warning against the sacrificial feasts and the allusion in 1Co 10:3 suggest the eucharistic feast. An act of worship is sacramental, as bringing the worshipper into communion with the unseen. Hence he who practices idolatry is in communion with demons (1Co 10:20), as he who truly partakes of the Eucharist is in communion with Christ. But the two things are incompatible (1Co 10:21). In citing the Eucharist he appeals to them as intelligent (wise) men, concerning a familiar practice.

Vincent: 1Co 10:16 - The cup of blessing The cup of blessing ( τὸ ποτήριον τῆς εὐλογίας ) Lit., the blessing: the cup over which the familiar formula of ...

The cup of blessing ( τὸ ποτήριον τῆς εὐλογίας )

Lit., the blessing: the cup over which the familiar formula of blessing is pronounced. Hence the Holy Supper was often styled Eulogia (Blessing). For blessing , see on blessed , 1Pe 1:3. It is the same as eucharistia ( thanksgiving ), applied as the designation of the Lord's Supper: Eucharist . See 1Co 14:16; 1Ti 4:4, 1Ti 4:5. The cup is first mentioned, perhaps, because Paul wishes to dwell more at length on the bread; or possibly, because drinking rather than eating characterized the idol-feasts.

Vincent: 1Co 10:16 - Communion Communion ( κοινωνία ) Or participation . See on fellowship , 1Jo 1:3; see on Act 2:42; see on partners , Luk 5:10. The Passover was...

Communion ( κοινωνία )

Or participation . See on fellowship , 1Jo 1:3; see on Act 2:42; see on partners , Luk 5:10. The Passover was celebrated by families, typifying an unbroken fellowship of those who formed one body, with the God who had passed by the blood-sprinkled doors.

Vincent: 1Co 10:17 - For For ( ὅτι ) Better, seeing that . It begins a new sentence which is dependent on the following proposition: Seeing that there is...

For ( ὅτι )

Better, seeing that . It begins a new sentence which is dependent on the following proposition: Seeing that there is one bread , we who are many are one body . Paul is deducing the mutual communion of believers from the fact of their communion with their common Lord. By each and all receiving a piece of the one loaf, which represents Christ's body, they signify that they are all bound in one spiritual body, united to Christ and therefore to each other. So Rev., in margin. Ignatius says: " Take care to keep one eucharistic feast only; for there is one flesh of our Lord Jesus Christ, and one cup unto unity of His blood;" i.e., that all may be one by partaking of His blood (Philadelphia, 4).

Vincent: 1Co 10:17 - Body Body Passing from the literal sense, the Lord's body (1Co 10:16), to the figurative sense, the body of believers, the Church.

Body

Passing from the literal sense, the Lord's body (1Co 10:16), to the figurative sense, the body of believers, the Church.

Vincent: 1Co 10:17 - Partake of Partake of ( ἐκ μετέχομεν ) Or partake from . That which all eat is taken from (ἐκ ) the one loaf, and they eat of it mutu...

Partake of ( ἐκ μετέχομεν )

Or partake from . That which all eat is taken from (ἐκ ) the one loaf, and they eat of it mutually , in common , sharing it among them (μετά ). So Ignatius: " That ye come together ἕνα ἄρτον κλῶντες breaking one loaf " (Ephesians, 20).

Vincent: 1Co 10:18 - Partakers of the altar Showing that partaking of the idol-feasts is idolatry, by the analogy of the Israelite who, by partaking of the sacrifices puts himself in communion ...

Showing that partaking of the idol-feasts is idolatry, by the analogy of the Israelite who, by partaking of the sacrifices puts himself in communion with Jehovah's altar.

Partakers of the altar ( κοινωνοὶ τοῦ θυσιαστηρίου )

An awkward phrase. Rev., better, bringing out the force of κοινωνοὶ communers: have not they - communion with the altar? The Israelite who partook of the sacrifices (Lev 8:31) united himself with the altar of God. Paul says with the altar rather than with God , in order to emphasize the communion through the specific act of worship or sacrifice; since, in a larger sense, Israel after the flesh , Israel regarded as a nation, was, in virtue of that fact, in fellowship with God, apart from his partaking of the sacrifices. Possibly, also, to suggest the external character of the Jewish worship in contrast with the spiritual worship of Christians. Philo calls the Jewish priest κοινωνὸς τοῦ βώμου partaker of the altar .

Vincent: 1Co 10:20 - Devils Devils ( δαιμονίοις ) See on Mar 1:34. Used here, as always in the New Testament, of diabolic spirits. Δαιμόνιον the neut...

Devils ( δαιμονίοις )

See on Mar 1:34. Used here, as always in the New Testament, of diabolic spirits. Δαιμόνιον the neuter of the adjective δαιμόνιος divine , occurs in Paul's writings only here and 1Ti 4:1. It is used in the Septuagint, Deu 32:17, to translate the Hebrew word which seems, originally, to have meant a supernatural being inferior to the gods proper, applied among the Assyrians to the bulldeities which guarded the entrances to temples and palaces. Among the Israelites it came to signify all gods but the God of Israel. Compare Isa 65:11, where Gad ( good fortune , probably the star-God Jupiter) is rendered in the Septuagint τῷ δαιμονίῳ the demon . See Rev, O.T. Also Psa 96:5 (Sept. 95), where elilim things of nought , A.V. idols , is rendered by δαιμόνια demons .

Vincent: 1Co 10:21 - The cup of devils The cup of devils Representing the heathen feast. The special reference may be either to the drinking-cup, or to that used for pouring libations.

The cup of devils

Representing the heathen feast. The special reference may be either to the drinking-cup, or to that used for pouring libations.

Vincent: 1Co 10:21 - The Lord's table The Lord's table Representing the Lord's Supper. See 1Co 11:20 sqq. The Greeks and Romans, on extraordinary occasions, placed images of the gods ...

The Lord's table

Representing the Lord's Supper. See 1Co 11:20 sqq. The Greeks and Romans, on extraordinary occasions, placed images of the gods reclining on couches, with tables and food beside them, as if really partakers of the things offered in sacrifice. Diodorus, describing the temple of Bel at Babylon, mentions a large table of beaten gold, forty feet by fifteen, standing before the colossal statues of three deities. Upon it were two drinking-cups. See, also, the story of " Bel and the Dragon," vv. 10-15. The sacredness of the table in heathen worship is apparent from the manner in which it is combined with the altar in solemn formulae; as ara et mensa . Allusions to the table or to food and drink-offerings in honor of heathen deities occur in the Old Testament: Isa 65:11; Jer 7:18; Eze 16:18, Eze 16:19; Eze 23:41. In Mal 1:7, the altar of burnt-offering is called " the table of the Lord."

Vincent: 1Co 10:22 - Do we provoke - to jealousy Do we provoke - to jealousy ( ἢ παραζηλοῦμεν ) The A.V. does not translate ἢ or , and thus breaks the connection with wh...

Do we provoke - to jealousy ( ἢ παραζηλοῦμεν )

The A.V. does not translate ἢ or , and thus breaks the connection with what precedes. You cannot be at the same time in communion with the Lord and with demons, or will you ignore this inconsistency and provoke God? For the verb, see on Rom 10:19.

Vincent: 1Co 10:22 - Are we stronger Are we stronger The force of the interrogative particle is, surely we are not stronger .

Are we stronger

The force of the interrogative particle is, surely we are not stronger .

Vincent: 1Co 10:24 - Another's wealth Another's wealth ( τὸ τοῦ ἑτέρου ) Lit., that which is the other's . Wealth , inserted by A.V. is used in the older ...

Another's wealth ( τὸ τοῦ ἑτέρου )

Lit., that which is the other's . Wealth , inserted by A.V. is used in the older English sense of well-being . See on Act 19:25. The A.V. also ignores the force of the article, the other. Rev., much better, his neighbor's good .

Vincent: 1Co 10:25 - The shambles The shambles ( μακέλλω ) Only here in the New Testament. It is a Latin word, which is not strange in a Roman colony like Corinth. In sac...

The shambles ( μακέλλω )

Only here in the New Testament. It is a Latin word, which is not strange in a Roman colony like Corinth. In sacrifices usually only a part of the victim was consumed. The rest was given to the priests or to the poor, or sold again in the market. Any buyer might therefore unknowingly purchase meat offered to idols.

Vincent: 1Co 10:25 - Asking no question Asking no question As to whether the meat had been used in idol sacrifice. See on 1Co 2:14.

Asking no question

As to whether the meat had been used in idol sacrifice. See on 1Co 2:14.

Vincent: 1Co 10:26 - The earth is the Lord's, etc The earth is the Lord's, etc. The common form of Jewish thanksgiving before the meal. For fullness , see on Rom 11:12.

The earth is the Lord's, etc.

The common form of Jewish thanksgiving before the meal. For fullness , see on Rom 11:12.

Vincent: 1Co 10:28 - Any man Any man Some fellow-guest, probably a gentile convert, but, at all events, with a weak conscience.

Any man

Some fellow-guest, probably a gentile convert, but, at all events, with a weak conscience.

Vincent: 1Co 10:28 - Shewed Shewed ( μηνύσαντα ) See on Luk 20:37 It implies the disclosure of a secret which the brother reveals because he thinks his companion ...

Shewed ( μηνύσαντα )

See on Luk 20:37 It implies the disclosure of a secret which the brother reveals because he thinks his companion in danger

Vincent: 1Co 10:30 - By grace By grace ( χάριτι ) Better, as Rev., in margin, with thankfulness: with an unsullied conscience, so that I can sincerely give thanks ...

By grace ( χάριτι )

Better, as Rev., in margin, with thankfulness: with an unsullied conscience, so that I can sincerely give thanks for my food. Compare Rom 14:6; 1Ti 4:4, 1Ti 4:5.

Vincent: 1Co 10:30 - Am I evil-spoken of Am I evil-spoken of ( βλασφημοῦμαι ) In the gospels this word, of which blaspheme is a transcript, has, as in the Septuagint, the...

Am I evil-spoken of ( βλασφημοῦμαι )

In the gospels this word, of which blaspheme is a transcript, has, as in the Septuagint, the special sense of treating the name of God with scorn. So Mat 9:3; Mat 26:65; Joh 10:36. In the epistles frequently as here, with the classical meaning of slandering or defaming .

Wesley: 1Co 10:1 - Now That ye may not become reprobates, consider how highly favoured your fathers were, who were God's elect and peculiar people, and nevertheless were rej...

That ye may not become reprobates, consider how highly favoured your fathers were, who were God's elect and peculiar people, and nevertheless were rejected by him.

Wesley: 1Co 10:1 - They were all under the cloud That eminent token of God's gracious presence, which screened them from the heat of the sun by day, and gave them light by night.

That eminent token of God's gracious presence, which screened them from the heat of the sun by day, and gave them light by night.

Wesley: 1Co 10:1 - And all passed through the sea God opening a way through the midst of the waters. Exo 13:21, Exo 14:22

God opening a way through the midst of the waters. Exo 13:21, Exo 14:22

Wesley: 1Co 10:2 - And were all, as it were, baptized unto Moses initiated into the religion which he taught them.

initiated into the religion which he taught them.

Wesley: 1Co 10:2 - In the cloud and in the sea Perhaps sprinkled here and there with drops of water from the sea or the cloud, by which baptism might be the more evidently signified.

Perhaps sprinkled here and there with drops of water from the sea or the cloud, by which baptism might be the more evidently signified.

Wesley: 1Co 10:3 - -- And all ate the same manna, termed spiritual meat, as it was typical, Of Christ and his spiritual benefits: Of the sacred bread which we eat at his ta...

And all ate the same manna, termed spiritual meat, as it was typical, Of Christ and his spiritual benefits: Of the sacred bread which we eat at his table. Exo 16:15.

Wesley: 1Co 10:4 - And all drank the same spiritual drink Typical of Christ, and of that cup which we drink. For they drank out of the spiritual or mysterious rock, the wonderful streams of which followed the...

Typical of Christ, and of that cup which we drink. For they drank out of the spiritual or mysterious rock, the wonderful streams of which followed them in their several journeyings, for many years, through the wilderness.

Wesley: 1Co 10:4 - And that rock was a manifest type of Christ The Rock of Eternity, from whom his people derive those streams of blessings which follow them through all this wilderness. Exo 17:6.

The Rock of Eternity, from whom his people derive those streams of blessings which follow them through all this wilderness. Exo 17:6.

Wesley: 1Co 10:5 - Yet Although they had so many tokens of the divine presence.

Although they had so many tokens of the divine presence.

Wesley: 1Co 10:5 - They were overthrown With the most terrible marks of his displeasure.

With the most terrible marks of his displeasure.

Wesley: 1Co 10:6 - Now these things were our examples Showing what we are to expect if, enjoying the like benefits, we commit the like sins. The benefits are set down in the same order as by Moses in Exod...

Showing what we are to expect if, enjoying the like benefits, we commit the like sins. The benefits are set down in the same order as by Moses in Exodus; the sins and punishments in a different order; evil desire first, as being the foundation of all; next, idolatry, 1Co 10:7, 1Co 10:14; then fornication, which usually accompanied it, 1Co 10:8; the tempting and murmuring against God, in the following verses.

Wesley: 1Co 10:6 - As they desired Flesh, in contempt of manna. Num 11:4

Flesh, in contempt of manna. Num 11:4

Wesley: 1Co 10:7 - Neither be ye idolaters And so, "neither murmur ye," 1Co 10:10. The other cautions are given in the first person; but these in the second. And with what exquisite propriety d...

And so, "neither murmur ye," 1Co 10:10. The other cautions are given in the first person; but these in the second. And with what exquisite propriety does he vary the person! It would have been improper to say, Neither let us be idolaters; for he was himself in no danger of idolatry; nor probably of murmuring against Christ, or the divine providence.

Wesley: 1Co 10:7 - To play That is, to dance, in honour of their idol. Exo 32:6.

That is, to dance, in honour of their idol. Exo 32:6.

Wesley: 1Co 10:8 - And fell in one day three and twenty thousand Beside the princes who were afterwards hanged, and those whom the judges slew so that there died in all four and twenty thousand. Num 25:1, Num 25:9.

Beside the princes who were afterwards hanged, and those whom the judges slew so that there died in all four and twenty thousand. Num 25:1, Num 25:9.

Wesley: 1Co 10:9 - Neither let us tempt Christ By our unbelief. St. Paul enumerates five benefits, 1Co 10:1-4; of which the fourth and fifth were closely connected together; and five sins, the four...

By our unbelief. St. Paul enumerates five benefits, 1Co 10:1-4; of which the fourth and fifth were closely connected together; and five sins, the fourth and fifth of which were likewise closely connected. In speaking of the fifth benefit, he expressly mentions Christ; and in speaking of the fourth sin, he shows it was committed against Christ.

Wesley: 1Co 10:9 - As some of them tempted him This sin of the people was peculiarly against Christ; for when they had so long drank of that rock, yet they murmured for want of water. Num 21:4, &c

This sin of the people was peculiarly against Christ; for when they had so long drank of that rock, yet they murmured for want of water. Num 21:4, &c

Wesley: 1Co 10:10 - The destroyer The destroying angel. Num 14:1, Num 14:36

The destroying angel. Num 14:1, Num 14:36

Wesley: 1Co 10:11 - On whom the ends of the ages are come The expression has great force. All things meet together, and come to a crisis, under the last, the gospel, dispensation; both benefits and dangers, p...

The expression has great force. All things meet together, and come to a crisis, under the last, the gospel, dispensation; both benefits and dangers, punishments and rewards. It remains, that Christ come as an avenger and judge. And even these ends include various periods, succeeding each other.

Wesley: 1Co 10:12 - -- The common translation runs, Let him that thinketh he standeth; but the word translated thinketh, most certainly strengthens, rather than weakens, the...

The common translation runs, Let him that thinketh he standeth; but the word translated thinketh, most certainly strengthens, rather than weakens, the sense.

Wesley: 1Co 10:13 - Common to man Or, as the Greek word imports, proportioned to human strength.

Or, as the Greek word imports, proportioned to human strength.

Wesley: 1Co 10:13 - God is faithful In giving the help which he hath promised.

In giving the help which he hath promised.

Wesley: 1Co 10:13 - And he will with the temptation Provide for your deliverance.

Provide for your deliverance.

Wesley: 1Co 10:14 - Flee from idolatry And from all approaches to it.

And from all approaches to it.

Wesley: 1Co 10:16 - The cup which we bless By setting it apart to a sacred use, and solemnly invoking the blessing of God upon it.

By setting it apart to a sacred use, and solemnly invoking the blessing of God upon it.

Wesley: 1Co 10:16 - Is it not the communion of the blood of Christ The means of our partaking of those invaluable benefits, which are the purchase of the blood of Christ.

The means of our partaking of those invaluable benefits, which are the purchase of the blood of Christ.

Wesley: 1Co 10:16 - The communion of the body of Christ The means of our partaking of those benefits which were purchased by the body of Christ - offered for us.

The means of our partaking of those benefits which were purchased by the body of Christ - offered for us.

Wesley: 1Co 10:17 - -- For it is this communion which makes us all one. We being many are yet, as it were, but different parts of one and the same broken bread, which we rec...

For it is this communion which makes us all one. We being many are yet, as it were, but different parts of one and the same broken bread, which we receive to unite us in one body.

Wesley: 1Co 10:18 - Consider Israel after the flesh Christians are the spiritual "Israel of God." Are not they who eat of the sacrifices partakers of the altar - Is not this an act of communion with tha...

Christians are the spiritual "Israel of God." Are not they who eat of the sacrifices partakers of the altar - Is not this an act of communion with that God to whom they are offered? And is not the case the same with those who eat of the sacrifices which have been offered to idols?

Wesley: 1Co 10:19 - What say I then Do I in saying this allow that an idol is anything divine? I aver, on the contrary, that what the heathens sacrifice, they sacrifice to devils. Such i...

Do I in saying this allow that an idol is anything divine? I aver, on the contrary, that what the heathens sacrifice, they sacrifice to devils. Such in reality are the gods of the heathens; and with such only can you hold communion in those sacrifices.

Wesley: 1Co 10:21 - Ye cannot drink the cup of the Lord, and the cup of devils You cannot have communion with both.

You cannot have communion with both.

Wesley: 1Co 10:22 - Do we provoke the Lord to jealousy By thus caressing his rivals? Are we stronger than he - Are we able to resist, or to bear his wrath?

By thus caressing his rivals? Are we stronger than he - Are we able to resist, or to bear his wrath?

Wesley: 1Co 10:23 - -- Supposing this were lawful in itself, yet it is not expedient, it is not edifying to my neighbour.

Supposing this were lawful in itself, yet it is not expedient, it is not edifying to my neighbour.

Wesley: 1Co 10:24 - -- His own only, but another's welfare also.

His own only, but another's welfare also.

Wesley: 1Co 10:25 - -- The apostle now applies this principle to the point in question.

The apostle now applies this principle to the point in question.

Wesley: 1Co 10:25 - Asking no questions Whether it has been sacrificed or not.

Whether it has been sacrificed or not.

Wesley: 1Co 10:26 - -- For God, who is the Creator, Proprietor, and Disposer of the earth and all that is therein, hath given the produce of it to the children of men, to be...

For God, who is the Creator, Proprietor, and Disposer of the earth and all that is therein, hath given the produce of it to the children of men, to be used without scruple. Psa 24:1

Wesley: 1Co 10:28 - For his sake that showed thee, and for conscience' sake That is, for the sake of his weak conscience, lest it should be wounded.

That is, for the sake of his weak conscience, lest it should be wounded.

Wesley: 1Co 10:29 - Conscience I say, not thy own I speak of his conscience, not thine.

I speak of his conscience, not thine.

Wesley: 1Co 10:29 - For why is my liberty judged by another's conscience Another's conscience is not the standard of mine, nor is another's persuasion the measure of my liberty.

Another's conscience is not the standard of mine, nor is another's persuasion the measure of my liberty.

Wesley: 1Co 10:30 - If I by grace am a partaker If I thankfully use the common blessings of God.

If I thankfully use the common blessings of God.

Wesley: 1Co 10:31 - Therefore To close the present point with a general rule, applicable not only in this, but in all cases, Whatsoever ye do - In all things whatsoever, whether of...

To close the present point with a general rule, applicable not only in this, but in all cases, Whatsoever ye do - In all things whatsoever, whether of a religious or civil nature, in all the common, as well as sacred, actions of life, keep the glory of God in view, and steadily pursue in all this one end of your being, the planting or advancing the vital knowledge and love of God, first in your own soul, then in all mankind.

Wesley: 1Co 10:32 - Give no offence If, and as far as, it is possible.

If, and as far as, it is possible.

Wesley: 1Co 10:33 - -- Even as I, as much as lieth in me, please all men.

Even as I, as much as lieth in me, please all men.

JFB: 1Co 10:1 - Moreover The oldest manuscripts read "for." Thus the connection with the foregoing chapter is expressed. Ye need to exercise self-denying watchfulness notwiths...

The oldest manuscripts read "for." Thus the connection with the foregoing chapter is expressed. Ye need to exercise self-denying watchfulness notwithstanding all your privileges, lest ye be castaways. For the Israelites with all their privileges were most of them castaways through want of it.

JFB: 1Co 10:1 - ignorant With all your boasted "knowledge."

With all your boasted "knowledge."

JFB: 1Co 10:1 - our fathers The Jewish Church stands in the relation of parent to the Christian Church.

The Jewish Church stands in the relation of parent to the Christian Church.

JFB: 1Co 10:1 - all Arrange as the Greek, "Our fathers were all under the cloud"; giving the "all" its proper emphasis. Not so much as one of so great a multitude was det...

Arrange as the Greek, "Our fathers were all under the cloud"; giving the "all" its proper emphasis. Not so much as one of so great a multitude was detained by force or disease (Psa 105:37) [BENGEL]. Five times the "all" is repeated, in the enumeration of the five favors which God bestowed on Israel (1Co 10:1-4). Five times, correspondingly, they sinned (1Co 10:6-10). In contrast to the "all" stands "many (rather, 'the most') of them" (1Co 10:5). All of them had great privileges, yet most of them were castaways through lust. Beware you, having greater privileges, of sharing the same doom through a similar sin. Continuing the reasoning (1Co 9:24), "They which run in a race, run all, but one receiveth the prize."

JFB: 1Co 10:1 - under the cloud Were continually under the defense of the pillar of cloud, the symbol of the divine presence (Exo 13:21-22; Psa 105:39; compare Isa 4:5).

Were continually under the defense of the pillar of cloud, the symbol of the divine presence (Exo 13:21-22; Psa 105:39; compare Isa 4:5).

JFB: 1Co 10:1 - passed through the sea By God's miraculous interposition for them (Exo 14:29).

By God's miraculous interposition for them (Exo 14:29).

JFB: 1Co 10:2 - And "And so" [BENGEL].

"And so" [BENGEL].

JFB: 1Co 10:2 - baptized unto Moses The servant of God and representative of the Old Testament covenant of the law: as Jesus, the Son of God, is of the Gospel covenant (Joh 1:17; Heb 3:5...

The servant of God and representative of the Old Testament covenant of the law: as Jesus, the Son of God, is of the Gospel covenant (Joh 1:17; Heb 3:5-6). The people were led to believe in Moses as God's servant by the miracle of the cloud protecting them, and by their being conducted under him safely through the Red Sea; therefore they are said to be "baptized unto" him (Exo 14:31). "Baptized" is here equivalent to "initiated": it is used in accommodation to Paul's argument to the Corinthians; they, it is true, have been "baptized," but so also virtually were the Israelites of old; if the virtual baptism of the latter availed not to save them from the doom of lust, neither will the actual baptism of the former save them. There is a resemblance between the symbols also: for the cloud and sea consist of water, and as these took the Israelites out of sight, and then restored them again to view, so the water does to the baptized [BENGEL]. OLSHAUSEN understands "the cloud" and "the sea" as symbolizing the Spirit and water respectively (Joh 3:5; Act 10:44-47). Christ is the pillar cloud that screens us from the heat of God's wrath. Christ as "the light of the world" is our "pillar of fire" to guide us in the darkness of the world. As the rock when smitten sent forth the waters, so Christ, having been once for all smitten, sends forth the waters of the Spirit. As the manna bruised in mills fed Israel, so Christ, when "it pleased the Lord to bruise Him," has become our spiritual food. A strong proof of inspiration is given in this fact, that the historical parts of Scripture, without the consciousness even of the authors, are covert prophecies of the future.

JFB: 1Co 10:3 - same spiritual meat As the Israelites had the water from the rock, which answered to baptism, so they had the manna which corresponded to the other of the two Christian s...

As the Israelites had the water from the rock, which answered to baptism, so they had the manna which corresponded to the other of the two Christian sacraments, the Lord's Supper. Paul plainly implies the importance which was attached to these two sacraments by all Christians in those days: "an inspired protest against those who lower their dignity, or deny their necessity" [ALFORD]. Still he guards against the other extreme of thinking the mere external possession of such privileges will ensure salvation. Moreover, had there been seven sacraments, as Rome teaches, Paul would have alluded to them, whereas he refers to only the two. He does not mean by "the same" that the Israelites and we Christians have the "same" sacrament; but that believing and unbelieving Israelites alike had "the same" spiritual privilege of the manna (compare 1Co 10:17). It was "spiritual meat" or food; because given by the power of God's spirit, not by human labor [GROTIUS and ALFORD] Gal 4:29, "born after the Spirit," that is, supernaturally. Psa 78:24, "corn of heaven" (Psa 105:40). Rather, "spiritual" in its typical signification, Christ, the true Bread of heaven, being signified (Joh 6:32). Not that the Israelites clearly understood the signification; but believers among them would feel that in the type something more was meant; and their implicit and reverent, though indistinct, faith was counted to them for justification, of which the manna was a kind of sacramental seal. "They are not to be heard which feign that the old fathers did look only for transitory promises" [Article VII, Church of England], as appears from this passage (compare Heb 4:2).

JFB: 1Co 10:4 - drink (Exo 17:6). In Num 20:8, "the beasts" also are mentioned as having drunk. The literal water typified "spiritual drink," and is therefore so called.

(Exo 17:6). In Num 20:8, "the beasts" also are mentioned as having drunk. The literal water typified "spiritual drink," and is therefore so called.

JFB: 1Co 10:4 - spiritual Rock that followed them Rather, "accompanied them." Not the literal rock (or its water) "followed" them, as ALFORD explains, as if Paul sanctioned the Jews' tradition (Rabbi ...

Rather, "accompanied them." Not the literal rock (or its water) "followed" them, as ALFORD explains, as if Paul sanctioned the Jews' tradition (Rabbi Solomon on Num 20:2) that the rock itself, or at least the stream from it, followed the Israelites from place to place (compare Deu 9:21). But Christ, the "Spiritual Rock" (Psa 78:20, Psa 78:35; Deu 32:4, Deu 32:15, Deu 32:18, Deu 32:30-31, Deu 32:37; Isa 28:16; 1Pe 2:6), accompanied them (Exo 33:15). "Followed" implies His attending on them to minister to them; thus, though mostly going before them, He, when occasion required it, followed "behind" (Exo 14:19). He satisfied all alike as to their bodily thirst whenever they needed it; as on three occasions is expressly recorded (Exo 15:24-25; Exo 17:6; Num 20:8); and this drink for the body symbolized the spiritual drink from the Spiritual Rock (compare Joh 4:13-14; see on 1Co 10:3).

JFB: 1Co 10:5 - But Though they had so many tokens of God's presence.

Though they had so many tokens of God's presence.

JFB: 1Co 10:5 - many of them Rather, "the majority of them"; "the whole part." All except Joshua and Caleb of the first generation.

Rather, "the majority of them"; "the whole part." All except Joshua and Caleb of the first generation.

JFB: 1Co 10:5 - not In the Greek emphatically standing in the beginning of the sentence: "Not," as one might have naturally expected, "with the more part of them was," &c...

In the Greek emphatically standing in the beginning of the sentence: "Not," as one might have naturally expected, "with the more part of them was," &c.

JFB: 1Co 10:5 - God Whose judgment alone is valid.

Whose judgment alone is valid.

JFB: 1Co 10:5 - for The event showed, they had not pleased God.

The event showed, they had not pleased God.

JFB: 1Co 10:5 - overthrown Literally, "strewn in heaps."

Literally, "strewn in heaps."

JFB: 1Co 10:5 - in the wilderness Far from the land of promise.

Far from the land of promise.

JFB: 1Co 10:6 - were Greek, "came to pass as."

Greek, "came to pass as."

JFB: 1Co 10:6 - our examples Samples to us of what will befall us, if we also with all our privileges walk carelessly.

Samples to us of what will befall us, if we also with all our privileges walk carelessly.

JFB: 1Co 10:6 - lust The fountain of all the four other offenses enumerated, and therefore put first (Jam 1:14-15; compare Psa 106:14). A particular case of lust was that ...

The fountain of all the four other offenses enumerated, and therefore put first (Jam 1:14-15; compare Psa 106:14). A particular case of lust was that after flesh, when they pined for the fish, leeks, &c., of Egypt, which they had left (Num 11:4, Num 11:33-34). These are included in the "evil things," not that they are so in themselves, but they became so to the Israelites when they lusted after what God withheld, and were discontented with what God provided.

JFB: 1Co 10:7 - idolaters A case in point. As the Israelites sat down (a deliberate act), ate, and drank at the idol feast to the calves in Horeb, so the Corinthians were in da...

A case in point. As the Israelites sat down (a deliberate act), ate, and drank at the idol feast to the calves in Horeb, so the Corinthians were in danger of idolatry by a like act, though not professedly worshipping an idol as the Israelites (1Co 8:10-11; 1Co 10:14, 1Co 10:20-21; Exo 32:6). He passes here from the first to the second person, as they alone (not he also) were in danger of idolatry, &c. He resumes the first person appropriately at 1Co 10:16.

JFB: 1Co 10:7 - some The multitude follow the lead of some bad men.

The multitude follow the lead of some bad men.

JFB: 1Co 10:7 - play With lascivious dancing, singing, and drumming round the calf (compare "rejoiced," Act 7:41).

With lascivious dancing, singing, and drumming round the calf (compare "rejoiced," Act 7:41).

JFB: 1Co 10:8 - fornication Literally, Fornication was generally, as in this case (Num. 25:1-18), associated at the idol feasts with spiritual fornication, that is, idolatry. Thi...

Literally, Fornication was generally, as in this case (Num. 25:1-18), associated at the idol feasts with spiritual fornication, that is, idolatry. This all applied to the Corinthians (1Co 5:1, 1Co 5:9; 1Co 6:9, 1Co 6:15, 1Co 6:18; 1Co 8:10). Balaam tempted Israel to both sins with Midian (Rev 2:14). Compare 1Co 8:7, 1Co 8:9, "stumbling-block," "eat . . . thing offered unto . . . idol."

JFB: 1Co 10:8 - three and twenty thousand In Num 25:9 "twenty and four thousand." If this were a real discrepancy, it would militate rather against inspiration of the subject matter and though...

In Num 25:9 "twenty and four thousand." If this were a real discrepancy, it would militate rather against inspiration of the subject matter and thought, than against verbal inspiration. The solution is: Moses in Numbers includes all who died "in the plague"; Paul, all who died "in one day"; one thousand more may have fallen the next day [KITTO, Biblical Cyclopædia]. Or, the real number may have been between twenty-three thousand and twenty-four thousand, say twenty-three thousand five hundred, or twenty-three thousand six hundred; when writing generally where the exact figures were not needed, one writer might quite veraciously give one of the two round numbers near the exact one, and the other writer the other [BENGEL]. Whichever be the true way of reconciling the seeming discrepant statements, at least the ways given above prove they are not really irreconcilable.

JFB: 1Co 10:9 - tempt Christ So the oldest versions, IRENÆUS (264), and good manuscripts read. Some of the oldest manuscripts read "Lord"; and one manuscript only "God." If "Lord...

So the oldest versions, IRENÆUS (264), and good manuscripts read. Some of the oldest manuscripts read "Lord"; and one manuscript only "God." If "Lord" be read, it will mean Christ. As "Christ" was referred to in one of the five privileges of Israel (1Co 10:4), so it is natural that He should be mentioned here in one of the five corresponding sins of that people. In Num 21:5 it is "spake against God" (whence probably arose the alteration in the one manuscript, 1Co 10:9, "God," to harmonize it with Num 21:5). As either "Christ" or "Lord" is the genuine reading, "Christ" must be "God." Compare "Why do ye tempt the Lord?" (Exo 17:2, Exo 17:7. Compare Rom 14:11, with Isa 45:22-23). Israel's discontented complainings were temptings of Christ especially, the "Angel" of the covenant (Exo 23:20-21; Exo 32:34; Isa 63:9). Though they drank of "that Rock . . . Christ" (1Co 10:4), they yet complained for want of water (Exo 17:2, Exo 17:7). Though also eating the same spiritual meat (Christ, "the true manna," "the bread of life"), they yet murmured, "Our soul loatheth this light bread." In this case, being punished by the fiery serpents, they were saved by the brazen serpent, the emblem of Christ (compare Joh 8:56; Heb 11:26). The Greek for "tempt" means, tempt or try, so as to wear out the long-suffering of Christ (compare Psa 95:8-9; Num 14:22). The Corinthians were in danger of provoking God's long-suffering by walking on the verge of idolatry, through overweening confidence in their knowledge.

JFB: 1Co 10:10 - some of them . . . murmured Upon the death of Korah and his company, who themselves were murmurers (Num 16:41, Num 16:49). Their murmurs against Moses and Aaron were virtually mu...

Upon the death of Korah and his company, who themselves were murmurers (Num 16:41, Num 16:49). Their murmurs against Moses and Aaron were virtually murmurs against God (compare Exo 16:8, Exo 16:10). Paul herein glances at the Corinthian murmurs against himself, the apostle of Christ.

JFB: 1Co 10:10 - destroyed Fourteen thousand seven hundred perished.

Fourteen thousand seven hundred perished.

JFB: 1Co 10:10 - the destroyer THE same destroying angel sent by God as in Exo 12:23, and 2Sa 24:16.

THE same destroying angel sent by God as in Exo 12:23, and 2Sa 24:16.

JFB: 1Co 10:11 - Now . . . these things . . . ensamples Resuming the thread of 1Co 10:6. The oldest manuscripts read, "by way of example."

Resuming the thread of 1Co 10:6. The oldest manuscripts read, "by way of example."

JFB: 1Co 10:11 - the ends of the world Literally, "of the ages"; the New Testament dispensation in its successive phases (plural, "ends") being the winding up of all former "ages." No new d...

Literally, "of the ages"; the New Testament dispensation in its successive phases (plural, "ends") being the winding up of all former "ages." No new dispensation shall appear till Christ comes as Avenger and Judge; till then the "ends," being many, include various successive periods (compare Heb 9:26). As we live in the last dispensation, which is the consummation of all that went before, our responsibilities are the greater; and the greater is the guilt, Paul implies, to the Corinthians, which they incur if they fall short of their privileges.

JFB: 1Co 10:12 - thinketh he standeth Stands and thinks that he stands [BENGEL]; that is, stands "by faith . . . well pleasing" to God; in contrast to 1Co 10:5, "with many of them God was ...

Stands and thinks that he stands [BENGEL]; that is, stands "by faith . . . well pleasing" to God; in contrast to 1Co 10:5, "with many of them God was not well pleased" (Rom 11:20).

JFB: 1Co 10:12 - fall From his place in the Church of God (compare 1Co 10:8, "fell"). Both temporally and spiritually (Rom 14:4). Our security, so far as relates to God, co...

From his place in the Church of God (compare 1Co 10:8, "fell"). Both temporally and spiritually (Rom 14:4). Our security, so far as relates to God, consists in faith; so far as relates to ourselves, it consists in fear.

JFB: 1Co 10:13 - -- Consolation to them, under their temptation; it is none but such as is "common to man," or "such as man can bear," "adapted to man's powers of enduran...

Consolation to them, under their temptation; it is none but such as is "common to man," or "such as man can bear," "adapted to man's powers of endurance" [WAHL].

JFB: 1Co 10:13 - faithful (Psa 125:3; Isa 27:3, Isa 27:8; Rev 3:10). "God is faithful" to the covenant which He made with you in calling you (1Th 5:24). To be led into temptat...

(Psa 125:3; Isa 27:3, Isa 27:8; Rev 3:10). "God is faithful" to the covenant which He made with you in calling you (1Th 5:24). To be led into temptation is distinct from running into it, which would be "tempting God" (1Co 10:9; Mat 4:7).

JFB: 1Co 10:13 - way to escape (Jer 29:11; 2Pe 2:9). The Greek is, "the way of escape"; the appropriate way of escape in each particular temptation; not an immediate escape, but on...

(Jer 29:11; 2Pe 2:9). The Greek is, "the way of escape"; the appropriate way of escape in each particular temptation; not an immediate escape, but one in due time, after patience has had her perfect work (Jam 1:2-4, Jam 1:12). He "makes" the way of escape simultaneously with the temptation which His providence permissively arranges for His people.

JFB: 1Co 10:13 - to bear it Greek, "to bear up under it," or "against it." Not, He will take it away (2Co 12:7-9).

Greek, "to bear up under it," or "against it." Not, He will take it away (2Co 12:7-9).

JFB: 1Co 10:14 - -- Resuming the argument, 1Co 10:7; 1Co 8:9-10.

Resuming the argument, 1Co 10:7; 1Co 8:9-10.

JFB: 1Co 10:14 - flee Do not tamper with it by doubtful acts, such as eating idol meats on the plea of Christian liberty. The only safety is in wholly shunning whatever bor...

Do not tamper with it by doubtful acts, such as eating idol meats on the plea of Christian liberty. The only safety is in wholly shunning whatever borders on idolatry (2Co 6:16-17). The Holy Spirit herein also presciently warned the Church against the idolatry, subsequently transferred from the idol feast to the Lord's Supper itself, in the figment of transubstantiation.

JFB: 1Co 10:15 - -- Appeal to their own powers of judgment to weigh the force of the argument that follows: namely, that as the partaking of the Lord's Supper involves a ...

Appeal to their own powers of judgment to weigh the force of the argument that follows: namely, that as the partaking of the Lord's Supper involves a partaking of the Lord Himself, and the partaking of the Jewish sacrificial meats involved a partaking of the altar of God, and, as the heathens sacrifice to devils, to partake of an idol feast is to have fellowship with devils. We cannot divest ourselves of the responsibility of "judging" for ourselves. The weakness of private judgment is not an argument against its use, but its abuse. We should the more take pains in searching the infallible word, with every aid within our reach, and above all with humble prayer for the Spirit's teaching (Act 17:11). If Paul, an inspired apostle, not only permits, but urges, men to judge his sayings by Scripture, much more should the fallible ministers of the present visible Church do so.

JFB: 1Co 10:15 - To wise men Refers with a mixture of irony to the Corinthian boast of "wisdom" (1Co 4:10; 2Co 11:19). Here you have an opportunity of exercising your "wisdom" in ...

Refers with a mixture of irony to the Corinthian boast of "wisdom" (1Co 4:10; 2Co 11:19). Here you have an opportunity of exercising your "wisdom" in judging "what I say."

JFB: 1Co 10:16 - The cup of blessing Answering to the Jewish "cup of blessing," over which thanks were offered in the Passover. It was in doing so that Christ instituted this part of the ...

Answering to the Jewish "cup of blessing," over which thanks were offered in the Passover. It was in doing so that Christ instituted this part of the Lord's Supper (Mat 26:27; Luk 22:17, Luk 22:20).

JFB: 1Co 10:16 - we bless "we," not merely ministers, but also the congregation. The minister "blesses" (that is, consecrates with blessing) the cup, not by any priestly transm...

"we," not merely ministers, but also the congregation. The minister "blesses" (that is, consecrates with blessing) the cup, not by any priestly transmitted authority of his own, but as representative of the congregation, who virtually through him bless the cup. The consecration is the corporate act of the whole Church. The act of joint blessing by him and them (not "the cup" itself, which, as also "the bread," in the Greek is in the accusative), and the consequent drinking of it together, constitute the communion, that is, the joint participation "of the blood of Christ." Compare 1Co 10:18, "They who eat . . . are partakers" (joint communicants). "Is" in both cases in this verse is literal, not represents. He who with faith partakes of the cup and the bread, partakes really but spiritually of the blood and body of Christ (Eph 5:30, Eph 5:32), and of the benefits of His sacrifice on the cross (compare 1Co 10:18). In contrast to this is to have "fellowship with devils" (1Co 10:20). ALFORD explains, "The cup . . . is the [joint] participation (that is, that whereby the act of participation takes place) of the blood," &c. It is the seal of our living union with, and a means of our partaking of, Christ as our Saviour (Joh 6:53-57). It is not said, "The cup . . . is the blood," or "the bread . . . is the body," but "is the communion [joint-participation] of the blood . . . body." If the bread be changed into the literal body of Christ, where is the sign of the sacrament? Romanists eat Christ "in remembrance of Himself." To drink literal blood would have been an abomination to Jews, which the first Christians were (Lev 17:11-12). Breaking the bread was part of the act of consecrating it, for thus was represented the crucifixion of Christ's body (1Co 11:24). The distinct specification of the bread and the wine disproves the Romish doctrine of concomitancy, and exclusion of the laity from the cup.

JFB: 1Co 10:17 - one bread Rather, "loaf." One loaf alone seems to have been used in each celebration.

Rather, "loaf." One loaf alone seems to have been used in each celebration.

JFB: 1Co 10:17 - and one body Omit "and"; "one loaf [that is], one body." "We, the many (namely, believers assembled; so the Greek), are one bread (by our partaking of the same loa...

Omit "and"; "one loaf [that is], one body." "We, the many (namely, believers assembled; so the Greek), are one bread (by our partaking of the same loaf, which becomes assimilated to the substance of all our bodies; and so we become), one body" (with Christ, and so with one another).

JFB: 1Co 10:17 - we . . . all Greek, "the whole of us."

Greek, "the whole of us."

JFB: 1Co 10:18 - Israel after the flesh The literal, as distinguished from the spiritual, Israel (Rom 2:29; Rom 4:1; Rom 9:3; Gal 4:29).

The literal, as distinguished from the spiritual, Israel (Rom 2:29; Rom 4:1; Rom 9:3; Gal 4:29).

JFB: 1Co 10:18 - partakers of the altar And so of God, whose is the altar; they have fellowship in God and His worship, of which the altar is the symbol.

And so of God, whose is the altar; they have fellowship in God and His worship, of which the altar is the symbol.

JFB: 1Co 10:19-20 - What say I then? The inference might be drawn from the analogies of the Lord's Supper and Jewish sacrifices, that an idol is really what the heathen thought it to be, ...

The inference might be drawn from the analogies of the Lord's Supper and Jewish sacrifices, that an idol is really what the heathen thought it to be, a god, and that in eating idol-meats they had fellowship with the god. This verse guards against such an inference: "What would I say then? that a thing sacrificed to an idol is any real thing (in the sense that the heathen regard it), or that an idol is any real thing?" (The oldest manuscripts read the words in this order. Supply "Nay") "But [I say] that the things which the Gentiles sacrifice, they sacrifice to devils (demons)." Paul here introduces a new fact. It is true that, as I said, an idol has no reality in the sense that the heathen regard it, but it has a reality in another sense; heathendom being under Satan's dominion as "prince of this world," he and his demons are in fact the powers worshipped by the heathen, whether they are or are not conscious of it (Deu 32:17; Lev 17:7; 2Ch 11:15; Psa 106:37; Rev 9:20). "Devil" is in the Greek restricted to Satan; "demons" is the term applied to his subordinate evil spirits. Fear, rather than love, is the motive of heathen worship (compare the English word "panic," from PAN, whose human form with horns and cloven hoofs gave rise to the vulgar representations of Satan which prevail now); just as fear is the spirit of Satan and his demons (Jam 2:19).

JFB: 1Co 10:20 - I would not that ye . . . have fellowship with devils By partaking of idol feasts (1Co 8:10).

By partaking of idol feasts (1Co 8:10).

JFB: 1Co 10:21 - Ye cannot drink the cup of the Lord Really and spiritually; though ye may outwardly (1Ki 18:21).

Really and spiritually; though ye may outwardly (1Ki 18:21).

JFB: 1Co 10:21 - cup of devils In contrast to the cup of the Lord. At idol feasts libations were usually made from the cup to the idol first, and then the guests drank; so that in d...

In contrast to the cup of the Lord. At idol feasts libations were usually made from the cup to the idol first, and then the guests drank; so that in drinking they had fellowship with the idol.

JFB: 1Co 10:21 - the Lord's table The Lord's Supper is a feast on a table, not a sacrifice on an altar. Our only altar is the cross, our only sacrifice that of Christ once for all. The...

The Lord's Supper is a feast on a table, not a sacrifice on an altar. Our only altar is the cross, our only sacrifice that of Christ once for all. The Lord's Supper stands, however, in the same relation, analogically, to Christ's sacrifice, as the Jews' sacrificial feasts did to their sacrifices (compare Mal 1:7, "altar . . . table of the Lord"), and the heathen idol feasts to their idolatrous sacrifices (Isa 65:11). The heathen sacrifices were offered to idol nonentities, behind which Satan lurked. The Jews' sacrifice was but a shadow of the substance which was to come. Our one sacrifice of Christ is the only substantial reality; therefore, while the partaker of the Jew's sacrificial feast partook rather "of the altar" (1Co 10:18) than of GOD manifested fully, and the heathen idol-feaster had fellowship really with demons, the communicant in the Lord's Supper has in it a real communion of, or fellowship in, the body of Christ once sacrificed, and now exalted as the Head of redeemed humanity.

JFB: 1Co 10:22 - Do we provoke the Lord to jealousy? By dividing our fellowship between Him and idols (Eze 20:39). Is it our wish to provoke Him to assert His power? Deu 32:21 is before the apostle's min...

By dividing our fellowship between Him and idols (Eze 20:39). Is it our wish to provoke Him to assert His power? Deu 32:21 is before the apostle's mind [ALFORD], (Exo 20:5).

JFB: 1Co 10:22 - are we stronger? That we can risk a contest with Him.

That we can risk a contest with Him.

JFB: 1Co 10:23 - All things are lawful for me, &c. Recurring to the Corinthian plea (1Co 6:12), he repeats his qualification of it. The oldest manuscripts omit both times "for me."

Recurring to the Corinthian plea (1Co 6:12), he repeats his qualification of it. The oldest manuscripts omit both times "for me."

JFB: 1Co 10:23 - edify not Tend not to build up the spiritual temple, the Church, in faith and love. Paul does not appeal to the apostolic decision (Acts 15:1-29), which seems t...

Tend not to build up the spiritual temple, the Church, in faith and love. Paul does not appeal to the apostolic decision (Acts 15:1-29), which seems to have been not so much regarded outside of Palestine, but rather to the broad principle of true Christian freedom, which does not allow us to be governed by external things, as though, because we can use them, we must use them (1Co 6:12). Their use or non-use is to be regulated by regard to edification.

JFB: 1Co 10:24 - -- (1Co 10:33; 1Co 13:5; Rom 15:1-2).

JFB: 1Co 10:25 - shambles Butchers' stalls; the flesh market.

Butchers' stalls; the flesh market.

JFB: 1Co 10:25 - asking no question Whether it has been offered to an idol or not.

Whether it has been offered to an idol or not.

JFB: 1Co 10:25 - for conscience' sake If on asking you should hear it had been offered to idols, a scruple would arise in your conscience which was needless, and never would have arisen ha...

If on asking you should hear it had been offered to idols, a scruple would arise in your conscience which was needless, and never would have arisen had you asked no questions.

JFB: 1Co 10:26 - -- The ground on which such eating without questioning is justified is, the earth and all its contents ("the fulness thereof," Psa 20:1; Psa 50:12), incl...

The ground on which such eating without questioning is justified is, the earth and all its contents ("the fulness thereof," Psa 20:1; Psa 50:12), including all meats, belong to the Lord, and are appointed for our use; and where conscience suggests no scruple, all are to be eaten (Rom 14:14, Rom 14:20; 1Ti 4:4-5; compare Act 10:15).

JFB: 1Co 10:27 - ye be disposed to go Tacitly implying, they would be as well not to go, but yet not forbidding them to go (1Co 10:9) [GROTIUS]. The feast is not an idol feast, but a gener...

Tacitly implying, they would be as well not to go, but yet not forbidding them to go (1Co 10:9) [GROTIUS]. The feast is not an idol feast, but a general entertainment, at which, however, there might be meat that had been offered to an idol.

JFB: 1Co 10:27 - for conscience' sake (See on 1Co 10:25).

(See on 1Co 10:25).

JFB: 1Co 10:28 - if any man A weak Christian at table, wishing to warn his brother.

A weak Christian at table, wishing to warn his brother.

JFB: 1Co 10:28 - offered in sacrifice unto idols The oldest manuscripts omit "unto idols." At a heathen's table the expression, offensive to him, would naturally be avoided.

The oldest manuscripts omit "unto idols." At a heathen's table the expression, offensive to him, would naturally be avoided.

JFB: 1Co 10:28 - for conscience' sake Not to cause a stumbling-block to the conscience of thy weak brother (1Co 8:10-12).

Not to cause a stumbling-block to the conscience of thy weak brother (1Co 8:10-12).

JFB: 1Co 10:28 - for the earth is the Lord's, &c. Not in the oldest manuscripts.

Not in the oldest manuscripts.

JFB: 1Co 10:29 - Conscience . . . of the other The weak brother introduced in 1Co 10:28.

The weak brother introduced in 1Co 10:28.

JFB: 1Co 10:29 - for why is my liberty judged off another man's conscience? Paul passes to the first person, to teach his converts by putting himself as it were in their position. The Greek terms for "the other" and "another" ...

Paul passes to the first person, to teach his converts by putting himself as it were in their position. The Greek terms for "the other" and "another" are distinct. "The other" is the one with whom Paul's and his Corinthian converts' concern is; "another" is any other with whom he and they have no concern. If a guest know the meat to be idol meat while I know it not, I have "liberty" to eat without being condemned by his "conscience" [GROTIUS]. Thus the "for," &c., is an argument for 1Co 10:27, "Eat, asking no questions." Or, Why should I give occasion by the rash use of my liberty that another should condemn it [ESTIUS], or that my liberty should cause the destruction of my weak brother?" [MENOCHIUS]. Or, the words are those of the Corinthian objector (perhaps used in their letter, and so quoted by Paul), "Why is my liberty judged by another's conscience?" Why should not I be judged only by my own, and have liberty to do whatever it sanctions? Paul replies in 1Co 10:31, Your doing so ought always to be limited by regard to what most tends "to the glory of God" [VATABLUS, CONYBEARE and HOWSON]. The first explanation is simplest; the "for," &c., in it refers to "not thine own" (that is, "not my own," in Paul's change to the first person); I am to abstain only in the case of liability to offend another's conscience; in cases where my own has no scruple, I am not bound, in God's judgment, by any other conscience than my own.

JFB: 1Co 10:30 - For The oldest manuscripts omit "For."

The oldest manuscripts omit "For."

JFB: 1Co 10:30 - by grace Rather, "thankfully" [ALFORD].

Rather, "thankfully" [ALFORD].

JFB: 1Co 10:30 - I . . . be partaker I partake of the food set before me.

I partake of the food set before me.

JFB: 1Co 10:30 - evil spoken of By him who does not use his liberty, but will eat nothing without scrupulosity and questioning whence the meat comes.

By him who does not use his liberty, but will eat nothing without scrupulosity and questioning whence the meat comes.

JFB: 1Co 10:30 - give thanks Which consecrates all the Christian's acts (Rom 14:6; 1Ti 4:3-4).

Which consecrates all the Christian's acts (Rom 14:6; 1Ti 4:3-4).

JFB: 1Co 10:31 - -- Contrast Zec 7:6; the picture of worldly men. The godly may "eat and drink," and it shall be well with him (Jer 22:15-16).

Contrast Zec 7:6; the picture of worldly men. The godly may "eat and drink," and it shall be well with him (Jer 22:15-16).

JFB: 1Co 10:31 - to the glory of God (Col 3:17; 1Pe 4:11) --which involves our having regard to the edification of our neighbor.

(Col 3:17; 1Pe 4:11) --which involves our having regard to the edification of our neighbor.

JFB: 1Co 10:32 - Give none offence In things indifferent (1Co 8:13; Rom 14:13; 2Co 6:3); for in all essential things affecting Christian doctrine and practice, even in the smallest deta...

In things indifferent (1Co 8:13; Rom 14:13; 2Co 6:3); for in all essential things affecting Christian doctrine and practice, even in the smallest detail, we must not swerve from principle, whatever offense may be the result (1Co 1:23). Giving offense is unnecessary, if our own spirit cause it; necessary, if it be caused by the truth.

JFB: 1Co 10:33 - I please I try to please (1Co 9:19, 1Co 9:22; Rom 15:2).

I try to please (1Co 9:19, 1Co 9:22; Rom 15:2).

JFB: 1Co 10:33 - not seeking mine own (1Co 10:24).

JFB: 1Co 10:33 - many Rather as Greek, "THE many."

Rather as Greek, "THE many."

Clarke: 1Co 10:1 - I would not that ye should be ignorant I would not that ye should be ignorant - It seems as if the Corinthians had supposed that their being made partakers of the ordinances of the Gospel...

I would not that ye should be ignorant - It seems as if the Corinthians had supposed that their being made partakers of the ordinances of the Gospel, such as baptism and the Lord’ s Supper, would secure their salvation, notwithstanding they might be found partaking of idolatrous feasts; as long, at least, as they considered an idol to be nothing in the world. To remove this destructive supposition, which would have led them to endless errors both in principle and practice, the apostle shows that the Jews had sacramental ordinances in the wilderness, similar to those of the Christians; and that, notwithstanding they had the typical baptism from the cloud, and the typical eucharist from the paschal lamb, and the manna that came down from heaven, yet, when they joined with idolaters and partook of idolatrous feasts, God was not only displeased with them, but signified this displeasure by pouring out his judgments upon them, so that in one day 23,000 of them were destroyed

Clarke: 1Co 10:1 - Under the cloud Under the cloud - It is manifest from Scripture that the miraculous cloud in the wilderness performed a three-fold office to the Israelites 1. ...

Under the cloud - It is manifest from Scripture that the miraculous cloud in the wilderness performed a three-fold office to the Israelites

1.    It was a cloud in the form of a pillar to direct their journeyings by day

2.    It was a pillar of fire to give light to the camp by night

3.    It was a covering for them during the day, and preserved them from the scorching rays of the sun; and supplied them with a sufficiency of aqueous particles, not only to cool that burning atmosphere, but to give refreshment to themselves and their cattle; and its humidity was so abundant that the apostle here represents the people as thoroughly sprinkled and enveloped in its aqueous vapour. See the note on Exo 13:21.

Clarke: 1Co 10:2 - And were all baptized unto Moses And were all baptized unto Moses - Rather Into Moses - into the covenant of which Moses was the mediator; and by this typical baptism they were brou...

And were all baptized unto Moses - Rather Into Moses - into the covenant of which Moses was the mediator; and by this typical baptism they were brought under the obligation of acting according to the Mosaic precepts, as Christians receiving Christian baptism are said to be baptized Into Christ, and are thereby brought under obligation to keep the precepts of the Gospel.

Clarke: 1Co 10:3 - Spiritual meat Spiritual meat - The manna which is here called spiritual 1.    Because it was provided supernaturally; and 2.    Beca...

Spiritual meat - The manna which is here called spiritual

1.    Because it was provided supernaturally; and

2.    Because it was a type of Christ Jesus, who speaking of it, Joh 6:31, etc., tells us that it was a type of that true bread which came down from heaven, which gives life to the world, Joh 6:33, and that himself was the bread of life, Joh 6:48.

Clarke: 1Co 10:4 - Spiritual drink Spiritual drink - By the βρωμα πνευματικον spiritual meat, and πομα πνευματικον, spiritual drink, the apostle cert...

Spiritual drink - By the βρωμα πνευματικον spiritual meat, and πομα πνευματικον, spiritual drink, the apostle certainly means both meat and drink, which were furnished to the Israelitish assembly miraculously, as well as typically: and he appears to borrow his expression from the Jews themselves, who expressly say הלחם הלז רוחני hallechem hallaz ruchani , that bread was spiritual, and מיים רוחניים היו meyim ruchainiyim haiu , the waters were spiritual. Alschech in legem. fol. 238, to which opinion the apostle seems particularly to refer. See Schoettgen

Clarke: 1Co 10:4 - The spiritual rock that followed them The spiritual rock that followed them - There is some difficulty in this verse. How could the rock follow them? It does not appear that the rock eve...

The spiritual rock that followed them - There is some difficulty in this verse. How could the rock follow them? It does not appear that the rock ever moved from the place where Moses struck it. But to solve this difficulty, it is said that rock here is put, by metonymy, for the water of the rock; and that this water did follow them through the wilderness. This is more likely; but we have not direct proof of it. The ancient Jews, however, were of this opinion, and state that the streams followed them in all their journeyings, up the mountains, down the valleys, etc., etc.; and that when they came to encamp, the waters formed themselves into cisterns and pools; and that the rulers of the people guided them, by their staves, in rivulets to the different tribes and families. And this is the sense they give to Num 21:17 : Spring up, O well, etc. See the places in Schoettgen

Others contend, that by the rock following them we are to understand their having carried of its waters with them on their journeyings. This we know is a common custom in these deserts to the present day; and that the Greek verb ακολουθεω, to follow, has this sense, Bishop Pearce has amply proved in his note on this place. The Jews suppose that the rock itself went with the Israelites, and was present with them in their thirty-eight stations, for only so many are mentioned. See Alschech in legem. fol. 236. And see Schoettgen

Now, though of all the senses already given that of Bishop Pearce is the best, yet it does appear that the apostle does not speak about the rock itself, but of Him whom it represented; namely, Christ: this was the Rock that followed them, and ministered to them; and this view of the subject is rendered more probable by what is said 1Co 10:9, that they tempted Christ, and were destroyed by serpents. The same rock is in the vale of Rephidim to the present day; and it bears aboriginal marks of the water that flowed from it in the fissures that appear on its sides. It is one block of fine granite, about seven yards long, five broad, and - high. A fragment of this typical rock now lies before me, brought by a relative of my own, who broke it off, and did not let it pass into any hand till he placed it in mine. See the note on Exo 17:6.

Clarke: 1Co 10:5 - They were overthrown in the wilderness They were overthrown in the wilderness - And yet All these persons were under the cloud - All passed through the sea - All were baptized into Moses ...

They were overthrown in the wilderness - And yet All these persons were under the cloud - All passed through the sea - All were baptized into Moses in the cloud and in the sea - All ate the same spiritual meat - All drank the same spiritual drink, for they were made partakers of the spiritual Rock, Christ. Nothing can be a more decisive proof than this that people, who have every outward ordinance, and are made partakers of the grace of our Lord Jesus, may so abuse their privileges and grieve the Spirit of God as to fall from their state of grace, and perish ever lastingly. Let those who are continually asserting that this is impossible, beware lest they themselves, if in a state of grace, become, through their overmuch security, proofs in point of the possibility of ending in the flesh, though they began in the Spirit. Reader, remember who said, Ye shall not surely die; and remember the mischiefs produced by a belief of his doctrine.

Clarke: 1Co 10:6 - These things were our examples These things were our examples - The punishments which God inflicted on them furnish us with evidences of what God will inflict upon us, if we sin a...

These things were our examples - The punishments which God inflicted on them furnish us with evidences of what God will inflict upon us, if we sin after the similitude of those transgressors

Clarke: 1Co 10:6 - We should not lust after evil things We should not lust after evil things - It is most evident that the apostle refers here to the history in Num 11:4, etc.: And the mixed multitude fel...

We should not lust after evil things - It is most evident that the apostle refers here to the history in Num 11:4, etc.: And the mixed multitude fell a lusting, and said, Who shall give us flesh to eat? Into the same spirit the Corinthians had most evidently fallen; they lusted after the flesh in the idol feasts, and therefore frequented them to the great scandal of Christianity. The apostle shows them that their sin was of the same nature as that of the murmuring rebellious Israelites whom God so severely punished; and if he did not spare the natural branches, there was no likelihood that he should spare them.

Clarke: 1Co 10:7 - Neither be ye idolaters Neither be ye idolaters - The apostle considers partaking of the idolatrous feasts as being real acts of idolatry; because those who offered the fle...

Neither be ye idolaters - The apostle considers partaking of the idolatrous feasts as being real acts of idolatry; because those who offered the flesh to their gods considered them as feeding invisibly with them on the flesh thus offered, and that every one that partook of the feast was a real participator with the god to whom the flesh or animal had been offered in sacrifice. See 1Co 10:21

Clarke: 1Co 10:7 - Rose up to play Rose up to play - See the note on Exo 32:6. The Jews generally explain this word as implying idolatrous acts only: I have considered it as implying ...

Rose up to play - See the note on Exo 32:6. The Jews generally explain this word as implying idolatrous acts only: I have considered it as implying acts of impurity, with which idolatrous acts were often accompanied. It also means those dances which were practised in honor of their gods. That this is one meaning of the verb παιζειν, Kypke has largely proved. The whole idolatrous process was as follows

1.    The proper victim was prepared and set apart

2.    It was slain, and its blood poured out at the altar of the deity

3.    The flesh was dressed, and the priests and offerers feasted on it, and thus endeavored to establish a communion between themselves and the object of their worship

4.    After eating, they had idolatrous dances in honor of their god; and

5. as might be expected, impure mixtures, in consequence of those dances. The people sat down to eat and to drink, and rose up to play; and it is in reference to this issue of idolatrous feasts and dancings that the apostle immediately subjoins: Neither let us commit Fornication, etc.

Clarke: 1Co 10:8 - Fell in one day three and twenty thousand Fell in one day three and twenty thousand - In Num 25:9, the number is 24,000; and, allowing this to be the genuine reading, (and none of the Hebrew...

Fell in one day three and twenty thousand - In Num 25:9, the number is 24,000; and, allowing this to be the genuine reading, (and none of the Hebrew MSS. exhibit any various reading in the place), Moses and the apostle may be thus reconciled: in Num 25:4, God commands Moses to take all the heads (the rulers) of the people, and hang them up before the Lord against the sun; these possibly amounted to 1000, and those who fell by the plague were 23,000, so that the whole amounted to 24,000. Instead of εικοσιτρεις χιλιαδες, 23,000, two MSS., with the later Syriac and the Armenian, have εικοσιτεσσαρες χιλιαδες, 24,000; but this authority is too slender to establish a various reading, which recedes so much from the received text. I think the discordance may be best accounted for by supposing, as above, that Phineas and his companions might have slain 1000 men, who were heads of the people, and chief in this idolatry; and that the plague sent from the Lord destroyed 23,000 more; so an equal number to the whole tribe of Levi perished in one day, who were just 23,000. See Num 26:62; and see Lightfoot.

Clarke: 1Co 10:9 - Neither let us tempt Christ Neither let us tempt Christ - I have already supposed, in the note on 1Co 10:4 (note), that Christ is intended by the spiritual rock that followed t...

Neither let us tempt Christ - I have already supposed, in the note on 1Co 10:4 (note), that Christ is intended by the spiritual rock that followed them: and that it was he, not the rock, that did follow or accompany the Israelites in the wilderness. This was the angel of God’ s presence who was with the Church in the wilderness, to whom our fathers would not obey, as St. Stephen says, Act 7:38, Act 7:39. Instead of Χριστον, Christ, several MSS. and a few versions have Κυριον, the Lord, and some few Θεον, God. But though some respectable MSS. have the Lord instead of Christ, yet this latter has the greatest proportion of authority on its side. And this affords no mean proof that the person who is called יהוה Yehovah in the Old Testament, is called Christ in the New. By tempting Christ is meant disbelieving the providence and goodness of God; and presuming to prescribe to him how he should send them the necessary supplies, and of what kind they should be, etc.

Clarke: 1Co 10:10 - Neither murmur ye Neither murmur ye - How the Israelites murmured because of the manna, which their souls despised as a light bread - something incapable of affording...

Neither murmur ye - How the Israelites murmured because of the manna, which their souls despised as a light bread - something incapable of affording them nourishment, etc., and because they had been brought out of Egypt into the wilderness, and pretended that the promises of God had failed; and how they were destroyed by serpents, and by the destroyer or plague; may be seen at large in the texts referred to in the margin on this and the preceding verses. It appears from what the apostle says here, that the Corinthians were murmuring against God and his apostle for prohibiting them from partaking of the idolatrous feasts, just as the Israelites did in the wilderness in reference to a similar subject. See the history of Phineas, with Zimri and Cosbi, and the rebellion of Corah and his company, etc., etc

Clarke: 1Co 10:10 - Destroyed of the destroyer Destroyed of the destroyer - The Jews suppose that God employed destroying angels to punish those rebellious Israelites; they were five in number, a...

Destroyed of the destroyer - The Jews suppose that God employed destroying angels to punish those rebellious Israelites; they were five in number, and one of them they call משחית Meshachith , the destroyer; which appears to be another name for Samael, the angel of death, to whose influence they attribute all deaths which are not uncommon or violent. Those who die violent deaths, or deaths that are not in the common manner of men, are considered as perishing by immediate judgments from God.

Clarke: 1Co 10:11 - Upon whom the ends of the world are come Upon whom the ends of the world are come - Τα τελη των αιωνων· The end of the times included within the whole duration of the Mosa...

Upon whom the ends of the world are come - Τα τελη των αιωνων· The end of the times included within the whole duration of the Mosaic economy. For although the word αιων means, in its primary sense, endless being, or duration; yet, in its accommodated sense, it is applied to any round or duration that is complete in itself: and here it evidently means the whole duration of the Mosaic economy. "Thus, therefore,"says Dr. Lightfoot, "the apostle speaks in this place that those things, which were transacted in the beginning of the Jewish ages, are written for an example to you upon whom the ends of those ages are come; and the beginning is like to the end, and the end to the beginning. Both were forty years; both consisted of temptation and unbelief; and both ended in the destruction of the unbelievers - that, in the destruction of those who perished in the wilderness; this, in the destruction of those that believed not: viz. the destruction of their city and nation."The phrase סוף יומיא soph yomaiya , the end of days, says the Targum of Jerusalem, Gen 3:15, means ביומוי דמלכא משיחא beyomoi demalca Meshicha , in the days of the King Messiah. We are to consider the apostle’ s words as referring to the end of the Jewish dispensation and the commencement of the Christian, which is the last dispensation which God will vouchsafe to man in the state of probation.

Clarke: 1Co 10:12 - Let him that thinketh he standeth Let him that thinketh he standeth - Ὁ δοκων ἑσταναι· Let him who most confidently standeth - him who has the fullest conviction ...

Let him that thinketh he standeth - Ὁ δοκων ἑσταναι· Let him who most confidently standeth - him who has the fullest conviction in his own conscience that his heart is right with God, and that his mind is right in the truth, take heed lest he fall from his faith, and from the state of holiness in which the grace of God has placed him. I have already shown that the verb δοκειν, which we render to seem, to think, to suppose, is used by the best Greek writers, not to lessen or weaken the sense, but to render it stronger and more emphatic. See the note on Luk 8:18

In a state of probation every thing may change; while we are in this life we may stand or fall: our standing in the faith depends on our union with God; and that depends on our watching unto prayer, and continuing to possess that faith that worketh by love. The highest saint under heaven can stand no longer than he depends upon God and continues in the obedience of faith. He that ceases to do so will fall into sin, and get a darkened understanding and a hardened heart: and he may continue in this state till God come to take away his soul. Therefore, let him who most assuredly standeth, take heed lest he fall; not only partially, but finally.

Clarke: 1Co 10:13 - But such as is common to man But such as is common to man - Ανθρωπινος· Chrysostom has properly translated this word ανθρωπινος, τουτεστι μικ...

But such as is common to man - Ανθρωπινος· Chrysostom has properly translated this word ανθρωπινος, τουτεστι μικρος, βραχυς, συμμετρος ; that is, small, short, moderate. Your temptations or trials have been but trifling in comparison of those endured by the Israelites; they might have been easily resisted and overcome. Besides, God will not suffer you to be tried above the strength he gives you; but as the trial comes, he will provide you with sufficient strength to resist it; as the trial comes in, he will make your way out. The words are very remarkable, ποιησει συν τῳ πειρασμῳ και την εκβασιν, "He will, with the temptation, make the deliverance, or way out."Satan is never permitted to block up our way, without the providence of God making a way through the wall. God ever makes a breach in his otherwise impregnable fortification. Should an upright soul get into difficulties and straits, he may rest assured that there is a way out, as there was a way in; and that the trial shall never be above the strength that God shall give him to bear it.

Clarke: 1Co 10:14 - Therefore - flee from idolatry Therefore - flee from idolatry - This is a trial of no great magnitude; to escape from so gross a temptation requires but a moderate portion of grac...

Therefore - flee from idolatry - This is a trial of no great magnitude; to escape from so gross a temptation requires but a moderate portion of grace and circumspection.

Clarke: 1Co 10:15 - I speak as to wise men I speak as to wise men - The Corinthians valued themselves not a little on their wisdom and various gifts; the apostle admits this, and draws an arg...

I speak as to wise men - The Corinthians valued themselves not a little on their wisdom and various gifts; the apostle admits this, and draws an argument from it against themselves. As ye are so wise, surely ye can see the propriety of abominating idolatry of every kind: for an idol is nothing in the world, and can do nothing for you and nothing against you.

Clarke: 1Co 10:16 - The cup of blessing The cup of blessing - The apostle speaks here of the Eucharist, which he illustrates by the כוס הברכה cos habberacah , cup of blessing, ove...

The cup of blessing - The apostle speaks here of the Eucharist, which he illustrates by the כוס הברכה cos habberacah , cup of blessing, over which thanks were expressed at the conclusion of the passover. See this largely explained at the conclusion of the notes on Mat 26:75, and in my Discourse upon the Eucharist, 8vo. 2nd edit. 1814

Clarke: 1Co 10:16 - The communion of the blood of Christ? The communion of the blood of Christ? - We who partake of this sacred cup, in commemoration of the death of Christ, are made partakers of his body a...

The communion of the blood of Christ? - We who partake of this sacred cup, in commemoration of the death of Christ, are made partakers of his body and blood, and thus have fellowship with him; as those who partake of an idol feast, thereby, as much as they can, participate with the idol, to whom the sacrifice was offered. This I have proved at large in the above tract, to which I must refer the reader, as the subject is too voluminous to be inserted here.

Clarke: 1Co 10:17 - For we, being many, are one bread For we, being many, are one bread - The original would be better translated thus: Because there is one bread, or loaf; we, who are many, are one bod...

For we, being many, are one bread - The original would be better translated thus: Because there is one bread, or loaf; we, who are many, are one body. As only one loaf was used at the passover, and those who partook of it were considered to be one religious body; so we who partake of the eucharistical bread and wine, in commemoration of the sacrificial death of Christ, are one spiritual society, because we are all made partakers of that one Christ whose blood was shed for us to make an atonement for our sins; as the blood of the paschal lamb was shed and sprinkled in reference to this of which it was the type.

Clarke: 1Co 10:18 - Behold Israel after the flesh Behold Israel after the flesh - The Jews not yet converted to Christianity: the latter being Israel after the Spirit. As the design of the apostle w...

Behold Israel after the flesh - The Jews not yet converted to Christianity: the latter being Israel after the Spirit. As the design of the apostle was to withdraw his converts at Corinth from all temptations to idolatry, he produces two examples to show the propriety of his endeavors

1.    All who join together in celebrating the Lord’ s Supper, and are partakers of that one bread, give proof by this that they are Christians, and have fellowship with Christ

2.    All the Israelites who offer sacrifice, and partake of those sacrifices, give proof thereby that they are Jews, and are in fellowship with the object of their worship: so they who join in idol festivals, and eat things which have been offered to idols, give proof that they are in communion with those idolaters, and that they have fellowship with the demons they worship.

Clarke: 1Co 10:19 - What say I then? What say I then? - A Jewish phrase for, I conclude; and this is his conclusion: that although an idol is nothing, has neither power nor influence, n...

What say I then? - A Jewish phrase for, I conclude; and this is his conclusion: that although an idol is nothing, has neither power nor influence, nor are things offered to idols any thing the worse for being thus offered; yet, as the things sacrificed by the Gentiles are sacrificed to demons and not to God, those who partake of them have fellowship with demons: those who profess Christianity cannot have fellowship both with Christ and the devil.

Clarke: 1Co 10:21 - Ye cannot drink the cup of the Lord Ye cannot drink the cup of the Lord - It is in vain that you who frequent these idol festivals profess the religion of Christ, and commemorate his d...

Ye cannot drink the cup of the Lord - It is in vain that you who frequent these idol festivals profess the religion of Christ, and commemorate his death and passion in the holy eucharist; for you can not have that fellowship with Christ which this ordinance implies, while you are partakers of the table of demons. That the Gentiles, in their sacrifices, fed on the slain beasts, and ate bread and drank wine in honor of their gods, is sufficiently clear from various accounts. See my Discourse on the Holy Eucharist, where many examples are produced. The following from Virgil, Aen. viii, verse 179-273, is proof in point: -

Tum lecti juvenes certatim araeque sacerdo

Viscera tosta ferunt taurorum, onerantque canistri

Dona laboratae Cereris, Bacchumque ministrant

Vescitur Aeneas simul et Trojana juventu

Perpetui tergo bovis et lustralibus extis. -

Quare agite, O juvenes, tantarum in munere laudum

Cingite fronde comas, et pocula porgite dextris

Communemque vocate Deum, et date vina volentes

The loaves were served in canisters; the win

In bowls; the priests renewed the rites divine

Broiled entrails are their food, and beef’ s continued chin

Ye warlike youths, your heads with garlands crown

Fill high the goblets with a sparkling flood

And with deep draughts invoke our common god.

Clarke: 1Co 10:22 - Do we provoke the Lord to jealousy? Do we provoke the Lord to jealousy? - All idolatry is represented as a sort of spiritual adultery; it is giving that heart to Satan that should be d...

Do we provoke the Lord to jealousy? - All idolatry is represented as a sort of spiritual adultery; it is giving that heart to Satan that should be devoted to God; and he is represented as being jealous, because of the infidelity of those who have covenanted to give their hearts to him

Clarke: 1Co 10:22 - Are we stronger than he? Are we stronger than he? - As he has threatened to punish such transgressors, and will infallibly do it, can we resist his omnipotence? A sinner sho...

Are we stronger than he? - As he has threatened to punish such transgressors, and will infallibly do it, can we resist his omnipotence? A sinner should consider, while he is in rebellion against God, whether he be able to resist that power whereby God will inflict vengeance.

Clarke: 1Co 10:23 - All things are lawful for me All things are lawful for me - I may lawfully eat all kinds of food, but all are not expedient; ου παντα συμφερει· It would not be...

All things are lawful for me - I may lawfully eat all kinds of food, but all are not expedient; ου παντα συμφερει· It would not be becoming in me to eat of all, because I should by this offend and grieve many weak minds. See the notes on 1Co 6:12, etc.

Clarke: 1Co 10:24 - Let no man seek his own, etc. Let no man seek his own, etc. - Let none, for his private gratification or emolument, disturb the peace or injure the soul of another. Let every man...

Let no man seek his own, etc. - Let none, for his private gratification or emolument, disturb the peace or injure the soul of another. Let every man live, not for himself, but for every part of the great human family with which he is surrounded.

Clarke: 1Co 10:25 - Whatsoever is sold in the shambles, that eat Whatsoever is sold in the shambles, that eat - The case to which the apostle refers is simply this; it was customary to bring the flesh of the anima...

Whatsoever is sold in the shambles, that eat - The case to which the apostle refers is simply this; it was customary to bring the flesh of the animal to market, the blood of which had been poured out in sacrifice to an idol; or, taken more particularly, the case was this; one part of the sacrifice was consumed on the altar of the idol: a second part was dressed and eaten by the sacrificer; and a third belonged to the priest, and was often sold in the shambles. To partake of the second share, or to feast upon the sacrifice, St. Paul absolutely forbids, because this was one part of the religious worship which was paid to the idol; it was sitting down as guests at his table, in token that they were in fellowship with him. This was utterly incompatible with receiving the sacrament of the Lord’ s Supper, which was the communion of the body and blood of Christ. But as to the third share, the apostle leaves them at liberty either to eat of it or forbear; except that, by eating, their weak brethren should be offended; in that case, though the thing was lawful, it was their duty to abstain. See the notes on 1Co 8:1, etc. Hindoos eagerly embrace whatever has been offered to an idol: hence it is common to see the flowers that have been thus offered placed in the hair of a Hindoo. Water that has been thus made sacred is preserved in Hindoo houses, and with it they rub their bodies, and occasionally sip a drop, regarding it as the water of life. - See Ward

Clarke: 1Co 10:25 - Asking no questions for consciences sake Asking no questions for consciences sake - Dr. Lightfoot observes, that "the Jews were vexed with innumerable scruples in their feasts, as to the ea...

Asking no questions for consciences sake - Dr. Lightfoot observes, that "the Jews were vexed with innumerable scruples in their feasts, as to the eating of the thing, as well as to the company with which they ate; and even the manner of their eating. Of fruits and herbs brought to the table, they were to inquire whether they were tithed according to custom; whether they were consecrated by the Truma, or whether they were profane; whether they were clean, or touched with some pollution, etc. And concerning flesh set on the table, they were to inquire whether it was of that which had been offered to idols; whether it were the flesh of an animal that had been torn by wild beasts; or of that which had been strangled, or not killed according to the canons; etc., etc. All which doubts the liberty of the Gospel abolished as to one’ s own conscience, with this proviso, that no scandal or offense be cast before another man’ s weak or scrupulous conscience.

From this it is evident that the apostle had the case of the Jewish converts in view, and not the Gentiles. The latter were not troubled with such extraordinary scrupulousness.

Clarke: 1Co 10:26 - For the earth is the Lord’ s For the earth is the Lord’ s - And because God made the earth and its fullness, all animals, plants, and vegetables, there can be nothing in it...

For the earth is the Lord’ s - And because God made the earth and its fullness, all animals, plants, and vegetables, there can be nothing in it or them impure or unholy; because all are the creatures of God.

Clarke: 1Co 10:27 - If any - bid you to a feast If any - bid you to a feast - The apostle means any common meal, not an idol festival; for to such no Christian could lawfully go

If any - bid you to a feast - The apostle means any common meal, not an idol festival; for to such no Christian could lawfully go

Clarke: 1Co 10:27 - Whatsoever is set before you, eat Whatsoever is set before you, eat - Do not act as the Jews generally do, torturing both themselves and others with questions, such as those mentione...

Whatsoever is set before you, eat - Do not act as the Jews generally do, torturing both themselves and others with questions, such as those mentioned in 1Co 10:26.

Clarke: 1Co 10:28 - This is offered in sacrifice unto idols This is offered in sacrifice unto idols - While they were not apprized of this circumstance they might lawfully eat; but when told that the flesh se...

This is offered in sacrifice unto idols - While they were not apprized of this circumstance they might lawfully eat; but when told that the flesh set before them had been offered to an idol, then they were not to eat, for the sake of his weak conscience who pointed out the circumstance. For the apostle still takes it for granted that even the flesh offered in sacrifice to an idol might be eaten innocently at any private table, as in that case they were no longer in danger of being partakers with devils, as this was no idol festival

Clarke: 1Co 10:28 - For the earth is the Lord’ s, and the fullness thereof For the earth is the Lord’ s, and the fullness thereof - This whole clause, which appears also in 1Co 10:26, is wanting here in ABCDEFGH, sever...

For the earth is the Lord’ s, and the fullness thereof - This whole clause, which appears also in 1Co 10:26, is wanting here in ABCDEFGH, several others, the Syriac, Erpen, Coptic, Sahidic, Ethiopic, Armenian, Vulgate, Itala; and in several of the fathers. Griesbach has left it out of the text: and Professor White says, " Certissime delendum ;"it should most undoubtedly be erased. It has scarcely any authority to support it.

Clarke: 1Co 10:29-30 - For why is my liberty judged of another man’ s conscience? etc. For why is my liberty judged of another man’ s conscience? etc. - Though in the case of flesh offered to idols, and other matters connected wit...

For why is my liberty judged of another man’ s conscience? etc. - Though in the case of flesh offered to idols, and other matters connected with idolatry, (on which it appears there was much of a tender conscience among some of the Corinthians), it was necessary to sacrifice something to an over-scrupulous conscience, yet the Gospel of Christ did not lay any man under this general burthen, that he must do nothing at which any weak brother might feel hurt or be stumbled; for the liberty of the Gospel must not take for its rule the scrupulosity of any conscience; for if a man, by grace - by the allowance or authority of the Gospel, partake of any thing that God’ s bounty has sent, and which the Gospel has not forbidden, and give thanks to God for the blessing, no man has right or authority to condemn such a person. This seems to be the meaning of these two verses; and they read a lesson of caution to rash judges, and to those who are apt to take offense.

Clarke: 1Co 10:31 - Whether therefore ye eat, or drink Whether therefore ye eat, or drink - As no general rule can be laid down in reference to the above particulars, there is one maxim of which no Chris...

Whether therefore ye eat, or drink - As no general rule can be laid down in reference to the above particulars, there is one maxim of which no Christian must lose sight - that whether he eats or drinks of this or the other kind of aliments, or whatever else he may do, he must do it so as to bring glory to God. This is a sufficient rule to regulate every man’ s conscience and practice in all indifferent things, where there are no express commands or prohibitions.

Clarke: 1Co 10:32 - Give none offense, etc. Give none offense, etc. - Scrupulously avoid giving any cause of offense either to the unconverted Jews or the unconverted Gentiles, so as to prejud...

Give none offense, etc. - Scrupulously avoid giving any cause of offense either to the unconverted Jews or the unconverted Gentiles, so as to prejudice them against Christianity: nor to the Church of God, made up of converts from the above parties.

Clarke: 1Co 10:33 - Even as I please all men Even as I please all men - Act as I do: forgetting myself, my own interests, convenience, ease, and comfort, I labor for the welfare of others; and ...

Even as I please all men - Act as I do: forgetting myself, my own interests, convenience, ease, and comfort, I labor for the welfare of others; and particularly that they may be saved. How blessed and amiable was the spirit and conduct of this holy man

This chapter has already presented the serious reader with a variety of maxims for his regulation. -

1.    As to his own private walk

2.    His domestic duties; an

3.    His connection with the Church of God

Let us review some of the principal parts

1.    We should be on our guard against what are called little sins, and all occasions and excitements to sin. Take heed what company you frequent. One thing, apparently harmless, may lead by almost imperceptible links to sins of the deepest dye. See the example in this chapter

1.    The people sat down to eat and to drink

2.    They rose up to play, dance, and sing: an

3.    They committed fornication, and brought upon themselves swift destruction

2.    However conscious we may be of our own sincerity and uprightness, we should ever distrust ourselves. God has made nothing independent of himself; the soul has no principle of self-dependence either in itself or its attainments: it is wise, powerful, and happy, only while it is depending on infinite wisdom, unlimited power, and endless mercy

3.    The Gentiles were in communion with demons by their idolatrous services. In what communion are those who feed themselves without fear, who eat with the glutton and drink with the drunkard? So they partake of the Lord Jesus who are under the influence of pride, self-will, hatred, censoriousness, etc., and who carry their self-importance and worldly spirit even into the house and worship of God

4.    A spirit of curiosity too much indulged may, in an irreligious man, lead to covetousness and theft: in a godly man, to a troublesome and unscriptural scrupulosity of conscience, productive of nothing but uneasiness to itself, and disturbance to others. Simplicity of heart saves from this, and is an excellent gift

5.    In many actions we have a twofold rule - the testimony of God and charity: and in many things charity is the best interpreter of the testimony. The testimony often permits what charity forbids, because circumstances in time, place, etc., may render a thing improper on one occasion that might be proper on another

6.    Pious Quesnel has well said: Every thing honors God when it is done for his sake; every thing dishonors him when any ultimate end is proposed beside his glory. It is an unchangeable principle of the Christian morality that all comes from God by his love, and all should be returned to him by ours. This rule we should keep inviolate

7.    Though many of the advices given in this chapter appear to respect the Corinthians alone, yet there is none of them that is not applicable to Christians in general in certain circumstances. God has given no portion of his word to any people or age exclusively; the whole is given to the Church universal in all ages of the world. In reading this epistle let us seriously consider what parts of it apply to ourselves; and if we are disposed to appropriate its promises, let us act conscientiously, and inquire how many of its reprehensions we may fairly appropriate also.

Calvin: 1Co 10:1 - NO PHRASE What he had previously taught by two similitudes, he now confirms by examples. The Corinthians grew wanton, and gloried, as if they had served out th...

What he had previously taught by two similitudes, he now confirms by examples. The Corinthians grew wanton, and gloried, as if they had served out their time, 520 or at least had finished their course, when they had scarcely left the starting-point. This vain exultation and confidence he represses in this manner — “As I see that you are quietly taking your ease at the very outset of your course, I would not have you ignorant of what befell the people of Israel in consequence of this, that their example may arouse you.” As, however, on examples being adduced, any point of difference destroys the force of the comparison, Paul premises, that there is no such dissimilarity between us and the Israelites, as to make our condition different from theirs. Having it, therefore, in view to threaten the Corinthians with the same vengeance as had overtaken them, he begins in this manner — “Beware of glorying in any peculiar privilege, as if you were in higher esteem than they were in the sight of God.” For they were favored with the same benefits as we at this day enjoy; there was a Church of God among them, as there is at this day among us; they had the same sacraments, to be tokens to them of the grace of God; 521 but, on their abusing their privileges, they did not escape the judgment of God. 522 Be afraid, therefore; for the same thing is impending over you. Jude makes use of the same argument in his Epistle. (Jud 1:5.)

1. All were under the cloud. The Apostle’s object is to show, that the Israelites were no less the people of God than we are, that we may know, that we will not escape with impunity the hand of God, which punished them 523 with so much severity. For the sum is this — “If God spared not them, neither will he spare you, for your condition is similar.” That similarity he proves from this — that they had been honored with the same tokens of God’s grace, for the sacraments are badges by which the Church of God is distinguished. He treats first of baptism, and teaches that the cloud, which protected the Israelites in the desert from the heat of the sun, and directed their course, and also their passage through the sea, was to them as a baptism; he says, also, that in the manna, and the water flowing from the rock, there was a sacrament which corresponded with the sacred Supper.

They were, says he, baptized in Moses, that is, under the ministry or guidance of Moses. For I take the particle εἰς to be used here instead of ἐν, agreeably to the common usage of Scripture, because we are assuredly baptized in the name of Christ, and not of any mere man, as he has stated in 1Co 1:13, and that for two reasons. These are, first, because we are by baptism initiated 524 into the doctrine of Christ alone; and, secondly, because his name alone is invoked, inasmuch as baptism is founded on his influence alone. They were, therefore, baptized in Moses, that is, under his guidance or ministry, as has been already stated. How? In the cloud and in the sea. “They were, then, baptized twice,” some one will say. I answer, that there are two signs made mention of, making, however, but one baptism, corresponding to ours.

Here, however, a more difficult question presents itself. For it is certain, that the advantage of those gifts, which Paul makes mention of, was temporal. 525 The cloud protected them from the heat of the sun, and showed them the way: these are outward advantages of the present life. In like manner, their passage through the sea was attended with this effect, that they got clear off from Pharaoh’s cruelty, and escaped from imminent hazard of death. The advantage of our baptism, on the other hand, is spiritual. Why then does Paul turn earthly benefits into sacraments, and seek to find some spiritual mystery 526 in them? I answer, that it was not without good reason that Paul sought in miracles of this nature something more than the mere outward advantage of the flesh. For, though God designed to promote his people’s advantage in respect of the present life, what he had mainly in view was, to declare and manifest himself to be their God, and under that, eternal salvation is comprehended.

The cloud, in various instances, 527 is called the symbol of his presence. As, therefore, he declared by means of it, that he was present with them, as his peculiar and chosen people, there can be no doubt that, in addition to an earthly advantage, they had in it, besides, a token of spiritual life. Thus its use was twofold, as was also that of the passage through the sea, for a way was opened up for them through the midst of the sea, that they might escape from the hand of Pharaoh; but to what was this owing, but to the circumstance, that the Lord, having taken them under his guardianship and protection, determined by every means to defend them? Hence, they concluded from this, that they were the objects of God’s care, and that he had their salvation in charge. Hence, too, the Passover, which was instituted to celebrate the remembrance of their deliverance, was nevertheless, at the same time, a sacrament of Christ. How so? Because God had, under a temporal benefit, manifested himself as a Savior. Any one that will attentively consider these things, will find that there is no absurdity in Paul’s words. Nay more, he will perceive both in the spiritual substance and in the visible sign a most striking correspondence between the baptism of the Jews, and ours.

It is however objected again, that we do not find a word of all this. 528 This I admit, but there is no doubt, that God by his Spirit supplied the want of outward preaching, as we may see in the instance of the brazen serpent, which was, as Christ himself testifies, a spiritual sacrament, (Joh 3:14,) and yet not a word has come down to us as to this thing, 529 but the Lord revealed to believers of that age, in the manner he thought fit, the secret, which would otherwise have remained hid.

Calvin: 1Co 10:3 - The same spiritual meat 3.The same spiritual meat He now makes mention of the other sacrament, which corresponds to the Holy Supper of the Lord. “The manna,” says he, ...

3.The same spiritual meat He now makes mention of the other sacrament, which corresponds to the Holy Supper of the Lord. “The manna,” says he, “and the water that flowed forth from the rock, served not merely for the food of the body, but also for the spiritual nourishment of souls.” It is true, that both were means of sustenance for the body, but this does not hinder their serving also another purpose. While, therefore, the Lord relieved the necessities of the body, he, at the same time, provided for the everlasting welfare of souls. These two things would be easily reconciled, were there not a difficulty presented in Christ’s words, (Joh 6:31,) where he makes the manna the corruptible food of the belly, which he contrasts with the true food of the soul. That statement appears to differ widely from what Paul says here. This knot, too, is easily solved. It is the manner of scripture, when treating of the sacraments, or other things, to speak in some cases according to the capacity of the hearers, and in that case it has respect not to the nature of the thing, but to the mistaken idea of the hearers. Thus, Paul does not always speak of circumcision in the same way, for when he has a view to the appointment of God in it, he says, that it was a seal of the righteousness of the faith, (Rom 4:11,) but when he is disputing with those who gloried in an outward and bare sign, and reposed in it a mistaken confidence of salvation, he says, that it is a token of condemnation, because men bind themselves by it to keep the whole law (Gal 5:2.) For he takes merely the opinion that the false apostles had of it, because he contends, not against the pure institution of God, but against their mistaken view. In this way, as the carnal multitude preferred Moses to Christ, because he had fed the people in the desert for forty years, and looked to nothing in the manna but the food of the belly, (as indeed they sought nothing else,) Christ in his reply does not explain what was meant by the manna, but, passing over everything else, suits his discourse to the idea entertained by his hearers. “Moses is held by you in the highest esteem, and even in admiration, as a most eminent Prophet, because he filled the bellies of your fathers in the desert. For this one thing you object against me: I am accounted nothing by you, because I do not supply you with food for the belly. But if you reckon corruptible food of so much importance, what ought you to think of the life-giving bread, with which souls are nourished up unto eternal life?.” We see then that the Lord speaks there — not according to the nature of the thing, but rather according to the apprehension of his hearers. 530 Paul, on the other hand, looks here — not to the ordinance of God, but to the abuse of it by the wicked.

Farther, when he says that the fathers ate the same spiritual meat, he shows, first, what is the virtue and efficacy of the Sacraments, and, secondly, he declares, that the ancient Sacraments of the Law had the same virtue as ours have at this day. For, if the manna was spiritual food, it follows, that it is not bare emblems that are presented to us in the Sacraments, but that the thing represented is at the same time truly imparted, for God is not a deceiver to feed us with empty fancies. 531 A sign, it is true, is a sign, and retains its essence, but, as Papists act a ridiculous part, who dream of transformations, (I know not of what sort,) so it is not for us to separate between the reality and the emblem which God has conjoined. Papists confound the reality and the sign: profane men, as, for example, Suenckfeldius, and the like, separate the signs from the realities. Let us maintain a middle course, 532 or, in other words, let us observe the connection appointed by the Lord, but still keep them distinct, that we may not mistakingly transfer to the one what belongs to the other.

It remains that we speak of the second point — the resemblance between the ancient signs and ours. It is a well-known dogma of the schoolmen — that the Sacraments of the ancient law were emblems of grace, but ours confer it. This passage is admirably suited for refuting that error, for it shows that the reality of the Sacrament was presented to the ancient people of God no less than to us. It is therefore a base fancy of the Sorbonists, that the holy fathers under the law had the signs without the reality. I grant, indeed, that the efficacy of the signs is furnished to us at once more clearly and more abundantly from the time of Christ’s manifestation in the flesh than it was possessed by the fathers. Thus there is a difference between us and them only in degree, or, (as they commonly say,) of “more and less,” for we receive more fully what they received in a smaller measure. It is not as if they had had bare emblems, while we enjoy the reality. 533

Some explain it to mean, that they 534 ate the same meat together among themselves, and do not wish us to understand that there is a comparison between us and them; but these do not consider Paul’s object. For what does he mean to say here, but that the ancient people of God were honored with the same benefits with us, and were partakers of the same sacraments, that we might not, from confiding in any peculiar privilege, imagine that we would be exempted from the punishment which they endured? At the same time, I should not be prepared to contest the point with any one; I merely state my own opinion. In the meantime, I am well aware, what show of reason is advanced by those who adopt the opposite interpretation — that it suits best with the similitude made use of immediately before — that all the Israelites had the same race-ground marked out for them, and all started from the same point: all entered upon the same course: all were partakers of the same hope, but many were shut out from the reward. When, however, I take everything attentively into consideration, I am not induced by these considerations to give up my opinion; for it is not without good reason that the Apostle makes mention of two sacraments merely, and, more particularly, baptism. For what purpose was this, but to contrast them with us? Unquestionably, if he had restricted his comparison to the body of that people, he would rather have brought forward circumcision, and other sacraments that were better known and more distinguished, but, instead of this, he chose rather those that were more obscure, because they served more as a contrast between us and them. Nor would the application that he subjoins be otherwise so suitable — “All things that happened to them are examples to us, inasmuch as we there see the judgments of God that are impending over us, if we involve ourselves in the same crimes.”

Calvin: 1Co 10:4 - That rock was Christ 4.That rock was Christ Some absurdly pervert these words of Paul, as if he had said, that Christ was the spiritual rock, and as if he were not speaki...

4.That rock was Christ Some absurdly pervert these words of Paul, as if he had said, that Christ was the spiritual rock, and as if he were not speaking of that rock which was a visible sign, for we see that he is expressly treating of outward signs. The objection that they make — that the rock is spoken of as spiritual, is a frivolous one, inasmuch as that epithet is applied to it simply that we may know that it was a token of a spiritual mystery. In the mean time, there is no doubt, that he compares our sacraments with the ancient ones. Their second objection is more foolish and more childish — “How could a rock,” say they, “that stood firm in its place, follow the Israelites?” — as if it were not abundantly manifest, that by the word rock is meant the stream of water, which never ceased to accompany the people. For Paul extols 535 the grace of God, on this account, that he commanded the water that was drawn out from the rock to flow forth wherever the people journeyed, as if the rock itself had followed them. Now if Paul’s meaning were, that Christ is the spiritual foundation of the Church, what occasion were there for his using the past tense? 536 It is abundantly manifest, that something is here expressed that was peculiar to the fathers. Away, then, with that foolish fancy by which contentious men choose rather to show their impudence, than admit that they are sacramental forms of expression! 537

I have, however, already stated, that the reality of the things signified was exhibited in connection with the ancient sacraments. As, therefore, they were emblems of Christ, it follows, that Christ was connected with them, not locally, nor by a natural or substantial union, but sacramentally. On this principle the Apostle says, that the rock was Christ, for nothing is more common than metonymy in speaking of sacraments. The name of the thing, therefore, is transferred here to the sign — not as if it were strictly applicable, but figuratively, on the ground of that connection which I have mentioned. I touch upon this, however, the more slightly, because it will be more largely treated of when we come to the 11th Chapter.

There remains another question. “Seeing that we now in the Supper eat the body of Christ, and drink his blood, how could the Jews be partakers of the same spiritual meat and drink, when there was as yet no flesh of Christ that they could eat?” I answer, that though his flesh did not as yet exist, it was, nevertheless, food for them. Nor is this an empty or sophistical subtilty, for their salvation depended on the benefit of his death and resurrection. Hence, they required to receive the flesh and the blood of Christ, that they might participate in the benefit of redemption. This reception of it was the secret work of the Holy Spirit, who wrought in them in such a manner, that Christ’s flesh, though not yet created, was made efficacious in them. He means, however, that they ate in their own way, which was different from ours, 538 and this is what I have previously stated, that Christ is now presented to us more fully, according to the measure of the revelation. For, in the present day, the eating is substantial, which it could not have been then — that is, Christ feeds us with his flesh, which has been sacrificed for us, and appointed as our food, and from this we derive life.

Calvin: 1Co 10:5 - But many of them 5.But many of them We have now the reason why the Apostle has premised these things — that we might not claim for ourselves any dignity or excellen...

5.But many of them We have now the reason why the Apostle has premised these things — that we might not claim for ourselves any dignity or excellence above them, but might walk in humility and fear, for thus only shall we secure, that we have not been favored in vain with the light of truth, and with such an abundance of gracious benefits. “God,” says he, “had chosen them all as his people, but many of them fell from grace. Let us, therefore, take heed, lest the same thing should happen to us, being admonished by so many examples, for God will not suffer that to go unpunished in us, which he punished so severely in them. ”

Here again it is objected: “If it is true, that hypocrites and wicked persons in that age ate spiritual meat, do unbelievers in the present day partake of the reality in the sacraments?” Some, afraid lest the unbelief of men should seem to detract from the truth of God, teach that the reality is received by the wicked along with the sign. This fear, however, is needless, for the Lord offers, it is true, to the worthy and to the unworthy what he represents, but all are not capable of receiving it. In the meantime, the sacrament does not change its nature, nor does it lose anything of its efficacy. Hence the manna, in relation to God, was spiritual meat even to unbelievers, but because the mouth of unbelievers was but carnal, they did not eat what was given them. The fuller discussion, however, of this question I reserve for the 11th Chapter.

For they were overthrown. Proof is here furnished, by adducing a token, that they did not please God — inasmuch as he exercised his wrath upon them with severity, 539 and took vengeance on their ingratitude. Some understand this as referring to the whole of the people that died in the desert, with the exception of only two — Caleb and Joshua. (Num 14:29.) I understand him, however, as referring merely to those, whom he immediately afterwards makes mention of in different classes.

Calvin: 1Co 10:6 - Now these things were types to us // That we might not lust after evil things 6.Now these things were types to us He warns us in still more explicit terms, that we have to do with the punishment that was inflicted upon them, so...

6.Now these things were types to us He warns us in still more explicit terms, that we have to do with the punishment that was inflicted upon them, so that they are a lesson to us, that we may not provoke the anger of God as they did. “God,” says he, “in punishing them has set before us, as in a picture, his severity, that, instructed by their example, we may learn to fear.” Of the term type I shall speak presently. Only for the present I should wish my readers to know, that it is not without consideration that I have given a different rendering from that of the old translation, 540 and of Erasmus. For they obscure Paul’s meaning, or at least they do not bring out with sufficient clearness this idea — that God has in that people presented a picture for our instruction.

That we might not lust after evil things He now enumerates particular instances, or certain examples, that he may take occasion from this to reprove some vices, as to which it was proper that the Corinthians should be admonished. I am of opinion, that the history that is here referred to is what is recorded in Num 11:4, etc., though others refer it to what is recorded in Num 26:64. The people, after having been for some time fed with manna, at length took a dislike to it, and began to desire other kinds of food, which they had been accustomed to partake of in Egypt. Now they sinned in two ways, for they despised the peculiar gift of God, and they eagerly longed after a variety of meats and delicacies, contrary to the will of God. The Lord, provoked by this lawless appetite, inflicted upon the people a grievous blow. Hence the place was called the

graves of lust, 541 because there they buried those whom
the Lord had smitten. (Num 11:34.)

The Lord by this example testified how much he hates those lusts that arise from dislike of his gifts, and from our lawless appetite, for whatever goes beyond the measure that God has prescribed is justly reckoned evil and unlawful.

Calvin: 1Co 10:7 - Neither be ye idolaters // As it is written, The people sat down 7.Neither be ye idolaters He touches upon the history that is recorded in Exo 32:7, etc. For when Moses made a longer stay upon the mountain than the...

7.Neither be ye idolaters He touches upon the history that is recorded in Exo 32:7, etc. For when Moses made a longer stay upon the mountain than the unseemly fickleness of the people could endure, Aaron was constrained to make a calf, and set it up as an object of worship. Not that the people wished to change their God, but rather to have some visible token of God’s presence, in accordance with their carnal apprehension. God, in punishing at that time this idolatry with the greatest severity, showed by that example how much he abhors idolatry.

As it is written, The people sat down This passage is rightly interpreted by few, for they understand intemperance among the people to have been the occasion of wantonness, 542 in accordance with the common proverb, “Dancing comes after a full diet.” 543 But Moses speaks of a sacred feast, or in other words, what they celebrated in honor of the idol. Hence feasting and play were two appendages of idolatry. For it was customary, both among the people of Israel and among the rotaries of superstition, to have a feast in connection with a sacrifice, as a part of divine worship, at which no profane or unclean persons were allowed to be present. The Gentiles, in addition to this, appointed sacred games in honor of their idols, in conformity with which the Israelites doubtless on that occasion worshipped their calf, 544 for such is the presumption of the human mind, that it ascribes to God whatever pleases itself. Hence the Gentiles have fallen into such a depth of infatuation as to believe, that their gods are delighted with the basest spectacles, immodest dances, impurity of speech, and every kind of obscenity. Hence in imitation of them the Israelitish people, having observed their sacred banquet, rose up to celebrate the games, that nothing might be wanting in honor of the idol. This is the true and simple meaning.

But here it is asked, why the Apostle makes mention of the feast and the games, rather than of adoration, for this is the chief thing in idolatry, while the other two things were merely appendages. The reason is, that he has selected what best suited the case of the Corinthians. For it is not likely, that they frequented the assemblies of the wicked, for the purpose of prostrating themselves before the idols, but partook of their feasts, held in honor of their deities, and did not keep at a distance from those base ceremonies, which were tokens of idolatry. It is not therefore without good reason that the Apostle declares, that their particular form of offense is expressly condemned by God. He intimates, in short, that no part of idolatry 545 can be touched without contracting pollution, and that those will not escape punishment from the hand of God, who defile themselves with the outward tokens of idolatry.

Calvin: 1Co 10:8 - Neither let us commit fornication 8.Neither let us commit fornication Now he speaks of fornication, in respect of which, as appears from historical accounts, great licentiousness pre...

8.Neither let us commit fornication Now he speaks of fornication, in respect of which, as appears from historical accounts, great licentiousness prevailed among the Corinthians, and we may readily infer from what goes before, that those who had professed themselves to be Christ’s were not yet altogether free from this vice. The punishment of this vice, also, ought to alarm us, and lead us to bear in mind, how loathsome impure lusts are to God, for there perished in one day twenty-three thousand, or as Moses says, twenty-four. Though they differ as to number, it is easy to reconcile them, as it is no unusual thing, when it is not intended to number exactly and minutely each head, 546 to put down a number that comes near it, as among the Romans there were those that received the name of Centumviri , 547 (The Hundred,) while in reality there were two above the hundred. As there were, therefore, about twenty-four thousand that were overthrown by the Lord’s hand — that is, above twenty-three, Moses has set down the number above the mark, and Paul, the number below it, and in this way there is in reality no difference. This history is recorded in Num 25:9

There remains, however, one difficulty here — why it is that Paul attributes this punishment to fornication, while Moses relates that the anger of God was aroused against the people on this account — that they had initiated themselves in the sacred rites of Baalpeor. 548 But as the defection began with fornication, and the children of Israel fell into that impiety, not so much from being influenced by religious considerations, 549 as from being allured by the enticements of harlots, everything evil that followed from it ought to be attributed to fornication. For Balaam had given this counsel, that the Midianites should prostitute their daughters to the Israelites, with the view of estranging them from the true worship of God. Nay more, their excessive blindness, in allowing themselves to be drawn into impiety 550 by the enticements of harlots, was the punishment of lust. Let us learn, accordingly, that fornication is no light offense, which was punished on that occasion by God so severely and indeed in a variety of ways.

Calvin: 1Co 10:9 - Neither let us tempt Christ 9.Neither let us tempt Christ This part of the exhortation refers to the history that is recorded in Num 21:6. For the people, having become weary of...

9.Neither let us tempt Christ This part of the exhortation refers to the history that is recorded in Num 21:6. For the people, having become weary of the length of time, began to complain of their condition, and to expostulate with God — “Why has God deceived us,” etc. This murmuring of the people Paul speaks of as a tempting; and not without good reason, for tempting is opposed to patience. What reason was there at that time why the people should rise up against God, except this — that, under the influence of base desire, 551 they could not wait in patience the arrival of the time appointed by the Lord? Let us, therefore, take notice, that the fountain of that evil against which Paul here warns us is impatience, when we wish to go before God, and do not give ourselves up to be ruled by Him, but rather wish to bind him to our inclination and laws. This evil God severely punished in the Israelitish people. Now he remains always like himself — a just Judge. Let us therefore not tempt him, if we would not have experience of the same punishment.

This is a remarkable passage in proof of the eternity of Christ; for the cavil of Erasmus has no force — “Let us not tempt Christ, as some of them tempted God; ” for to supply the word God is extremely forced. 552 Nor is it to be wondered that Christ is called the Leader of the Israelitish people. For as God was never propitious to his people except through that Mediator, so he conferred no benefit except through his hand. Farther, the angel who appeared at first to Moses, and was always present with the people during their journeying, is frequently called יהוה , Jehovah. 553 Let us then regard it as a settled point, that that angel was the Son of God, and was even then the guide of the Church of which he was the Head. As to the term Christ, from its having a signification that corresponds with his human nature, it was not as yet applicable to the Son of God, but it is assigned to him by the communication of properties, as we read elsewhere, that

the Son of Man came down from heaven. (Joh 3:13.)

Calvin: 1Co 10:10 - Neither murmur ye 10.Neither murmur ye Others understand this to be the murmuring that arose, when the twelve, who had been sent to spy out the land, disheartened, on ...

10.Neither murmur ye Others understand this to be the murmuring that arose, when the twelve, who had been sent to spy out the land, disheartened, on their return, the minds of the people. But as that murmuring was not punished suddenly by any special chastisement from the Lord, but was simply followed by the infliction of this punishment — that all were excluded from the possession of the land, it is necessary to explain this passage otherwise. It was a most severe punishment, it is true, to be shut out from entering the land, 554 but the words of Paul, when he says that they were destroyed by the destroyer, express another kind of chastisement. I refer it, accordingly, to the history, which is recorded in the sixteenth chapter of Numbers. [Num 16:1 ]. For when God had punished the pride of Korah and Abiram, the people raised a tumult against Moses and Aaron, as if they had been to blame for the punishment which the Lord had inflicted. This madness of the people God punished by sending down fire from heaven, which swallowed up many of them — upwards of fourteen thousand. It is, therefore, a striking and memorable token of God’s wrath against rebels and seditious persons, that murmur against him.

Those persons, it is true, murmured against Moses; but as they had no ground for insulting him, and had no occasion for being incensed against him, unless it was that he had faithfully discharged the duty which had been enjoined upon him by God, God himself was assailed by that murmuring. Let us, accordingly, bear in mind that we have to do with God, and not with men, if we rise up against the faithful ministers of God, and let us know that this audacity 555 will not go unpunished.

By the destroyer you may understand the Angel, who executed the judgment of God. Now he sometimes employs the ministry of bad angels, sometimes of good, in punishing men, as appears from various passages of Scripture. As Paul here does not make a distinction between the one and the other, you may understand it of either.

Calvin: 1Co 10:11 - Now all these things happened as types // They are written for our admonition // Upon whom the ends of the world are come 11.Now all these things happened as types He again repeats it — that all these things happened to the Israelites, that they might be types to us ...

11.Now all these things happened as types He again repeats it — that all these things happened to the Israelites, that they might be types to us — that is, examples, in which God places his judgments before our eyes I am well aware, that others philosophize on these words with great refinement, but I think that I have fully expressed the Apostle’s meaning, when I say, that by these examples, like so many pictures, we are instructed what judgments of God are impending over idolaters, fornicators, and other contemners of God. For they are lively pictures, representing God as angry on account of such sins. This exposition, besides being simple and accurate, has this additional advantage, that it blocks up the path of certain madmen, 556 who wrest this passage for the purpose of proving, that among that ancient people there was nothing done but what was shadowy. First of all, they assume that that people is a figure of the Church. From this they infer, that everything that God promised to them, or accomplished for them — all benefits, all punishments, 557 only prefigured what required to be accomplished in reality after Christ’s advent. This is a most pestilential frenzy, which does great injury to the holy fathers, and much greater still to God. For that people was a figure of the Christian Church, in such a manner as to be at the same time a true Church. Their condition represented ours in such a manner that there was at the same time, even then, a proper condition of a Church. The promises given to them shadowed forth the gospel in such a way, that they had it included in them. Their sacraments served to prefigure ours in such a way, that they were nevertheless, even for that period, true sacraments, having a present efficacy. In fine, those who at that time made a right use, both of doctrine, and of signs, were endowed with the same spirit of faith as we are. These madmen, therefore, derive no support from these words of Paul, which do not mean that the things that were done in that age were types, in such a way as to have at that time no reality, but a mere empty show. Nay more, they expressly teach us, (as we have explained,) that those things which may be of use for our admonition, are there set forth before us, as in a picture.

They are written for our admonition This second clause is explanatory of the former; for it was of no importance to the Israelites, but to us exclusively, that these things should be committed to record. 558 It does not, however, follow from this, that these inflictions were not true chastisements from God, suited for their correction at that time, but as God then inflicted his judgments, so he designed that they should be kept everlastingly in remembrance for our instruction. For of what advantage were the history of them to the dead; and as to the living, how would it be of advantage to them, unless they repented, admonished by the examples of others? Now he takes for granted the principle, as to which all pious persons ought to be agreed — that there is nothing revealed in the Scriptures, that is not profitable to be known.

Upon whom the ends of the world are come The word τέλη (ends) sometimes means mysteries; 559 and that signification would not suit in with this passage. I follow, however, the common rendering, as being more simple. He says then, that the ends of all ages are come upon us, inasmuch as the fullness of all things is suitable to this age, because it is now the last times. For the kingdom of Christ is the main object of the Law and of all the Prophets. But this statement of Paul is at variance with the common opinion — that God, while more severe under the Old Testament, and always ready and armed for the punishment of crimes, has now begun to be exorable, and more ready to forgive. They explain, also, our being under the law of grace, in this sense — that we have God more placable than the ancients had. But what says Paul? If God inflicted punishment upon them, he will not the more spare you. Away, then, with the error, that God is now more remiss in exacting the punishment of crimes! It must, indeed, be acknowledged, that, by the advent of Christ, God’s goodness has been more openly and more abundantly poured forth towards men; but what has this to do with impunity for the abandoned, who abuse his grace? 560

This one thing only must be noticed, that in the present day the mode of punishment is different; for as God of old was more prepared to reward the pious with outward tokens of his blessing, that he might testify to them his fatherly love, so he showed his wrath more by corporal punishments. Now, on the other hand, in that fuller revelation which we enjoy, he does not so frequently inflict visible punishments, and does not so frequently inflict corporal punishment even upon the wicked. You will find more on this subject in my Institutes. 561

Calvin: 1Co 10:12 - Wherefore let him that thinketh he standeth 12.Wherefore let him that thinketh he standeth The Apostle concludes from what goes before, that we must not glory in our beginnings or progress, so ...

12.Wherefore let him that thinketh he standeth The Apostle concludes from what goes before, that we must not glory in our beginnings or progress, so as to resign ourselves to carelessness and inactivity. 562 For the Corinthians gloried in their condition in such a way, that, forgetting their weakness, they fell into many crimes. This was a false confidence of such a kind as the Prophets frequently reprove in the Israelitish people. As, however, Papists wrest this passage for the purpose of maintaining their impious doctrine respecting faith, as having constantly doubt connected with it, 563 let us observe that there are two kinds of assurance.

The one is that which rests on the promises of God, because a pious conscience feels assured that God will never be wanting to it; and, relying on this unconquerable persuasion, triumphs boldly and intrepidly over Satan and sin, and yet, nevertheless, keeping in mind its own infirmity, casts itself 564 upon God, and with carefulness and anxiety commits itself to him. This kind of assurance is sacred, and is inseparable from faith, as appears from many passages of Scripture, and especially Rom 8:33.

The other arises from negligence, when men, puffed up with the gifts that they have, give themselves no concern, as if they were beyond the reach of danger, but rest satisfied with their condition. Hence it is that they are exposed to all the assaults of Satan. This is the kind of assurance which Paul would have the Corinthians to abandon, because he saw that they were satisfied with themselves under the influence of a silly conceit. He does not, however, exhort them to be always anxiously in doubt as to the will of God, or to tremble from uncertainty as to their salvation, as Papists dream. 565 In short, let us bear in mind, that Paul is here addressing persons who were puffed up with a base confidence in the flesh, and represses that assurance which is grounded upon men — not upon God. For after commending the Colossians for the solidity or steadfastness of their faith, (Col 2:5,) he exhorts them to be

rooted in Christ, to remain firm, and to be built up and
confirmed in the faith. (Col 2:7.)

Calvin: 1Co 10:13 - No temptation has taken you // But God is faithful 13.No temptation has taken you 566 Let others take their own way of interpreting this. For my part, I am of opinion that it was intended for their co...

13.No temptation has taken you 566 Let others take their own way of interpreting this. For my part, I am of opinion that it was intended for their consolation, lest on hearing of such appalling instances of the wrath of God, as he had previously related, they should feel discouraged, being overpowered with alarm. Hence, in order that his exhortation might be of advantage, he adds, that there is room for repentance. “There is no reason why you should despond; for I have not had it in view to give you occasion for despair, nor has anything happened to you but what is common to men.” Others are of opinion that he rather chides their cowardice in giving way, on being so slightly tried; 567 and unquestionably the word rendered human is sometimes taken to mean moderate. 568 The meaning, then, according to them would be this: “Did it become you thus to give way under a slight trial?” But as it agrees better with the context, if we consider it as consolation, I am on this account rather inclined to that view.

But God is faithful As he exhorted them to be of good courage as to the past, in order that he might stir them up to repentance, so he also comforts them as to the future with a sure hope, on the ground that God would not suffer them to be tempted beyond their strength. He exhorts them, however, to look to the Lord, because a temptation, however slight it may be, will straightway overcome us, and all will be over with us, if we rely upon our own strength. He speaks of the Lord, as faithful, not merely as being true to his promises, but as though he had said. The Lord is the sure guardian of his people, under whose protection you are safe, for he never leaves his people destitute. Accordingly, when he has received you under his protection, you have no cause to fear, provided you depend entirely upon him. For certainly this were a species of deception, if he were to withdraw his aid in the time of need, or if he were, on seeing us weak and ready to sink under the load, to lengthen out our trials still farther. 569

Now God helps us in two ways, that we may not be overcome by the temptation; for he supplies us with strength, and he sets limits to the temptation. It is of the second of these ways that the Apostle here chiefly speaks. At the same time, he does not exclude the former — that God alleviates temptations, that they may not overpower us by their weight. For he knows the measure of our power, which he has himself conferred. According to that, he regulates our temptations. The term temptation I take here as denoting, in a general way, everything that allures us.

Calvin: 1Co 10:14 - Wherefore, my beloved, flee, etc 14.Wherefore, my beloved, flee, etc The Apostle now returns to the particular question, from which he had for a little digressed, for, lest bare doct...

14.Wherefore, my beloved, flee, etc The Apostle now returns to the particular question, from which he had for a little digressed, for, lest bare doctrine should have little effect among them, he has introduced those general exhortations that we have read, but now he pursues the discussion on which he had entered — that it is not allowable for a Christian man to connect himself with the superstitions of the wicked, so as to take part in them. Flee, says he, from idolatry In the first place, let us observe what meaning he attaches to the term Idolatry He certainly did not suspect the Corinthians of such a degree of ignorance or carelessness 570 as to think, that they worshipped idols in their heart. But as they made no scruple of frequenting the assemblies of the wicked, and observing along with them certain rites instituted in honor of idols, he condemns this liberty taken by them, as being a very bad example. It is certain, then, that when he here makes mention of idolatry, he, speaks of what is outward, or, if you prefer it, of the profession 571 of idolatry. For as God is said to be worshipped by the bending of the knee, and other tokens of reverence, while the principal and genuine worship of him is inward, so is it also as to idols, for the case holds the same in things opposite. It is to no purpose that very many in the present day endeavor to excuse outward actions 572 on this pretext, that the heart is not in them, while Paul convicts of idolatry those very acts, and assuredly with good reason. For, as we owe to God not merely the secret affection of the heart, but also outward adoration, the man who offers to an idol an appearance of adoration takes away so much of the honor due to God. Let him allege as he may that his heart is quite away from it. The action itself is to be seen, in which the honor that is due to God is transferred to an idol.

Calvin: 1Co 10:15 - I speak as to wise men 15.I speak as to wise men As he was about to take his argument from the mystery of the Supper, he arouses them by this little preface, that they may ...

15.I speak as to wise men As he was about to take his argument from the mystery of the Supper, he arouses them by this little preface, that they may consider more attentively the magnitude of the thing. 573 “I do not address mere novices. You understand the efficacy of the sacred Supper in it we are ingrafted into the Lord’s body. How unseemly a thing is it then, that you should enter into fellowship with the wicked, so as to be united in one body. At the same time, he tacitly reproves their want of consideration in this respect, that, while accurately instructed in the school of Christ, they allowed themselves in gross vice, as to which there was no difficulty in forming an opinion.

Calvin: 1Co 10:16 - The cup of blessing // The bread which we break 16.The cup of blessing While the sacred Supper of Christ has two elements — bread and wine — he begins with the second. He calls it, the cup of ...

16.The cup of blessing While the sacred Supper of Christ has two elements — bread and wine — he begins with the second. He calls it, the cup of blessing, as having been set apart for a mystical benediction. 574 For I do not agree with those who understand blessing to mean thanksgiving, and interpret the verb to bless, as meaning to give thanks I acknowledge, indeed, that it is sometimes employed in this sense, but never in the construction that Paul has here made use of, for the idea of Erasmus, as to supplying a preposition, 575 is exceedingly forced. On the other hand, the meaning that I adopt is easy, and has nothing of intricacy.

To bless the cup, then, is to set it apart for this purpose, that it may be to us an emblem of the blood of Christ. This is done by the word of promise, when believers meet together according to Christ’s appointment to celebrate the remembrance of his death in this Sacrament. The consecration, however, which the Papists make use of, is a kind of sorcery derived from heathens, 576 which has nothing in common with the pure rite observed by Christians. Everything, it is true, that we eat is sanctified by the word of God, as Paul himself elsewhere bears witness, (1Ti 4:5;) but that blessing is for a different purpose — that our use of the gifts of God may be pure, and may tend to the glory of their Author, and to our advantage. On the other hand, the design of the mystical blessing in the Supper is, that the wine may be no longer a common beverage, but set apart for the spiritual nourishment of the soul, while it is an emblem of the blood of Christ.

Paul says, that the cup which has been in this manner blessed is κοινωνίαν — the comnunion of the blood of the Lord. It is asked, in what sense? Let contention be avoided, and there will be nothing of obscurity. It is true, that believers are united together by Christ’s blood, so as to become one body. It is also true, that a unity of this kind is with propriety termed κοινωνία ( communion.) I make the same acknowledgment as to the bread Farther, I observe what Paul immediately adds, as it were, by way of explanation — that we all become one body, because we are together partakers of the same bread But whence, I pray you, comes that κοινωνία ( communion) between us, but from this, that we are united to Christ in such a way, that

we are flesh of his flesh, and bone of his bones?
(Eph 5:30.)

For we must first of all be incorporated (so to speak) into Christ, that we may be united to each other. In addition to this, Paul is not disputing at present merely in reference to a mutual fellowship among men, but as to the spiritual union between Christ and believers, with the view of drawing from this, that it is an intolerable sacrilege for them to be polluted by fellowship with idols. From the connection of the passage, therefore, we may conclude, that (κοινωνίαν) the communion of the blood is that connection which we have with the blood of Christ, when he engrafts all of us together into his body, that he may live in us, and we in him.

Now, when the cup is called a participation, the expression, I acknowledge, is figurative, provided that the truth held forth in the figure is not taken away, or, in other words, provided that the reality itself is also present, and that the soul has as truly communion in the blood, as we drink wine with the mouth. But Papists could not say this, that the cup of blessing is a participation in the blood of Christ, for the Supper that they observe is mutilated and torn: if indeed we can give the name of the Supper to that strange ceremony which is a patchwork of various human contrivances, and scarcely retains the slightest vestige of the institution of our Lord. But, supposing that everything else were as it ought to be, this one thing is at variance with the right use of the Supper — the keeping back of the whole of the people from partaking of the cup, which is the half of the Sacrament.

The bread which we break From this it appears, that it was the custom of the ancient Church to break one loaf, and distribute to every one his own morsel, in order that there might be presented more clearly to the view of all believers their union to the one body of Christ. And that this custom was long kept up appears from the testimony of those who flourished in the three centuries that succeeded the age of the Apostles. Hence arose the superstition, that no one dared to touch the bread with his hand, but each one had it put into his mouth by the priest.

Calvin: 1Co 10:17 - For we are one bread 17.For we are one bread I have already stated above, that it was not Paul’s particular design here to exhort us to love, but he mentions this by th...

17.For we are one bread I have already stated above, that it was not Paul’s particular design here to exhort us to love, but he mentions this by the way, that the Corinthians may understand that we must, even by external profession, maintain that unity which subsists between us and Christ, inasmuch as we all assemble together to receive the symbol of that sacred unity. In this second part of the statement, he makes mention only of the one part of the Sacrament, and it is the manner of Scripture to describe by Synecdoche 577 the entire Supper by the breaking of bread It is necessary to warn my readers, in passing, as to this, lest any less experienced person should be put off his guard by the foolish cavil that is brought forward by certain sycophants — as if Paul, by mentioning merely the bread, had it in view to deprive the people of the one half of the Sacrament.

Calvin: 1Co 10:18 - Behold Israel after the flesh 18.Behold Israel after the flesh He establishes it by another example, that such is the nature of all sacred observances, that they bind us in a kind...

18.Behold Israel after the flesh He establishes it by another example, that such is the nature of all sacred observances, that they bind us in a kind of fellowship with God. For the law of Moses admits no one to a feast upon a sacrifice, but the man who has duly prepared himself. I speak not of priests merely, but of those among the common people who eat of the remains of the sacrifice. Hence it follows, that all who eat of the flesh of the sacrificed victim, are partakers with the altar, that is, of the sanctification, with which God has set apart his Temple, and the sacred rites that are performed in it.

This expression after the flesh, may seem to be added in order that the Corinthians, on comparing the two, might set a higher value on the efficacy of our Supper. “If there was so much virtue in the ancient figures and in those rudiments of youthful education, how much more must we reckon that there is in our mysteries, in which God shines forth much more fully upon us!” At the same time, it is more simple, in my opinion, to say that Paul intended merely by this mark to distinguish the Jews that were still under the law from those that had been converted to Christ. Now there was a contrast that remained to be made — that if the sacred rites appointed by God sanctify those who observe them, pollution, on the other hand, is contracted from the sacred rites rendered to idols. 578 For it is God alone that sanctifies, and hence all strange gods pollute. 579 Again, if mysteries 580 unite and connect believers with God, it follows, that the wicked are in like manner introduced by their superstitious rites into fellowship 581 with idols. But the Apostle, before proceeding to this, answers by an anthypophora 582 (anticipation) a question that might be proposed by way of objection.

Calvin: 1Co 10:19 - What do I say then? 19.What do I say then? It might seem at first view as if the Apostle either argued inconclusively, or ascribed to idols something of existence and of...

19.What do I say then? It might seem at first view as if the Apostle either argued inconclusively, or ascribed to idols something of existence and of power. Now it might readily be objected — “What comparison is there between the living God and idols? God connects us with himself by the sacraments. Be it so. How comes it that idols, which are nothing, (1Co 8:4,) have so much power, as to be able to do the like? Do you think that idols are anything, or can do anything?” He answers, that he does not look to the idols themselves; 583 but rather has in view the intention of those who sacrifice to idols. For that was the source of the pollution that he had indirectly pointed out. He confesses, therefore, that an idol is nothing. He confesses that it is a mere delusion when the Gentiles take it upon them to go through solemn rites of dedication, 584 and that the creatures of God are not polluted by such fooleries. But as the design of them is superstitious and condemnable, and as the work is base, he infers, that all who connect themselves with them as associates, are involved in pollution.

Calvin: 1Co 10:20 - But the things // I would not that ye 20.But the things 585 that the Gentiles sacrifice. To complete the answer, a negative must be understood in this way: “I do not say that an idol...

20.But the things 585 that the Gentiles sacrifice. To complete the answer, a negative must be understood in this way: “I do not say that an idol is anything, nor do I imagine it to be endued with any virtue, but I say that the Gentiles sacrifice to the devil and not to gods those things which they do sacrifice, and hence I estimate the work by their wicked and impious superstition. For we must always look to the intention with which a thing is done. He, then, who connects himself with them, declares that he has fellowship with them in the same impiety.” He proceeds accordingly with what he had commenced: “If we had to do with God only, those things would be nothing, but, in relation to men, they become faulty; because no one sits down to an idol feast, who does not declare himself to be a worshipper of the idol.”

Some, however, understand the term demons here as meaning the imaginary deities of the Gentiles, agreeably to their common way of speaking of them; for when they speak of demons they meant inferior deities, as, for example, heroes, 586 and thus the term was taken in a good sense. Plato, in a variety of instances, employs the term to denote genii, or angels. 587 That meaning, however, would be quite foreign to Paul’s design, for his object is to show that it is no light offense to have to do with actions that have any appearance of putting honor upon idols. Hence it suited his purpose, not to extenuate, but rather to magnify the impiety that is involved in it. How absurd, then, it would have been to select an honorable term to denote the most heinous wickedness! It is certain from the Prophet Baruch, (Bar 4:7,) that those things that are sacrificed to idols are sacrificed to devils (Deu 32:17; Psa 96:5.) In that passage in the writings of the Prophet, the Greek translation, which was at that time in common use, has δαιμόνια demons, and this is its common use in Scripture. How much more likely is it then, that Paul borrowed what he says from the Prophet, to express the enormity of the evil, than that, speaking after the manner of the heathen, he extenuated what he was desirous to hold up to utter execration!

It may seem, however, as if these things were somewhat at variance with what I stated a little ago — that Paul had an eye to the intention of idolaters, for it is not their intention to worship devils, but imaginary deities of their own framing. I answer, that the two things are quite in harmony, for when men become so vain in their imaginations (Rom 1:21) as to render divine honor to creatures, rather than to the one God, this punishment is in readiness for them — that they serve Satan. For they do not find that “middle place” 588 that they are in search of, but Satan straightway presents himself to them, as an object of adoration, whenever they have turned their back upon the true God.

I would not that ye If the term demon were used in an indifferent sense, how spiritless were Paul’s statement here, while, instead of this, it has the greatest weight and severity against idolaters! He subjoins the reason — because no one can have fellowship at the same time with God and with idols. Now, in all sacred observances, there is a profession of fellowship. Let us know, therefore, that we are then, and then only, admitted by Christ to the sacred feast of his body and blood, when we have first of all bid farewell to every thing sacrilegious. 589 For the man who would enjoy the one, must renounce the other. O thrice miserable the condition of those 590 who, from fear of displeasing men, do not hesitate to pollute themselves with unlawful superstitions! For, by acting in this way, they voluntarily renounce fellowship with Christ, and obstruct their approach to his health-giving table.

Calvin: 1Co 10:22 - Do we provoke the Lord // Are we stronger 22.Do we provoke the Lord ? Having laid down the doctrine, he assumes a more vehement tone, from observing, that what was a most atrocious offense ag...

22.Do we provoke the Lord ? Having laid down the doctrine, he assumes a more vehement tone, from observing, that what was a most atrocious offense against God was regarded as nothing, or, at least, was looked upon as a very trivial error. The Corinthians wished the liberty that they took to be reckoned excusable, as there is not one of us that willingly allows himself to be found fault with, but, on the contrary, we seek one subterfuge after another, under which to shelter ourselves. Now Paul says, and not without reason, that in this way we wage war against God; for nothing does God more require from us than this — that we adhere strictly to everything that he declares in his word. Do not those, then, who use subterfuges, 591 in order that they may be at liberty to transgress the commandment of God, arm themselves openly against God? Hence that curse which the Prophet denounces against all those who call evil, good, and darkness, light (Isa 5:20.)

Are we stronger ? He warns them how dangerous a thing it is to provoke God — because no one can do this but to his own ruin. 592 Among men the chance of war, as they speak, is doubtful, but to contend with God is nothing short of voluntarily courting destruction. Accordingly, if we fear to have God as an enemy, let us shudder at the thought of framing excuses for manifest sins, that is, whatever stand opposed to his word. Let us, also, shudder at the thought of calling in question those things that he has himself pronounced upon — for this is nothing less than to rise up against heaven after the manner of the giants. 593 (Gen 11:4.)

Calvin: 1Co 10:23 - All things are lawful for me 23.All things are lawful for me Again he returns to the right of Christian liberty, by which the Corinthians defended themselves, and sets aside thei...

23.All things are lawful for me Again he returns to the right of Christian liberty, by which the Corinthians defended themselves, and sets aside their objection by giving the same explanation as before. “To eat of meats that were sacrificed, and be present at the banquet, was an outward thing, and therefore was in itself lawful.” Paul declares that he does not by any means call this in question, but he replies, that we must have a regard to edification. All things are lawful for me, says he, but all things are not profitable, that is, for our neighbors, for no one, as he immediately adds, ought to seek his own advantage exclusively, and if anything is not profitable to the brethren, it must be abstained from. He, in the next place, expresses the kind of advantage — when it edifies, for we must not have respect merely to the advantage of the flesh. “What then? 594 Does a thing that is in other respects permitted by God, come on this account to be unlawful — if it is not expedient for our neighbor. Then in that case our liberty would be placed under subjection to men.” Consider attentively Paul’s words, and you will perceive that liberty, nevertheless, remains unimpaired, when you accommodate yourself to your neighbors, and that it is only the use of it that is restricted, for he acknowledges that it is lawful, but says that it ought not to be made use of, if it does not edify

Calvin: 1Co 10:24 - Let no one seek his own 24.Let no one seek his own He handles the same subject in the 14th Chapter of the Romans. Let no one please himself, but endeavor to please his bre...

24.Let no one seek his own He handles the same subject in the 14th Chapter of the Romans. Let no one please himself, but endeavor to please his brethren for their edification This is a precept that is very necessary, for we are so corrupted by nature, that every one consults his own interests, regardless of those of his brethren. Now, as the law of love calls upon us to love our neighbors as ourselves, (Mat 22:39,) so it requires us to consult their welfare. The Apostle, however, does not expressly forbid individuals to consult their own advantage, but he requires that they should not be so devoted to their own interests, as not to be prepared to forego part of their right, as often as the welfare of their brethren requires this.

Calvin: 1Co 10:25 - Whatsoever is sold in the shambles // Debating nothing // For conscience sake 25.Whatsoever is sold in the shambles He has spoken above of dissembling in connection with idolatry, or, at least, as to those actions which the Cor...

25.Whatsoever is sold in the shambles He has spoken above of dissembling in connection with idolatry, or, at least, as to those actions which the Corinthians could not engage in, without professing themselves to be the associates of the wicked in their superstitions. He now requires them, not merely to abstain from all professions of idolatry, but also to avoid carefully all occasions of offense, which are wont to arise from the indiscriminate use of things indifferent. For, although there was but one kind of offense on the part of the Corinthians, 595 there were, at the same time different degrees of it. Now, as to the eating of food, he makes, in the first place, this general statement — that it is lawful to eat, with a safe conscience, any kind of food, because the Lord permits it. In the second place, he restricts this liberty as to the use of it — lest weak consciences should be injured. Thus this conclusion is divided into two parts the first relates to liberty and power as to things indifferent: the second to a limitation of it — that the use of it may be regulated in accordance with the rule of love.

Debating nothing 596 ᾿Ανακρίνεσθαι, the word that Paul makes use of, means to reason on both sides, 597 in such a way, that the person’s mind vacillates, inclining now to this side, and then to that. 598 Accordingly, in so far as concerns a distinction of meats, he frees our consciences from all scruple and hesitation; because it is proper that, when we are certain from the word of the Lord that he approves of what we do, we should have ease and tranquillity in our minds.

For conscience sake — that is to say, Before the judgment-seat of God — “In so far as you have to do with God, there is no occasion for your disputing with yourself, whether it be lawful or not. For I allow you to eat freely of all kinds of meat, because the Lord allows you everything without exception.”

Calvin: 1Co 10:26 - The earth is the Lord’s 26.The earth is the Lord’s He establishes, from the testimony of David, the liberty which he had allowed. (Psa 24:1, and Psa 50:12.) But it will be...

26.The earth is the Lord’s He establishes, from the testimony of David, the liberty which he had allowed. (Psa 24:1, and Psa 50:12.) But it will be asked by some one, “What has this to do with the point?” I answer, If the fullness of the earth 599 is the Lord’s, there is nothing in the world that is not sacred and pure. We must always keep in view, what the question is of which the Apostle treats. It might be doubted, whether the creatures of God were polluted by the sacrifices of the wicked. Paul says they are not, inasmuch as the rule and possession of the whole earth remain always in the hands of God. Now, what things the Lord has in his hands, he preserves by his power, and consequently sanctifies them. The sons of God, therefore, have the pure use of everything, because they receive them no otherwise than from the hand of God.

The fullness of the earth, 600 is an expression which is made use of by the Prophet to denote the abundance of blessings, with which the earth is furnished and adorned by the Lord. For if the earth were stripped of trees, herbs, animals, and other things, it would be like a house devoid of furniture and every kind of utensil: nay more, it would be mutilated and disfigured. Should any one object, that the earth is cursed on account of sin, the answer is easy — that he has an eye to its pure and perfect nature, because Paul is speaking of believers, to whom all things are sanctified through Christ.

Calvin: 1Co 10:27 - If any one of them that believe not invites you 27.If any one of them that believe not invites you Here follows an exception, to this effect, that if a believer has been warned, that what is set be...

27.If any one of them that believe not invites you Here follows an exception, to this effect, that if a believer has been warned, that what is set before him has been offered to an idol, and sees that there is a danger of offense being given, he sins against the brethren if he does not abstain. He shows then, in short, that care must be taken not to hurt weak consciences.

When he says — and you are willing to go, he intimates indirectly, that he does not altogether approve of it, and that it would be better if they declined, but as it is a thing indifferent, he does not choose to forbid it absolutely. And, certainly, there could be nothing better than to keep at a distance from such snares — not that those are expressly to be condemned, who accommodate themselves to men only in so far as conscience permits, 601 but because it becomes us to proceed with caution, 602 where we see that we are in danger of falling.

Calvin: 1Co 10:29 - Conscience, I say, not thine own // For why is my liberty 29.Conscience, I say, not thine own He always carefully takes heed not to diminish liberty, or to appear to take from it in any degree. “Thou ought...

29.Conscience, I say, not thine own He always carefully takes heed not to diminish liberty, or to appear to take from it in any degree. “Thou oughtest to bear with the weak conscience of thy brother, that thou mayest not abuse thy right, so as to give occasion of offense to him; but in the meantime thy conscience remains, nevertheless, free, because it is exempted from that subjection. Let not, therefore, the restraint which I impose upon thee as to outward use, become by any means a snare to entangle thy conscience.”

It must be observed here, that the term conscience is taken here in its strict acceptation; for in Rom 13:5, and Tit 1:5, it is taken in a larger sense. “We ought, says Paul, to obey princes, not merely for the sake of wrath, but also for that of conscience ” — that is, not merely from fear of punishment, but because the Lord orders it so, and it is our duty. Is it not reasonable, too, that we should for the same reason accommodate ourselves to weak brethren — that is, because we are to this extent subject to them in the sight of God? Farther, the end of the commandment is love out of a good conscience Is not the affection of love included in a good conscience? Hence its meaning here is, as I have already stated, more restricted, inasmuch as the soul of a pious man looks exclusively to the tribunal of God, has no regard to men, is satisfied with the blessing of liberty procured for it by Christ, and is bound to no individuals, and to no circumstances of time or place.

Some manuscripts repeat the statement — The earth is the Lord’s. But the probability is, that some reader having put it on the margin, it had crept into the text. 603 It is not, however, a matter of great importance.

For why is my liberty It is doubtful, whether Paul speaks in this way of himself, or whether he makes this objection in the name of the Corinthians. If we take it as spoken in his own name, it will be a confirmation of the preceding statement. “In restricting yourself, for the sake of another man’s conscience, your liberty is not thereby made subject to him.” If in the name of the Corinthians, the meaning will be this: “You impose upon us an unjust law, in requiring that our liberty should stand or fall at the caprice of others.” I am of opinion, that Paul says this of himself, but explains it in another way, for hitherto I have been stating the views of others. To be judged, then, I explain here as meaning — to be condemned, agreeably to the common acceptation of the word in Scripture. Paul warns us of the danger that must ensue, if we make use of our liberty unreservedly, so as to give occasion of offense to our neighbors — that they will condemn it. Thus, through our fault, and our unreasonableness, the consequence will be, that this special benefit from God will be condemned If we do not guard against this danger, we corrupt our liberty by our abuse of it. This consideration, then, tends very much to confirm Paul’s exhortation.

Calvin: 1Co 10:30 - If therefore by grace 30.If therefore by grace This argument is similar to the preceding one, or nearly so. “As it is owing to the kindness of God that all things are l...

30.If therefore by grace This argument is similar to the preceding one, or nearly so. “As it is owing to the kindness of God that all things are lawful for me, why should I act in such a manner, that it should be reckoned to my account as a vice?” We cannot, it is true, prevent the wicked from reviling us, nor even the weak from being sometimes displeased with us; but Paul here reproves the forwardness of those, who of their own accord give occasion of offense, and hurt weak consciences, when neither necessity or expediency calls for it. He would have us, then, make a good use of our benefits, 604 that the weak may not have occasion of reviling from our inconsiderate use of liberty.

Calvin: 1Co 10:31 - Whether, therefore, ye eat, or drink 31.Whether, therefore, ye eat, or drink Lest they should think, that in so small a matter they should not be so careful to avoid blame, he teaches th...

31.Whether, therefore, ye eat, or drink Lest they should think, that in so small a matter they should not be so careful to avoid blame, he teaches that there is no part of our life, and no action so minute, 605 that it ought not to be directed to the glory of God, and that we must take care that, even in eating and drinking, we may aim at the advancement of it. This statement is connected with what goes before; for if we are eagerly desirous of the glory of God, as it becomes us to be, we will never allow, so far as we can prevent it, his benefits to lie under reproach. It was well expressed anciently in a common proverb, that we must not live to eat; but eat to live 606 Provided the end of living be at the same time kept in view, the consequence will thus be, that our food will be in a manner sacred to God, inasmuch as it will be set apart for his service.

Calvin: 1Co 10:32 - Be not occasions of stumbling to any 32.Be not occasions of stumbling to any This is the second point, which it becomes us to have an eye to — the rule of love. A desire, then, for t...

32.Be not occasions of stumbling to any This is the second point, which it becomes us to have an eye to — the rule of love. A desire, then, for the glory of God, holds the first place; a regard to our neighbor holds the second He makes mention of Jews and Gentiles, not merely because the Church of God consisted of those two classes, but to teach us that we are debtors to all, even to strangers, that we may, if possible, gain them. (1Co 9:20.)

Calvin: 1Co 10:33 - Even as I please all men in all this 33.Even as I please all men in all this As he speaks in a general way, and without exception, some extend it by mistake to things that are unlawful, ...

33.Even as I please all men in all this As he speaks in a general way, and without exception, some extend it by mistake to things that are unlawful, and at variance with the word of the Lord — as if it were allowable, for the sake of our neighbor, to venture farther than the Lord permits us. It is, however, more than certain, that Paul accommodated himself to men only in things indifferent, and in things lawful in themselves. Farther, the end must be carefully observed — that they may be saved Hence what is opposed to their salvation ought not to be conceded to them, 607 but we must use prudence, and that of a spiritual kind. 608

Defender: 1Co 10:1 - all our fathers Although many of the Corinthian Christians were Gentiles, the Jewish patriarchs were their "fathers" in a spiritual sense, and the Old Testament recor...

Although many of the Corinthian Christians were Gentiles, the Jewish patriarchs were their "fathers" in a spiritual sense, and the Old Testament record is as profitable for Gentiles now as for Jews.

Defender: 1Co 10:1 - under the cloud The "cloud" was the shekinah glory cloud that both guided and protected the Israelites in their exodus from Israel, while the "sea" was the Red Sea wh...

The "cloud" was the shekinah glory cloud that both guided and protected the Israelites in their exodus from Israel, while the "sea" was the Red Sea which God miraculously opened for them (Exo 13:21; Exo 14:29)."

Defender: 1Co 10:2 - baptized "Baptized" is simply a transliteration of the Greek baptizo, which means literally "inundated" or "immersed." Both the cloud and the sea surrounded th...

"Baptized" is simply a transliteration of the Greek baptizo, which means literally "inundated" or "immersed." Both the cloud and the sea surrounded them, just as the baptismal waters surround a new Christian being "baptized.""

Defender: 1Co 10:4 - Rock that followed them On the typological significance of the water-giving Rock, see Exo 17:5, Exo 17:6, note; and Num 20:7-12, note. The water they drank was literal water....

On the typological significance of the water-giving Rock, see Exo 17:5, Exo 17:6, note; and Num 20:7-12, note. The water they drank was literal water. The Rock that "followed" them, however, was not a literal rock, but the Spirit of Christ Himself. "He brought streams also out of the rock, and caused waters to run down like rivers" (Psa 78:16). Evidently, when Moses smote the rock, it opened a great spring which became a continually flowing river, along which the children of Israel marched and camped in the wilderness for forty years. It is also worth noting that the Greek word used here for "Rock" is petra, and this is the same word that Jesus used when he said that "upon this rock I will build my church" (Mat 16:18). Christ (not Peter) is the foundation rock upon which the true church is built (1Co 3:11), and He is also the "living water," the "well of water springing up into everlasting life" (Joh 4:10, Joh 4:14)."

Defender: 1Co 10:6 - examples The word "examples" is the Greek tupos, from which we get "types." Thus the experiences of the Israelites were actually designed by God as "types" of ...

The word "examples" is the Greek tupos, from which we get "types." Thus the experiences of the Israelites were actually designed by God as "types" of Christ and of our relation to Him (1Co 10:11)."

Defender: 1Co 10:7 - written The people worshiped a golden calf which they themselves had made, thinking that it was their "god" (Exo 32:6). Such is the foolishness of anyone who ...

The people worshiped a golden calf which they themselves had made, thinking that it was their "god" (Exo 32:6). Such is the foolishness of anyone who tries to believe a "creature" was the Creator (Rom 1:22, Rom 1:25)."

Defender: 1Co 10:8 - three and twenty thousand This was the number that died "in one day." Num 25:9 indicates that the total number that died "in the plague" was 24,000. Evidently an additional 100...

This was the number that died "in one day." Num 25:9 indicates that the total number that died "in the plague" was 24,000. Evidently an additional 1000 died either before or after that particular day. Both figures are probably round numbers."

Defender: 1Co 10:20 - devils Even though the physical images worshiped by idolaters are nothing but vanity, they do represent a dangerous reality, for demons actually lurk in and ...

Even though the physical images worshiped by idolaters are nothing but vanity, they do represent a dangerous reality, for demons actually lurk in and around such idols. These demonic spirits are able in certain limited ways to cause temporal blessings or troubles to visit their adherents, thereby impressing them with the validity of their false religion, and binding them ever more securely in the spirit's grasp."

Defender: 1Co 10:23 - edify not Here is another principle for testing whether a practice not specifically mentioned in Scripture is right or wrong. Does it "edify" or "build up" anot...

Here is another principle for testing whether a practice not specifically mentioned in Scripture is right or wrong. Does it "edify" or "build up" another person (Rom 14:21, Rom 14:23; 1Co 6:12, 1Co 6:19, 1Co 6:20)?"

Defender: 1Co 10:31 - glory of God See note on 1Co 10:23."

See note on 1Co 10:23."

Defender: 1Co 10:32 - church of God The "church" can be neither Jewish nor Gentile, for in Christ, "there is neither Greek nor Jew, circumcision nor uncircumcision" (Col 3:11; Eph 2:11; ...

The "church" can be neither Jewish nor Gentile, for in Christ, "there is neither Greek nor Jew, circumcision nor uncircumcision" (Col 3:11; Eph 2:11; Gal 6:15)."

TSK: 1Co 10:1 - I would // our // were // and all I would : 1Co 12:1, 1Co 14:38; Rom 11:21 our : Joh 4:20; Rom 4:11; Gal 3:29 were : Exo 13:21, Exo 13:22, Exo 14:19, Exo 14:20, Exo 40:34; Num 9:15-22,...

TSK: 1Co 10:2 - -- 1Co 1:13-16; Exo 14:31; Joh 9:28, Joh 9:29; Heb 3:2, Heb 3:3

TSK: 1Co 10:3 - -- Exo 16:4, Exo 16:15, Exo 16:35; Deu 8:3; Neh 9:15, Neh 9:20; Psa 78:23-25, Psa 105:40; John 6:22-58

TSK: 1Co 10:4 - did // followed them // that Rock did : Exo 17:6; Num 20:11; Psa 78:15, Psa 78:20, Psa 105:41; Isa 43:20, Isa 48:21; Joh 4:10,Joh 4:14, Joh 7:37; Rev 22:17 followed them : or, went wit...

TSK: 1Co 10:5 - -- Num 14:11, Num 14:12, Num 14:28-35, Num 26:64, Num 26:65; Deu 1:34, Deu 1:35, Deu 2:15, Deu 2:16; Psa 78:32-34; Psa 90:1 *title Psa 90:7, Psa 90:8, Ps...

TSK: 1Co 10:6 - these // examples // lust these : 1Co 10:11; Zep 3:6, Zep 3:7; Heb 4:11; 2Pe 2:6; Jud 1:7 examples : Gr. figures, Rom 5:14; Heb 9:24; 1Pe 3:21 lust : Num 11:4, Num 11:31-34; Ps...

TSK: 1Co 10:7 - be // The people be : 1Co 14:20-22, 1Co 5:11, 1Co 6:9, 1Co 8:7; Deu 9:12, Deu 9:16-21; Psa 106:19, Psa 106:20; 1Jo 5:21 The people : Exo 32:6-8, Exo 32:17, Exo 32:19

TSK: 1Co 10:8 - -- 1Co 6:9, 1Co 6:18; Num 25:1-9; Psa 106:29; Rev 2:14

TSK: 1Co 10:9 - tempt // and were tempt : Exo 17:2, Exo 17:7, Exo 23:20,Exo 23:21; Num 21:5; Deu 6:16; Psa 78:18, Psa 78:56, Psa 95:9, Psa 106:14; Heb 3:8-11, Heb 10:28-30 and were : N...

TSK: 1Co 10:10 - murmur // were // destroyer murmur : Exo 15:24, Exo 16:2-9, Exo 17:2, Exo 17:3; Num 14:2, Num 14:27-30, Num 16:41; Psa 106:25; Phi 2:14; Jud 1:16 were : Num 14:37, Num 16:46-49 d...

TSK: 1Co 10:11 - ensamples // they // upon ensamples : or, types they : 1Co 9:10; Rom 15:4 upon : 1Co 7:29; Phi 4:5; Heb 10:25, Heb 10:37; 1Jo 2:18

ensamples : or, types

they : 1Co 9:10; Rom 15:4

upon : 1Co 7:29; Phi 4:5; Heb 10:25, Heb 10:37; 1Jo 2:18

TSK: 1Co 10:12 - -- 1Co 4:6-8, 1Co 8:2; Pro 16:18, Pro 28:14; Mat 26:33, Mat 26:34, Mat 26:40,Mat 26:41; Rom 11:20; Rev 3:17, Rev 3:18

TSK: 1Co 10:13 - hath // common // but // who // make hath : Jer 12:5; Mat 24:21-24; Luk 11:4, Luk 22:31, Luk 22:46; 2Co 11:23-28; Eph 6:12, Eph 6:13; Heb 11:35-38, Heb 12:4; Jam 5:10,Jam 5:11; 1Pe 1:6, 1...

TSK: 1Co 10:14 - my // flee my : Rom 12:19; 2Co 7:1, 2Co 11:11, 2Co 12:15, 2Co 12:19; Phi 4:1; Phm 1:1; 1Pe 2:11 flee : 1Co 10:7, 1Co 10:20,1Co 10:21; 2Co 6:17; 1Jo 5:21; Rev 2:1...

TSK: 1Co 10:15 - -- 1Co 4:10, 1Co 6:5, 1Co 8:1, 1Co 11:13, 1Co 14:20; Job 34:2, Job 34:3; 1Th 5:21

TSK: 1Co 10:16 - cup // the communion of the blood // The bread cup : 1Co 10:21, 1Co 11:23-29; Mat 26:26-28; Mar 14:22-25; Luk 22:19, Luk 22:20 the communion of the blood : 1Co 10:20, 1Co 1:9, 1Co 12:13; Joh 6:53-5...

TSK: 1Co 10:17 - we being // that we being : 1Co 12:12, 1Co 12:27; Rom 12:5; Gal 3:26-28; Eph 1:22, Eph 1:23, Eph 2:15, Eph 2:16, Eph 3:6, Eph 4:12, Eph 4:13; Eph 4:25; Col 2:19, Col 3...

TSK: 1Co 10:18 - Israel // are Israel : Rom 4:1, Rom 4:12, Rom 9:3-8; 2Co 11:18-22; Gal 6:16; Eph 2:11, Eph 2:12; Phi 3:3-5 are : 1Co 9:13; Lev 3:3-5, Lev 3:11, Lev 7:11-17; 1Sa 2:1...

TSK: 1Co 10:19 - that the that the : 1Co 1:28, 1Co 3:7, 1Co 8:4, 1Co 13:2; Deu 32:21; Isa 40:17, Isa 41:29; 2Co 12:11

TSK: 1Co 10:20 - sacrifice sacrifice : Lev 17:7; Deu 32:16, Deu 32:17; 2Ch 11:15; Psa 106:37-39; 2Co 4:4; Rev 9:20

TSK: 1Co 10:21 - cannot drink cannot drink : 1Co 10:16, 1Co 8:10; Deu 32:37, Deu 32:38; 1Ki 18:21; Mat 6:24; 2Co 6:15-17

TSK: 1Co 10:22 - we provoke // are we provoke : Exo 20:5, Exo 34:14; Deu 4:24, Deu 6:15, Deu 32:16, Deu 32:21; Jos 24:19; Psa 78:58; Zep 1:18 are : Job 9:4, Job 40:9-14; Eze 22:14; Heb ...

TSK: 1Co 10:23 - things are lawful // edify things are lawful : 1Co 6:12, 1Co 8:9; Rom 14:15, Rom 14:20 edify : 1Co 8:1, 1Co 14:3-5, 1Co 14:12, 1Co 14:17, 1Co 14:26; Rom 14:19, Rom 15:1, Rom 15:...

TSK: 1Co 10:24 - seek seek : 1Co 10:33, 1Co 9:19-23, 1Co 13:5; Phi 2:4, Phi 2:5, Phi 2:21

TSK: 1Co 10:25 - sold // for sold : Rom 14:14; 1Ti 4:4; Tit 1:15 for : 1Co 10:27-29, 1Co 8:7; Rom 13:5

TSK: 1Co 10:26 - -- 1Co 10:28; Exo 19:5; Deu 10:14; Job 41:11; Psa 24:1, Psa 50:12; 1Ti 6:17

TSK: 1Co 10:27 - bid // whatsoever // for bid : 1Co 5:9-11; Luk 5:29, Luk 5:30, Luk 15:23, Luk 19:7 whatsoever : Luk 10:7 for : 1Co 10:25; 2Co 1:13, 2Co 4:2, 2Co 5:11

TSK: 1Co 10:28 - eat // for eat : 1Co 8:10-13; Rom 14:15 for : 1Co 10:26; Exo 9:29; Deu 10:14; Psa 24:1, Psa 115:16; Jer 27:5, Jer 27:6; Mat 6:31, Mat 6:32

TSK: 1Co 10:29 - not // why not : 1Co 10:32, 1Co 8:9-13; Rom 14:15-21 why : Rom 14:16; 2Co 8:21; 1Th 5:22

TSK: 1Co 10:30 - grace // for which grace : or, thanksgiving for which : Rom 14:6; 1Ti 4:3, 1Ti 4:4

grace : or, thanksgiving

for which : Rom 14:6; 1Ti 4:3, 1Ti 4:4

TSK: 1Co 10:31 - Whether // ye eat Whether : The apostle concludes the subject by giving them a general rule, sufficient to regulate every man’ s conscience and practice - that w...

Whether : The apostle concludes the subject by giving them a general rule, sufficient to regulate every man’ s conscience and practice - that whether they eat, or drink, or whatsoever they do, to do it all with an habitual aim to the glory of God; by considering his precepts, and the propriety, expediency, appearance, and tendency of their actions.

ye eat : 1Co 7:34; Deu 12:7, Deu 12:12, Deu 12:18; Neh 8:16-18; Zec 7:5, Zec 7:6; Luk 11:41; Col 3:17, Col 3:23; 1Pe 4:11

TSK: 1Co 10:32 - none // Gentiles // the church none : 1Co 10:33, 1Co 8:13; Rom 14:13; 2Co 6:3; Phi 1:10 Gentiles : or, Greeks the church : 1Co 11:22; Act 20:28; 1Ti 3:5, 1Ti 3:15

none : 1Co 10:33, 1Co 8:13; Rom 14:13; 2Co 6:3; Phi 1:10

Gentiles : or, Greeks

the church : 1Co 11:22; Act 20:28; 1Ti 3:5, 1Ti 3:15

TSK: 1Co 10:33 - -- 1Co 10:24, 1Co 9:19-23; Rom 15:2, Rom 15:3; 2Co 11:28, 2Co 11:29, 2Co 12:19

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Poole: 1Co 10:1 - -- 1Co 10:1-5 The Jews who came out of Egypt had all sacraments typical of ours, yet many of them perished through sin. 1Co 10:6-12 Their examples s...

1Co 10:1-5 The Jews who came out of Egypt had all sacraments

typical of ours, yet many of them perished through sin.

1Co 10:6-12 Their examples should serve, as they were intended,

for our admonition.

1Co 10:13 God will not suffer his servants to be tempted

beyond their strength.

1Co 10:14-22 Christians must flee idolatry, and not by partaking

of idol sacrifices own fellowship with devils.

1Co 10:23-30 Even in the use of things lawful we should consult

the good of others,

1Co 10:31 and refer all we do to God’ s glory,

1Co 10:32,33 careful to give none offence, after the apostle’ s

own example.

The apostle saw that many in this church of Corinth were puffed up with their knowledge, and other gifts and great privileges with which God had blessed them; as also with the opinion of their being a gospel church, and some of the first-fruits of the Gentiles unto Christ, and might therefore think, that they needed not to be pressed to such degrees of strictness and watchfulness; therefore, to beat them off from this confidence and vain presumption, the apostle here sets before them the example of the church of the Jews: when he tells them, he would not have them ignorant, his meaning is, he would have them know and remember, he would have them well acquainted with and to reflect upon this, that all the Jews in Moses’ s time, whom he calls their fathers, not according to the flesh, for the Corinthians were not descended from Jews, but with respect to the covenant, and their relation they stood unto God, as they were the only people God had on earth; these, he saith, were all of them (the whole camp of Israel) under very great privileges, of which he reckoneth divers: they were under the conduct of the cloud, Exo 13:21 ; and they all obtained the favour of God so far for them, as to divide the Red Sea, so as they passed through it upon dry ground.

Poole: 1Co 10:2 - Moses // baptized unto Moses // Answer There are two great difficulties in this verse: 1. What is meant by Moses 2. How and why the Israelites are said to be baptized unto Moses So...

There are two great difficulties in this verse:

1. What is meant by

Moses

2. How and why the Israelites are said to be

baptized unto Moses

Some understand by Moses the person of Moses; others, the law or doctrine of Moses. Those who by Moses understand the person of Moses, are divided in their opinions, whether the preposition eiv , which signifieth divers things: Were better translated by, or into, or unto, or together with. Some think it were better translated by, and thus all the Jews were baptized by Moses in the cloud and in the sea, that is, by his ministry; and thus this very particle is translated, Act 7:53 19:3 . Some think it were better translated in Moses; that is, Moses going before them, when they were under the conduct of the cloud, and when they passed through the Red Sea. Others judge it better translated into Moses; that is, either Moses going before them; or, as Moses was a type of Christ, Gal 3:19 . Some would have the particle here to signify together with. Others, even unto Moses, Moses himself not being excepted from that baptism in the cloud and in the sea. Others by Moses here understand the doctrine and law of Moses: thus the term Moses is used, Luk 16:29 Act 15:21 . So they say, that to be baptized unto Moses, is to believe Moses so far, as to follow his conduct through the sea, and under the cloud.

The second difficulty is, to resolve what is meant by being baptized. The word signifieth, in the common acceptation of it, a being washed: in the ecclesiastical acceptation, it signifies a holy institution of the New Testament, according to which Christians are initiated into the church of God, by washing them in the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. Now how could the Jews be said either to be washed (that is, baptized) either in Moses, or by Moses, or with Moses, or into Moses; whenas the history of the Old Testament tells us, that both Moses and all the Israelites went through the sea on dry ground, and we do not read that the cloud, under the conduct of which the Israelites journeyed, ever poured down any water with which the Jews, or Moses their leader, could be washed.

Answer. Some think, that the cloud which, passing over the Israelites, was all darkness to their enemies, yet poured down water for the refreshing of the Israelites, as it passed over their heads, and that this is hinted to us by the psalmist, Psa 68:7-9 . Others think, that the apostle applieth the term of baptism to a privilege of which the old Israelites had as much reason to glory, as the Corinthians had of their baptism, properly so called. Others say, that the Israelites’ walking under the cloud and through the sea, which was darkness and destruction to their adversaries, was a figure of baptism, the seal of the New Testament, by which Christ’ s victory over our spiritual enemies is confirmed to us, and in that respect the apostle maketh use of this term baptized. Others, most probably, think, that the apostle useth this term, in regard of the great analogy between baptism, as it was then used, the persons going down into the waters, and being dipped in them; and the Israelites going down into the sea, the great receptacle of water; though the waters at that time were gathered on heaps on either side of them, yet they seemed buried in the waters, as persons in that age were when they were baptized; and for being baptized in the cloud, there is a great probability that the cloud did shower down rain, according to what is quoted out of the psalmist.

Poole: 1Co 10:3 - -- Those of the Jews that perished in the wilderness, did all eat the same manna which Caleb and Joshua ate of, who went into Canaan; or, those Jews th...

Those of the Jews that perished in the wilderness, did all eat the same manna which Caleb and Joshua ate of, who went into Canaan; or, those Jews that so perished in the wilderness did eat the same spiritual meat that we do, they in the type, we in the antitype. Manna is called

spiritual meat:

1. Because it was bread which came down from heaven, the habitation of spiritual beings, Joh 6:31 .

2. It was miraculously produced.

3. Because it was angels’ food, given out by their ministry.

4. But principally, because it signified Christ, who was the true bread from heaven, Joh 6:32 .

Poole: 1Co 10:4 - -- And all the Jews, as well those that perished in the wilderness, as those that were preserved to go into Canaan, they drank of the water which came ...

And all the Jews, as well those that perished in the wilderness, as those that were preserved to go into Canaan, they drank of the water which came out of the rock, of which we read, Exo 17:6 Num 20:11 ; which water was

spiritual drink in the same respects that the manna was spiritual meat, being miraculously produced, and being a figure of Christ. For, saith the apostle, that rock was Christ; that is, that rock did signify or prefigure Christ; the rock was Christ in the same sense that the bread in the Lord’ s supper is the body of Christ, that is, a sign which by Divine institution did signify Christ. Here ariseth a question in what sense it is said, that the

rock followed them? That by the rock is to be understood the water that God made to flow out of the rock, is evident; but though we read of water twice fetched out of the rock upon Moses smiting of it; once at Rephidim, before they came so far as Mount Sinai, Exo 17:6 ; another time at Kadesh, Num 20:7,8 ; yet we no where read in the history of the Jewish journeyings to Canaan, that the rock followed them. But this is not the only thing that we read in the New Testament relating to the history of the Old Testament, with some circumstances which we do not find recorded there; it is enough that it is plainly asserted here, and it must be presumed, or how can we imagine that the Israelites were supplied with water for forty years together? Whereas some object, that if the water, which came out of the rock at Rephidim, had followed them, there would have been no need of Moses striking the rock at Kadesh; it is answered, that God, to try them, probably caused the water to stop. For the analogy between the rock and Christ, divines make it to lie in these particulars:

1. That Christ is the firm and unmovable foundation of his church, called therefore a stone, a tried stone, Isa 28:16 Rom 9:33 1Pe 2:6 .

2. As this rock sent out no water for the refreshment of the Israelites, till Moses had struck it; so all the benefit we have from Christ as Mediator, floweth from him as smitten of God, and afflicted.

3. As the water of the rock served both for cleansing, and upholding life in satisfying thirst; so the blood of Christ is useful to the soul, both for washing from the guilt of sin, and the upholding spiritual life in a soul.

4. As the rock that followed the Israelites afforded water not only to that generation that were alive and present when the rock was smitten, but to all the succeeding generations, until the Israelites came into Canaan; so the blood of Christ is useful not only to his people in this or that place or age, but to all that shall believe in him, and that till they shall come into the heavenly Canaan.

Poole: 1Co 10:5 - But with many of them God was not well pleased // For they were over thrown in the wilderness But with many of them God was not well pleased these many were no less than that whole generation, which were at that time twenty years old and upw...

But with many of them God was not well pleased these many were no less than that whole generation, which were at that time twenty years old and upward, according to the threatening, Num 14:28,29 ; of the acccomplishment of which we read, Num 26:64,65 .

For they were over thrown in the wilderness as an instance of God’ s being displeased with them, he giveth their falling in the wilderness. It is very possible, that many of these were the objects of God’ s eternal and special love, and eternally saved, notwithstanding their joining with worse men in their rebellion and murmuring; but that signal judgment of God upon them was enough to prove, that their being baptized unto Moses in the cloud and in the sea, and being made partakers of those great privileges of eating spiritual meat, and drinking spiritual drink, typifying Christ, did not set them out of the danger of God’ s judgments, which is the use the apostle maketh of it.

Poole: 1Co 10:6 - Our examples Our examples our types or patterns (as the Greek word signifies): we may, by God’ s dispensations to them, learn what God will be to us: as they...

Our examples our types or patterns (as the Greek word signifies): we may, by God’ s dispensations to them, learn what God will be to us: as they were patterns to us, of persons enjoying great spiritual privileges; so they are also examples or patterns to show us what we may expect from God, and to deter us from such practices, as brought the vengeance of God upon them; which were their sinful lustings or desirings of things which God had forbidden, as they did the flesh-pots, and onions, and garlic of Egypt, and to return thither again, Num 11:4,5,33 14:2-4 .

Poole: 1Co 10:7 - Neither be ye idolaters, as were some of them // As it is written: The people sat down to eat and drink, and rose up to play Neither be ye idolaters, as were some of them the people of Israel, being first enticed to whoredom with the daughters of Moab, were after that invit...

Neither be ye idolaters, as were some of them the people of Israel, being first enticed to whoredom with the daughters of Moab, were after that invited to the sacrifices of their gods, and did eat, and bowed down to their gods. Num 25:2 ; so, either worshipped the creature instead of the Creator, or worshipped the Creator in and by the creature.

As it is written: The people sat down to eat and drink, and rose up to play thus it is written in Exo 32:6 ; which history mentioneth another idolatry they were guilty of, in worshipping the golden calf. They were wont to have feasts after their sacrifices, and pastimes and diversions after such feasts; and particularly we are told in the history concerning the golden calf, that they danced before it. Stephen saith, Act 7:41 , they rejoiced in the works of their own hands.

Poole: 1Co 10:8 - in one day three and twenty thousand The story to which this verse relates is that, Num 25:1-9 . When Balaam could not curse the Israelites, he advised the debauching of them by the Moa...

The story to which this verse relates is that, Num 25:1-9 . When Balaam could not curse the Israelites, he advised the debauching of them by the Moabitish women, first enticing them to fornication and adultery, then to idolatry: and they were enticed, which caused a plague amongst them, which destroyed amongst them

in one day three and twenty thousand saith our apostle: Moses saith, that there died twenty and four thousand. There are many guesses for the clearing of that seeming contradiction. Some say, that Moses mentioneth not one day, there might in all die twenty-four thousand, but not all the same day, nor possibly by the same death. But nothing is in Scripture more ordinary, than to speak of things or persons in round numbers, though something over or under; and also to speak according to the common reckoning of people, who also may talk variously. Some might report twenty-three, some twenty-four thousand: or possibly Paul chose to mention the lesser rather than the greater round number. The sense of Moses might be, about twenty-four thousand, or near up to that number, all of which probably had not been guilty of adultery or fornication. Paul saith, there died twenty-three thousand. If there did die twenty-four thousand, there must needs die twenty-three thousand.

Poole: 1Co 10:9 - Christ // Were destroyed of serpents To tempt in the general notion of the term, signifies to make a trial; applied unto God, it signifieth to make a trial of God, either with referenc...

To tempt in the general notion of the term, signifies to make a trial; applied unto God, it signifieth to make a trial of God, either with reference to his power, Psa 78:18-20 , or to his truth and goodness: not to be satisfied with God’ s word, but to challenge him to a sensible demonstration, is to tempt God. Or else to tempt may signify more generally, to provoke God; for indeed all notorious sinning against God is a tempting of God, not believing the wrath of God, which he hath revealed in his word against sin, till men feel it. The term

Christ here is very remarkable to prove Christ’ s Divine nature and existence before he was incarnate; for the same person who is here called Christ, is called God, Psa 106:14 , and Jehovah also in the same Psalm; neither could they have tempted Christ at that time, if at that time he had not been existent.

Were destroyed of serpents by serpents he meaneth the fiery serpents; we have the history, Num 21:6-9 .

Poole: 1Co 10:10 - were Murmuring signifies the speaking against a person or thing, out of dislike, impatience, or discontent. It was a sin the Jews were very much guilty o...

Murmuring signifies the speaking against a person or thing, out of dislike, impatience, or discontent. It was a sin the Jews were very much guilty of, as may be read, Exo 15:24 16:7,8 17:3 Num 14:27 16:11,41 . The apostle may either refer to all their murmurings, when he saith they

were (as the punishment of their sin) destroyed of the destroyer or to that more universal murmuring upon the ill report the spies brought up of the land of Canaan, of which we read, Num 14:1-45 .

Poole: 1Co 10:11 - Now all these things happened to them for ensamples // And they are written for our admonition // Upon whom the ends of the world are come Now all these things happened to them for ensamples all these dispensations of Divine providence in the revelations of Divine wrath against several s...

Now all these things happened to them for ensamples all these dispensations of Divine providence in the revelations of Divine wrath against several sorts of sinners, happened to the Jews, who were God’ s first and ancient people, and enjoyed those great privileges which were before mentioned, not only as just punishments upon them for their sins, but as examples or types, to let the succeeding world know what they should find God towards such kind of sinners.

And they are written for our admonition and God in his wise providence hath ordered the record of them in holy writ, that others who should live afterward might read, and hear, and fear, and take warning, and beware of such wicked actions, as pulled down such vengeance upon a people, than which none can plead a nearer relation to God, or the receiving of greater favours and privileges from him.

Upon whom the ends of the world are come: the apostles ordinarily in their epistles speak of the world as nigh to an end in their age, though it hath since continued more than sixteen hundred years; which would incline one to think, that they thought it would have been at an end before this time, but had no such revelation from God. So true is that of our Saviour, that of that day and hour knoweth no man; and it should teach us to beware of too particular determinations in the case, which the apostles did not make, though they spake of theirs as the last times, and themselves as such upon whom the ends of the world were come.

Poole: 1Co 10:12 - Let him that thinketh he standeth // take heed lest he fall Let him that thinketh he standeth either in a right and sound judgment and opinion of things, or in a state of favour with God, or confirmed in a hol...

Let him that thinketh he standeth either in a right and sound judgment and opinion of things, or in a state of favour with God, or confirmed in a holy course of life and conversation; standeth in grace, Rom 5:2 . A man may stand in these things, and he may but think that he standeth: be it as it will, he is concerned to

take heed lest he fall He may but think he standeth, and if so, he will fall: he may really stand in a right judgment and opinion of things, and be a member of the church of Christ, and yet may fall into errors and some loose practices, so as to bring down Divine vengeance upon himself; he may have God’ s favour so far as concerns external privileges, and yet perish, as many of the Jews did in the instances before mentioned: nay, he may really stand in a state of justification and regeneration, and yet may fall, though not totally and finally, yet foully, so as to lose his peace, and bring God’ s severe judgments upon him. Therefore he that thinketh that he standeth, whether his apprehensions be false or true, had need use all means and caution that he may not fall, and that because, if he keepeth his standing, it must be by the use of due means, which God hath appointed in order to that end, though he be also kept by the power of God unto salvation, 1Pe 1:5 .

Poole: 1Co 10:13 - There hath no temptation taken you // make a way to escape There hath no temptation taken you: temptation (as hath been said before) signifieth in the general notion of it no more than trials, and is often ...

There hath no temptation taken you: temptation (as hath been said before) signifieth in the general notion of it no more than trials, and is often so used in holy writ. Now, in regard we are tried either by afflictive providences, or by motions made to us, either from God, or our own lusts, or the devil, or men of the world; temptations, in Scripture, sometimes signify afflictions, as Jam 1:2 1Pe 1:6 ; sometimes, motions made to us by God, Gen 22:1,2 ; both which sorts of temptations are good in themselves. Sometimes the term signifies motions made by the lusts and unrenewed part of our own souls, or by the devil, or by sinful men in the world; these are sinful temptations, and what we most ordinarily call by that name. Whether the apostle here means all or some of these, cannot certainly be determined; what he saith is true of all, and therefore that is the safest interpretation of the term in this place. Though he had not been before speaking indeed of afflictive temptations, he had before affrighted them with minding them of the possibility of their falling, though they did stand, or thought they stood, and cautioned them to take heed: here he comforteth them, by minding them, that no temptation had befallen them, but what was incident and common to man, anthrwpinov , and they could not expect to be freed from the common fate of mankind: then he minds them, that that God who had promised strength and assistance to his people, Mat 7:11 Luk 11:13 2Co 1:18 1Th 5:4 2Th 3:3 , was one that would be as good as his word, being

faithful and would not suffer them to be tempted above their strength, and ability to oppose and resist; yea, and would

make a way to escape both the evil of the temptation, that it should not overbear them to a total ruin of their souls, and likewise the burdensome and afflictive evil, that it should not continually lie upon them, provided they used their just endeavours, and (as he had said before) took heed lest they fell.

Poole: 1Co 10:14 - -- The apostle would have them avoid all sin, but idolatry more especially, keeping at the utmost distance imaginable from that, being of all sins in ...

The apostle would have them avoid all sin, but idolatry more especially, keeping at the utmost distance imaginable from that, being of all sins in its kind the greatest transgression; upon which account it is often in Scripture compared to whoredom. Though we ought to be afraid of and to decline all sin; yet as God hath revealed his wrath against any particular sin more than other, so every good Christian is obliged more to detest and abhor that sin. How the Corinthians were concerned in this caution, we shall read afterwards, 1Co 10:20 . For though idolatry be properly where the failure is in the ultimate or mediate object of our worship, and the creature is made either the ultimate term of our worship, or the medium in and by which we worship the Creator; yet there are many other ways by which we may be partakers of the sins of others, and this sin of idolatry in particular: and idolatry being a sin of the greatest magnitude, from which they were bound to keep the furthest distance, they were bound to take heed of being partakers of other men’ s sins of this kind.

Poole: 1Co 10:15 - -- As to the present case, you are persons that understand the principles of Christian religion, I will make you judges in this case.

As to the present case, you are persons that understand the principles of Christian religion, I will make you judges in this case.

Poole: 1Co 10:16 - the cup of blessing // The cup // The bread It is on all hands agreed, that the apostle is here speaking of believers communicating in the sacrament of the Lord’ s supper. By the cup of ...

It is on all hands agreed, that the apostle is here speaking of believers communicating in the sacrament of the Lord’ s supper. By

the cup of blessing he meaneth the cup there, which he so calleth, because we in the taking of it bless the Lord, who gave his Son to die for us, and Christ, for that great love which he showed in dying for us: we are said to bless it, because we, by solemn prayer in the consecration of it, set it apart for that sacred use, and beg of God to bless it to us. This cup (saith the apostle) is the communion of the blood of Christ

The cup is put for the wine in the cup (which is very ordinary). The cup or wine, of blessing signifieth that cup of wine to which the blessing is added, or with which in that holy institution we thankfully remember the death of Christ, and bless his name for that great mercy; and the wine or cup of blessing also, here signifieth our religions action in drinking of that cup of wine so blessed. This, saith he, is the communion of the blood of Christ that is, it is an action whereby and wherein Christ communicates himself and his grace to us, and we communicate our souls to him; so that Christ and believers in that action have a mutual communion one with another. And as it is with the one element in that holy sacrament, so it is also with the other.

The bread which the minister breaketh (according to the institution and example of Christ) for the church to make use of in the celebration of the Lord’ s supper, that is, their action in eating of that bread so broken and divided amongst them, is the communion of the body of Christ an action wherein Christians have a fellowship and communion with Christ.

Poole: 1Co 10:17 - -- Believers, though many yet are one body and declare themselves to be one body mystical, by their fellowship together in the ordinance of the Lord&...

Believers, though many yet are one body and declare themselves to be one body mystical, by their fellowship together in the ordinance of the Lord’ s supper; as the bread they there eat is one bread though it be made up of many grains of corn, which come into the composition of that loaf or piece of bread which is so broken, distributed, and eaten; and the wine they drink is one cup, one body of wine, though it be made up of many particular grapes. And they declare themselves to be one body, by their joint partaking of that one bread. Some have from hence fetched an argument to prove the unlawfulness of communicating with scandalous sinners at the Lord’ s table, because we declare ourselves one body with those that communicate: but whether it will (if examined) be cogent enough, I doubt; for one body signifieth no more than one church, and that not invisible, but visible. So as we only declare ourselves to be fellow members of the visible church with those with whom we partake in that ordinance, and the visible church may consist of persons that are bad mixed with the good. So as though, undoubtedly, scandalously wicked persons ought to be excluded from the holy table, yea, and no unbeliever hath a right to it; yet it may reasonably be doubted, whether those that partake with unbelievers, do by it own themselves to be unbelievers; they only own themselves members of that church wherein there are some unbelievers. But the scope of the apostle is from hence to argue, that by a parity of reason, those that communicated with an idolatrous assembly in their sacrifices, declared themselves by that action to be one body with those idolaters.

Poole: 1Co 10:18 - Israel after the flesh // Are not they which eat of the sacrifices partakers of the altar? Israel after the flesh was the whole seed of Jacob, the whole body of the Jewish church; for believers only were Israelites after the Spirit, Rom 11:...

Israel after the flesh was the whole seed of Jacob, the whole body of the Jewish church; for believers only were Israelites after the Spirit, Rom 11:6 , called the Israel of God, Gal 6:16 .

Are not they which eat of the sacrifices partakers of the altar? If in the Jewish church any persons ate of the flesh of sacrifices offered upon God’ s altar, did they not by that act manifest that they were members of the Jewish church, and owned that God to whom those sacrifices were offered, and that way of worship by which God was so worshipped? By the same reason these Corinthians eating of the flesh of those beasts in the idol’ s temple, which had been offered unto idols, did by that act declare their owning of the idol, and that idolatrous worship which had been there performed, and were really partakers of the idolatrous altar.

Poole: 1Co 10:19 - -- I do not by this contradict what I before said, nor now affirm that an idol is any thing, or the sacrifices offered to it any thing. An idol hath no...

I do not by this contradict what I before said, nor now affirm that an idol is any thing, or the sacrifices offered to it any thing. An idol hath nothing in it of a Deity, nor can it either sanctify or pollute any thing that is set before it; the error is in your action, as you communicate with such as are idolaters; it is your own action that polluteth you, not the idol, nor yet the meat set before it.

Poole: 1Co 10:20 - -- The heathens might not intentionally offer sacrifices to devils, (such a thing can hardly be supposed of men), but actually they offered sacrifices ...

The heathens might not intentionally offer sacrifices to devils, (such a thing can hardly be supposed of men), but actually they offered sacrifices to devils; for they were devils, that is, evil angels, which deluded the poor heathen, and gave answers from the images and statues which they worshipped, believing the true God to be in them: which answers they accounted for oracles. Besides, the apostle saith, they sacrificed to devils, because in God’ s esteem it was so, though not in their intention; God judgeth of men’ s acts of worship and homage pretendedly done unto him, not according to their intention, but according to the truth and reality of the thing: now, really the heathen in their sacrifices paid a homage to devils, though such a thing was far from their intention; and this deserves the consideration, both of the papists, who worship images, and also of those protestants (if any such be) who would excuse the papists in their idolatries from their intentions. The nature of idolatry doth not lie in men’ s intending to worship the creature instead of the Creator, (there were hardly every any such idolaters in the world), but in their actual doing of the thing; and except they can find a direct rule in holy writ ordering the adoration of the Creator in the creature, or before the creature, it is much to be feared, that in the last day God will judge their homage performed to the creature, not to him. Now, saith the apostle, you had need take heed that, by this action, you prove not yourselves to have fellowship with devils instead of Christ and the true and living God.

Poole: 1Co 10:21 - The cup of the Lord // the cup of the Lord // the Lord’ s table, and the table of devils The cup of the Lord: we may either take the phrase as signifying all religious communion under one great act of religion, or as particularly signifyi...

The cup of the Lord: we may either take the phrase as signifying all religious communion under one great act of religion, or as particularly signifying having a communion with Christ in the ordinance of the Lord’ s supper, which is called

the cup of the Lord either because God hath instituted and appointed the drinking of it, or because it is done for the honour, glory, and remembrance of our Lord Christ, to remember his death until he come, as the apostle speaketh, 1Co 11:26 . This the apostle tells them they could not drink of, that is, not rightly, and with a good conscience; or not really; no man that is an idolater, or hath communion with idolaters in their idolatrous acts, can have communion with Christ. The same is meant by

the Lord’ s table, and the table of devils So as I cannot see how either an idolatrous church can be a true church, or an idolater a true Christian, unless we will assert, that a body of people may be a true church, that can have no communion with Christ; or a man may be a true Christian, and yet have no communion with Christ. Idolatry, doubtless, both divides the soul from Christ, as he is the Head of a believer, and as he is the Head of the church. To call any body of idolaters a true church, either morally, or metaphysically, is to say to those: Ammi, You are the Lord’ s people, to whom God hath said, Lo-ammi. Let them be what they will, the name of a church belongeth not to them, if (as the apostle affirmeth) they can have no communion with Christ.

Poole: 1Co 10:22 - Jealousy Jealousy is a violent passion in a man, not bearing a companion or a rival as to a thing or person which he loveth. It is in holy writ applied unto G...

Jealousy is a violent passion in a man, not bearing a companion or a rival as to a thing or person which he loveth. It is in holy writ applied unto God, not to signify any such extravagancy, excess, or vehemence, as attendeth that passion in men, but only his just displeasure at the giving that homage to any creature which is due to him alone. It is most applied to God to express his anger against those who give Divine homage to idols; the worship of God being a great piece of his glory which he hath said he will not give to another, nor his praise to graven images, Isa 42:8 . Hence divines observe, that jealousy is attributed to God in the second commandment, which concerns the more external worship of God, to deter men from the violation of it, Exo 20:5 . So Exo 34:14 Deu 4:24 5:9 6:16 , and in many other texts, it signifieth, that the worship of God is a thing that he is very tender of, and that his will is to endure no creature to share with him in it; and that his wrath shall flame against that man that offers to make any creature such a sharer. So that it is not safe for any to do any thing of that nature, unless he could fancy himself to be stronger than God; for he that doth it, must expect the power and strength of God to be engaged against him. Thus the apostle had dissuaded them from eating meat sacrificed to idols in the idol’ s temple, from the impiety of it, it being a species of idolatry, against which God hath signally revealed his wrath. He returns in the following verses to an argument, by which he had before dissuaded it, 1Co 8:1-13 , as it was against charity, and the duty of love, in which they were indebted to their brethren.

Poole: 1Co 10:23 - All things All things here must necessarily signify many things, or, at least, (as some think), all those things I have spoken of, to eat meat offered to idols,...

All things here must necessarily signify many things, or, at least, (as some think), all those things I have spoken of, to eat meat offered to idols, &c. But if we interpret it in the latter sense, it is not true without limitations; for the apostle had but now determined, that to eat meat offered to idols in the idol’ s temple, was to have communion with devils. I had rather therefore interpret all by many, as that universal particle must be interpreted in a great multitude of scriptures. So as the sense is: There are many things that are lawful which are not expedient; that is, considered in themselves, under due circumstances, they are lawful, but considered in such and such circumstances, are not so, because they are not for the profit or good, but the hurt and disadvantage, of others. Thus the apostle himself expounds it in the latter clause of the verse, where he saith, they

edify not that is, they tend not to promote the gospel, or the faith and holiness of particular Christians.

Poole: 1Co 10:24 - Charity seeketh not her own It is the duty of every one who is a disciple of Christ, not merely to look at his own pleasure or profit, but the profit and advantage of others. ...

It is the duty of every one who is a disciple of Christ, not merely to look at his own pleasure or profit, but the profit and advantage of others.

Charity seeketh not her own ( saith the apostle, 1Co 13:5 ), that is, it seeketh not its own with the prejudice of another. So as admit that in this practice there were nothing looked like idolatry and impiety towards God, yet charity or love to your brethren ought to deter you.

Poole: 1Co 10:25 - -- It is possible that butchers, before they brought their meat into the market, might offer some part of it to the idol; or it is possible that the pr...

It is possible that butchers, before they brought their meat into the market, might offer some part of it to the idol; or it is possible that the priests, who had a share in the beasts offered to idols, or the people that had offered such beasts, who, also had a share returned them, might out of covetousness come and bring’ it to be sold in the market. The apostle directeth the Corinthians in such cases to make no scruple, but eat of it, if it were commonly sold in the shambles; which argued, that the thing in itself, considered nakedly, was not sinful. But yet he would have them in that case ask no questions, whence it came? Or whether it had not been offered to an idol? For the sake of other men’ s consciences, lest some others standing by should take notice that they bought and ate such meat. Or their own consciences, lest, though the thing in itself, so separated from a sacred use, and returned to its common use, might be lawfully eaten, yet their consciences should afterwards reflect upon them for the doing of it.

Poole: 1Co 10:26 - -- This sentence is taken out of Psa 24:1 . The earth is God’ s, or the Lord Christ’ s, who hath sanctified all things for the use of man, an...

This sentence is taken out of Psa 24:1 . The earth is God’ s, or the Lord Christ’ s, who hath sanctified all things for the use of man, and all the variety of creatures that are in it are sanctified by him. An idol cannot pollute any kind of meat, it hath no such malign influence upon any thing; you may pollute yourselves by your action, eating it in the idol’ s temple, at an idolater’ s feast immediately upon his sacrifice, but the idol itself is no operative thing, nor can cause an ill quality in the meat; let the meat be once returned to its common use, (the idolater’ s sacred mysteries being over), it is the Lord’ s, what he hath appointed for the use of man. In the idol’ s temple they took the meat out of the devil’ s hand, that was indeed unlawful; but if it were once returned to its common use, and sold in the market, they took it out of the hand of God’ s common providence, and every creature of God is good, and nothing to be refused, if it be received with thanksgiving, 1Ti 4:4 .

Poole: 1Co 10:27 - ask no questions for conscience sake The apostle puts another case, in which they might lawfully enough eat of meat offered to an idol; that was in case any of their neighbours, that we...

The apostle puts another case, in which they might lawfully enough eat of meat offered to an idol; that was in case any of their neighbours, that were heathens, invited them to dinner or supper in a private house (some add, or in the idol’ s temple, if it were a feast of friendship, not a feast upon a sacrifice; but I doubt that, and also whether in the idol-temples there were any feasts but upon sacrifices): he determineth it lawful for them to go and eat whatsoever was set before them; but in this case he would also have them

ask no questions for conscience sake

Poole: 1Co 10:28 - the earth is the Lord’ s, and the fulness thereof The meat being out of the idol’ s temple, and returned to a common use, there could be no impiety in eating it, no communion with devils, and p...

The meat being out of the idol’ s temple, and returned to a common use, there could be no impiety in eating it, no communion with devils, and partaking of the table of devils, in and by such an action; but yet there might be a breach of charity in the action, that is, in case one were there present, who knew that it had been so offered to the idol, and declared his offence, by telling the Christian that was about to eat, that that meat had been so offered: in that case the apostle commandeth Christians not to eat, and that partly

for his sake that showed it lest they should lay a stumbling block before him, and by their example imbolden him that showed it to do the like, though he doubted the lawfulness of it; and likewise

for conscience sake that is, for their own conscience sake, which through weakness might afterward trouble them for it, though without just cause. He gives them as a reason for it, because

the earth is the Lord’ s, and the fulness thereof that is, because there was other meat enough to eat. This passage, taken out of the psalmist, had a something different application, 1Co 10:26 ; there the apostle used it to justify the lawfulness of their eating such meat, returned again to a common use, and exposed to sale in the shambles; here he useth it to dissuade them from eating, if any let them know it had been offered to the idol.

Poole: 1Co 10:29 - For why is my liberty judged of another man’ s conscience? By reason of what we had, 1Co 10:28 , (where the apostle forbade eating these meats, in case any at the feast told them they had been offered to ido...

By reason of what we had, 1Co 10:28 , (where the apostle forbade eating these meats, in case any at the feast told them they had been offered to idols, both for his sake that told him so, and also for conscience sake), it is most reasonable to interpret those words not thine own in this verse, not thine own only, there being frequent instances in Scripture where the negative particle must be so restrained, as Joh 4:42 6:27,38 .

For why is my liberty judged of another man’ s conscience? For why should my practice in a thing wherein I have a liberty, be censured or condemned by the conscience of another, he being persuaded that what I do, and judge that I have a liberty to do, and may do lawfully, is done by me sinfully, and I by him accounted a transgressor for it; so as though I do a thing that is honest, yet it is not honest in the sight of all men, or of good report; whereas Christians are obliged, Rom 12:17 , to provide things honest in the sight of all men, not in their own sight merely, end to do those things that are lovely and of good report, Phi 3:8 .

Poole: 1Co 10:30 - If I by grace be a partaker If I by grace be a partaker if I by the goodness of God, whose the earth is, and the fulness thereof; or by the grace of knowledge, by which God hath...

If I by grace be a partaker if I by the goodness of God, whose the earth is, and the fulness thereof; or by the grace of knowledge, by which God hath given me to understand that I may do that, as to which others less knowing stumble; can eat such meat (out of the idol’ s temple) as part of it hath been offered to the idol, or with thanksgiving partake of such meat, (for so cariv signifies, Luk 6:32 17:9 ), why am I blasphemed, or evil spoken of, for that for which I can give God thanks? That is, I ought not to cause another to speak evil of me for using of meat, but rather than run that danger, to abstain from such meat which I could otherwise eat of, and give God thanks: for in so doing I should but abuse my liberty, and instead of giving God thanks, I should grievously offend God, not at all consulting his glory.

Poole: 1Co 10:31 - -- The apostle, in these three last verses, layeth down three rules, to direct Christians how to use their liberty as to things that are of an indiffer...

The apostle, in these three last verses, layeth down three rules, to direct Christians how to use their liberty as to things that are of an indifferent nature, neither in themselves commanded nor forbidden in the word of God. His first rule is in this verse, to do whatsoever we do to the glory of God. This is a general rule, not to be restrained to the eating of meat offered to idols, of which the former discourse had been. It is a general rule, not applicable alone to eating and drinking, but to all other human actions. The reasonableness of this rule appeareth from our consideration, that the glory of God was the end of our creation; The Lord hath made all things for himself, Pro 16:4 : and indeed it is impossible it should be otherwise; for whereas every reasonable agent both propounds to himself some end of his actions, and the best end he can imagine, it is impossible but that God also, in creating man, should propound to himself some end, and there being no better end than his own glory, he could propound no other unto himself. The glory of God being the end which he propounded to himself in creating man, it must needs follow, that that must be the chief and greatest end which any man can propound to himself in his actions. God is then glorified by us, when by our means, or by occasion of us, he is well spoken of in the world, or by our obedience to his will: this our Saviour hath taught us, Joh 17:4,6 . No man in any of his actions hath a liberty from this rule; so as though a man, as to many things, hath a liberty to marry or not to marry, to eat meats or not to eat them, to wear this apparel or not to wear it; yet he is not even in such things as these so at liberty, but he ought to look about, and to consider circumstances, which will be most for the honour of God, the credit of the gospel, and reputation of religion. And the judgment of this is to be made from circumstances, the difference of which may make that unlawful which otherwise would be lawful, and that lawful which under other circumstances would be unlawful.

Poole: 1Co 10:32 - -- We use to say, that men are offended when they are grieved or angered; but these offences are not here meant, (as appears by the Greek phrase, ̵...

We use to say, that men are offended when they are grieved or angered; but these offences are not here meant, (as appears by the Greek phrase, ’ Aproskopoi ginesye ) but give no occasion of sin or stumbling. This care he commands us, with reference to all men; for at that time all the world fell under one of these denominations, they were either Jews or Gentiles ( that is, heathens), or the church of God (that is, Christians). It was always a hard matter, if not a thing impossible, for Christians to carry themselves so as not to anger those that were no Christians; but it was not impossible for them so to behave themselves, as not to be to them any just occasion of sin. Much less ought conscientious Christians to give offence to Christians, that made up the church of God, and were with them members of the same mystical body, of which Christ is the Head.

Poole: 1Co 10:33 - Even as I please all men in all things // Not seeking mine own profit, but the profit of many, that they may be saved Even as I please all men in all things that is, in all things wherein the law of God hath left me a liberty; for Paul pleased no man, either in the o...

Even as I please all men in all things that is, in all things wherein the law of God hath left me a liberty; for Paul pleased no man, either in the omission of any thing which God had commanded him to do, or in the doing of any thing which God had forbidden him to do.

Not seeking mine own profit, but the profit of many, that they may be saved not seeking my own advantage, either the satisfaction of my own mind or humour, or my own gain, but the advantage of others, especially in matters that may any way affect them as to their eternal salvation. Thus Paul, like a good shepherd, goeth out before the sheep, and leadeth them, and, as every true minister should be, is himself an example to the flock of Christ. And this is a third rule to be observed by Christians, as to the use of the liberty which God’ s law hath left them as to any particular actions; notwithstanding that liberty, yet they ought to have respect to the spiritual good and salvation of others, and to do that part which their judgments inform them will be, as least to the spiritual damage and detriment, so most to the spiritual good and profit, of the souls of others with whom they converse.

PBC: 1Co 10:5 - -- I believe the word " pleased" like the words " world," " all," etc. must be considered in context. The blood of bulls, goats and lambs were not suf...

I believe the word " pleased" like the words " world," " all," etc. must be considered in context. The blood of bulls, goats and lambs were not sufficient to move sin or put away sin. {Heb 10:4} Therefore, in this respect, God was not well pleased.

However, the Old Testament tells us that God was pleased to the extent He bestowed special blessing upon His people when they obeyed the Lord’s commandment to offer the sacrifices for sins. The people were blessed, to know that God accepted the offerings. Some probably did not know that there would ultimately be a one-time sacrifice that would take away their sins, but still received a blessing in the performance of the acts that were but types and shaddows of better things to come.

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PBC: 1Co 10:13 - to be tempted above that ye are able " to be tempted above that ye are able" Job knew that Satan had assaulted his life, but he did not know that God had surrounded him with a protective...

" to be tempted above that ye are able"

Job knew that Satan had assaulted his life, but he did not know that God had surrounded him with a protective hedge. Satan could cause him great misery, but he could not touch his life. Had Job known this comforting truth, would he have felt more secure, more comforted in his ordeal? Had he known about the New Testament commentary on his life, would he have endured more patiently? Remember the words from Jas 5:11, " Behold, we count them happy which endure. Ye have heard of the patience of Job, and have seen the end of the Lord; that the Lord is very pitiful, and of tender mercy."

What a comfort this knowledge would have been to Job! When we face our moment of trial, do we remember the life of Job, the end of the Lord? Do we consider that, despite the ordeal of the moment, God stands closely and graciously by our side? Do we contemplate that his presence and intervention prevent the trial from escalating far beyond what we actually must endure?

Haydock: 1Co 10:1-2 - Our Fathers // In Moses // Were baptized in the cloud, and in the sea Our Fathers, the Jews, were all under the cloud. He means, when God conducted the camp of the Israelites, in the day-time by a cloud, and in the n...

Our Fathers, the Jews, were all under the cloud. He means, when God conducted the camp of the Israelites, in the day-time by a cloud, and in the night by a pillar of fire. (Exodus xiii. 21.) (Witham) ---

In Moses. Under the conduct of Moses they received baptism in figure, by passing under the cloud and through the sea: and they partook of the body and blood of Christ in figure, by eating of the manna, (called here a spiritual food, because it was a figure of the true bread which comes down from heaven) and drinking the water miraculously brought out of the rock, called here a spiritual rock; because it was also a figure of Christ. (Challoner) ---

Were baptized in the cloud, and in the sea, figuratively, these being figures of baptism in the new law. As Moses, who delivered them from the slavery of Egypt, was figure of Christ, who came to deliver mankind from the slavery of sin. (Witham)

Haydock: 1Co 10:3-4 - All eat the same spiritual food // All drank the same spiritual drink // And the rock was Christ All eat the same spiritual food, to wit, the manna, which seemed to come from heaven, and was a figure of the eucharist, the spiritual food of our ...

All eat the same spiritual food, to wit, the manna, which seemed to come from heaven, and was a figure of the eucharist, the spiritual food of our souls. ---

All drank the same spiritual drink, and.... rock that followed them, by which is understood the stream of water, that came miraculously out of the rock struck by Moses, and which is said to have followed them, because it ran plentifully through their camp. ---

And the rock was Christ, a figure of Christ; for all these things (ver. 11.) happened to them in figure. (Witham)

Haydock: 1Co 10:5 - God was not well pleased God was not well pleased, &c. Of 600,000, only Josue and Caleb entered the land of promise; the rest were destroyed, and perished in the wilderne...

God was not well pleased, &c. Of 600,000, only Josue and Caleb entered the land of promise; the rest were destroyed, and perished in the wilderness. Their punishment ought to be an admonition to all to avoid such sins of idolatry, fornication, murmuring, &c.

Haydock: 1Co 10:6 - In a figure of us In a figure of us. That is, this was done and written to teach us, what we may expect, if we imitate the murmurs, infidelities, ingratitude, and dis...

In a figure of us. That is, this was done and written to teach us, what we may expect, if we imitate the murmurs, infidelities, ingratitude, and disobedience of the Hebrew people. Unless we renounce our irregular desires, unless we mortify our passions, baptism and communion will prove our greater condemnation. The greatest graces are but subjects of alarm, unless our life correspond with them.

Haydock: 1Co 10:9 - As some of them tempted As some of them tempted Christ. This cannot but be understood of Christ, as God. (Witham)

As some of them tempted Christ. This cannot but be understood of Christ, as God. (Witham)

Haydock: 1Co 10:11 - Upon whom the ends of the world are come Upon whom the ends of the world are come. The last age of the world, which St. John calls the last hour. (Witham)

Upon whom the ends of the world are come. The last age of the world, which St. John calls the last hour. (Witham)

Haydock: 1Co 10:12 - Take heed lest he fall Take heed lest he fall. This regards the doctors and teachers in the new Church of Corinth; who, relying upon their own learning, did not think them...

Take heed lest he fall. This regards the doctors and teachers in the new Church of Corinth; who, relying upon their own learning, did not think themselves weak, and presuming too much upon their own strength, exposed themselves to the danger of falling. See St. John Chrysostom and St. Augustine, de dono. Persev. ---

Self-diffidence is the foundation of our strength. We prevent many dangerous falls when we keep close to the earth by humility.

Haydock: 1Co 10:13 - Let no temptation // Will make also with temptation issue, that you may be able to bear it // Tenatio vos non apprehendat Let no temptation [1] take hold on you. Or, no temptation hath taken hold of you, or come upon you as yet, but what is human, or incident to man...

Let no temptation [1] take hold on you. Or, no temptation hath taken hold of you, or come upon you as yet, but what is human, or incident to man. (Challoner) ---

The sense of these words is obscure: we may expound them by way of prayer, let no temptation, but such as are of human frailty, and not hard to be overcome, happen to you. See the Greek text. ---

Will make also with temptation issue, that you may be able to bear it. The literal signification of the Latin, compared with the Greek is, that God will bring you off, and make you escape out of those dangers, when you are tempted. (Witham) ---

The most violent temptations are occasions of merit and triumph to such as are in the hands of God; whilst the lightest are snares and a deep abyss to such as are in their own hands.

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[BIBLIOGRAPHY]

Tenatio vos non apprehendat. In almost all Greek copies, non apprehendit in præterito, Greek: ouk eilephen. Which reading is also in divers ancient Latin interpreters, as if he puts them in mind that hitherto they had not suffered any great temptations or persecutions. Faciet cum tenatione proventum, is not the saem as progressum, or utilitatem, by the Greek, but that they should escape out of it. Greek: sun to peirasme kai ten ekbasin.

Haydock: 1Co 10:14 - -- There are various kinds of idolatry. It is the perfection of Angels never to err: it is a human imperfection to fall into error, but a diabolical cri...

There are various kinds of idolatry. It is the perfection of Angels never to err: it is a human imperfection to fall into error, but a diabolical crime, so to love our error, as to divide the Church by schism, or leave it by heresy: this love of self is the most dangerous idolatry.

Haydock: 1Co 10:16 - The chalice of benediction The chalice of benediction, [2] &c. Which the priests bless or consecrate, is it not the communion of the blood of Christ? And the bread which we b...

The chalice of benediction, [2] &c. Which the priests bless or consecrate, is it not the communion of the blood of Christ? And the bread which we break, (so called because of the outward appearance of bread) is it not the partaking or communion of the body of the Lord? See St. John Chrysostom here, hom. xxiv. p. 396. and p. 400. See also the Annotations, Matthew xxvi. 26. (Witham) ---

Here the apostle puts them in mind of the partaking of the body and blood of Christ in the sacred mysteries, and becoming thereby one mystical body with Christ. From whence he infers, (ver. 21.) that they who are made partakers with Christ, by the eucharistic sacrifice, and sacrament, must not be made partakers with devils, by eating of the meats sacrificed to them. (Challoner)

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[BIBLIOGRAPHY]

Calix benedictionis cui, (or as it is in the Greek) quem benedicimus. See St. John Chrysostom, hom. xxiv. No Catholic now-a-days can declare his faith of the real presence in clearer terms than St. John Chrysostom hath in this, and other places: Greek: oti touto en to poterio on, ekeino esti, to apo tes pleuras reusan, &c. He calls the eucharist, Greek: thusian, a sacrifice.

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Haydock: 1Co 10:17 - We being many, are one bread We being many, are one bread. Or, as it may be rendered, agreeably both to the Latin and Greek, because the bread is one, all we, being many, are ...

We being many, are one bread. Or, as it may be rendered, agreeably both to the Latin and Greek, because the bread is one, all we, being many, are one body, who partake of that one bread. For it is by our communicating with Christ and with one another, in this blessed Sacrament, that we are formed into one mystical body; and made, as it were, one bread, compounded of many grains of corn, closely united together. (Challoner) ---

From the sacrament of the real body of Christ in the eucharist, he passeth to the effect of this sacrament, which is to unite all those who partake of it, as members of the same mystical body of Christ, which is his Church: and from hence he presently draws this consequence, that such as are members of that body, of which Christ is the head, cannot have any communication with idolaters, or with those that offer sacrifices to idols and devils. (Witham)

Haydock: 1Co 10:18 - Behold Israel, according to the flesh // Co we provoke the Lord to jealousy? Behold Israel, according to the flesh. That is, the people that were the offspring of Israel or Jacob. Are not these they who offered sacrifices ...

Behold Israel, according to the flesh. That is, the people that were the offspring of Israel or Jacob. Are not these they who offered sacrifices to the true God, and eat or the sacrifices, which were offered on his altars, and by offering to him such sacrifices, acknowledged him to be their God, and the only true God: and so you, if you partake, and eat of the sacrifices of idolaters, and of what they tell you was offered to their idols, you seem at least, to join with them in acknowledging, and paying reverence to their idols, which are devils: and you cannot be partakers of the table of the Lord, and of the table of devils. ---

Co we provoke the Lord to jealousy? that is, how dare we provoke our Lord, who is a jealous God, and will admit of no rival, by partaking of sacrifices offered to false gods? how dare we thus contemn his power, as if we were stronger than he, or that he could not punish us? (Witham)

Haydock: 1Co 10:19 - What then? do I say What then? do I say, &c. He puts this objection, as if it were contradictory to what he had taught before, (chap. viii. ver. 4.) that an idol is no...

What then? do I say, &c. He puts this objection, as if it were contradictory to what he had taught before, (chap. viii. ver. 4.) that an idol is nothing, &c. but he answers this objection by saying that all things, that is, all meats are lawful in themselves, but not always expedient, nor edifying, when they give scandal to weak brethren, or when the infidels themselves think that such as eat things offered to idols, join with them in honouring their idols. (Witham) ---

The meaning of this passage is: whilst I advise you to abstain from eating of any thing consecrated to idols, I do not advise you as supposing that these offerings have any power in themselves to defile your souls, in the same manner as by eating of the body and blood of Christ we receive strength to overcome our spiritual enemies. St. Paul here anticipates an objection that might be made by some to whom he was writing. (Estius)

Haydock: 1Co 10:21 - -- In all this discourse, a comparison is instituted between the Christian host and oblation, its effects, conditions and properties, with the altars, ho...

In all this discourse, a comparison is instituted between the Christian host and oblation, its effects, conditions and properties, with the altars, hosts, sacrifices and immolations of the Jews and Gentiles; which the apostle could not have done, had there not been a proper sacrifice in the Christian worship. The holy Fathers teach the same with the ancient Councils. This in the council of Nice: The lamb of God laid upon the altar. Conc. Ephes., The unbloody service of the sacrifice. In St. Cyril of Alexandria, in Conc. Ephes., Anath. 11, The quickening holy sacrifice; the unbloody host and victim. Tertullian, de coron. milit., The propitiatory sacrifice both for the living and the dead. This Melchisedech did most singularly prefigure in his mystical oblation of bread and wine; this also according to the prophecy of Malachias, shall continue from the rising to the setting sun, a perpetual substitute for all the Jewish sacrifices; and this, in plain terms, is called the Mass, by St. Augustine, Serm. ccli. 91.; Conc. Cartha. ii. chap. 3. 4. chap. 84. Milevit. 12.; St. Leo, ep. 81. 88. chap. 2.; St. Gregory, lib. ii. ep. 9. 92. &c. &c. See next chapter ver. 24.

Haydock: 1Co 10:23 - All things are lawful All things are lawful. This is the same sentiment he has expressed in chap. vi. ver. 12. and in chap. viii. ver. 8. 9. wherein he teaches us, that o...

All things are lawful. This is the same sentiment he has expressed in chap. vi. ver. 12. and in chap. viii. ver. 8. 9. wherein he teaches us, that on some occasions it is necessary to abstain even from things in themselves lawful, as in the case of meats consecrated to idols. (Calmet) ---

Two excellent rules that can serve as guides on these occasions, are the edification of the Church, and the spiritual good of our neighbour. Without the aid of these guides, we go astray ourselves and decoy others, in doing what the letter of the law permits, but what the spirit of the law, charity, forbids.

Haydock: 1Co 10:27 - Eat of any thing Eat of any thing, &c. Here at length St. Paul prescribes them a rule by which they were to govern themselves, as to meats that they met with. Buy a...

Eat of any thing, &c. Here at length St. Paul prescribes them a rule by which they were to govern themselves, as to meats that they met with. Buy and eat any thing sold in the market, or of any thing that you meet with at the table of infidels, when they invite you, for all are the Lord's creatures, and may be taken with thanksgiving, as we ought to take whatsoever we eat. ---

But if any man say, this hath been sacrificed to idols, do not eat of it for his sake, &c. And why must they not then eat of it? because either he is an infidel that says it: and then by saying so, he may mean that they who eat it, ought to eat it in honour of their gods. Or if a weak brother says so, he thereby signifies, that his conscience judges it not lawful to be eaten; so that in one case, you seem to consent that things are to be taken in honour of idols: in the other, you give offence to your weak brother: and I would have you to be without offence, both to Jews and Gentiles; and not to think it enough that you can eat such things with thanksgiving. It may be asked here why the apostle should not absolutely for bid them ever any thing offered to idols, as this seems a thing absolutely forbidden in the council of Jerusalem? (Acts xv. 23.) To this some answer, that the apostle here expounds the true sense of that decree, which was only to be understood, when eating such meats gave scandal. Others say, the prohibition was only for a short time, and now was out of date. Others take notice, that the prohibition was not general, nor for all places, but only for the new converted Gentiles that were at Antioch, or in Syria and Cilicia, as specified in the decree. (Witham)

Haydock: 1Co 10:29 - For why is my liberty? For why is my liberty? The meaning of this passage is, that though we ought, on some occasions, to abstain from things in themselves lawful, yet, th...

For why is my liberty? The meaning of this passage is, that though we ought, on some occasions, to abstain from things in themselves lawful, yet, that on other occasions we are by no means obliged to it, particularly when our brother is not thoroughly instructed on that head. (Theophylactus)

Gill: 1Co 10:1 - Moreover, brethren, I would not that ye should be ignorant // how that all our fathers were under the cloud // and all passed through the sea Moreover, brethren, I would not that ye should be ignorant,.... The apostle having suggested his own fears and jealousies, lest, notwithstanding all h...

Moreover, brethren, I would not that ye should be ignorant,.... The apostle having suggested his own fears and jealousies, lest, notwithstanding all his gifts and grace, he should be left to do anything that might be a means of laying him aside, and rendering him useless in his ministerial work; and which he hints for the use of these Corinthians, who boasted of their knowledge, and made an imprudent use of their Christian liberty, to the hurt of weak minds; he proceeds to lay before them the case of the Jewish fathers, who, notwithstanding the many favours and privileges they were blessed with, yet falling into lust, fornication, intemperance, and idolatry, their carcasses fell in the wilderness, and entered not into the land of rest; wherefore the apostle would not have them be ignorant, or unmindful, or take no notice of these things, since they were for ensamples to them, and written for their admonition, and were warnings to them to take care lest they should also fall: particularly the apostle's view is to dissuade from the eating of things offered to idols, though a thing indifferent, and from their imprudent use of their Christian liberty with respect unto it; since it was not only doing an injury to weak believers, but it likewise exposed themselves to danger, who, by using such freedom as to sit in an idol's temple, and there publicly eat, might be drawn into idolatry itself; nor should they depend upon their knowledge, and gifts, and attainments, since it is clear, from these instances, that the highest external privileges, favours, and enjoyments, cannot secure men from falling: for which purpose it was proper to call to mind,

how that all our fathers were under the cloud; which was a symbol of the divine presence with the Israelites, as it was on Mount Sinai, and in the tabernacle and temple; was a protection of them, being in the daytime as a pillar of cloud to screen them from the scorching heat of the sun, and in the night time as a pillar of fire to preserve them from beasts of prey, as well as in both to guide and direct them in the way; and was a type of Christ, who is a covert from the heat, as well as the wind and storm; a protection of his people from the vindictive justice and wrath of God, and from the rage and fury of men and devils. This also might express the state and condition of the former dispensation, which was dark and obscure in comparison of the present one, in which saints, with open face, behold the glory of the Lord; and likewise the state of the people of God in this world, even under the present dispensation, who, in comparison of the heavenly glory, and the beatific vision the saints enjoy there see but through a glass darkly. This cloud, which is sometimes represented as a pillar, was not an erect solid body, which was at some distance before the Israelites, and merely as a guide, but was all around them; it was before them, and behind them, and on each side, and was over them; see Num 14:14 so that the apostle rightly says they were under it. And to distant beholders in the daytime it looked like a pillar of cloud; and in the nighttime, the sun being down, it looked like a pillar of fire; for one and the same thing is meant by both and so the Jews say z, that

"the pillar of cloud, סובבו encompassed the camp of Israel, as a wall encompasses a city, nor could the enemy come at them.''

Hence those allusions to it in Isa 4:5. The Jews indeed speak of several clouds of glory; nor are they agreed about the number of them:

"when the people of Israel were travelling in the wilderness, they say a, they had clouds of glory, מסחרן, "that surrounded them", four at the four winds of the world, that the evil eye might not rule over them, וחד מן עלויהון "and one above them", that the heat and sun, as also the hail and rain, might not have power over them; and one below them, which carried them as a nurse carrieth her sucking child in her bosom; and another ran before them at the distance of three days' journey, to level the mountains, and elevate the plains, and it slew all the fiery serpents and scorpions in the wilderness.''

And elsewhere b it is said,

"how many were the clouds of glory, מקיפין, "that encompassed Israel" in the wilderness? R. Hoshea and R. Josiah are divided. R. Josiah says five, four at the four winds, and one went before them. R. Hoshea says seven, four at the four winds of the heavens, and one מלמעלן, "above them", and one below them, and one ran before them;''

to which he ascribes the above effects: but the Scripture speaks but of one cloud, which departed at the death of Moses:

and all passed through the sea; the Red sea, in a very miraculous manner; Moses by a divine order lift up his rod, and stretched out his hand over it, and the Lord by a strong east wind caused it to go back, and made it dry land; the waters were divided, and rose up as a wall, on the right hand, and on the left, so that the children of Israel passed through it on dry ground, and all came safe to shore, and not one perished; and yet but two of these entered into the land of Canaan. Origen c says,

"he had heard it as a tradition from the ancients, that in the passage through the sea, to every tribe of Israel were made separate divisions of water, and that every tribe had its own way open in the sea.''

And indeed this is a tradition of the Jews, whom he means by the ancients, or at least such who had received it from them; by which it appears to be a very ancient one.

"R. Eliezer says d, that in the day in which the waters flowed, and were congealed together, there were twelve paths made, according to the twelve tribes, and the waters became a wall.''

The same is related, by others e: Mahomet has it in his Alcoran f, in which he was assisted by a Jew, and from whom he doubtless had it. He observes, it was said to Moses,

"smite the sea with thy rod, and when he had smitten it, it became divided into twelve parts, between which were as many paths, and every part was like a vast mountain.''

But be this as it will, it is certain that they all passed through it, and came safe to shore.

Gill: 1Co 10:2 - And were all baptized unto Moses // in the cloud, and in the sea And were all baptized unto Moses,.... "In or by Moses"; and so the Syriac version renders it, ביד מושא, "by the hand of Moses"; by his means an...

And were all baptized unto Moses,.... "In or by Moses"; and so the Syriac version renders it, ביד מושא, "by the hand of Moses"; by his means and direction, he going before, they followed after him into the sea, and passed through on dry land, and came out on the shore, which carried in it a resemblance of baptism; when they believed the Lord, and his servant Moses, Exo 14:31 and gave up themselves to him as their leader and commander through the wilderness: and this their baptism was

in the cloud, and in the sea; which may be considered either as together or separately; if together, the agreement between them and baptism lay in this; the Israelites, when they passed through the Red sea, hid the waters on each side of them, which stood up as a wall higher than they, and the cloud over them, so that they were as persons immersed in and covered with water; and very fitly represented the ordinance of baptism as performed by immersion; and which is the way it was administered in the apostles' time, to which he refers; and is the only way it ought to be administered in; and in which only the Israelites' passage through the sea, and under the cloud, could be a figure of it: or this may be considered separately, they were baptized in the cloud; which was either, as Gataker g thinks, when the cloud went from before the face of the Israelites, and stood behind them, and was between the two camps, to keep off the Egyptians from them, which as it passed over them let down a plentiful rain upon them, whereby they were in such a condition as if they had been all over dipped in water; or their being all under the cloud, and all over covered with it, was a representation of the ordinance of baptism, in which a person is all over covered with water; and then they were baptized in the sea, as they passed through it, the waters standing up above their heads, they seemed as if they were immersed in it. Very great is the resemblance between that passage of theirs, and baptism. For instance, their following Moses into the sea, which is meant by their being "baptized into him", was an acknowledgment of their regard unto him, as their guide and governor, as baptism is a following of Christ, who has left us an example that we should tread in his steps; and is an owning him to be our prophet to teach us, and lead us the way; and it is a profession of our faith in him, as our surety and Saviour, and a subjection to him as our King and Governor. This their baptism in the sea was after their coming out of Egypt, and at their first entrance on their journey to Canaan's land, as our baptism is, or should be, after a person is brought out of worse than Egyptian bondage and darkness, and has believed on the Lord Jesus Christ, and at the beginning of his profession of him, and entrance on his Christian race. The descent of the Israelites into the sea, when they seemed as buried in the waters, and their ascent out of it again on the shore, has a very great agreement with baptism, as administered by immersion, in which the person baptized goes down into the water, is buried with Christ therein, and comes up out of it as out of a grave, or as the children of Israel out of the Red sea; and as they, when they came out of it, could rejoice and sing in the view of their salvation and safety, and of the destruction of all their enemies, so the believer can, and does rejoice in this ordinance, in the view of his salvation by Christ, and safety in him, and of all his sins being buried and drowned in the sea of his blood; witness the instances of the eunuch and jailer. But though the Israelites were all in this sense baptized, yet they did not all inherit the land of Canaan.

Gill: 1Co 10:3 - And did all eat the same spiritual meat. And did all eat the same spiritual meat. Meaning the manna; and which the Jews also call h מאכל רוחני, "spiritual food", as also their sacrif...

And did all eat the same spiritual meat. Meaning the manna; and which the Jews also call h מאכל רוחני, "spiritual food", as also their sacrifices, i לחם רוחני, "spiritual bread": not that the manna was so in own nature; it was corporeal food, and served for the nourishment of the body; but either because it was prepared by angels, who are ministering spirits, at the command of God, and hence called angels' food, Psa 78:25 or rather because it had a mystical and spiritual meaning in it; it was not the true bread, but was typical of Christ, who is so: it resembled Christ in its original; it was prepared of God, as Christ is, as his salvation prepared before the face of all his people; it was the free gift of God, as Christ is to the mystical Israel; it came down from heaven, as Christ, the true bread of life did: it answered to him in its nature; it was in form round, expressive of his being from everlasting to everlasting, and of the perfection both of his divine and human natures; it was in colour white, signifying his purity of nature, and holiness of life and conversation; it was in quantity small, setting forth his outward meanness and despicableness in the eyes of men; and in quality it was sweet in taste, as Christ, and all the blessings and fruits of his grace are to believers. The usefulness of the manna was very great, a vast number, even all the Israelites, were supplied with it, and supported by it for forty years together, as all the elect of God, and the whole family of Christ are by the fulness of grace which is in him; and as in order that it might be proper and suitable food, it was ground in mills, or beaten in a mortar, and baked in pans; so Christ was bruised, and wounded, and endured great sufferings, and death itself, that he might be agreeable food for our faith: and as the Israelites had all an equal quantity of this food, none had more or less than others, so all the saints have an equal share and interest in Christ, in his blood, righteousness, and sacrifice; as they have the same like precious faith, they have the same object of it. To say no more, as the manna was the food of the wilderness, or of the people of Israel, whilst travelling in it, so Christ, and the fulness of grace that is in him, are the food and supply of the spiritual Israel, and church of God, whilst they are passing through this world to the heavenly glory. Now, though all the Israelites did not eat of Christ, the true bread, which was typified by the manna; yet they all ate the same food, which had a spiritual meaning in it, and a respect to Christ, but did not all enter into the land flowing with milk and honey.

Gill: 1Co 10:4 - And did all drink the same spiritual drink // for they drank, of that spiritual rock that followed them // And the rock was Christ And did all drink the same spiritual drink,.... By which is meant the water out of the rock, which was typical of the blood of Christ, which is drink ...

And did all drink the same spiritual drink,.... By which is meant the water out of the rock, which was typical of the blood of Christ, which is drink indeed, and not figurative, as this was, for which reason it is called spiritual; or of the grace of Christ, often signified by water, both in the Old and New Testament; and is what Moses and the law could not give; for righteousness and life, grace and salvation, could never be had by the works of the law: and very unpromising it was, and is to carnal men, that these should come by a crucified Christ, as it was to the Israelites, that water, in such plenty, should gush out of the rock in Horeb; but as those waters did not flow from thence without the rock being stricken by the rod of Moses, so the communication of the blessings of grace from Christ is through his being smitten by divine justice with the rod of the law; through his being, stricken for the transgressions of his people, and and being made sin, and a curse of the law in their room and stead. And as those waters continued through the wilderness as a constant supply for them, so the grace of Christ is always sufficient for his people; a continual supply is afforded them; goodness and mercy follow them all the days of their lives:

for they drank, of that spiritual rock that followed them; by which the apostle means not Christ himself, for he went before them as the angel of God's presence, but the rock that typified him; not that the rock itself removed out of its place, and went after them, but the waters out of the rock ran like rivers, and followed them in the wilderness wherever they went, for the space of eight and thirty years, or thereabout, and then were stopped, to make trial of their faith once more; this was at Kadesh when the rock was struck again, and gave forth its waters, which, as the continual raining of the manna, was a constant miracle wrought for them. And this sense of the apostle is entirely agreeable to the sentiments of the Jews, who say, that the Israelites had the well of water all the forty years k. The Jerusalem Targum l says of the

"well given at Mattanah, that it again became unto them violent overflowing brooks, and again ascended to the tops of the mountains, and descended with them into the ancient valleys.''

And to the same purpose the Targum of Jonathan ben Uzziel m,

"that it again ascended with them to the highest mountains, and from the highest mountains it descended with them to the hills, and encompassed the whole camp of Israel, and gave drink to everyone at the gate of his own dwelling place; and from the high mountains it descended with them into the deep valleys.''

Yea, they speak of the rock in much the same language the apostle does, and seem to understand it of the rock itself, as if that really went along with the Israelites in the wilderness. Thus one of their writers n on those words, "must we fetch you water out of this rock?" makes this remark:

"for they knew it not, לפי שהלך הסלע, "for that rock went", and remained among the rocks.''

And in another place it is said o,

"that the rock became in the form of a beehive; (elsewhere p it is said to be round as a sieve;) and rolled along, ובאת עמהם, "and came with them", in their journeys; and when the standard bearers encamped, and the tabernacle stood still, the rock came, and remained in the court of the tent of the congregation; and the princes came and stood upon the top of it, and said, ascend, O well, and it ascended.''

Now, though in this account there is a mixture of fable, yet there appears something of the old true tradition received in the Jewish church, which the apostle has here respect to.

And the rock was Christ: that is, it signified Christ, it was a type of him. So the Jews q say, that the Shekinah is called סלע קדוש, "the holy rock"; and Philo the Jew says r of this rock, that the broken rock is η σοφια του θεου, "the wisdom of God". Christ may be compared to the rock for his outward meanness in his parentage and education, in his ministry and audience, in his life and death; and for his height also, being made higher than the kings of the earth, than the angels in heaven, and than the heavens themselves; and for shelter and safety from the wrath of God, and from the rage of men; and for firmness, solidity, and strength, which are seen in his upholding all things by his power, in bearing the sins of his people, and the punishment due unto them, in the support of his church, and bearing up his people under all afflictions and temptations, and in preserving them from a total and final falling away: and a rock he appears to be, as he is the foundation of his church and every believer, against which hell and earth can never prevail; and to it he may be likened for duration, his love being immovable, his righteousness everlasting, his salvation eternal, and he, as the foundation of his church, abiding for ever.

Gill: 1Co 10:5 - But with many of them God was not well pleased // for they were overthrown in the wilderness But with many of them God was not well pleased,.... As he is with none but those that are in Christ; and with none of the services of men, but what ar...

But with many of them God was not well pleased,.... As he is with none but those that are in Christ; and with none of the services of men, but what are done in faith, which become acceptable to him through Jesus Christ; for in him only persons and services are accepted with God; and this was the way of acceptance in the Old, as in the New Testament dispensation: how many of the Jewish fathers God was not well pleased with, or took no delight in, but hated and abhorred, which is the sense of the phrase here, whether they were the greatest part or not, is not certain; however, they were not all, excepting Joshua and Caleb, as some interpreters understand it; for not all that died in the wilderness were out of the special grace and favour of God, witness Moses, Aaron, Miriam, and, it is to be supposed and hoped, hundreds and thousands more; but the apostle has respect to such who were the instances of God's direful vengeance and displeasure, as appears from the reason given;

for they were overthrown in the wilderness: he does not say merely that they died there, for many with whom God was well pleased died there; but these, their carcasses fell in the wilderness, being stricken, thrown down, and overthrown by the immediate hand of God; they did not die a common death, according to the ordinary course of nature; but by the plague, or by the sword, or by fire from heaven, or by fiery serpents, or by a destroying angel, or by one judgment or another, as hereafter mentioned.

Gill: 1Co 10:6 - Now these things were our examples // to the intent that we should not lust after evil things // as they also lusted Now these things were our examples,.... Or "types"; that is, these punishments which were inflicted on these persons for their sins, were designed as ...

Now these things were our examples,.... Or "types"; that is, these punishments which were inflicted on these persons for their sins, were designed as instructions for others to avoid the like sins, that they may escape the same punishment; just as the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah, being condemned with an overthrow, as these men were, were made ensamples to all that should hereafter live such vicious lives and conversations; and in a very lively manner, as in a type or print, these exhibited the displeasure of God against sin, what such must expect who commit it; so men are called out of Babylon, lest, partaking of her sins, they also receive of her plagues. The Jews have a common saying s שאירע לאבות סימן לבנים "that what happened to the fathers is a sign unto the children"; to which the apostle may have respect:

to the intent that we should not lust after evil things. The apostle proceeds to enter into particular instances, in which these things were examples, teaching us to avoid sin, and so punishment; and begins with lust, which is the root and foundation of all sin; all the evil in the world arises from it, and the world itself is full of it, and is in God's account the same as action: and here he particularly strikes at those Corinthians, that lusted after the feasts in the idols' temples; and hints that that arose rather from a carnal sensual appetite, which ought not to be indulged, than from any other principle:

as they also lusted; that is, after evil things, the fish, the cucumbers, the melons, the leeks, onions, and garlic of Egypt, Num 11:4 which though they were not evil in themselves, yet the Israelites sinned in lusting after them, in not being content with the manna, the food which God had prepared for them; and besides, their desire after these things did not arise from want, but from a sensual appetite, and was attended with murmuring against the Lord and his servants, and was highly resented; for though the Lord gave them flesh according to their desire, yet while it was between their teeth, he sent a plague among them, by which multitudes were taken off, and the name of the place was called קברות התאוה, "Kibroth Hataavah, the graves of lusts"; the people that lusted being buried there, Num 11:34.

Gill: 1Co 10:7 - Neither be ye idolaters // as were some of them, as it is written, the people sat down to eat and drink, and rose up to play Neither be ye idolaters,.... To which they seemed inclined to be, at least there was great danger that such they would be, by carrying their liberty t...

Neither be ye idolaters,.... To which they seemed inclined to be, at least there was great danger that such they would be, by carrying their liberty to such a pitch, as to sit in an idol's temple, and there eat things sacrificed unto them; and which the apostle cautions against, and uses arguments to dissuade them from in the following part of this chapter:

as were some of them, as it is written, the people sat down to eat and drink, and rose up to play: referring to Exo 32:6 when the Israelites, whilst Moses was in the mount, made a molten calf, and worshipped it, built an altar before it, and instituted a feast and a play; and which was performed by dancing about the calf, and singing to the honour of it, Exo 32:18 for their sitting down to eat and drink is not to be understood of an ordinary meal, but of a feast kept in honour of the golden calf, and which they covered by calling it a feast to the Lord; and their playing also was on the same account, in imitation of the Heathens, who made feasts, and appointed plays to the honour of their deities: some indeed interpret t this last action of uncleanness, which they committed after their feast was over, and which also was sometimes done in the Heathen temples, the word being sometimes used in this sense; see Gen 39:14 but others understand it of the act of idolatry; so two of the Chaldee paraphrases interpret the words in Exodus u; "they rose up to play", בפולחנא נוכראה, in strange service, i.e. idolatry; and though the apostle does not mention their punishment, yet it was a very great one, three thousand persons fell the sword on that account, Exo 32:28.

Gill: 1Co 10:8 - Neither let us commit fornication // as some of them committed // and fell in one day three and twenty thousand Neither let us commit fornication,.... To which the Corinthians were much addicted: hence the apostle elsewhere, in this epistle, makes use of argumen...

Neither let us commit fornication,.... To which the Corinthians were much addicted: hence the apostle elsewhere, in this epistle, makes use of arguments, to dissuade from it, as he does here, they judging it to be no evil:

as some of them committed; i.e. fornication; as they did at Shittim, with the daughters of Moab, Num 25:1 which was a stratagem of Balaam's, and the advice he gave to Balak king of Moab, to draw them into that sin, which made way for their commission of idolatry, which they committed by eating the sacrifices of their gods, and bowing down unto them; particularly they joined themselves to Baal Peor, the same with Priapus, one part of whose religious rites lay in acts of uncleanness, and this brought the divine displeasure on them:

and fell in one day three and twenty thousand; in Num 25:9 the number said to be "twenty and four thousand": and so say all the three Targums on the place w, and both the Talmuds x and others y; on the other hand, all the Greek copies of this epistle, and the Oriental versions, agree in the number of twenty and three thousand; so that it does not appear to be any mistake of copies, in either Testament. To reconcile this matter, or at least to abate the difficulties of it, let the following things be observed; as that the apostle does not write as an historian, and so not with that exactness as Moses did; besides, he does not say that there fell "only" three and twenty thousand, and this beings lesser number than is contained in his, and so a certain truth; moreover, Moses and the apostle use different words in their account; Moses says there died so many, including the heads of the people that were hanged up against the sun, and all that perished by the sword; the apostle says, that there fell such a number, referring only to the latter, who only could be properly said to fall, and not those that were hanged up: now the heads of the people that suffered the first kind of death, might, as is very probable, be a thousand; and they that died in the other way, three and twenty thousand, which make the sums to agree, and both are expressed by Moses, under the general name of a plague or stroke; to all this, that the apostle uses a limiting clause, which Moses does not, and says that these three and twenty thousand fell in one day. So that it is very likely that the heads of the people, supposed to be a thousand, were hanged up in one day; and the three and twenty thousand that fell by the sword died the next, which the apostle only takes notice of. Hence the Jew z has no reason to charge the apostle with an error.

Gill: 1Co 10:9 - Neither let us tempt Christ // as some of them also tempted Neither let us tempt Christ,.... As all such persons do, who, presuming on the power and grace of Christ to keep them, or upon what they have received...

Neither let us tempt Christ,.... As all such persons do, who, presuming on the power and grace of Christ to keep them, or upon what they have received from him, unnecessarily expose themselves to snares and temptations, and so to danger; and as many of the Corinthians did, who are here chiefly respected, who trusting to their gifts and attainments, their knowledge and Christian liberty, would go into an idol's temple, sit down at meat there, and exposed themselves great and imminent danger; which was a tempting Christ, whether he would preserve them or not:

as some of them also tempted; that is, as some of the Israelites tempted, which they did more than once; but what is referred to here, is the time they spake against God and Moses, in Num 21:5 as appears from the punishment annexed, their being destroyed by serpents. The Arabic version adds "him", meaning Christ, which is a right interpretation of the text; otherwise there would be no force in the apostle's reasoning; for Christ was the angel that went before the Israelites in the wilderness, the angel of God's presence, that bore, and carried, and saved them; he is the Jehovah they tempted at Massah and Meribah, and elsewhere, and God they spake against at this place referred to; hence it is clear that our Lord existed before his incarnation, and that he is truly and properly God; the Alexandrian copy reads, "neither let us tempt God", and so the Ethiopic version: "and were destroyed of serpents"; fiery ones, which were sent among them by the Lord Christ, they tempted and spoke against, which bit them, and of these bites many of them died. This might lead to the consideration, of the original cause of man's sin and fall, and the ruin of human nature, by the means of a serpent; and may be an emblem of the future destruction of the wicked, which will be everlasting fire, prepared for the devil, the old serpent, and his angels.

Gill: 1Co 10:10 - Neither murmur ye // as some of them also murmured // and were destroyed of the destroyer Neither murmur ye,.... Against the true apostles of Christ, and faithful ministers of the word; nor against the laws and ordinances of Christ, or prov...

Neither murmur ye,.... Against the true apostles of Christ, and faithful ministers of the word; nor against the laws and ordinances of Christ, or providences of God; so some of the members of this church did, or were inclined to do:

as some of them also murmured: as against the Lord, so against Moses and Aaron. The people of Israel were very prone unto, and often guilty of this sin; but what the apostle here has respect unto, is either their murmuring upon the report the spies made of the good land, in Num 14:1, or that of Korah and his company against Moses and Aaron, as principal officers, who were for setting all upon a level; and of all the people against them, for the death of these men, Num 16:1,

and were destroyed of the destroyer; meaning either some judgment of God upon them, as the earth's opening and swallowing up Korah and all that belonged unto him; and the fire that came down from heaven, and consumed the two hundred and fifty men that offered incense; and the plague which swept away fourteen thousand and seven hundred of those that murmured against Moses and Aaron, on the account of the death of the said persons; and any other judgment by which the carcasses of those fell in the wilderness, that murmured upon the report of the spies; or else since angels were usually employed by God, in inflicting such judgments, by the destroyer may be meant an angel, such an one as smote the firstborn in Egypt, and bears the same name, Heb 11:28 and as smote Israel with a pestilence upon David's numbering the people, and was about to have destroyed Jerusalem, had he not been restrained, 2Sa 24:15 and as, smote an hundred fourscore and five thousand in the camp of the Assyrians, in one night, 2Ki 19:35. So that though an angel may be intended, it is not necessary, on account of the character given him, to understand an evil angel; it is true indeed, that Satan is by the Jews a called המשחית, "the destroyer"; and Samuel, the same with Satan, is called "the angel of death"; to which the allusion is in Heb 2:14 and evil angels are frequently styled מלאכי חבלה, "destroying angels" b; as distinct from ministering ones, and to which some think the apostle here refers.

Gill: 1Co 10:11 - Now all these things happened unto them // and were for ensamples // and they are written for our admonition // upon whom the ends of the world are come Now all these things happened unto them,.... All these punishments came upon them in various ways, not by chance, but by the will of God, and as their...

Now all these things happened unto them,.... All these punishments came upon them in various ways, not by chance, but by the will of God, and as their sins deserved:

and were for ensamples; to others, to their future posterity, and to the churches of God in all ages:

and they are written for our admonition; that men in a church state particularly may take warning, by these instances of their sin and punishment, to avoid the one and escape the other, and not presume upon their external privileges and favours:

upon whom the ends of the world are come; "or in whom the ends of ages are met"; for the apostle does not mean this material visible world, the universe and all things in it, which has continued, since the writing of this, about two thousand years: but the Jewish ages, or times of the Mosaic economy, which begun when these instances of sin and punishment were, and which now in the times of the apostles were at an end; everything in those periods that were figurative and emblematical, having their fulfilling end and accomplishment, and also were now abrogated: likewise the ages or times of Gentile darkness and ignorance may be intended, which now were come to an end, through the light of the Gospel, and the power of God attending the ministration of it; and hence the ends both of the Jewish and Gentile ages may be said to come upon, or meet in the apostles and their times, who had the advantage of looking back on former ones, and of receiving instruction from thence.

Gill: 1Co 10:12 - Wherefore let him that thinketh he standeth // take heed lest he fall Wherefore let him that thinketh he standeth,.... Since the Jewish fathers, who enjoyed such peculiar favours and eminent privileges, had such various ...

Wherefore let him that thinketh he standeth,.... Since the Jewish fathers, who enjoyed such peculiar favours and eminent privileges, had such various judgments inflicted on them; since they stood not, but many of them were visible instances of God's displeasure; they were overthrown and cast down, their carcasses fell in the wilderness, and entered not into the land of rest; therefore all such persons who think themselves safe and sure, trusting to themselves, or depending upon the knowledge and gifts they have, the favours and privileges they enjoy; everyone of these should

take heed lest he fall. This advice was exceeding proper, whether it be considered as spoken to true believers, or formal professors; for true believers may fall into temptation, into sin, from a degree of steadfastness in the Gospel, and from a lively and comfortable exercise of grace; but not finally, totally, and irrecoverably; since they are enclosed in the arms of everlasting love, secured in the hands of Christ, built on a foundation that will never fail, and are kept by an almighty power which can never be overcome; but yet, since they may fall to the dishonour of God, the reproach of the Gospel of Christ, the grieving of the Spirit of God, the wounding of their own souls, the stumbling of weak believers, and the strengthening of the hands of the wicked; such an exhortation is not superfluous, even to such; and many and strong are the reasons and arguments why they should take heed lest they fall; nor are admonitions needless to that which God's decree and promise secure: since these are often the means in and by which God executes his decree, and makes good his promise; see Act 27:22. Moreover, if this exhortation be considered as given to formal professors, it is very pertinent; for such as these may fall, as they often do, from that which they seemed to have, from the truths of the Gospel, and a profession of them, and into scandalous sins, and at last into condemnation; and the rather since the apostasy of such persons is injurious to the honour and interest of true religion; hereby the ways of God are evil spoken of, the name of Christ blasphemed, profane sinners hardened, and weak believers stumbled, as by the falls of real Christians: besides, it must be worse for themselves, who hereby bring upon themselves a severe punishment; see 2Pe 2:21 and indeed these seem to be the persons the apostle chiefly respects; not such who truly: thought they stood, and did really stand; for such stand in the true grace and love of God, in Christ, in whom they are chosen, and by whom they are redeemed and saved, and by that faith which he is the author and finisher of; and so shall never finally and totally fall away; but such "that thinketh", ο δοκων, "who seemeth", to himself and others, "that he standeth"; and manifestly designs such who were swelled with a vain opinion of themselves, their gifts and knowledge; who tempted God, and "trusted" to themselves, as the Ethiopic version reads it, and despised weak believers; but lest real believers should be hereby discouraged, the apostle adds,

Gill: 1Co 10:13 - There hath no temptation taken you // but such as is common to man // but God is faithful, who will not suffer you to be tempted above that ye are able // but will with the temptation make a way to escape // that ye may be able to bear it There hath no temptation taken you,.... Some, indeed, understand these words by way of reproof, that whereas their trials and exercises which had atte...

There hath no temptation taken you,.... Some, indeed, understand these words by way of reproof, that whereas their trials and exercises which had attended them were very light ones, and comparatively trivial; and yet they had given way to these temptations, and had sunk under them, and fallen by them, for which they were greatly to be blamed; or as threatening them with something more severe than anything as yet had befallen them, signifying that though they had as yet stood, and thought they still should; yet they ought not to presume on their own strength, or depend on outward things; since the temptations that as yet had come upon them were such as men might easily bear; there was no great trial or experiment of their grace and strength by them; they had not yet resisted unto blood; there were heavier and severer trials they might expect; and therefore should not be too secure in themselves, but take heed lest when these things should come upon them, in such a time of great temptation, they should fall away: