11:1 Now 1 Jesus 2 was praying in a certain place. When 3 he stopped, one of his disciples said to him, “Lord, teach us to pray, just as John 4 taught 5 his disciples.” 11:2 So he said to them, “When you pray, 6 say:
may your kingdom come. 9
11:4 and forgive us our sins,
for we also forgive everyone who sins 11 against us.
And do not lead us into temptation.” 12
11:5 Then 13 he said to them, “Suppose one of you 14 has a friend, and you go to him 15 at midnight and say to him, ‘Friend, lend me three loaves of bread, 16 11:6 because a friend of mine has stopped here while on a journey, 17 and I have nothing to set before 18 him.’ 11:7 Then 19 he will reply 20 from inside, ‘Do not bother me. The door is already shut, and my children and I are in bed. 21 I cannot get up and give you anything.’ 22 11:8 I tell you, even though the man inside 23 will not get up and give him anything because he is his friend, yet because of the first man’s 24 sheer persistence 25 he will get up and give him whatever he needs.
11:9 “So 26 I tell you: Ask, 27 and it will be given to you; seek, and you will find; knock, and the door 28 will be opened for you. 11:10 For everyone who asks 29 receives, and the one who seeks finds, and to the one who knocks, the door 30 will be opened. 11:11 What father among you, if your 31 son asks for 32 a fish, will give him a snake 33 instead of a fish? 11:12 Or if he asks for an egg, will give him a scorpion? 34 11:13 If you then, although you are 35 evil, know how to give good gifts to your children, how much more will the heavenly Father give the Holy Spirit 36 to those who ask him!”
11:14 Now 37 he was casting out a demon that was mute. 38 When 39 the demon had gone out, the man who had been mute began to speak, 40 and the crowds were amazed. 11:15 But some of them said, “By the power of Beelzebul, 41 the ruler 42 of demons, he casts out demons.” 11:16 Others, to test 43 him, 44 began asking for 45 a sign 46 from heaven. 11:17 But Jesus, 47 realizing their thoughts, said to them, 48 “Every kingdom divided against itself is destroyed, 49 and a divided household falls. 50 11:18 So 51 if 52 Satan too is divided against himself, how will his kingdom stand? I ask you this because 53 you claim that I cast out demons by Beelzebul. 11:19 Now if I cast out demons by Beelzebul, by whom do your sons 54 cast them 55 out? Therefore they will be your judges. 11:20 But if I cast out demons by the finger 56 of God, then the kingdom of God 57 has already overtaken 58 you. 11:21 When a strong man, 59 fully armed, guards his own palace, 60 his possessions are safe. 61 11:22 But 62 when a stronger man 63 attacks 64 and conquers him, he takes away the first man’s 65 armor on which the man relied 66 and divides up 67 his plunder. 68 11:23 Whoever is not with me is against me, 69 and whoever does not gather with me scatters. 70
11:24 “When an unclean spirit 71 goes out of a person, 72 it passes through waterless places 73 looking for rest but 74 not finding any. Then 75 it says, ‘I will return to the home I left.’ 76 11:25 When it returns, 77 it finds the house 78 swept clean and put in order. 79 11:26 Then it goes and brings seven other spirits more evil than itself, and they go in and live there, so 80 the last state of that person 81 is worse than the first.” 82
11:27 As 83 he said these things, a woman in the crowd spoke out 84 to him, “Blessed is the womb 85 that bore you and the breasts at which you nursed!” 86 11:28 But he replied, 87 “Blessed rather are those who hear the word of God and obey 88 it!”
11:29 As 89 the crowds were increasing, Jesus 90 began to say, “This generation is a wicked generation; it looks for a sign, 91 but no sign will be given to it except the sign of Jonah. 92 11:30 For just as Jonah became a sign to the people of Nineveh, 93 so the Son of Man will be a sign 94 to this generation. 95 11:31 The queen of the South 96 will rise up at the judgment 97 with the people 98 of this generation and condemn them, because she came from the ends of the earth to hear the wisdom of Solomon – and now, 99 something greater 100 than Solomon is here! 11:32 The people 101 of Nineveh will stand up at the judgment with this generation and condemn it, because they repented when Jonah preached to them 102 – and now, 103 something greater than Jonah is here!
11:33 “No one after lighting a lamp puts it in a hidden place 104 or under a basket, 105 but on a lampstand, so that those who come in can see the light. 11:34 Your eye is the lamp of your body. When your eye is healthy, 106 your whole body is full of light, but when it is diseased, 107 your body is full of darkness. 11:35 Therefore see to it 108 that the light in you 109 is not darkness. 11:36 If 110 then 111 your whole body is full of light, with no part in the dark, 112 it will be as full of light as when the light of a lamp shines on you.” 113
11:37 As he spoke, 114 a Pharisee 115 invited Jesus 116 to have a meal with him, so he went in and took his place at the table. 117 11:38 The 118 Pharisee was astonished when he saw that Jesus 119 did not first wash his hands 120 before the meal. 11:39 But the Lord said to him, “Now you Pharisees clean 121 the outside of the cup and the plate, but inside you are full of greed and wickedness. 122 11:40 You fools! 123 Didn’t the one who made the outside make the inside as well? 124 11:41 But give from your heart to those in need, 125 and 126 then everything will be clean for you. 127
11:42 “But woe to you Pharisees! 128 You give a tenth 129 of your mint, 130 rue, 131 and every herb, yet you neglect justice 132 and love for God! But you should have done these things without neglecting the others. 133 11:43 Woe to you Pharisees! You love the best seats 134 in the synagogues 135 and elaborate greetings 136 in the marketplaces! 11:44 Woe to you! 137 You are like unmarked graves, and people 138 walk over them without realizing it!” 139
11:45 One of the experts in religious law 140 answered him, “Teacher, when you say these things you insult 141 us too.” 11:46 But Jesus 142 replied, 143 “Woe to you experts in religious law as well! 144 You load people 145 down with burdens difficult to bear, yet you yourselves refuse to touch 146 the burdens with even one of your fingers! 11:47 Woe to you! You build 147 the tombs of the prophets whom your ancestors 148 killed. 11:48 So you testify that you approve of 149 the deeds of your ancestors, 150 because they killed the prophets 151 and you build their 152 tombs! 153 11:49 For this reason also the wisdom 154 of God said, ‘I will send them prophets and apostles, some of whom they will kill and persecute,’ 11:50 so that this generation may be held accountable 155 for the blood of all the prophets that has been shed since the beginning 156 of the world, 157 11:51 from the blood of Abel 158 to the blood of Zechariah, 159 who was killed 160 between the altar and the sanctuary. 161 Yes, I tell you, it will be charged against 162 this generation. 11:52 Woe to you experts in religious law! You have taken away 163 the key to knowledge! You did not go in yourselves, and you hindered 164 those who were going in.”
11:53 When he went out from there, the experts in the law 165 and the Pharisees began to oppose him bitterly, 166 and to ask him hostile questions 167 about many things, 11:54 plotting against 168 him, to catch 169 him in something he might say.
[11:1] 1 tn Grk “And it happened that while.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated. Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.
[11:1] 5 sn It was not unusual for Jewish groups to have their own prayer as a way of expressing corporate identity. Judaism had the Eighteen Benedictions and apparently John the Baptist had a prayer for his disciples as well.
[11:2] 6 sn When you pray. What follows, although traditionally known as the Lord’s prayer, is really the disciples’ prayer. It represents how they are to approach God, by acknowledging his uniqueness and their need for his provision and protection.
sn God is addressed in terms of intimacy (Father). The original Semitic term here was probably Abba. The term is a little unusual in a personal prayer, especially as it lacks qualification. It is not the exact equivalent of “Daddy” (as is sometimes popularly suggested), but it does suggest a close, familial relationship.
sn Your kingdom come represents the hope for the full manifestation of God’s promised rule.
[11:3] 10 tn Or “Give us bread each day for the coming day,” or “Give us each day the bread we need for today.” The term ἐπιούσιος (epiousio") does not occur outside of early Christian literature (other occurrences are in Matt 6:11 and Didache 8:2), so its meaning is difficult to determine. Various suggestions include “daily,” “the coming day,” and “for existence.” See BDAG 376 s.v.; L&N 67:183, 206.
tn Or “into a time of testing.”
sn The request Do not lead us into temptation is not to suggest that God causes temptation, but is a rhetorical way to ask for his protection from sin.
[11:7] 21 tn Grk “my children are with me in the bed.” In Jewish homes in the time of Jesus, the beds were often all together in one room; thus the householder may be speaking of individual beds (using a collective singular) rather than a common bed.
[11:7] 22 tn The syntax of vv. 6-7 is complex. In the Greek text Jesus’ words in v. 6 begin as a question. Some see Jesus’ question ending at v. 6, but the reply starting in v. 8 favors extending the question through the entire illustration. The translation breaks up the long sentence at the beginning of v. 7 and translates Jesus’ words as a statement for reasons of English style.
[11:8] 25 tn The term ἀναίδεια (anaideia) is hard to translate. It refers to a combination of ideas, a boldness that persists over time, or “audacity,” which comes close. It most likely describes the one making the request, since the unit’s teaching is an exhortation about persistence in prayer. Some translate the term “shamelessness” which is the term’s normal meaning, and apply it to the neighbor as an illustration of God responding for the sake of his honor. But the original question was posed in terms of the first man who makes the request, not of the neighbor, so the teaching underscores the action of the one making the request.
[11:13] 36 sn The provision of the Holy Spirit is probably a reference to the wisdom and guidance supplied in response to repeated requests. Some apply it to the general provision of the Spirit, but this would seem to look only at one request in a context that speaks of repeated asking. The teaching as a whole stresses not that God gives everything his children want, but that God gives the good that they need. The parallel account in Matthew (7:11) refers to good things where Luke mentions the Holy Spirit.
[11:14] 38 tn The phrase “a demon that was mute” should probably be understood to mean that the demon caused muteness or speechlessness in its victim, although it is sometimes taken to refer to the demon’s own inability to speak (cf. TEV, “a demon that could not talk”).
[11:14] 39 tn Grk “And it happened that when.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated. Here δέ (de) has not been translated either.
[11:14] 40 sn This miracle is different from others in Luke. The miracle is told entirely in one verse and with minimum detail, while the response covers several verses. The emphasis is on explaining what Jesus’ work means.
sn Beelzebul is another name for Satan. So some people recognized Jesus’ work as supernatural, but called it diabolical.
[11:17] 48 sn Jesus here demonstrated the absurdity of the thinking of those who maintained that he was in league with Satan and that he actually derived his power from the devil. He first teaches (vv. 17-20) that if he casts out demons by the ruler of the demons, then in reality Satan is fighting against himself, with the result that his kingdom has come to an end. He then teaches (v. 21-22) about defeating the strong man to prove that he does not need to align himself with the devil because he is more powerful. Jesus defeated Satan at his temptation (4:1-13) and by his exorcisms he clearly demonstrated himself to be stronger than the devil. The passage reveals the desperate condition of the religious leaders, who in their hatred for Jesus end up attributing the work of the Holy Spirit to Satan.
[11:18] 52 tn This first class condition, the first of three “if” clauses in the following verses, presents the example vividly as if it were so. In fact, all three conditions in these verses are first class. The examples are made totally parallel. The expected answer is that Satan’s kingdom will not stand, so the suggestion makes no sense. Satan would not seek to heal.
[11:19] 54 sn Most read your sons as a reference to Jewish exorcists (cf. “your followers,” L&N 9.4; for various views see D. L. Bock, Luke [BECNT], 2:1077-78), but more likely this is a reference to the disciples of Jesus themselves, who are also Jewish and have been healing as well (R. J. Shirock, “Whose Exorcists are they? The Referents of οἱ υἱοὶ ὑμῶν at Matthew 12:27/Luke 11:19,” JSNT 46 : 41-51). If this is a reference to the disciples, then Jesus’ point is that it is not only him, but those associated with him whose power the hearers must assess. The following reference to judging also favors this reading.
[11:20] 58 tn The phrase ἔφθασεν ἐφ᾿ ὑμᾶς (efqasen ef’ Juma") is important. Does it mean merely “approach” (which would be reflected in a translation like “has come near to you”) or actually “come upon” (as in the translation given above, “has already overtaken you,” which has the added connotation of suddenness)? The issue here is like the one in 10:9 (see note there on the phrase “come on”). Is the arrival of the kingdom merely anticipated or already in process? Two factors favor arrival over anticipation here. First, the prepositional phrase “upon you” suggests arrival (Dan 4:24, 28 Theodotion). Second, the following illustration in vv. 21-23 looks at the healing as portraying Satan being overrun. So the presence of God’s authority has arrived. See also L&N 13.123 for the translation of φθάνω (fqanw) as “to happen to already, to come upon, to come upon already.”
[11:22] 68 sn Some see the imagery here as similar to Eph 4:7-10, although no opponents are explicitly named in that passage. Jesus has the victory over Satan. Jesus’ acts of healing mean that the war is being won and the kingdom is coming.
[11:24] 73 sn The background for the reference to waterless places is not entirely clear, though some Jewish texts suggest spirits must have a place to dwell, but not with water (Luke 8:29-31; Tob 8:3). Some suggest that the image of the desert or deserted cities as the places demons dwell is where this idea started (Isa 13:21; 34:14).
tc ‡ Most
[11:25] 79 sn The image of the house swept clean and put in order refers to the life of the person from whom the demon departed. The key to the example appears to be that no one else has been invited in to dwell. If an exorcism occurs and there is no response to God, then the way is free for the demon to return. Some see the reference to exorcism as more symbolic; thus the story’s only point is about responding to Jesus. This is possible and certainly is an application of the passage.
[11:27] 83 tn Grk “And it happened that as.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated. Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
[11:27] 86 sn Both the reference to the womb and the breasts form a figure of speech called metonymy. In this case the parts are mentioned instead of the whole; the meaning is “Blessed is your mother!” The warnings seem to have sparked a little nervousness that brought forth this response. In the culture a mother was valued for the accomplishments of her son. So this amounts to a compliment to Jesus.
[11:29] 92 sn As the following comparisons to Solomon and Jonah show, in the present context the sign of Jonah is not an allusion to Jonah being three days in the belly of the fish, but to Jesus’ teaching about wisdom and repentance.
tc Only the Western ms D and a few Itala
[11:31] 96 sn On the queen of the South see 1 Kgs 10:1-3 and 2 Chr 9:1-12, as well as Josephus, Ant. 8.6.5-6 (8.165-175). The South most likely refers to modern southwest Arabia, possibly the eastern part of modern Yemen, although there is an ancient tradition reflected in Josephus which identifies this geo-political entity as Ethiopia.
[11:31] 98 tn Grk “men”; the word here (ἀνήρ, anhr) usually indicates males or husbands, but occasionally is used in a generic sense of people in general, as is the case here (cf. BDAG 79 s.v. 1, 2). The same term, translated the same way, occurs in v. 32.
sn The phrase repented when Jonah preached to them confirms that in this context the sign of Jonah (v. 30) is his message.
tc The phrase “or under a basket” is lacking in some important and early
tn Or “a bowl”; this refers to any container for dry material of about eight liters (two gallons) capacity. It could be translated “basket, box, bowl” (L&N 6.151).
[11:34] 106 tn Or “sound” (so L&N 23.132 and most scholars). A few scholars take this word to mean something like “generous” here (L&N 57.107), partly due to the immediate context of this saying in Matt 6:22 which concerns money, in which case the “eye” is a metonymy for the entire person (“if you are generous”).
sn There may be a slight wordplay here, as this term can also mean “evil,” so the figure uses a term that points to the real meaning of being careful as to what one pays attention to or looks at.
[11:37] 114 tn The use of the aorist infinitive here should probably be translated “as he spoke” rather than “while he was speaking” (see ExSyn 595). The Pharisee did not necessarily interrupt Jesus to issue the invitation.
[11:37] 117 tn Grk “and reclined at table,” as 1st century middle eastern meals were not eaten while sitting at a table, but while reclining on one’s side on the floor with the head closest to the low table and the feet farthest away.
sn Washing before meals was a cultural practice that was described in the OT, but not prescribed there (Gen 18:4; Judg 19:21). It was apparently related to concern about contracting ceremonial uncleanness (Lev 11:31-38; t. Demai 2.11-12).
[11:39] 121 sn The allusion to washing (clean the outside of the cup) shows Jesus knew what they were thinking and deliberately set up a contrast that charged them with hypocrisy and majoring on minors.
[11:41] 125 tn Grk “Give the things inside as alms.” Three different approaches have been taken to the syntax and meaning of this phrase: (1) τὰ ἐνόντα (ta enonta, “the things inside”) is an accusative of respect (“give alms with respect to the things inside”); (2) τὰ ἐνόντα is an adverbial accusative (“give alms inwardly,” i.e., from the heart); (3) the word translated “alms” represents a mistranslation of the original Aramaic term “cleanse,” so the statement urges the hearers to “cleanse the things inside.” According to D. L. Bock (Luke [BECNT], 2:1115) the latter meaning is unlikely because the present verse is independent of Matt 23:26, not parallel to it, and makes good sense as it stands.
sn In Jewish culture giving alms to the poor was a very important religious observance; it was meant to be an act of mercy, kindness, and love (D. L. Bock, Luke [BECNT], 2:1114). The implication from the text is that the Pharisees gave alms, but without any of the spiritual concern which should have motivated those generous actions. Here Jesus commands the Pharisees to give from within themselves to those in need instead of just giving of their possessions. In so doing they would show true inner purity acceptable to God. This is in keeping with the author’s social concerns elsewhere in the Gospel (cf., e.g., 1:52-53, 4:18-19, 6:20-21, 14:13).
[11:41] 126 tn Grk “and behold.” The Greek word ἰδού (idou) at the beginning of this clause has not been translated because it has no exact English equivalent here, but adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1).
[11:41] 127 sn The expression everything will be clean for you refers to the agreement that should exist between the overt practice of one’s religious duties, such as almsgiving, and the inner condition of one’s heart, including true love for God and the poor; one is not only to wash the outside of the cup and plate, but the inside as well, since as Jesus said, God created the inside too. Religious duties are not to be performed hypocritically, i.e., for the applause and esteem of people, but rather they are to be done out of a deep love for God and a sensitivity to and concern for the needs of others. Then, everything will be clean, both hearts and lives.
sn Rue was an evergreen herb used for seasoning.
sn The later Jewish summary of oral tradition, the Talmud, notes elaborate greetings for rabbis. The rebuke here is for pride.
[11:44] 139 sn In Judaism to come into contact with the dead or what is associated with them, even without knowing it, makes one unclean (Num 19:11-22; Lev 21:1-3; Mishnah, m. Demai 2:3). To Pharisees, who would have been so sensitive about contracting ceremonial uncleanness, it would have been quite a stinging rebuke to be told they caused it.
[11:46] 146 tn Grk “you yourselves do not touch.” This could mean one of two things: (1) Either they make others do what they themselves do not (through various technical exceptions) or (2) they make no effort to help the others fulfill what they are required to do. Considering the care these religious figures are said to have given to the law, the second option is more likely (see L&N 18.11).
[11:47] 147 sn The effect of what the experts in the law were doing was to deny the message of the prophets and thus honor their death by supporting those who had sought their removal. The charge that this is what previous generations did shows the problem is chronic. As T. W. Manson said, the charge here is “The only prophet you honor is a dead prophet!” (The Sayings of Jesus, 101).
tc The majority of
[11:50] 155 tn Or “that this generation may be charged with”; or “the blood of all the prophets… may be required from this generation.” This is a warning of judgment. These people are responsible for the shedding of prophetic blood.