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Kisah Para Rasul 4:1-13

Konteks
The Arrest and Trial of Peter and John

4:1 While Peter and John 1  were speaking to the people, the priests and the commander 2  of the temple guard 3  and the Sadducees 4  came up 5  to them, 4:2 angry 6  because they were teaching the people and announcing 7  in Jesus the resurrection of the dead. 4:3 So 8  they seized 9  them and put them in jail 10  until the next day (for it was already evening). 4:4 But many of those who had listened to 11  the message 12  believed, and the number of the men 13  came to about five thousand.

4:5 On the next day, 14  their rulers, elders, and experts in the law 15  came together 16  in Jerusalem. 17  4:6 Annas the high priest was there, and Caiaphas, John, Alexander, and others who were members of the high priest’s family. 18  4:7 After 19  making Peter and John 20  stand in their midst, they began to inquire, “By what power or by what name 21  did you do this?” 4:8 Then Peter, filled with the Holy Spirit, 22  replied, 23  “Rulers of the people and elders, 24  4:9 if 25  we are being examined 26  today for a good deed 27  done to a sick man – by what means this man was healed 28 4:10 let it be known to all of you and to all the people of Israel that by the name of Jesus Christ 29  the Nazarene whom you crucified, whom God raised from the dead, this man stands before you healthy. 4:11 This Jesus 30  is the stone that was rejected by you, 31  the builders, that has become the cornerstone. 32  4:12 And there is salvation in no one else, for there is no other name under heaven given among people 33  by which we must 34  be saved.”

4:13 When they saw the boldness 35  of Peter and John, and discovered 36  that they were uneducated 37  and ordinary 38  men, they were amazed and recognized these men had been with Jesus.

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[4:1]  1 tn Grk “While they”; the referents (Peter and John) have been specified in the translation for clarity.

[4:1]  2 tn Or “captain.”

[4:1]  3 tn Grk “the official of the temple,” a title for the commander of the Jewish soldiers guarding the temple (thus the translation, “the commander of the temple guard”). See L&N 37.91.

[4:1]  sn The commander of the temple guard was the title of the officer commanding the Jewish soldiers responsible for guarding and keeping order in the temple courts in Jerusalem.

[4:1]  4 sn The Sadducees controlled the official political structures of Judaism at this time, being the majority members of the Sanhedrin. They were known as extremely strict on law and order issues (Josephus, J. W. 2.8.2 [2.119], 2.8.14 [2.164-166]; Ant. 13.5.9 [13.171-173], 13.10.6 [13.293-298], 18.1.2 [18.11], 18.1.4 [18.16-17], 20.9.1 [20.199]; Life 2 [10-11]). See also Matt 3:7; 16:1-12; 22:23-34; Mark 12:18-27; Luke 20:27-38; Acts 5:17; 23:6-8.

[4:1]  5 tn Or “approached.” This verb often denotes a sudden appearing (BDAG 418 s.v. ἐφίστημι 1).

[4:2]  6 tn Or “greatly annoyed,” “provoked.”

[4:2]  7 tn Or “proclaiming.”

[4:3]  8 tn Grk “And” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the logical sequence of events.

[4:3]  9 tn Or “they arrested”; Grk “they laid hands on.”

[4:3]  10 tn Or “prison,” “custody.”

[4:4]  11 tn Or “had heard.”

[4:4]  12 tn Or “word.”

[4:4]  13 tn In the historical setting it is likely that only men are referred to here. The Greek term ἀνήρ (anhr) usually refers to males or husbands rather than people in general. Thus to translate “of the people” would give a false impression of the number, since any women and children were apparently not included in the count.

[4:5]  14 tn Grk “It happened that on the next day.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.

[4:5]  15 tn Or “and scribes.” The traditional rendering of γραμματεύς (grammateu") as “scribe” does not communicate much to the modern English reader, for whom the term might mean “professional copyist,” if it means anything at all. The people referred to here were recognized experts in the law of Moses and in traditional laws and regulations. Thus “expert in the law” comes closer to the meaning for the modern reader.

[4:5]  sn Experts in the law would have been mostly like the Pharisees in approach. Thus various sects of Judaism were coming together against Jesus.

[4:5]  16 tn Or “law assembled,” “law met together.”

[4:5]  17 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

[4:6]  18 sn The high priest’s family. This family controlled the high priesthood as far back as a.d. 6. Annas, Caiaphas, and Alexander were all high priests at one time (though Alexander held that office after this event).

[4:7]  19 tn Grk “And after.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, καί (kai) has not been translated here. Instead a new sentence is begun in the translation at the beginning of v. 7.

[4:7]  20 tn Grk “making them”; the referents (Peter and John) have been specified in the translation for clarity.

[4:7]  21 sn By what name. The issue of the “name” comes up again here. This question, meaning “by whose authority,” surfaces an old dispute (see Luke 20:1-8). Who speaks for God about the ancient faith?

[4:8]  22 sn Filled with the Holy Spirit. The narrator’s remark about the Holy Spirit indicates that Peter speaks as directed by God and for God. This fulfills Luke 12:11-12 (1 Pet 3:15).

[4:8]  23 tn Grk “Spirit, said to them.”

[4:8]  24 tc The Western and Byzantine texts, as well as one or two Alexandrian witnesses, read τοῦ ᾿Ισραήλ (tou Israhl, “of Israel”) after πρεσβύτεροι (presbuteroi, “elders”; so D E Ψ 33 1739 Ï it), while most of the better witnesses, chiefly Alexandrian (Ì74 א A B 0165 1175 vg sa bo), lack this modifier. The longer reading was most likely added by scribes to give literary balance to the addressees in that “Rulers” already had an adjunct while “elders” was left absolute.

[4:9]  25 tn This clause is a first class condition. It assumes for the sake of argument that this is what they were being questioned about.

[4:9]  26 tn Or “questioned.” The Greek term ἀνακρίνω (anakrinw) points to an examination similar to a legal one.

[4:9]  27 tn Or “for an act of kindness.”

[4:9]  28 tn Or “delivered” (σέσωται [seswtai], from σώζω [swzw]). See 4:12.

[4:10]  29 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”

[4:11]  30 tn Grk “This one”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[4:11]  31 tn The word “you” is inserted into the quotation because Peter is making a direct application of Ps 118:22 to his hearers. Because it is not in the OT, it has been left as normal type (rather than bold italic). The remarks are like Acts 2:22-24 and 3:12-15.

[4:11]  32 sn A quotation from Ps 118:22 which combines the theme of rejection with the theme of God’s vindication/exaltation.

[4:12]  33 tn Here ἀνθρώποις (anqrwpoi") has been translated as a generic noun (“people”).

[4:12]  34 sn Must be saved. The term used here (δεῖ, dei, “it is necessary”) reflects the necessity set up by God’s directive plan.

[4:13]  35 tn Or “courage.”

[4:13]  36 tn Or “and found out.”

[4:13]  37 sn Uneducated does not mean “illiterate,” that is, unable to read or write. Among Jews in NT times there was almost universal literacy, especially as the result of widespread synagogue schools. The term refers to the fact that Peter and John had no formal rabbinic training and thus, in the view of their accusers, were not qualified to expound the law or teach publicly. The objection is like Acts 2:7.

[4:13]  38 tn For the translation of ἰδιῶται (idiwtai) as “ordinary men” see L&N 27.26.



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