TB NETBible YUN-IBR Ref. Silang Nama Gambar Himne

Yesaya 54:1--66:24

Zion Will Be Secure

54:1 “Shout for joy, O barren one who has not given birth!

Give a joyful shout and cry out, you who have not been in labor!

For the children of the desolate one are more numerous

than the children of the married woman,” says the Lord.

54:2 Make your tent larger,

stretch your tent curtains farther out! 1 

Spare no effort,

lengthen your ropes,

and pound your stakes deep. 2 

54:3 For you will spread out to the right and to the left;

your children will conquer 3  nations

and will resettle desolate cities.

54:4 Don’t be afraid, for you will not be put to shame!

Don’t be intimidated, 4  for you will not be humiliated!

You will forget about the shame you experienced in your youth;

you will no longer remember the disgrace of your abandonment. 5 

54:5 For your husband is the one who made you –

the Lord who commands armies is his name.

He is your protector, 6  the Holy One of Israel. 7 

He is called “God of the entire earth.”

54:6 “Indeed, the Lord will call you back

like a wife who has been abandoned and suffers from depression, 8 

like a young wife when she has been rejected,” says your God.

54:7 “For a short time I abandoned 9  you,

but with great compassion I will gather you.

54:8 In a burst 10  of anger I rejected you 11  momentarily,

but with lasting devotion I will have compassion on you,”

says your protector, 12  the Lord.

54:9 “As far as I am concerned, this is like in Noah’s time, 13 

when I vowed that the waters of Noah’s flood 14  would never again cover the earth.

In the same way I have vowed that I will not be angry at you or shout at you.

54:10 Even if the mountains are removed

and the hills displaced,

my devotion will not be removed from you,

nor will my covenant of friendship 15  be displaced,”

says the Lord, the one who has compassion on you.

54:11 “O afflicted one, driven away, 16  and unconsoled!

Look, I am about to set your stones in antimony

and I lay your foundation with lapis-lazuli.

54:12 I will make your pinnacles out of gems, 17 

your gates out of beryl, 18 

and your outer wall 19  out of beautiful 20  stones.

54:13 All your children will be followers of the Lord,

and your children will enjoy great prosperity. 21 

54:14 You will be reestablished when I vindicate you. 22 

You will not experience oppression; 23 

indeed, you will not be afraid.

You will not be terrified, 24 

for nothing frightening 25  will come near you.

54:15 If anyone dares to 26  challenge you, it will not be my doing!

Whoever tries to challenge you will be defeated. 27 

54:16 Look, I create the craftsman,

who fans the coals into a fire

and forges a weapon. 28 

I create the destroyer so he might devastate.

54:17 No weapon forged to be used against you will succeed;

you will refute everyone who tries to accuse you. 29 

This is what the Lord will do for his servants –

I will vindicate them,” 30 

says the Lord.

The Lord Gives an Invitation

55:1 “Hey, 31  all who are thirsty, come to the water!

You who have no money, come!

Buy and eat!

Come! Buy wine and milk

without money and without cost! 32 

55:2 Why pay money for something that will not nourish you? 33 

Why spend 34  your hard-earned money 35  on something that will not satisfy?

Listen carefully 36  to me and eat what is nourishing! 37 

Enjoy fine food! 38 

55:3 Pay attention and come to me!

Listen, so you can live! 39 

Then I will make an unconditional covenantal promise to 40  you,

just like the reliable covenantal promises I made to David. 41 

55:4 Look, I made him a witness to nations, 42 

a ruler and commander of nations.”

55:5 Look, you will summon nations 43  you did not previously know;

nations 44  that did not previously know you will run to you,

because of the Lord your God,

the Holy One of Israel, 45 

for he bestows honor on you.

55:6 Seek the Lord while he makes himself available; 46 

call to him while he is nearby!

55:7 The wicked need to abandon their lifestyle 47 

and sinful people their plans. 48 

They should return 49  to the Lord, and he will show mercy to them, 50 

and to their God, for he will freely forgive them. 51 

55:8 “Indeed, 52  my plans 53  are not like 54  your plans,

and my deeds 55  are not like 56  your deeds,

55:9 for just as the sky 57  is higher than the earth,

so my deeds 58  are superior to 59  your deeds

and my plans 60  superior to your plans.

55:10 61 The rain and snow fall from the sky

and do not return,

but instead water the earth

and make it produce and yield crops,

and provide seed for the planter and food for those who must eat.

55:11 In the same way, the promise that I make

does not return to me, having accomplished nothing. 62 

No, it is realized as I desire

and is fulfilled as I intend.” 63 

55:12 Indeed you will go out with joy;

you will be led along in peace;

the mountains and hills will give a joyful shout before you,

and all the trees in the field will clap their hands.

55:13 Evergreens will grow in place of thorn bushes,

firs will grow in place of nettles;

they will be a monument to the Lord, 64 

a permanent reminder that will remain. 65 

The Lord Invites Outsiders to Enter

56:1 This is what the Lord says,

“Promote 66  justice! Do what is right!

For I am ready to deliver you;

I am ready to vindicate you openly. 67 

56:2 The people who do this will be blessed, 68 

the people who commit themselves to obedience, 69 

who observe the Sabbath and do not defile it,

who refrain from doing anything that is wrong. 70 

56:3 No foreigner who becomes a follower of 71  the Lord should say,

‘The Lord will certainly 72  exclude me from his people.’

The eunuch should not say,

‘Look, I am like a dried-up tree.’”

56:4 For this is what the Lord says:

“For the eunuchs who observe my Sabbaths

and choose what pleases me

and are faithful to 73  my covenant,

56:5 I will set up within my temple and my walls a monument 74 

that will be better than sons and daughters.

I will set up a permanent monument 75  for them that will remain.

56:6 As for foreigners who become followers of 76  the Lord and serve him,

who love the name of the Lord and want to be his servants –

all who observe the Sabbath and do not defile it,

and who are faithful to 77  my covenant –

56:7 I will bring them to my holy mountain;

I will make them happy in the temple where people pray to me. 78 

Their burnt offerings and sacrifices will be accepted on my altar,

for my temple will be known as a temple where all nations may pray.” 79 

56:8 The sovereign Lord says this,

the one who gathers the dispersed of Israel:

“I will still gather them up.” 80 

The Lord Denounces Israel’s Paganism

56:9 All you wild animals in the fields, come and devour,

all you wild animals in the forest!

56:10 All their watchmen 81  are blind,

they are unaware. 82 

All of them are like mute dogs,

unable to bark.

They pant, 83  lie down,

and love to snooze.

56:11 The dogs have big appetites;

they are never full. 84 

They are shepherds who have no understanding;

they all go their own way,

each one looking for monetary gain. 85 

56:12 Each one says, 86 

‘Come on, I’ll get some wine!

Let’s guzzle some beer!

Tomorrow will be just like today!

We’ll have everything we want!’ 87 

57:1 The godly 88  perish,

but no one cares. 89 

Honest people disappear, 90 

when no one 91  minds 92 

that the godly 93  disappear 94  because of 95  evil. 96 

57:2 Those who live uprightly enter a place of peace;

they rest on their beds. 97 

57:3 But approach, you sons of omen readers,

you offspring of adulteresses and prostitutes! 98 

57:4 At whom are you laughing?

At whom are you opening your mouth

and sticking out your tongue?

You are the children of rebels,

the offspring of liars, 99 

57:5 you who practice ritual sex 100  under the oaks and every green tree,

who slaughter children near the streams under the rocky overhangs. 101 

57:6 Among the smooth stones of the stream are the idols you love;

they, they are the object of your devotion. 102 

You pour out liquid offerings to them,

you make an offering.

Because of these things I will seek vengeance. 103 

57:7 On every high, elevated hill you prepare your bed;

you go up there to offer sacrifices.

57:8 Behind the door and doorpost you put your symbols. 104 

Indeed, 105  you depart from me 106  and go up

and invite them into bed with you. 107 

You purchase favors from them, 108 

you love their bed,

and gaze longingly 109  on their genitals. 110 

57:9 You take olive oil as tribute 111  to your king, 112 

along with many perfumes. 113 

You send your messengers to a distant place;

you go all the way to Sheol. 114 

57:10 Because of the long distance you must travel, you get tired, 115 

but you do not say, ‘I give up.’ 116 

You get renewed energy, 117 

so you don’t collapse. 118 

57:11 Whom are you worried about?

Whom do you fear, that you would act so deceitfully

and not remember me

or think about me? 119 

Because I have been silent for so long, 120 

you are not afraid of me. 121 

57:12 I will denounce your so-called righteousness and your deeds, 122 

but they will not help you.

57:13 When you cry out for help, let your idols 123  help you!

The wind blows them all away, 124 

a breeze carries them away. 125 

But the one who looks to me for help 126  will inherit the land

and will have access to 127  my holy mountain.”

57:14 He says, 128 

“Build it! Build it! Clear a way!

Remove all the obstacles out of the way of my people!”

57:15 For this is what the high and exalted one says,

the one who rules 129  forever, whose name is holy:

“I dwell in an exalted and holy place,

but also with the discouraged and humiliated, 130 

in order to cheer up the humiliated

and to encourage the discouraged. 131 

57:16 For I will not be hostile 132  forever

or perpetually angry,

for then man’s spirit would grow faint before me, 133 

the life-giving breath I created.

57:17 I was angry because of their sinful greed;

I attacked them and angrily rejected them, 134 

yet they remained disobedient and stubborn. 135 

57:18 I have seen their behavior, 136 

but I will heal them and give them rest,

and I will once again console those who mourn. 137 

57:19 I am the one who gives them reason to celebrate. 138 

Complete prosperity 139  is available both to those who are far away and those who are nearby,”

says the Lord, “and I will heal them.

57:20 But the wicked are like a surging sea

that is unable to be quiet;

its waves toss up mud and sand.

57:21 There will be no prosperity,” says my God, “for the wicked.”

The Lord Desires Genuine Devotion

58:1 “Shout loudly! Don’t be quiet!

Yell as loud as a trumpet!

Confront my people with their rebellious deeds; 140 

confront Jacob’s family with their sin! 141 

58:2 They seek me day after day;

they want to know my requirements, 142 

like a nation that does what is right

and does not reject the law of their God.

They ask me for just decrees;

they want to be near God.

58:3 They lament, 143  ‘Why don’t you notice when we fast?

Why don’t you pay attention when we humble ourselves?’

Look, at the same time you fast, you satisfy your selfish desires, 144 

you oppress your workers. 145 

58:4 Look, your fasting is accompanied by 146  arguments, brawls,

and fistfights. 147 

Do not fast as you do today,

trying to make your voice heard in heaven.

58:5 Is this really the kind of fasting I want? 148 

Do I want a day when people merely humble themselves, 149 

bowing their heads like a reed

and stretching out 150  on sackcloth and ashes?

Is this really what you call a fast,

a day that is pleasing to the Lord?

58:6 No, this is the kind of fast I want. 151 

I want you 152  to remove the sinful chains,

to tear away the ropes of the burdensome yoke,

to set free the oppressed, 153 

and to break every burdensome yoke.

58:7 I want you 154  to share your food with the hungry

and to provide shelter for homeless, oppressed people. 155 

When you see someone naked, clothe him!

Don’t turn your back on your own flesh and blood! 156 

58:8 Then your light will shine like the sunrise; 157 

your restoration will quickly arrive; 158 

your godly behavior 159  will go before you,

and the Lord’s splendor will be your rear guard. 160 

58:9 Then you will call out, and the Lord will respond;

you will cry out, and he will reply, ‘Here I am.’

You must 161  remove the burdensome yoke from among you

and stop pointing fingers and speaking sinfully.

58:10 You must 162  actively help the hungry

and feed the oppressed. 163 

Then your light will dispel the darkness, 164 

and your darkness will be transformed into noonday. 165 

58:11 The Lord will continually lead you;

he will feed you even in parched regions. 166 

He will give you renewed strength, 167 

and you will be like a well-watered garden,

like a spring that continually produces water.

58:12 Your perpetual ruins will be rebuilt; 168 

you will reestablish the ancient foundations.

You will be called, ‘The one who repairs broken walls,

the one who makes the streets inhabitable again.’ 169 

58:13 You must 170  observe the Sabbath 171 

rather than doing anything you please on my holy day. 172 

You must look forward to the Sabbath 173 

and treat the Lord’s holy day with respect. 174 

You must treat it with respect by refraining from your normal activities,

and by refraining from your selfish pursuits and from making business deals. 175 

58:14 Then you will find joy in your relationship to the Lord, 176 

and I will give you great prosperity, 177 

and cause crops to grow on the land I gave to your ancestor Jacob.” 178 

Know for certain that the Lord has spoken. 179 

Injustice Brings Alienation from God

59:1 Look, the Lord’s hand is not too weak 180  to deliver you;

his ear is not too deaf to hear you. 181 

59:2 But your sinful acts have alienated you from your God;

your sins have caused him to reject you and not listen to your prayers. 182 

59:3 For your hands are stained with blood

and your fingers with sin;

your lips speak lies,

your tongue utters malicious words.

59:4 No one is concerned about justice; 183 

no one sets forth his case truthfully.

They depend on false words 184  and tell lies;

they conceive of oppression 185 

and give birth to sin.

59:5 They hatch the eggs of a poisonous snake

and spin a spider’s web.

Whoever eats their eggs will die,

a poisonous snake is hatched. 186 

59:6 Their webs cannot be used for clothing;

they cannot cover themselves with what they make.

Their deeds are sinful;

they commit violent crimes. 187 

59:7 They are eager to do evil, 188 

quick to shed innocent blood. 189 

Their thoughts are sinful;

they crush and destroy. 190 

59:8 They are unfamiliar with peace;

their deeds are unjust. 191 

They use deceitful methods,

and whoever deals with them is unfamiliar with peace. 192 

Israel Confesses its Sin

59:9 For this reason deliverance 193  is far from us 194 

and salvation does not reach us.

We wait for light, 195  but see only darkness; 196 

we wait for 197  a bright light, 198  but live 199  in deep darkness. 200 

59:10 We grope along the wall like the blind,

we grope like those who cannot see; 201 

we stumble at noontime as if it were evening.

Though others are strong, we are like dead men. 202 

59:11 We all growl like bears,

we coo mournfully like doves;

we wait for deliverance, 203  but there is none,

for salvation, but it is far from us.

59:12 For you are aware of our many rebellious deeds, 204 

and our sins testify against us;

indeed, we are aware of our rebellious deeds;

we know our sins all too well. 205 

59:13 We have rebelled and tried to deceive the Lord;

we turned back from following our God.

We stir up 206  oppression and rebellion;

we tell lies we concocted in our minds. 207 

59:14 Justice is driven back;

godliness 208  stands far off.

Indeed, 209  honesty stumbles in the city square

and morality is not even able to enter.

59:15 Honesty has disappeared;

the one who tries to avoid evil is robbed.

The Lord watches and is displeased, 210 

for there is no justice.

The Lord Intervenes

59:16 He sees there is no advocate; 211 

he is shocked 212  that no one intervenes.

So he takes matters into his own hands; 213 

his desire for justice drives him on. 214 

59:17 He wears his desire for justice 215  like body armor, 216 

and his desire to deliver is like a helmet on his head. 217 

He puts on the garments of vengeance 218 

and wears zeal like a robe.

59:18 He repays them for what they have done,

dispensing angry judgment to his adversaries

and punishing his enemies. 219 

He repays the coastlands. 220 

59:19 In the west, people respect 221  the Lord’s reputation; 222 

in the east they recognize his splendor. 223 

For he comes like a rushing 224  stream

driven on by wind sent from the Lord. 225 

59:20 “A protector 226  comes to Zion,

to those in Jacob who repent of their rebellious deeds,” 227  says the Lord.

59:21 “As for me, this is my promise to 228  them,” says the Lord. “My spirit, who is upon you, and my words, which I have placed in your mouth, will not depart from your mouth or from the mouths of your children and descendants from this time forward,” 229  says the Lord.

Zion’s Future Splendor

60:1 “Arise! Shine! For your light arrives!

The splendor 230  of the Lord shines on you!

60:2 For, look, darkness covers the earth

and deep darkness covers 231  the nations,

but the Lord shines on you;

his splendor 232  appears over you.

60:3 Nations come to your light,

kings to your bright light.

60:4 Look all around you! 233 

They all gather and come to you –

your sons come from far away

and your daughters are escorted by guardians.

60:5 Then you will look and smile, 234 

you will be excited and your heart will swell with pride. 235 

For the riches of distant lands 236  will belong to you

and the wealth of nations will come to you.

60:6 Camel caravans will cover your roads, 237 

young camels from Midian and Ephah.

All the merchants of Sheba 238  will come,

bringing gold and incense

and singing praises to the Lord. 239 

60:7 All the sheep of Kedar will be gathered to you;

the rams of Nebaioth will be available to you as sacrifices. 240 

They will go up on my altar acceptably, 241 

and I will bestow honor on my majestic temple.

60:8 Who are these who float along 242  like a cloud,

who fly like doves to their shelters? 243 

60:9 Indeed, the coastlands 244  look eagerly for me,

the large ships 245  are in the lead,

bringing your sons from far away,

along with their silver and gold,

to honor the Lord your God, 246 

the Holy One of Israel, 247  for he has bestowed honor on you.

60:10 Foreigners will rebuild your walls;

their kings will serve you.

Even though I struck you down in my anger,

I will restore my favor and have compassion on you. 248 

60:11 Your gates will remain open at all times;

they will not be shut during the day or at night,

so that the wealth of nations may be delivered,

with their kings leading the way. 249 

60:12 Indeed, 250  nations or kingdoms that do not serve you will perish;

such nations will be totally destroyed. 251 

60:13 The splendor of Lebanon will come to you,

its evergreens, firs, and cypresses together,

to beautify my palace; 252 

I will bestow honor on my throne room. 253 

60:14 The children of your oppressors will come bowing to you;

all who treated you with disrespect will bow down at your feet.

They will call you, ‘The City of the Lord,

Zion of the Holy One of Israel.’ 254 

60:15 You were once abandoned

and despised, with no one passing through,

but I will make you 255  a permanent source of pride

and joy to coming generations.

60:16 You will drink the milk of nations;

you will nurse at the breasts of kings. 256 

Then you will recognize that I, the Lord, am your deliverer,

your protector, 257  the powerful ruler of Jacob. 258 

60:17 Instead of bronze, I will bring you gold,

instead of iron, I will bring you silver,

instead of wood, I will bring you 259  bronze,

instead of stones, I will bring you 260  iron.

I will make prosperity 261  your overseer,

and vindication your sovereign ruler. 262 

60:18 Sounds of violence 263  will no longer be heard in your land,

or the sounds of 264  destruction and devastation within your borders.

You will name your walls, ‘Deliverance,’

and your gates, ‘Praise.’

60:19 The sun will no longer supply light for you by day,

nor will the moon’s brightness shine on you;

the Lord will be your permanent source of light –

the splendor of your God will shine upon you. 265 

60:20 Your sun will no longer set;

your moon will not disappear; 266 

the Lord will be your permanent source of light;

your time 267  of sorrow will be over.

60:21 All of your people will be godly; 268 

they will possess the land permanently.

I will plant them like a shoot;

they will be the product of my labor,

through whom I reveal my splendor. 269 

60:22 The least of you will multiply into 270  a thousand;

the smallest of you will become a large nation.

When the right time comes, I the Lord will quickly do this!” 271 

The Lord Will Rejuvenate His People

61:1 The spirit of the sovereign Lord is upon me,

because the Lord has chosen 272  me. 273 

He has commissioned 274  me to encourage 275  the poor,

to help 276  the brokenhearted,

to decree the release of captives,

and the freeing of prisoners,

61:2 to announce the year when the Lord will show his favor,

the day when our God will seek vengeance, 277 

to console all who mourn,

61:3 to strengthen those who mourn in Zion,

by giving them a turban, instead of ashes,

oil symbolizing joy, 278  instead of mourning,

a garment symbolizing praise, 279  instead of discouragement. 280 

They will be called oaks of righteousness, 281 

trees planted by the Lord to reveal his splendor. 282 

61:4 They will rebuild the perpetual ruins

and restore the places that were desolate; 283 

they will reestablish the ruined cities,

the places that have been desolate since ancient times.

61:5 284 “Foreigners will take care of 285  your sheep;

foreigners will work in your fields and vineyards.

61:6 You will be called, ‘the Lord’s priests,

servants of our God.’ 286 

You will enjoy 287  the wealth of nations

and boast about 288  the riches you receive from them. 289 

61:7 Instead of shame, you will get a double portion; 290 

instead of humiliation, they will rejoice over the land they receive. 291 

Yes, 292  they will possess a double portion in their land

and experience lasting joy.

61:8 For I, the Lord, love justice

and hate robbery and sin.

I will repay them because of my faithfulness; 293 

I will make a permanent covenant with them.

61:9 Their descendants will be known among the nations,

their offspring among the peoples.

All who see them will recognize that

the Lord has blessed them.” 294 

61:10 I 295  will greatly rejoice 296  in the Lord;

I will be overjoyed because of my God. 297 

For he clothes me in garments of deliverance;

he puts on me a robe symbolizing vindication. 298 

I look like a bridegroom when he wears a turban as a priest would;

I look like a bride when she puts on her jewelry. 299 

61:11 For just as the ground produces its crops

and a garden yields its produce,

so the sovereign Lord will cause deliverance 300  to grow,

and give his people reason to praise him in the sight of all the nations. 301 

The Lord Takes Delight in Zion

62:1 “For the sake of Zion I will not be silent;

for the sake of Jerusalem 302  I will not be quiet,

until her vindication shines brightly 303 

and her deliverance burns like a torch.”

62:2 Nations will see your vindication,

and all kings your splendor.

You will be called by a new name

that the Lord himself will give you. 304 

62:3 You will be a majestic crown in the hand of the Lord,

a royal turban in the hand of your God.

62:4 You will no longer be called, “Abandoned,”

and your land will no longer be called “Desolate.”

Indeed, 305  you will be called “My Delight is in Her,” 306 

and your land “Married.” 307 

For the Lord will take delight in you,

and your land will be married to him. 308 

62:5 As a young man marries a young woman,

so your sons 309  will marry you.

As a bridegroom rejoices over a bride,

so your God will rejoice over you.

62:6 I 310  post watchmen on your walls, O Jerusalem;

they should keep praying all day and all night. 311 

You who pray to 312  the Lord, don’t be silent!

62:7 Don’t allow him to rest until he reestablishes Jerusalem, 313 

until he makes Jerusalem the pride 314  of the earth.

62:8 The Lord swears an oath by his right hand,

by his strong arm: 315 

“I will never again give your grain

to your enemies as food,

and foreigners will not drink your wine,

which you worked hard to produce.

62:9 But those who harvest the grain 316  will eat it,

and will praise the Lord.

Those who pick the grapes will drink the wine 317 

in the courts of my holy sanctuary.”

62:10 Come through! Come through the gates!

Prepare the way for the people!

Build it! Build the roadway!

Remove the stones!

Lift a signal flag for the nations!

62:11 Look, the Lord announces to the entire earth: 318 

“Say to Daughter Zion,

‘Look, your deliverer comes!

Look, his reward is with him

and his reward goes before him!’” 319 

62:12 They will be called, “The Holy People,

the Ones Protected 320  by the Lord.”

You will be called, “Sought After,

City Not Abandoned.”

The Victorious Divine Warrior

63:1 Who is this who comes from Edom, 321 

dressed in bright red, coming from Bozrah? 322 

Who 323  is this one wearing royal attire, 324 

who marches confidently 325  because of his great strength?

“It is I, the one who announces vindication,

and who is able to deliver!” 326 

63:2 Why are your clothes red?

Why do you look like someone who has stomped on grapes in a vat? 327 

63:3 “I have stomped grapes in the winepress all by myself;

no one from the nations joined me.

I stomped on them 328  in my anger;

I trampled them down in my rage.

Their juice splashed on my garments,

and stained 329  all my clothes.

63:4 For I looked forward to the day of vengeance,

and then payback time arrived. 330 

63:5 I looked, but there was no one to help;

I was shocked because there was no one offering support. 331 

So my right arm accomplished deliverance;

my raging anger drove me on. 332 

63:6 I trampled nations in my anger,

I made them drunk 333  in my rage,

I splashed their blood on the ground.” 334 

A Prayer for Divine Intervention

63:7 I will tell of the faithful acts of the Lord,

of the Lord’s praiseworthy deeds.

I will tell about all 335  the Lord did for us,

the many good things he did for the family of Israel, 336 

because of 337  his compassion and great faithfulness.

63:8 He said, “Certainly they will be my people,

children who are not disloyal.” 338 

He became their deliverer.

63:9 Through all that they suffered, he suffered too. 339 

The messenger sent from his very presence 340  delivered them.

In his love and mercy he protected 341  them;

he lifted them up and carried them throughout ancient times. 342 

63:10 But they rebelled and offended 343  his holy Spirit, 344 

so he turned into an enemy

and fought against them.

63:11 His people remembered the ancient times. 345 

Where is the one who brought them up out of the sea,

along with the shepherd of 346  his flock?

Where is the one who placed his holy Spirit among them, 347 

63:12 the one who made his majestic power available to Moses, 348 

who divided the water before them,

gaining for himself a lasting reputation, 349 

63:13 who led them through the deep water?

Like a horse running on flat land 350  they did not stumble.

63:14 Like an animal that goes down into a valley to graze, 351 

so the Spirit of the Lord granted them rest.

In this way 352  you guided your people,

gaining for yourself an honored reputation. 353 

63:15 Look down from heaven and take notice,

from your holy, majestic palace!

Where are your zeal 354  and power?

Do not hold back your tender compassion! 355 

63:16 For you are our father,

though Abraham does not know us

and Israel does not recognize us.

You, Lord, are our father;

you have been called our protector from ancient times. 356 

63:17 Why, Lord, do you make us stray 357  from your ways, 358 

and make our minds stubborn so that we do not obey you? 359 

Return for the sake of your servants,

the tribes of your inheritance!

63:18 For a short time your special 360  nation possessed a land, 361 

but then our adversaries knocked down 362  your holy sanctuary.

63:19 We existed from ancient times, 363 

but you did not rule over them,

they were not your subjects. 364 

64:1 (63:19b) 365  If only you would tear apart the sky 366  and come down!

The mountains would tremble 367  before you!

64:2 (64:1) As when fire ignites dry wood,

or fire makes water boil,

let your adversaries know who you are, 368 

and may the nations shake at your presence!

64:3 When you performed awesome deeds that took us by surprise, 369 

you came down, and the mountains trembled 370  before you.

64:4 Since ancient times no one has heard or perceived, 371 

no eye has seen any God besides you,

who intervenes for those who wait for him.

64:5 You assist 372  those who delight in doing what is right, 373 

who observe your commandments. 374 

Look, you were angry because we violated them continually.

How then can we be saved? 375 

64:6 We are all like one who is unclean,

all our so-called righteous acts are like a menstrual rag in your sight. 376 

We all wither like a leaf;

our sins carry us away like the wind.

64:7 No one invokes 377  your name,

or makes an effort 378  to take hold of you.

For you have rejected us 379 

and handed us over to our own sins. 380 

64:8 Yet, 381  Lord, you are our father.

We are the clay, and you are our potter;

we are all the product of your labor. 382 

64:9 Lord, do not be too angry!

Do not hold our sins against us continually! 383 

Take a good look at your people, at all of us! 384 

64:10 Your chosen 385  cities have become a desert;

Zion has become a desert,

Jerusalem 386  is a desolate ruin.

64:11 Our holy temple, our pride and joy, 387 

the place where our ancestors praised you,

has been burned with fire;

all our prized possessions have been destroyed. 388 

64:12 In light of all this, 389  how can you still hold back, Lord?

How can you be silent and continue to humiliate us?

The Lord Will Distinguish Between Sinners and the Godly

65:1 “I made myself available to those who did not ask for me; 390 

I appeared to those who did not look for me. 391 

I said, ‘Here I am! Here I am!’

to a nation that did not invoke 392  my name.

65:2 I spread out my hands all day long

to my rebellious people,

who lived in a way that is morally unacceptable,

and who did what they desired. 393 

65:3 These people continually and blatantly offend me 394 

as they sacrifice in their sacred orchards 395 

and burn incense on brick altars. 396 

65:4 They sit among the tombs 397 

and keep watch all night long. 398 

They eat pork, 399 

and broth 400  from unclean sacrificial meat is in their pans.

65:5 They say, ‘Keep to yourself!

Don’t get near me, for I am holier than you!’

These people are like smoke in my nostrils,

like a fire that keeps burning all day long.

65:6 Look, I have decreed: 401 

I will not keep silent, but will pay them back;

I will pay them back exactly what they deserve, 402 

65:7 for your sins and your ancestors’ sins,” 403  says the Lord.

“Because they burned incense on the mountains

and offended 404  me on the hills,

I will punish them in full measure.” 405 

65:8 This is what the Lord says:

“When 406  juice is discovered in a cluster of grapes,

someone says, ‘Don’t destroy it, for it contains juice.’ 407 

So I will do for the sake of my servants –

I will not destroy everyone. 408 

65:9 I will bring forth descendants from Jacob,

and from Judah people to take possession of my mountains.

My chosen ones will take possession of the land; 409 

my servants will live there.

65:10 Sharon 410  will become a pasture for sheep,

and the Valley of Achor 411  a place where cattle graze; 412 

they will belong to my people, who seek me. 413 

65:11 But as for you who abandon the Lord

and forget about worshiping at 414  my holy mountain,

who prepare a feast for the god called ‘Fortune,’ 415 

and fill up wine jugs for the god called ‘Destiny’ 416 

65:12 I predestine you to die by the sword, 417 

all of you will kneel down at the slaughtering block, 418 

because I called to you, and you did not respond,

I spoke and you did not listen.

You did evil before me; 419 

you chose to do what displeases me.”

65:13 So this is what the sovereign Lord says:

“Look, my servants will eat, but you will be hungry!

Look, my servants will drink, but you will be thirsty!

Look, my servants will rejoice, but you will be humiliated!

65:14 Look, my servants will shout for joy as happiness fills their hearts! 420 

But you will cry out as sorrow fills your hearts; 421 

you will wail because your spirits will be crushed. 422 

65:15 Your names will live on in the curse formulas of my chosen ones. 423 

The sovereign Lord will kill you,

but he will give his servants another name.

65:16 Whoever pronounces a blessing in the earth 424 

will do so in the name of the faithful God; 425 

whoever makes an oath in the earth

will do so in the name of the faithful God. 426 

For past problems will be forgotten;

I will no longer think about them. 427 

65:17 For look, I am ready to create

new heavens and a new earth! 428 

The former ones 429  will not be remembered;

no one will think about them anymore. 430 

65:18 But be happy and rejoice forevermore

over what I am about to create!

For look, I am ready to create Jerusalem 431  to be a source of joy, 432 

and her people to be a source of happiness. 433 

65:19 Jerusalem will bring me joy,

and my people will bring me happiness. 434 

The sound of weeping or cries of sorrow

will never be heard in her again.

65:20 Never again will one of her infants live just a few days 435 

or an old man die before his time. 436 

Indeed, no one will die before the age of a hundred, 437 

anyone who fails to reach 438  the age of a hundred will be considered cursed.

65:21 They will build houses and live in them;

they will plant vineyards and eat their fruit.

65:22 No longer will they build a house only to have another live in it, 439 

or plant a vineyard only to have another eat its fruit, 440 

for my people will live as long as trees, 441 

and my chosen ones will enjoy to the fullest what they have produced. 442 

65:23 They will not work in vain,

or give birth to children that will experience disaster. 443 

For the Lord will bless their children

and their descendants. 444 

65:24 Before they even call out, 445  I will respond;

while they are still speaking, I will hear.

65:25 A wolf and a lamb will graze together; 446 

a lion, like an ox, will eat straw, 447 

and a snake’s food will be dirt. 448 

They will no longer injure or destroy

on my entire royal mountain,” 449  says the Lord.

66:1 This is what the Lord says:

“The heavens are my throne

and the earth is my footstool.

Where then is the house you will build for me?

Where is the place where I will rest?

66:2 My hand made them; 450 

that is how they came to be,” 451  says the Lord.

I show special favor 452  to the humble and contrite,

who respect what I have to say. 453 

66:3 The one who slaughters a bull also strikes down a man; 454 

the one who sacrifices a lamb also breaks a dog’s neck; 455 

the one who presents an offering includes pig’s blood with it; 456 

the one who offers incense also praises an idol. 457 

They have decided to behave this way; 458 

they enjoy these disgusting practices. 459 

66:4 So I will choose severe punishment 460  for them;

I will bring on them what they dread,

because I called, and no one responded,

I spoke and they did not listen.

They did evil before me; 461 

they chose to do what displeases me.”

66:5 Hear the word of the Lord,

you who respect what he has to say! 462 

Your countrymen, 463  who hate you

and exclude you, supposedly for the sake of my name,

say, “May the Lord be glorified,

then we will witness your joy.” 464 

But they will be put to shame.

66:6 The sound of battle comes from the city;

the sound comes from the temple!

It is the sound of the Lord paying back his enemies.

66:7 Before she goes into labor, she gives birth!

Before her contractions begin, she delivers a boy!

66:8 Who has ever heard of such a thing?

Who has ever seen this?

Can a country 465  be brought forth in one day?

Can a nation be born in a single moment?

Yet as soon as Zion goes into labor she gives birth to sons!

66:9 “Do I bring a baby to the birth opening and then not deliver it?”

asks the Lord.

“Or do I bring a baby to the point of delivery and then hold it back?”

asks your God. 466 

66:10 Be happy for Jerusalem

and rejoice with her, all you who love her!

Share in her great joy,

all you who have mourned over her!

66:11 For 467  you will nurse from her satisfying breasts and be nourished; 468 

you will feed with joy from her milk-filled breasts. 469 

66:12 For this is what the Lord says:

“Look, I am ready to extend to her prosperity that will flow like a river,

the riches of nations will flow into her like a stream that floods its banks. 470 

You will nurse from her breast 471  and be carried at her side;

you will play on her knees.

66:13 As a mother consoles a child, 472 

so I will console you,

and you will be consoled over Jerusalem.”

66:14 When you see this, you will be happy, 473 

and you will be revived. 474 

The Lord will reveal his power to his servants

and his anger to his enemies. 475 

66:15 For look, the Lord comes with fire,

his chariots come like a windstorm, 476 

to reveal his raging anger,

his battle cry, and his flaming arrows. 477 

66:16 For the Lord judges all humanity 478 

with fire and his sword;

the Lord will kill many. 479 

66:17 “As for those who consecrate and ritually purify themselves so they can follow their leader and worship in the sacred orchards, 480  those who eat the flesh of pigs and other disgusting creatures, like mice 481  – they will all be destroyed together,” 482  says the Lord. 66:18 “I hate their deeds and thoughts! So I am coming 483  to gather all the nations and ethnic groups; 484  they will come and witness my splendor. 66:19 I will perform a mighty act among them 485  and then send some of those who remain to the nations – to Tarshish, Pul, 486  Lud 487  (known for its archers 488 ), Tubal, Javan, 489  and to the distant coastlands 490  that have not heard about me or seen my splendor. They will tell the nations of my splendor. 66:20 They will bring back all your countrymen 491  from all the nations as an offering to the Lord. They will bring them 492  on horses, in chariots, in wagons, on mules, and on camels 493  to my holy hill Jerusalem,” says the Lord, “just as the Israelites bring offerings to the Lord’s temple in ritually pure containers. 66:21 And I will choose some of them as priests and Levites,” says the Lord. 66:22 “For just as the new heavens and the new earth I am about to make will remain standing before me,” says the Lord, “so your descendants and your name will remain. 66:23 From one month 494  to the next and from one Sabbath to the next, all people 495  will come to worship me,” 496  says the Lord. 66:24 “They will go out and observe the corpses of those who rebelled against me, for the maggots that eat them will not die, 497  and the fire that consumes them will not die out. 498  All people will find the sight abhorrent.” 499 

Seret untuk mengatur ukuranSeret untuk mengatur ukuran

[54:2]  1 tn Heb “the curtains of our dwelling places let them stretch out.”

[54:2]  2 tn Heb “your stakes strengthen.”

[54:3]  3 tn Or “take possession of”; NAB “shall dispossess.”

[54:4]  4 tn Or “embarrassed”; NASB “humiliated…disgraced.”

[54:4]  5 tn Another option is to translate, “the disgrace of our widowhood” (so NRSV). However, the following context (vv. 6-7) refers to Zion’s husband, the Lord, abandoning her, not dying. This suggests that an אַלְמָנָה (’almanah) was a woman who had lost her husband, whether by death or abandonment.

[54:5]  6 tn Or “redeemer.” See the note at 41:14.

[54:5]  7 sn See the note on the phrase “the Holy One of Israel” in 1:4.

[54:6]  8 tn Heb “like a woman abandoned and grieved in spirit.”

[54:7]  9 tn Or “forsook” (NASB).

[54:8]  10 tn According to BDB 1009 s.v. שֶׁטֶף the noun שֶׁצֶף here is an alternate form of שֶׁטֶף (shetef, “flood”). Some relate the word to an alleged Akkadian cognate meaning “strength.”

[54:8]  11 tn Heb “I hid my face from you.”

[54:8]  12 tn Or “redeemer.” See the note at 41:14.

[54:9]  13 tc The Hebrew text reads literally, “For [or “indeed”] the waters of Noah [is] this to me.” כִּי־מֵי (ki-me, “for the waters of”) should be emended to כְּמֵי (kÿmey, “like the days of”), which is supported by the Qumran scroll 1QIsaa and all the ancient versions except LXX.

[54:9]  14 tn Heb “the waters of Noah” (so NAB, NIV, NRSV).

[54:10]  15 tn Heb “peace” (so many English versions); NLT “of blessing.”

[54:11]  16 tn Or, more literally, “windblown, storm tossed.”

[54:12]  17 tn Perhaps, “rubies” (so ASV, NAB, NIV, NRSV, NLT).

[54:12]  18 tn On the meaning of אֶקְדָּח (’eqdakh), which occurs only here, see HALOT 82 s.v.

[54:12]  19 tn Heb “border” (so ASV); NASB “your entire wall.”

[54:12]  20 tn Heb “delightful”; KJV “pleasant.”

[54:13]  21 tn Heb “and great [will be] the peace of your sons.”

[54:14]  22 tn Heb “in righteousness [or “vindication”] you will be established.” The precise meaning of צְדָקָה (tsÿdaqah) here is uncertain. It could mean “righteousness, justice,” indicating that the city will be a center for justice. But the context focuses on deliverance, suggesting that the term means “deliverance, vindication” here.

[54:14]  23 tn Heb “Be far from oppression!” The imperative is used here in a rhetorical manner to express certainty and assurance. See GKC 324 §110.c.

[54:14]  24 tn Heb “from terror.” The rhetorical command, “be far” is understood by ellipsis here. Note the preceding context.

[54:14]  25 tn Heb “it,” i.e., the “terror” just mentioned.

[54:15]  26 tn The infinitive absolute precedes the finite verb here for emphasis.

[54:15]  27 tn Heb “will fall over you.” The expression נָפַל עַל (nafalal) can mean “attack,” but here it means “fall over to,” i.e., “surrender to.”

[54:16]  28 tn Heb “who brings out an implement for his work.”

[54:17]  29 tn Heb “and every tongue that rises up for judgment with you will prove to be guilty.”

[54:17]  30 tn Heb “this is the inheritance of the servants of the Lord, and their vindication from me.”

[55:1]  31 tn The Hebrew term הוֹי (hoy, “woe, ah”) was used in funeral laments and is often prefixed to judgment oracles for rhetorical effect. But here it appears to be a simple interjection, designed to grab the audience’s attention. Perhaps there is a note of sorrow or pity. See BDB 223 s.v.

[55:1]  32 sn The statement is an oxymoron. Its ironic quality adds to its rhetorical impact. The statement reminds one of the norm (one must normally buy commodities) as it expresses the astounding offer. One might paraphrase the statement: “Come and take freely what you normally have to pay for.”

[55:2]  33 tn Heb “for what is not food.”

[55:2]  34 tn The interrogative particle and the verb “spend” are understood here by ellipsis (note the preceding line).

[55:2]  35 tn Heb “your labor,” which stands by metonymy for that which one earns.

[55:2]  36 tn The infinitive absolute follows the imperative and lends emphasis to the exhortation.

[55:2]  37 tn Heb “good” (so NASB, NIV, NRSV).

[55:2]  38 tn Heb “Let your appetite delight in fine food.”

[55:2]  sn Nourishing, fine food here represents the blessings God freely offers. These include forgiveness, a new covenantal relationship with God, and national prominence (see vv. 3-6).

[55:3]  39 tn The jussive with vav (ו) conjunctive following the imperative indicates purpose/result.

[55:3]  sn To live here refers to covenantal blessing, primarily material prosperity and national security (see vv. 4-5, 13, and Deut 30:6, 15, 19-20).

[55:3]  40 tn Or “an eternal covenant with.”

[55:3]  41 tn Heb “the reliable expressions of loyalty of David.” The syntactical relationship of חַסְדֵי (khasde, “expressions of loyalty”) to the preceding line is unclear. If the term is appositional to בְּרִית (bÿrit, “covenant”), then the Lord here transfers the promises of the Davidic covenant to the entire nation. Another option is to take חַסְדֵי (khasde) as an adverbial accusative and to translate “according to the reliable covenantal promises.” In this case the new covenantal arrangement proposed here is viewed as an extension or perhaps fulfillment of the Davidic promises. A third option, the one reflected in the above translation, is to take the last line as comparative. In this case the new covenant being proposed is analogous to the Davidic covenant. Verses 4-5, which compare David’s international prominence to what Israel will experience, favors this view. In all three of these interpretations, “David” is an objective genitive; he is the recipient of covenantal promises. A fourth option would be to take David as a subjective genitive and understand the line as giving the basis for the preceding promise: “Then I will make an unconditional covenantal promise to you, because of David’s faithful acts of covenantal loyalty.”

[55:4]  42 sn Ideally the Davidic king was to testify to the nations of God’s greatness (cf. Pss 18:50 HT [18:49 ET]; 22:28 HT [22:27 ET]). See J. H. Eaton, Kingship in the Psalms (SBT), 182-84.

[55:5]  43 tn Heb “a nation,” but the singular is collective here, as the plural verbs in the next line indicate (note that both “know” and “run” are third plural forms).

[55:5]  44 tn Heb “a nation,” but the singular is collective here, as the plural verbs that follow indicate.

[55:5]  45 sn See the note on the phrase “the Holy One of Israel” in 1:4.

[55:6]  46 tn Heb “while he allows himself to be found.” The Niphal form has a tolerative force here.

[55:7]  47 tn Heb “Let the wicked one abandon his way.” The singular is collective.

[55:7]  48 tn Heb “and the man of evil his thoughts.” The singular is collective.

[55:7]  49 tn Heb “let him return.” The singular is collective, meaning “let them.”

[55:7]  50 tn The imperfect with vav (ו) conjunctive after the jussive indicates purpose/result.

[55:7]  51 sn The appeal and promise of vv. 6-7 echoes the language of Deut 4:25-31; 30:1-10; and 1 Kgs 8:46-53, all of which anticipate the exile and speak of the prerequisites for restoration.

[55:8]  52 tn Or “For” (KJV, NAB, NASB, NIV).

[55:8]  53 tn Or “thoughts” (so many English versions).

[55:8]  54 tn Heb “are not.” “Like” is interpretive, but v. 9 indicates that a comparison is in view.

[55:8]  55 tn Heb “ways” (so many English versions).

[55:8]  56 tn Heb “are not.” “Like” is interpretive, but v. 9 indicates that a comparison is in view.

[55:9]  57 tn Or “the heavens.” The Hebrew term שָׁמַיִם (shamayim) may be translated “heavens” or “sky” depending on the context.

[55:9]  58 tn Heb “ways” (so many English versions).

[55:9]  59 tn Heb “are higher than.”

[55:9]  60 tn Or “thoughts” (so many English versions).

[55:10]  61 tn This verse begins in the Hebrew text with כִּי כַּאֲשֶׁר (ki kaasher, “for, just as”), which is completed by כֵּן (ken, “so, in the same way”) at the beginning of v. 11. For stylistic reasons, this lengthy sentence is divided up into separate sentences in the translation.

[55:11]  62 tn Heb “so is the word which goes out from my mouth, it does not return to empty.” “Word” refers here to divine promises, like the ones made just prior to and after this (see vv. 7b, 12-13).

[55:11]  63 tn Heb “but it accomplishes what I desire, and succeeds [on the mission] which I send it.”

[55:11]  sn Verses 8-11 focus on the reliability of the divine word and support the promises before (vv. 3-5, 7b) and after (vv. 12-13) this. Israel can be certain that repentance will bring forgiveness and a new covenantal relationship because God’s promises are reliable. In contrast to human plans (or “thoughts”), which are destined to fail (Ps 94:11) apart from divine approval (Prov 19:21), and human deeds (or “ways”), which are evil and lead to destruction (Prov 1:15-19; 3:31-33; 4:19), God’s plans are realized and his deeds accomplish something positive.

[55:13]  64 tn Heb “to the Lord for a name.” For שֵׁם (shem) used in the sense of “monument,” see also 56:5, where it stands parallel to יָד (yad).

[55:13]  65 tn Or, more literally, “a permanent sign that will not be cut off.”

[56:1]  66 tn Heb “guard”; KJV “Keep”; NAB “Observe”; NASB “Preserve”; NIV, NRSV “Maintain.”

[56:1]  67 tn Heb “for near is my deliverance to enter, and my vindication [or “righteousness”] to be revealed.”

[56:2]  68 tn Heb “blessed is the man who does this.”

[56:2]  69 tn Heb “the son of mankind who takes hold of it.”

[56:2]  70 tn Heb and who keeps his hand from doing any evil.”

[56:3]  71 tn Heb “who attaches himself to.”

[56:3]  72 tn The infinitive absolute precedes the finite verb for emphasis.

[56:4]  73 tn Heb “and take hold of” (so KJV); NASB “hold fast.”

[56:5]  74 tn Heb “a hand and a name.” For other examples where יָד (yad) refers to a monument, see HALOT 388 s.v.

[56:5]  75 tn Heb “name” (so KJV, NIV, NRSV).

[56:6]  76 tn Heb “who attach themselves to.”

[56:6]  77 tn Heb “and take hold of”; NAB “hold to”; NIV, NRSV “hold fast.”

[56:7]  78 tn Heb “in the house of my prayer.”

[56:7]  79 tn Heb “for my house will be called a house of prayer for all the nations.”

[56:8]  80 tn The meaning of the statement is unclear. The text reads literally, “Still I will gather upon him to his gathered ones.” Perhaps the preposition -לְ (lamed) before “gathered ones” introduces the object of the verb, as in Jer 49:5. The third masculine singular suffix on both עָלָיו (’alayv) and נִקְבָּצָיו (niqbatsayv) probably refers to “Israel.” In this case one can translate literally, “Still I will gather to him his gathered ones.”

[56:10]  81 sn The “watchmen” are probably spiritual leaders, most likely prophets and priests, responsible for giving the people moral direction.

[56:10]  82 tn Heb “they do not know”; KJV “they are all ignorant”; NIV “they all lack knowledge.”

[56:10]  83 tn The Hebrew text has הֹזִים (hozim), which appears to be derived from an otherwise unattested verbal root הָזָה (hazah). On the basis of alleged cognates, BDB 223 s.v. הָזָה offers the definition “dream, rave” while HALOT 243 s.v. הזה lists “pant.” In this case the dog metaphor of the preceding lines continues. The reference to dogs at the beginning of v. 11 favors the extension of the metaphor. The Qumran scroll 1QIsaa has חזים (“seers”) here. In this case the “watchmen” are directly identified as prophets and depicted as lazy.

[56:11]  84 sn The phrase never full alludes to the greed of the leaders.

[56:11]  85 tn Heb “for his gain from his end.”

[56:12]  86 tn The words “each one says” are supplied in the translation for clarification.

[56:12]  87 tn Heb “great, [in] abundance, very much,” i.e., “very great indeed.” See HALOT 452 s.v. יֶתֶר.

[57:1]  88 tn Or “righteous” (KJV, NASB, NIV, NRSV, NLT); NAB “the just man”; TEV “Good people.”

[57:1]  89 tn Or perhaps, “understands.” Heb “and there is no man who sets [it] upon [his] heart.”

[57:1]  90 tn Heb “Men of loyalty are taken away.” The Niphal of אָסַף (’asaf) here means “to die.”

[57:1]  91 tn The Hebrew term בְּאֵין (bÿen) often has the nuance “when there is no.” See Prov 8:24; 11;14; 14:4; 15:22; 26:20; 29:18.

[57:1]  92 tn Or “realizes”; Heb “understands” (so NASB, NIV, NRSV).

[57:1]  93 tn Or “righteous” (KJV, NASB, NIV, NRSV, NLT); NAB “the just man.”

[57:1]  94 tn Heb “are taken away.” The Niphal of אָסַף (’asaf) here means “to die.”

[57:1]  95 tn The term מִפְּנֵי (mippÿne, “from the face of”) often has a causal nuance. It also appears with the Niphal of אָסַף (’asaph, “gather”) in 2 Chr 12:5: אֲשֶׁר־נֶאֶסְפוּ אֶל־יְרוּשָׁלַם מִפְּנֵי שִׁישָׁק (’asher-neesphuel-yÿrushalam mippÿney shishaq, “who had gathered at Jerusalem because of [i.e., due to fear of] Shishak”).

[57:1]  96 tn The translation assumes that this verse, in proverbial fashion, laments society’s apathy over the persecution of the godly. The second half of the verse observes that such apathy results in more widespread oppression. Since the next verse pictures the godly being taken to a place of rest, some interpret the second half of v. 1 in a more positive vein. According to proponents of this view, God removes the godly so that they might be spared suffering and calamity, a fact which the general populace fails to realize.

[57:2]  97 tn Heb “he enters peace, they rest on their beds, the one who walks straight ahead of himself.” The tomb is here viewed in a fairly positive way as a place where the dead are at peace and sleep undisturbed.

[57:3]  98 tc The Hebrew text reads literally, “offspring of an adulterer [masculine] and [one who] has committed adultery.” Perhaps the text has suffered from transposition of vav (ו) and tav (ת) and מְנָאֵף וַתִּזְנֶה (mÿnaef vattizneh) should be emended to מְנָאֶפֶת וְזֹנָה (mÿnaefet vÿzonah, “an adulteress and a prostitute”). Both singular nouns would be understood in a collective sense. Most modern English versions render both forms as nouns.

[57:4]  99 tn Heb “Are you not children of rebellion, offspring of a lie?” The rhetorical question anticipates the answer, “Of course you are!”

[57:5]  100 tn Heb “inflame yourselves”; NRSV “burn with lust.” This verse alludes to the practice of ritual sex that accompanied pagan fertility rites.

[57:5]  101 sn This apparently alludes to the practice of child sacrifice (cf. TEV, CEV, NLT).

[57:6]  102 tn Heb “among the smooth stones of the stream [is] your portion, they, they [are] your lot.” The next line indicates idols are in view.

[57:6]  103 tn The text reads literally, “Because of these am I relenting?” If the prefixed interrogative particle is retained at the beginning of the sentence, then the question would be rhetorical, with the Niphal of נָחָם (nakham) probably being used in the sense of “relent, change one’s mind.” One could translate: “Because of these things, how can I relent?” However, the initial letter he may be dittographic (note the final he [ה] on the preceding word). In this case one may understand the verb in the sense of “console oneself, seek vengeance,” as in 1:24.

[57:8]  104 tn The precise referent of זִכָּרוֹן (zikkaron) in this context is uncertain. Elsewhere the word refers to a memorial or commemorative sign. Here it likely refers to some type of idolatrous symbol.

[57:8]  105 tn Or “for” (KJV, NRSV).

[57:8]  106 tc The Hebrew text reads literally, “from me you uncover.” The translation assumes an emendation of the Piel form גִּלִּית (gillit, “you uncover”), which has no object expressed here, to the Qal גָּלִית (galit, “you depart”).

[57:8]  107 tn Heb “you make wide your bed” (NASB similar).

[57:8]  108 tc Heb “and you [second masculine singular, unless the form be taken as third feminine singular] cut for yourself [feminine singular] from them.” Most English translations retain the MT reading in spite of at least three problems. This section makes significant use of feminine verbs and noun suffixes because of the sexual imagery. The verb in question is likely a 2nd person masculine singular verb. Nevertheless, this kind of fluctuation in gender appears elsewhere (GKC 127-28 §47.k and 462 §144.p; cf. Jer 3:5; Ezek 22:4; 23:32; cf. J. N. Oswalt, Isaiah [NICOT], 2:473, n. 13). Secondly, when this verbal root signifies establishing a covenant, it is normally accompanied by the noun for “covenant” (בְּרִית, bÿrit). Finally, this juxtaposition of the verb “to cut” and “covenant” normally is followed by the preposition “with,” while here it is “from.” The translation above assumes an emendation of וַתִּכְרָת (vatikhrah, “and you cut”) to וְכָרִית (vÿkharit, “and you purchase”) from the root כָּרָה (kharah); see HALOT 497 s.v. II כרה.

[57:8]  109 tn The Hebrew text has simply חָזָה (khazah, “gaze”). The adverb “longingly” is interpretive (see the context, where sexual lust is depicted).

[57:8]  110 tn Heb “[at] a hand you gaze.” The term יָד (yad, “hand”) probably has the sense of “power, manhood” here, where it is used, as in Ugaritic, as a euphemism for the genitals. See HALOT 387 s.v. I יָד.

[57:9]  111 tn Heb “you journey with oil.”

[57:9]  112 tn Heb “the king.” Since the context refers to idolatry and child sacrifice (see v. 5), some emend מֶלֶך (melekh, “king”) to “Molech.” Perhaps Israel’s devotion to her idols is likened here to a subject taking tribute to a ruler.

[57:9]  113 tn Heb “and you multiply your perfumes.”

[57:9]  114 sn Israel’s devotion to her idols is inordinate, irrational, and self-destructive.

[57:10]  115 tn Heb “by the greatness [i.e., “length,” see BDB 914 s.v. רֹב 2] of your way you get tired.”

[57:10]  116 tn Heb “it is hopeless” (so NAB, NASB, NIV); NRSV “It is useless.”

[57:10]  117 tn Heb “the life of your hand you find.” The term חַיָּה (khayyah, “life”) is here used in the sense of “renewal” (see BDB 312 s.v.) while יָד (yad) is used of “strength.”

[57:10]  118 tn Heb “you do not grow weak.”

[57:11]  119 tn Heb “you do not place [it] on your heart.”

[57:11]  120 tn Heb “Is it not [because] I have been silent, and from long ago?”

[57:11]  121 sn God’s patience with sinful Israel has caused them to think that they can sin with impunity and suffer no consequences.

[57:12]  122 tn Heb “I, I will declare your righteousness and your deeds.”

[57:13]  123 tn The Hebrew text has קִבּוּצַיִךְ (qibbutsayikh, “your gatherings”), an otherwise unattested noun from the verbal root קָבַץ (qavats, “gather”). Perhaps this alludes to their religious assemblies and by metonymy to their rituals. Since idolatry is a prominent theme in the context, some understand this as a reference to a collection of idols. The second half of the verse also favors this view.

[57:13]  124 tn Heb “all of them a wind lifts up.”

[57:13]  125 tn Heb “a breath takes [them] away.”

[57:13]  126 tn Or “seeks refuge in me.” “Seeking refuge” is a metonymy for “being loyal to.”

[57:13]  127 tn Heb “possess, own.” The point seems to be that he will have free access to God’s presence, as if God’s temple mount were his personal possession.

[57:14]  128 tn Since God is speaking throughout this context, perhaps we should emend the text to “and I say.” However, divine speech is introduced in v. 15.

[57:15]  129 tn Heb “the one who dwells forever.” שֹׁכֵן עַד (shokhenad) is sometimes translated “the one who lives forever,” and understood as a reference to God’s eternal existence. However, the immediately preceding and following descriptions (“high and exalted” and “holy”) emphasize his sovereign rule. In the next line, he declares, “I dwell in an exalted and holy [place],” which refers to the place from which he rules. Therefore it is more likely that שֹׁכֵן עַד (shokhenad) means “I dwell [in my lofty palace] forever” and refers to God’s eternal kingship.

[57:15]  130 tn Heb “and also with the crushed and lowly of spirit.” This may refer to the repentant who have humbled themselves (see 66:2) or more generally to the exiles who have experienced discouragement and humiliation.

[57:15]  131 tn Heb “to restore the lowly of spirit and to restore the heart of the crushed.”

[57:16]  132 tn Or perhaps, “argue,” or “accuse” (so NAB, NIV, NRSV).

[57:16]  133 tn Heb “for a spirit from before me would be faint.”

[57:17]  134 tn Heb “and I struck him, hiding, and I was angry.” פָּנַיִם (panayim, “face”) is the implied object of “hiding.”

[57:17]  135 tn Heb “and he walked [as an] apostate in the way of his heart.”

[57:18]  136 tn Heb “his ways” (so KJV, NASB, NIV); TEV “how they acted.”

[57:18]  137 tn Heb “and I will restore consolation to him, to his mourners.”

[57:19]  138 tc The Hebrew text has literally, “one who creates fruit of lips.” Perhaps the pronoun אֲנִי (’ani) should be inserted after the participle; it may have been accidentally omitted by haplography: נוּב שְׂפָתָיִם[אֲנִי] בּוֹרֵא (bore’ [’ani] nuv sÿfatayim). “Fruit of the lips” is often understood as a metonymy for praise; perhaps it refers more generally to joyful shouts (see v. 18).

[57:19]  139 tn Heb “Peace, peace.” The repetition of the noun emphasizes degree.

[58:1]  140 tn Heb “declare to my people their rebellion.”

[58:1]  141 tn Heb “and to the house of Jacob their sin.” The verb “declare” is understood by ellipsis (note the preceding line).

[58:2]  142 tn Heb “ways” (so KJV, NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV, TEV); NLT “my laws.”

[58:3]  143 tn The words “they lament” are supplied in the translation for clarification.

[58:3]  144 tn Heb “you find pleasure”; NASB “you find your desire.”

[58:3]  145 tn Or perhaps, “debtors.” See HALOT 865 s.v. * עָצֵב.

[58:4]  146 tn Heb “you fast for” (so NASB); NRSV “you fast only to quarrel.”

[58:4]  147 tn Heb “and for striking with a sinful fist.”

[58:5]  148 tn Heb “choose” (so NASB, NRSV); NAB “wish.”

[58:5]  149 tn Heb “a day when man humbles himself.” The words “Do I want” are supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.

[58:5]  150 tn Or “making [their] bed.”

[58:6]  151 tn Heb “Is this not a fast I choose?” “No” is supplied in the translation for clarification.

[58:6]  152 tn The words “I want you” are supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.

[58:6]  153 tn Heb “crushed.”

[58:7]  154 tn Heb “Is it not?” The rhetorical question here expects a positive answer, “It is!”

[58:7]  155 tn Heb “and afflicted [ones], homeless [ones] you should bring [into] a house.” On the meaning of מְרוּדִים (mÿrudim, “homeless”) see HALOT 633 s.v. *מָרוּד.

[58:7]  156 tn Heb “and from your flesh do not hide yourself.”

[58:8]  157 tn Heb “will burst out like the dawn.”

[58:8]  sn Light here symbolizes God’s favor and restored blessing, as the immediately following context makes clear.

[58:8]  158 tn Heb “prosper”; KJV “spring forth speedily.”

[58:8]  159 tn Or “righteousness.” Their godly behavior will be on display for all to see.

[58:8]  160 sn The nation will experience God’s protective presence.

[58:9]  161 tn Heb “if you.” In the Hebrew text vv. 9b-10 are one long conditional sentence. The protasis (“if” clauses appear in vv. 9b-10a), with the apodosis (“then” clause) appearing in v. 10b.

[58:10]  162 tn Heb “if you.” See the note on “you must” in v. 9b.

[58:10]  163 tn Heb “If you furnish for the hungry [with] your being, and the appetite of the oppressed you satisfy.”

[58:10]  164 tn Heb “will rise in the darkness.”

[58:10]  165 tn Heb “and your darkness [will be] like noonday.”

[58:11]  166 tn Heb “he will satisfy in parched regions your appetite.”

[58:11]  167 tn Heb “and your bones he will strengthen.”

[58:12]  168 tn Heb “and they will build from you ancient ruins.”

[58:12]  169 tc The Hebrew text has “the one who restores paths for dwelling.” The idea of “paths to dwell in” is not a common notion. Some have proposed emending נְתִיבוֹת (nÿtivot, “paths”) to נְתִיצוֹת (nÿtitsot, “ruins”), a passive participle from נָתַץ (natats, “tear down”; see HALOT 732 s.v. *נְתִיצָה), because tighter parallelism with the preceding line is achieved. However, none of the textual sources support this emendation. The line may mean that paths must be repaired in order to dwell in the land.

[58:13]  170 tn Lit., “if you.” In the Hebrew text vv. 13-14 are one long conditional sentence. The protasis (“if” clauses appear in v. 13), with the apodosis (“then” clause) appearing in v. 14.

[58:13]  171 tn Heb “if you turn from the Sabbath your feet.”

[58:13]  172 tn Heb “[from] doing your desires on my holy day.” The Qumran scroll 1QIsaa supplies the preposition מִן (min) on “doing.”

[58:13]  173 tn Heb “and call the Sabbath a pleasure”; KJV, NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV “a delight.”

[58:13]  174 tn Heb “and [call] the holy [day] of the Lord honored.” On קָדוֹשׁ (qadosh, “holy”) as indicating a time period, see BDB 872 s.v. 2.e (cf. also Neh 8:9-11).

[58:13]  175 tn Heb “and you honor it [by refraining] from accomplishing your ways, from finding your desire and speaking a word.” It is unlikely that the last phrase (“speaking a word”) is a prohibition against talking on the Sabbath; instead it probably refers to making transactions or plans (see Hos 10:4). Some see here a reference to idle talk (cf. 2 Sam 19:30).

[58:14]  176 tn For a parallel use of the phrase “find joy in” (Hitpael of עָנַג [’anag] followed by the preposition עַל [’al]), see Ps 37:4.

[58:14]  177 tn Heb “and I will cause you to ride upon the heights of the land.” The statement seems to be an allusion to Deut 32:13, where it is associated, as here, with God’s abundant provision of food.

[58:14]  178 tn Heb “and I will cause you to eat the inheritance of Jacob your father.” The Hebrew term נַחֲלָה (nakhalah) likely stands by metonymy for the crops that grow on Jacob’s “inheritance” (i.e., the land he inherited as a result of God’s promise).

[58:14]  179 tn Heb “for the mouth of the Lord has spoken.” The introductory כִּי (ki) may be asseverative (as reflected in the translation) or causal/explanatory, explaining why the preceding promise will become reality (because it is guaranteed by the divine word).

[59:1]  180 tn Heb “short” (so NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV).

[59:1]  181 tn Heb “or his ear too heavy [i.e., “dull”] to hear.”

[59:2]  182 tn Heb “and your sins have caused [his] face to be hidden from you so as not to hear.”

[59:4]  183 tn Heb “no one pleads with justice.”

[59:4]  184 tn Heb “nothing”; NAB “emptiness.”

[59:4]  185 tn Or “trouble” (NIV), or “harm.”

[59:5]  186 tn Heb “that which is pressed in hatches [as] a snake.”

[59:6]  187 tn Heb “their deeds are deeds of sin, and the work of violence [is] in their hands.”

[59:7]  188 tn Heb “their feet run to evil.”

[59:7]  189 tn Heb “they quickly pour out innocent blood.”

[59:7]  190 tn Heb “their thoughts are thoughts of sin, destruction and crushing [are] in their roadways.”

[59:8]  191 tn Heb “a way of peace they do not know, and there is no justice in their pathways.”

[59:8]  192 tn Heb “their paths they make crooked, everyone who walks in it does not know peace.”

[59:9]  193 tn מִשְׁפָּט (mishpat), which refers to “justice” in the earlier verses, here refers to “justice from God,” or “vindication.” Because the people are unjust, God refuses to vindicate them before their enemies. See v. 11.

[59:9]  194 sn The prophet speaks on behalf of the sinful nation and confesses its sins.

[59:9]  195 sn Light here symbolizes prosperity and blessing.

[59:9]  196 tn Heb “but, look, darkness”; NIV “but all is darkness.”

[59:9]  197 tn The words “we wait for” are supplied in the translation; the verb is understood by ellipsis (note the preceding line).

[59:9]  198 tn The plural noun form may indicate degree here.

[59:9]  199 tn Or “walk about”; NCV “all we have is darkness.”

[59:9]  200 tn The plural noun form may indicate degree here.

[59:10]  201 tn Heb “like there are no eyes.”

[59:10]  202 tn Heb among the strong, like dead men.”

[59:11]  203 tn See the note at v. 9.

[59:12]  204 tn Heb “for many are our rebellious deeds before you.”

[59:12]  205 tn Heb “indeed [or “for”] our rebellious deeds (are) with us, and our sins, we know them.”

[59:13]  206 tn Heb “speaking.” A new sentence was started here in the translation for stylistic reasons.

[59:13]  207 tn Heb “conceiving and uttering from the heart words of falsehood.”

[59:14]  208 tn Or “righteousness” (ASV, NASB, NIV, NRSV); KJV, NAB “justice.”

[59:14]  209 tn Or “for” (KJV, NRSV).

[59:15]  210 tn Heb “and it is displeasing in his eyes.”

[59:16]  211 tn Heb “man” (so KJV, ASV); TEV “no one to help.”

[59:16]  212 tn Or “appalled” (NAB, NIV, NRSV), or “disgusted.”

[59:16]  213 tn Heb “and his arm delivers for him.”

[59:16]  214 tn Heb “and his justice [or “righteousness”] supports him.”

[59:17]  215 tn Or “righteousness” (KJV, NASB, NIV, NRSV, NLT); NCV “goodness.”

[59:17]  216 tn Or “a breastplate” (traditional; so many English versions); TEV “a coat of armour.”

[59:17]  217 tn Heb “and [as] a helmet deliverance on his head.”

[59:17]  218 tn Heb “and he puts on the clothes of vengeance [as] a garment.”

[59:18]  219 tn Heb “in accordance with deeds, so he repays, anger to his adversaries, repayment to his enemies.”

[59:18]  220 tn Or “islands” (KJV, NIV).

[59:19]  221 tc Heb “fear.” A few medieval Hebrew mss read “see.”

[59:19]  222 tn Heb “and they fear from the west the name of the Lord.”

[59:19]  223 tn Heb “and from the rising of the sun his splendor.”

[59:19]  224 tn Heb “narrow”; NAB, NIV, NRSV “pent-up.”

[59:19]  225 tn Heb “the wind of the Lord drives it on.” The term רוּחַ (ruakh) could be translated “breath” here (see 30:28).

[59:20]  226 tn Or “redeemer.” See the note at 41:14.

[59:20]  227 tn Heb “and to those who turn from rebellion in Jacob.”

[59:21]  228 tn Or “my covenant with” (so many English versions); NCV “my agreement with.”

[59:21]  sn The Lord promises the repentant (note “to them”) that they and their offspring will possess his spirit and function as his spokesmen. In this regard they follow in the footsteps of the Lord’s special servant. See 42:1; 49:2; 51:16.

[59:21]  229 tn Heb “from now and on into the future.”

[60:1]  230 tn Or “glory” (so most English versions).

[60:2]  231 tn The verb “covers” is understood by ellipsis (note the preceding line).

[60:2]  232 tn Or “glory” (so most English versions); TEV “the brightness of his presence.”

[60:4]  233 tn Heb “Lift up around your eyes and see!”

[60:5]  234 tn Or “shine,” or “be radiant” (NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV).

[60:5]  235 tn Heb “and it will tremble and be wide, your heart.”

[60:5]  236 tn Heb “the wealth of the sea,” i.e., wealth that is transported from distant lands via the sea.

[60:6]  237 tn Heb “an abundance of camels will cover you.”

[60:6]  238 tn Heb “all of them, from Sheba.”

[60:6]  239 tn Heb “and they will announce the praises of the Lord.”

[60:7]  240 tn Heb “will serve you,” i.e., be available as sacrifices (see the next line). Another option is to understood these “rams” as symbolic of leaders who will be subject to the people of Zion. See v. 10.

[60:7]  241 tc Heb “they will go up on acceptance [on] my altar.” Some have suggested that the preposition עַל (’al) is dittographic (note the preceding יַעֲלוּ [yaalu]). Consequently, the form should be emended to לְרָצוֹן (lÿratson, “acceptably”; see BDB 953 s.v. רָצוֹן). However, the Qumran scroll 1QIsaa has both לרצון followed by the preposition על, which would argue against deleted the preposition. As the above translation seeks to demonstrate, the preposition עַל (’al) indicates a norm (“in accordance with acceptance” or “acceptably”; IBHS 218 §11.2.13e, n. 111) and the “altar” functions as an objective accusative with a verb of motion (cf. Gen 49:4; Lev 2:2; Num 13:17; J. N. Oswalt, Isaiah [NICOT], 2:534, n. 14).

[60:8]  242 tn Heb “fly” (so KJV, NASB, NRSV); NAB, NIV “fly along.”

[60:8]  243 tn Heb “to their windows,” i.e., to the openings in their coops. See HALOT 83 s.v. אֲרֻבָּה.

[60:9]  244 tn Or “islands” (NIV); CEV “distant islands”; TEV “distant lands.”

[60:9]  245 tn Heb “the ships of Tarshish.” See the note at 2:16.

[60:9]  246 tn Heb “to the name of the Lord your God.”

[60:9]  247 sn See the note on the phrase “the Holy One of Israel” in 1:4.

[60:10]  248 tn Heb “in my favor I will have compassion on you.”

[60:11]  249 tn Or “led in procession.” The participle is passive.

[60:12]  250 tn Or “For” (KJV, NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV, NLT); TEV “But.”

[60:12]  251 tn The infinitive absolute appears before the finite verb for emphasis.

[60:13]  252 tn Or “holy place, sanctuary.”

[60:13]  253 tn Heb “the place of my feet.” See Ezek 43:7, where the Lord’s throne is called the “place of the soles of my feet.”

[60:14]  254 sn See the note on the phrase “the Holy One of Israel” in 1:4.

[60:15]  255 tn Heb “Instead of your being abandoned and despised, with no one passing through, I will make you.”

[60:16]  256 sn The nations and kings are depicted as a mother nursing her children. Restored Zion will be nourished by them as she receives their wealth as tribute.

[60:16]  257 tn Or “redeemer.” See the note at 41:14.

[60:16]  258 sn See 1:24 and 49:26.

[60:17]  259 tn The words “I will bring you” are supplied in the translation; they are understood by ellipsis (see the preceding lines).

[60:17]  260 tn The words “I will bring you” are supplied in the translation; they are understood by ellipsis (see the first two lines of the verse).

[60:17]  261 tn Or “peace” (KJV and many other English versions).

[60:17]  262 tn The plural indicates degree. The language is ironic; in the past Zion was ruled by oppressive tyrants, but now personified prosperity and vindication will be the only things that will “dominate” the city.

[60:18]  263 tn The words “sounds of” are supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.

[60:18]  264 tn The words “sounds of” are supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.

[60:19]  265 tn Heb “and your God for your splendor.”

[60:20]  266 sn In this verse “sun” and “moon” refer to the Lord’s light, which will replace the sun and moon (see v. 19). Light here symbolizes the restoration of divine blessing and prosperity in conjunction with the Lord’s presence. See 30:26.

[60:20]  267 tn Heb “days” (so KJV, NAB, NIV, NRSV, NLT).

[60:21]  268 tn Or “righteous” (NASB, NIV, NRSV, NLT); NAB “just.”

[60:21]  269 tn Heb “a shoot of his planting, the work of my hands, to reveal splendor.”

[60:22]  270 tn Heb “will become” (so NASB, NIV).

[60:22]  271 tn Heb “I, the Lord, in its time, I will quickly do it.”

[61:1]  272 tn Heb “anointed,” i.e., designated to carry out an assigned task.

[61:1]  273 sn The speaker is not identified, but he is distinct from the Lord and from Zion’s suffering people. He possesses the divine spirit, is God’s spokesman, and is sent to release prisoners from bondage. The evidence suggests he is the Lord’s special servant, described earlier in the servant songs (see 42:1-4, 7; 49:2, 9; 50:4; see also 51:16).

[61:1]  274 tn Or “sent” (NAB); NCV “has appointed me.”

[61:1]  275 tn Or “proclaim good news to.”

[61:1]  276 tn Heb “to bind up [the wounds of].”

[61:2]  277 tn Heb “to announce the year of the Lord’s favor, and the day of our God’s vengeance.

[61:3]  278 tn Heb “oil of joy” (KJV, ASV); NASB, NIV, NRSV “the oil of gladness.”

[61:3]  279 tn Heb “garment of praise.”

[61:3]  280 tn Heb “a faint spirit” (so NRSV); KJV, ASV “the spirit of heaviness”; NASB “a spirit of fainting.”

[61:3]  281 tn Rather than referring to the character of the people, צֶדֶק (tsedeq) may carry the nuance “vindication” here, suggesting that God’s restored people are a testimony to his justice. See v. 2, which alludes to the fact that God will take vengeance against the enemies of his people. Cf. NAB “oaks of justice.”

[61:3]  282 tn Heb “a planting of the Lord to reveal splendor.”

[61:4]  283 tn Heb “and the formerly desolate places they will raise up.”

[61:5]  284 sn The Lord speaks in vv. 7-8 (and possibly v. 9). It is not clear where the servant’s speech (see vv. 1-3a) ends and the Lord’s begins. Perhaps the direct address to the people signals the beginning of the Lord’s speech.

[61:5]  285 tn Heb “will stand [in position] and shepherd.”

[61:6]  286 tn The Hebrew text adds, “it will be said concerning you.”

[61:6]  287 tn Heb “eat” (KJV, NAB, NASB); NIV “feed on”; NLT “be fed with.”

[61:6]  288 tc The form in the Hebrew text is probably a corruption of יִתְאַמְּרוּ (yitammÿru), a Hitpael from אָמַר (’amar), meaning “boast about” (see HALOT 67 s.v. II אמר, HALOT 416 s.v. ימר, and BDB 56 s.v. אָמַר).

[61:6]  289 tn Heb “their glory” (i.e., riches).

[61:7]  290 tn Heb “instead of your shame, a double portion.”

[61:7]  291 tn Heb “and [instead of] humiliation they will rejoice [over] their portion.” The term תָחָת (takhat, “instead of”) is understood by ellipsis (note the preceding line).

[61:7]  292 tn Heb “therefore” (so KJV, NASB); NIV “and so.”

[61:8]  293 tn Heb “in faithfulness”; NASB, NRSV, NLT “faithfully.”

[61:9]  294 tn Heb “all who see them will recognize them, that they [are] descendants [whom] the Lord has blessed.”

[61:10]  295 sn The speaker in vv. 10-11 is not identified, but it is likely that the personified nation (or perhaps Zion) responds here to the Lord’s promise of restoration.

[61:10]  296 tn The infinitive absolute appears before the finite verb for emphasis.

[61:10]  297 tn Heb “my being is happy in my God”; NAB “in my God is the joy of my soul.”

[61:10]  298 tn Heb “robe of vindication”; KJV, NASB, NIV, NRSV “robe of righteousness.”

[61:10]  299 tn Heb “like a bridegroom [who] acts like a priest [by wearing] a turban, and like a bride [who] wears her jewelry.” The words “I look” are supplied for stylistic reasons and clarification.

[61:11]  300 tn Or perhaps, “righteousness,” but the context seems to emphasize deliverance and restoration (see v. 10 and 62:1).

[61:11]  301 tn Heb “and praise before all the nations.”

[62:1]  302 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

[62:1]  303 tn Heb “goes forth like brightness.”

[62:2]  304 tn Heb “which the mouth of the Lord will designate.”

[62:4]  305 tn Or “for”; KJV, NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV “but.”

[62:4]  306 tn Hebrew חֶפְצִי־בָהּ (kheftsi-vah), traditionally transliterated “Hephzibah” (so KJV, ASV, NIV).

[62:4]  307 tn Hebrew בְּעוּלָה (bÿulah), traditionally transliterated “Beulah” (so KJV, ASV, NIV).

[62:4]  308 tn That is, the land will be restored to the Lord’s favor and once again enjoy his blessing and protection. To indicate the land’s relationship to the Lord, the words “to him” have been supplied at the end of the clause.

[62:5]  309 tc The Hebrew text has “your sons,” but this produces an odd metaphor and is somewhat incongruous with the parallelism. In the context (v. 4b, see also 54:5-7) the Lord is the one who “marries” Zion. Therefore several prefer to emend “your sons” to בֹּנָיִךְ (bonayikh, “your builder”; e.g., NRSV). In Ps 147:2 the Lord is called the “builder of Jerusalem.” However, this emendation is not the best option for at least four reasons. First, although the Lord is never called the “builder” of Jerusalem in Isaiah, the idea of Zion’s children possessing the land does occur (Isa 49:20; 54:3; cf. also 14:1; 60:21). Secondly, all the ancient versions support the MT reading. Thirdly, although the verb בָּעַל (baal) can mean “to marry,” its basic idea is “to possess.” Consequently, the verb stresses a relationship more than a state. All the ancient versions render this verb “to dwell in” or “to dwell with.” The point is not just that the land will be reinhabited, but that it will be in a relationship of “belonging” to the Israelites. Hence a relational verb like בָּעַל is used (J. N. Oswalt, Isaiah [NICOT], 2:581). Finally, “sons” is a well-known metaphor for “inhabitants” (J. de Waard, Isaiah, 208).

[62:6]  310 sn The speaker here is probably the prophet.

[62:6]  311 tn Heb “all day and all night continually they do not keep silent.” The following lines suggest that they pray for the Lord’s intervention and restoration of the city.

[62:6]  312 tn Or “invoke”; NIV “call on”; NASB, NRSV “remind.”

[62:7]  313 tn “Jerusalem” is supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons; note the following line.

[62:7]  314 tn Heb “[the object of] praise.”

[62:8]  315 tn The Lord’s right hand and strong arm here symbolize his power and remind the audience that his might guarantees the fulfillment of the following promise.

[62:9]  316 tn Heb “it,” the grain mentioned in v. 8a.

[62:9]  317 tn Heb “and those who gather it will drink it.” The masculine singular pronominal suffixes attached to “gather” and “drink” refer back to the masculine noun תִּירוֹשׁ (tirosh, “wine”) in v. 8b.

[62:11]  318 tn Heb “to the end of the earth” (so NASB, NRSV).

[62:11]  319 sn As v. 12 indicates, the returning exiles are the Lord’s reward/prize. See also 40:10 and the note there.

[62:12]  320 tn Or “the redeemed of the Lord” (KJV, NAB).

[63:1]  321 sn Edom is here an archetype for the Lord’s enemies. See 34:5.

[63:1]  322 tn Heb “[in] bright red garments, from Bozrah.”

[63:1]  323 tn The interrogative particle is understood by ellipsis; note the first line of the verse.

[63:1]  324 tn Heb “honored in his clothing”; KJV, ASV “glorious in his apparel.”

[63:1]  325 tc The Hebrew text has צָעָה (tsaah), which means “stoop, bend” (51:14). The translation assumes an emendation to צָעַד (tsaad, “march”; see BDB 858 s.v. צָעָה).

[63:1]  326 tn Heb “I, [the one] speaking in vindication [or “righteousness”], great to deliver.”

[63:2]  327 tn Heb “and your garments like one who treads in a vat?”

[63:3]  328 sn Nations, headed by Edom, are the object of the Lord’s anger (see v. 6). He compares military slaughter to stomping on grapes in a vat.

[63:3]  329 tn Heb “and I stained.” For discussion of the difficult verb form, see HALOT 170 s.v. II גאל. Perhaps the form is mixed, combining the first person forms of the imperfect (note the alef prefix) and perfect (note the תי- ending).

[63:4]  330 tn Heb “for the day of vengeance was in my heart, and the year of my revenge came.” The term גְּאוּלַי (gÿulai) is sometimes translated here “my redemption,” for the verbal root גאל often means “deliver, buy back.” A גֹּאֵל (goel, “kinsman-redeemer”) was responsible for protecting the extended family’s interests, often by redeeming property that had been sold outside the family. However, the responsibilities of a גֹּאֵל extended beyond financial concerns. He was also responsible for avenging the shed blood of a family member (see Num 35:19-27; Deut 19:6-12). In Isa 63:4, where vengeance is a prominent theme (note the previous line), it is probably this function of the family protector that is in view. The Lord pictures himself as a blood avenger who waits for the day of vengeance to arrive and then springs into action.

[63:5]  331 sn See Isa 59:16 for similar language.

[63:5]  332 tn Heb “and my anger, it supported me”; NIV “my own wrath sustained me.”

[63:6]  333 sn See Isa 49:26 and 51:23 for similar imagery.

[63:6]  334 tn Heb “and I brought down to the ground their juice.” “Juice” refers to their blood (see v. 3).

[63:7]  335 tn Heb “according to all which.”

[63:7]  336 tn Heb “greatness of goodness to the house of Israel which he did for them.”

[63:7]  337 tn Heb “according to.”

[63:8]  338 tn Heb “children [who] do not act deceitfully.” Here the verb refers to covenantal loyalty.

[63:9]  339 tn Heb “in all their distress, there was distress to him” (reading לוֹ [lo] with the margin/Qere).

[63:9]  340 tn Heb “the messenger [or “angel”] of his face”; NIV “the angel of his presence.”

[63:9]  sn This may refer to the “angel of God” mentioned in Exod 14:19, who in turn may be identical to the divine “presence” (literally, “face”) referred to in Exod 33:14-15 and Deut 4:37. Here in Isa 63 this messenger may be equated with God’s “holy Spirit” (see vv. 10-11) and “the Spirit of the Lord” (v. 14). See also Ps 139:7, where God’s “Spirit” seems to be equated with his “presence” (literally, “face”) in the synonymous parallelistic structure.

[63:9]  341 tn Or “redeemed” (KJV, NAB, NIV), or “delivered.”

[63:9]  342 tn Heb “all the days of antiquity”; KJV, NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV “days of old.”

[63:10]  343 tn Or “grieved, hurt the feelings of.”

[63:10]  344 sn The phrase “holy Spirit” occurs in the OT only here (in v. 11 as well) and in Ps 51:11 (51:13 HT), where it is associated with the divine presence.

[63:11]  345 tn Heb “and he remembered the days of antiquity, Moses, his people.” The syntax of the statement is unclear. The translation assumes that “his people” is the subject of the verb “remembered.” If original, “Moses” is in apposition to “the days of antiquity,” more precisely identifying the time period referred to. However, the syntactical awkwardness suggests that “Moses” may have been an early marginal note (perhaps identifying “the shepherd of his flock” two lines later) that has worked its way into the text.

[63:11]  346 tn The Hebrew text has a plural form, which if retained and taken as a numerical plural, would probably refer to Moses, Aaron, and the Israelite tribal leaders at the time of the Exodus. Most prefer to emend the form to the singular (רָעָה, raah) and understand this as a reference just to Moses.

[63:11]  347 sn See the note at v. 10.

[63:12]  348 tn Heb “who caused to go at the right hand of Moses the arm of his splendor.”

[63:12]  349 tn Heb “making for himself a lasting name.”

[63:13]  350 tn Heb “in the desert [or “steppe”].”

[63:14]  351 tn The words “to graze” are supplied in the translation for clarification.

[63:14]  352 tn Or “so” (KJV, ASV), or “thus” (NAB, NRSV).

[63:14]  353 tn Heb “making for yourself a majestic name.”

[63:15]  354 tn This probably refers to his zeal for his people, which motivates him to angrily strike out against their enemies.

[63:15]  355 tn The Hebrew text reads literally, “the agitation of your intestines and your compassion to me they are held back.” The phrase “agitation of your intestines” is metonymic, referring to the way in which one’s nervous system reacts when one feels pity and compassion toward another. אֵלַי (’elay, “to me”) is awkward in this context, where the speaker represents the nation and, following the introduction (see v. 7), utilizes first person plural forms. The translation assumes an emendation to the negative particle אַל (’al). This also necessitates emending the following verb form (which is a plural perfect) to a singular jussive (תִתְאַפָּק, titappaq). The Hitpael of אָפַק (’afaq) also occurs in 42:14.

[63:16]  356 tn Heb “our protector [or “redeemer”] from antiquity [is] your name.”

[63:17]  357 tn Some suggest a tolerative use of the Hiphil here, “[why do] you allow us to stray?” (cf. NLT). Though the Hiphil of תָעָה (taah) appears to be tolerative in Jer 50:6, elsewhere it is preferable or necessary to take it as causative. See Isa 3:12; 9:15; and 30:28, as well as Gen 20:13; 2 Kgs 21:9; Job 12:24-25; Prov 12:26; Jer 23:13, 32; Hos 4:12; Amos 2:4; Mic 3:5.

[63:17]  358 tn This probably refers to God’s commands.

[63:17]  359 tn Heb “[Why do] you harden our heart[s] so as not to fear you.” The interrogative particle is understood by ellipsis (note the preceding line).

[63:17]  sn How direct this hardening is, one cannot be sure. The speaker may envision direct involvement on the Lord’s part. The Lord has brought the exile as judgment for the nation’s sin and now he continues to keep them at arm’s length by blinding them spiritually. The second half of 64:7 might support this, though the precise reading of the final verb is uncertain. On the other hand, the idiom of lament is sometimes ironic and hyperbolically deterministic. For example, Naomi lamented that Shaddai was directly opposing her and bringing her calamity (Ruth 1:20-21), while the author of Ps 88 directly attributes his horrible suffering and loneliness to God (see especially vv. 6-8, 16-18). Both individuals make little, if any, room for intermediate causes or the principle of sin and death which ravages the human race. In the same way, the speaker in Isa 63:17 (who evidences great spiritual sensitivity and is anything but “hardened”) may be referring to the hardships of exile, which discouraged and even embittered the people, causing many of them to retreat from their Yahwistic faith. In this case, the “hardening” in view is more indirect and can be lifted by the Lord’s intervention. Whether the hardening here is indirect or direct, it is important to recognize that the speaker sees it as one of the effects of rebellion against the Lord (note especially 64:5-6).

[63:18]  360 tn Or “holy” (ASV, NASB, NRSV, TEV, NLT).

[63:18]  361 tn Heb “for a short time they had a possession, the people of your holiness.”

[63:18]  362 tn Heb “your adversaries trampled on.”

[63:19]  363 tn Heb “we were from antiquity” (see v. 16). The collocation עוֹלָם + מִן + הָיָה (hayah + min + ’olam) occurs only here.

[63:19]  364 tn Heb “you did not rule them, your name was not called over them.” The expression “the name is called over” indicates ownership; see the note at 4:1. As these two lines stand they are very difficult to interpret. They appear to be stating that the adversaries just mentioned in v. 18 have not been subject to the Lord’s rule in the past, perhaps explaining why they could commit the atrocity described in v. 18b.

[64:1]  365 sn In BHS the chapter division occurs in a different place from the English Bible: 64:1 ET (63:19b HT) and 64:2-12 (64:1-11 HT). Beginning with 65:1 the verse numbers in the English Bible and the Hebrew Bible are again the same.

[64:1]  366 tn Or “the heavens.” The Hebrew term שָׁמַיִם (shamayim) may be translated “heavens” or “sky” depending on the context.

[64:1]  367 tn Or “quake.” נָזֹלּוּ (nazollu) is from the verbal root זָלַל (zalal, “quake”; see HALOT 272 s.v. II זלל). Perhaps there is a verbal allusion to Judg 5:5, the only other passage where this verb occurs. In that passage the poet tells how the Lord’s appearance to do battle caused the mountains to shake.

[64:2]  368 tn Heb “to make known your name to your adversaries.” Perhaps the infinitive construct with preposition -לְ (lamed) should be construed with “come down” in v. 1a, or subordinated to the following line: “To make known your name to your adversaries, let the nations shake from before you.”

[64:3]  369 tn Heb “[for which] we were not waiting.”

[64:3]  370 tn See the note at v. 1.

[64:4]  371 tn Heb “from ancient times they have not heard, they have not listened.”

[64:5]  372 tn Heb “meet [with kindness].”

[64:5]  373 tn Heb “the one who rejoices and does righteousness.”

[64:5]  374 tn Heb “in your ways they remember you.”

[64:5]  375 tc The Hebrew text reads literally, “look, you were angry and we sinned against them continually [or perhaps, “in ancient times”] and we were delivered.” The statement makes little sense as it stands. The first vav [ו] consecutive (“and we sinned”) must introduce an explanatory clause here (see Num 1:48 and Isa 39:1 for other examples of this relatively rare use of the vav [ו] consecutive). The final verb (if rendered positively) makes no sense in this context – God’s anger at their sin resulted in judgment, not deliverance. One of the alternatives involves an emendation to וַנִּרְשָׁע (vannirsha’, “and we were evil”; LXX, NRSV, TEV). The Vulgate and the Qumran scroll 1QIsaa support the MT reading. One can either accept an emendation or cast the statement as a question (as above).

[64:6]  376 tn Heb “and like a garment of menstruation [are] all our righteous acts”; KJV, NIV “filthy rags”; ASV “a polluted garment.”

[64:7]  377 tn Or “calls out in”; NASB, NIV, NRSV “calls on.”

[64:7]  378 tn Or “rouses himself”; NASB “arouses himself.”

[64:7]  379 tn Heb “for you have hidden your face from us.”

[64:7]  380 tc The Hebrew text reads literally, “and you caused us to melt in the hand of our sin.” The verb וַתְּמוּגֵנוּ (vattÿmugenu) is a Qal preterite 2nd person masculine singular with a 1st person common plural suffix from the root מוּג (mug, “melt”). However, elsewhere the Qal of this verb is intransitive. If the verbal root מוּג (mug) is retained here, the form should be emended to a Polel pattern (וַתְּמֹגְגֵנוּ, vattÿmogÿgenu). The translation assumes an emendation to וַתְּמַגְּנֵנוּ (vattÿmaggÿnenu, “and you handed us over”). This form is a Piel preterite 2nd person masculine singular with a 1st person common plural suffix from the verbal root מִגֵּן (miggen, “hand over, surrender”; see HALOT 545 s.v. מגן and BDB 171 s.v. מָגָן). The point is that God has abandoned them to their sinful ways and no longer seeks reconciliation.

[64:8]  381 tn On the force of וְעַתָּה (vÿattah) here, see HALOT 902 s.v. עַתָּה.

[64:8]  382 tn Heb “the work of your hand.”

[64:9]  383 tn Heb “do not remember sin continually.”

[64:9]  384 tn Heb “Look, gaze at your people, all of us.” Another option is to translate, “Take a good look! We are all your people.”

[64:10]  385 tn Heb “holy” (so KJV, NASB, NRSV, NLT); NIV “sacred.”

[64:10]  386 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

[64:11]  387 tn Heb “our source of pride.”

[64:11]  388 tn Or “all that we valued has become a ruin.”

[64:12]  389 tn Heb “because of these”; KJV, ASV “for these things.”

[65:1]  390 tn Heb “I allowed myself to be sought by those who did not ask.”

[65:1]  391 tn Heb “I allowed myself to be found by those who did not seek.”

[65:1]  392 tn Heb “call out in”; NASB, NIV, NRSV “call on.”

[65:2]  393 tn Heb “who walked [in] the way that is not good, after their thoughts.”

[65:3]  394 tn Heb “the people who provoke me to anger to my face continually.”

[65:3]  395 tn Or “gardens” (KJV, NASB, NIV, NRSV, NLT).

[65:3]  396 tn Or perhaps, “on tiles.”

[65:4]  397 sn Perhaps the worship of underworld deities or dead spirits is in view.

[65:4]  398 tn The Hebrew text reads literally, “and in the watches they spend the night.” Some understand נְּצוּרִים (nÿtsurim) as referring to “secret places” or “caves,” while others emend the text to וּבֵין צוּרִים (uven tsurim, “between the rocky cliffs”).

[65:4]  399 tn Heb “the flesh of the pig”; KJV, NAB, NASB “swine’s flesh.”

[65:4]  400 tc The marginal reading (Qere), supported by the Qumran scroll 1QIsaa, reads מְרַק (mÿraq, “broth”), while the consonantal text (Kethib) has פְרַק (feraq, “fragment”).

[65:6]  401 tn Heb “Look, it is written before me.”

[65:6]  402 tn Heb “I will pay back into their lap.”

[65:7]  403 tn Heb “the iniquities of your fathers.”

[65:7]  404 tn Or perhaps, “taunted”; KJV “blasphemed”; NAB “disgraced”; NASB “scorned”; NIV “defied”; NRSV “reviled.”

[65:7]  405 tn Heb “I will measure out their pay [from the] beginning into their lap,” i.e., he will give them everything they have earned.

[65:8]  406 tn Heb “just as.” In the Hebrew text the statement is one long sentence, “Just as…, so I will do….”

[65:8]  407 tn Heb “for a blessing is in it.”

[65:8]  408 tn Heb “by not destroying everyone.”

[65:9]  409 tn Heb “it.” The third feminine singular pronominal suffix probably refers to the land which contains the aforementioned mountains.

[65:10]  410 sn Sharon was a plain located to the west, along the Mediterranean coast north of Joppa and south of Carmel.

[65:10]  411 sn The Valley of Achor (“Achor” means “trouble” in Hebrew) was the site of Achan’s execution. It was located to the east, near Jericho.

[65:10]  412 tn Heb “a resting place for cattle”; NASB, NIV “for herds.”

[65:10]  413 tn Heb “for my people who seek me.”

[65:11]  414 tn The Hebrew text has simply, “forget.” The words “about worshiping at” are supplied in the translation for clarification.

[65:11]  415 tn The Hebrew has לַגַּד (laggad, “for Gad”), the name of a pagan deity. See HALOT 176 s.v. II גַּד 2.

[65:11]  416 tn The Hebrew has לַמְנִי (lamni, “for Meni”), the name of a pagan deity. See HALOT 602 s.v. מְגִי.

[65:12]  417 tn Heb “I assign you to the sword.” Some emend the Qal verb form מָנִיתִי (maniti, “I assign”) to the Piel מִנִּיתִי (minniti, “ I ordain”). The verb sounds like the name of the god Meni (מְנִי, mÿni, “Destiny, Fate”). The sound play draws attention to the irony of the statement. The sinners among God’s people worship the god Meni, apparently in an effort to ensure a bright destiny for themselves. But the Lord is the one who really determines their destiny and he has decreed their demise.

[65:12]  418 tn Or “at the slaughter”; NIV “for the slaughter”; NLT “before the executioner.”

[65:12]  419 tn Heb “that which is evil in my eyes.”

[65:14]  420 tn Heb “from the good of the heart.”

[65:14]  421 tn Heb “from the pain of the heart.”

[65:14]  422 tn Heb “from the breaking of the spirit.”

[65:15]  423 tn Heb “you will leave your name for an oath to my chosen ones.”

[65:15]  sn For an example of such a curse formula see Jer 29:22.

[65:16]  424 tn Or “in the land” (NIV, NCV, NRSV). The same phrase occurs again later in this verse, with the same options.

[65:16]  425 tn Heb “will pronounce a blessing by the God of truth.”

[65:16]  426 tn Heb “will take an oath by the God of truth.”

[65:16]  427 tn Heb “for the former distresses will be forgotten, and they will be hidden from my eyes.”

[65:17]  428 sn This hyperbolic statement likens the coming transformation of Jerusalem (see vv. 18-19) to a new creation of the cosmos.

[65:17]  429 tn Or perhaps, “the former things” (so ASV, NASB, NIV, NRSV); TEV “The events of the past.”

[65:17]  430 tn Heb “and they will not come up on the mind.”

[65:18]  431 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

[65:18]  432 tn Heb “Jerusalem, joy.” The next verse suggests the meaning: The Lord will create Jerusalem to be a source of joy to himself.

[65:18]  433 tn Heb “her people, happiness.” See the preceding note.

[65:19]  434 tn Heb “and I will rejoice in Jerusalem, and be happy in my people.”

[65:20]  435 tn Heb “and there will not be from there again a nursing infant of days,” i.e., one that lives just a few days.

[65:20]  436 tn Heb “or an old [man] who does not fill out his days.”

[65:20]  437 tn Heb “for the child as a son of one hundred years will die.” The point seems to be that those who die at the age of a hundred will be considered children, for the average life span will be much longer than that. The category “child” will be redefined in light of the expanded life spans that will characterize this new era.

[65:20]  438 tn Heb “the one who misses.” חָטָא (khata’) is used here in its basic sense of “miss the mark.” See HALOT 305 s.v. חטא. Another option is to translate, “and the sinner who reaches the age of a hundred will be cursed.”

[65:22]  439 tn Heb “they will not build, and another live [in it].”

[65:22]  440 tn Heb “they will not plant, and another eat.”

[65:22]  441 tn Heb “for like the days of the tree [will be] the days of my people.”

[65:22]  442 tn Heb “the work of their hands” (so KJV, NASB, NIV, NRSV); NLT “their hard-won gains.”

[65:23]  443 tn Heb “and they will not give birth to horror.”

[65:23]  444 tn Heb “for offspring blessed by the Lord they [will be], and their descendants along with them.”

[65:24]  445 tn The verb that introduces this verse serves as a discourse particle and is untranslated; see note on “in the future” in 2:2.

[65:25]  446 sn A similar statement appears in 11:6.

[65:25]  447 sn These words also appear in 11:7.

[65:25]  448 sn Some see an allusion to Gen 3:14 (note “you will eat dirt”). The point would be that even in this new era the snake (often taken as a symbol of Satan) remains under God’s curse. However, it is unlikely that such an allusion exists. Even if there is an echo of Gen 3:14, the primary allusion is to 11:8, where snakes are pictured as no longer dangerous. They will no longer attack other living creatures, but will be content to crawl along the ground. (The statement “you will eat dirt” in Gen 3:14 means “you will crawl on the ground.” In the same way the statement “dirt will be its food” in Isa 65:25 means “it will crawl on the ground.”)

[65:25]  449 tn Heb “in all my holy mountain.” These same words appear in 11:9. See the note there.

[65:25]  sn As in 11:1-9 the prophet anticipates a time when the categories predator-prey no longer exist. See the note at the end of 11:8.

[66:2]  450 tn Heb “all these.” The phrase refers to the heavens and earth, mentioned in the previous verse.

[66:2]  451 tn Heb “and all these were.” Some prefer to emend וַיִּהְיוּ (vayyihyu, “and they were”) to וְלִי הָיוּ (vÿli hayu, “and to me they were”), i.e., “and they belong to me.”

[66:2]  452 tn Heb “and to this one I look” (KJV and NASB both similar).

[66:2]  453 tn Heb “to the humble and the lowly in spirit and the one who trembles at my words.”

[66:3]  454 tn Heb “one who slaughters a bull, one who strikes down a man.” Some understand a comparison here and in the following lines. In God’s sight the one who sacrifices is like (i.e., regarded as) a murderer or one whose worship is ritually defiled or idolatrous. The translation above assumes that the language is not metaphorical, but descriptive of the sinners’ hypocritical behavior. (Note the last two lines of the verse, which suggests they are guilty of abominable practices.) On the one hand, they act pious and offer sacrifices; but at the same time they commit violent crimes against men, defile their sacrifices, and worship other gods.

[66:3]  455 tn Heb “one who sacrifices a lamb, one who breaks a dog’s neck.” Some understand a comparison, but see the previous note.

[66:3]  sn The significance of breaking a dog’s neck is uncertain, though the structure of the statement when compared to the preceding and following lines suggests the action is viewed in a negative light. According to Exod 13:13 and 34:20, one was to “redeem” a firstborn donkey by offering a lamb; if one did not “redeem” the firstborn donkey in this way, then its neck must be broken. According to Deut 21:1-9 a heifer’s neck was to be broken as part of the atonement ritual to purify the land from the guilt of bloodshed. It is not certain if these passages relate in any way to the action described in Isa 66:3.

[66:3]  456 tn Heb “one who offers an offering, pig’s blood.” Some understand a comparison, but see the note at the end of the first line.

[66:3]  457 tn Heb “one who offers incense as a memorial offering, one who blesses something false.” Some understand a comparison, but see the note at the end of the first line. אָוֶן (’aven), which has a wide variety of attested nuances, here refers metonymically to an idol. See HALOT 22 s.v. and BDB 20 s.v. 2.

[66:3]  458 tn Heb “also they have chosen their ways.”

[66:3]  459 tn Heb “their being [or “soul”] takes delight in their disgusting [things].”

[66:4]  460 tn The precise meaning of the noun is uncertain. It occurs only here and in 3:4 (but see the note there). It appears to be derived from the verbal root עָלַל (’alal), which can carry the nuance “deal severely.”

[66:4]  461 tn Heb “that which is evil in my eyes.”

[66:5]  462 tn Heb “who tremble at his word.”

[66:5]  463 tn Heb “brothers” (so NASB, NIV); NRSV “Your own people”; NLT “Your close relatives.”

[66:5]  464 tn Or “so that we might witness your joy.” The point of this statement is unclear.

[66:8]  465 tn Heb “land,” but here אֶרֶץ (’erets) stands metonymically for an organized nation (see the following line).

[66:9]  466 sn The rhetorical questions expect the answer, “Of course not!”

[66:11]  467 tn Or “in order that”; ASV, NRSV “that.”

[66:11]  468 tn Heb “you will suck and be satisfied, from her comforting breast.”

[66:11]  469 tn Heb “you will slurp and refresh yourselves from her heavy breast.”

[66:11]  sn Zion’s residents will benefit from and enjoy her great material prosperity. See v. 12.

[66:12]  470 tn Heb “Look, I am ready to extend to her like a river prosperity [or “peace”], and like an overflowing stream, the riches of nations.”

[66:12]  471 tn The words “from her breast” are supplied in the translation for clarification (see v. 11).

[66:13]  472 tn Heb “like a man whose mother comforts him.”

[66:14]  473 tn “and you will see and your heart will be happy.”

[66:14]  474 tn Heb “and your bones like grass will sprout.”

[66:14]  475 tn Heb “and the hand of the Lord will be made known to his servants, and anger to his enemies.”

[66:15]  476 sn Chariots are like a windstorm in their swift movement and in the way that they kick up dust.

[66:15]  477 tn Heb “to cause to return with the rage of his anger, and his battle cry [or “rebuke”] with flames of fire.”

[66:16]  478 tn Heb “flesh” (so KJV, NASB, NRSV); NIV “upon all men”; TEV “all the people of the world.”

[66:16]  479 tn Heb “many are the slain of the Lord.”

[66:17]  480 tn Heb “the ones who consecrate themselves and the ones who purify themselves toward the orchards [or “gardens”] after the one in the midst.” The precise meaning of the statement is unclear, though it is obvious that some form of idolatry is in view.

[66:17]  481 tn Heb “ones who eat the flesh of the pig and the disgusting thing and the mouse.”

[66:17]  482 tn Heb “together they will come to an end.”

[66:18]  483 tc The Hebrew text reads literally “and I, their deeds and their thoughts, am coming.” The syntax here is very problematic, suggesting that the text may have suffered corruption. Some suggest that the words “their deeds and their thoughts” have been displaced from v. 17. This line presents two primary challenges. In the first place, the personal pronoun “I” has no verb after it. Most translations insert “know” for the sake of clarity (NASB, NRSV, NLT, ESV). The NIV has “I, because of their actions and their imaginations…” Since God’s “knowledge” of Israel’s sin occasions judgment, the verb “hate” is an option as well (see above translation). The feminine form of the next verb (בָּאָה, baah) could be understood in one of two ways. One could provide an implied noun “time” (עֵת, ’et) and render the next line “the time is coming/has come” (NASB, ESV). One could also emend the feminine verb to the masculine בָּא (ba’) and have the “I” at the beginning of the line govern this verb as well (for the Lord is speaking here): “I am coming” (cf. NIV, NCV, NRSV, TEV, NLT).

[66:18]  484 tn Heb “and the tongues”; KJV, NASB, NIV, NRSV “and tongues.”

[66:19]  485 tn Heb “and I will set a sign among them.” The precise meaning of this statement is unclear. Elsewhere “to set a sign” means “perform a mighty act” (Ps 78:43; Jer 32:20), “make [someone] an object lesson” (Ezek 14:8), and “erect a [literal] standard” (Ps 74:4).

[66:19]  486 tn Some prefer to read “Put” (i.e., Libya).

[66:19]  487 sn That is, Lydia (in Asia Minor).

[66:19]  488 tn Heb “drawers of the bow” (KJV and ASV both similar).

[66:19]  489 sn Javan is generally identified today as Greece (so NIV, NCV, NLT).

[66:19]  490 tn Or “islands” (NIV).

[66:20]  491 tn Heb “brothers” (so NIV); NCV “fellow Israelites.”

[66:20]  492 tn The words “they will bring them” are supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.

[66:20]  493 tn The precise meaning of this word is uncertain. Some suggest it refers to “chariots.” See HALOT 498 s.v. *כִּרְכָּרָה.

[66:23]  494 tn Heb “new moon.” The verb that introduces this verse serves as a discourse particle and is untranslated; see note on “in the future” in 2:2.

[66:23]  495 tn Heb “all flesh” (so KJV, ASV, NRSV); NAB, NASB, NIV “all mankind”; NLT “All humanity.”

[66:23]  496 tn Or “bow down before” (NASB).

[66:24]  497 tn Heb “for their worm will not die.”

[66:24]  498 tn Heb “and their fire will not be extinguished.”

[66:24]  499 tn Heb “and they will be an abhorrence to all flesh.”

[66:24]  sn This verse depicts a huge mass burial site where the seemingly endless pile of maggot-infested corpses are being burned.

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