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Yesaya 2:6-22

The Lord’s Day of Judgment

2:6 Indeed, O Lord, 1  you have abandoned your people,

the descendants of Jacob.

For diviners from the east are everywhere; 2 

they consult omen readers like the Philistines do. 3 

Plenty of foreigners are around. 4 

2:7 Their land is full of gold and silver;

there is no end to their wealth. 5 

Their land is full of horses;

there is no end to their chariots. 6 

2:8 Their land is full of worthless idols;

they worship 7  the product of their own hands,

what their own fingers have fashioned.

2:9 Men bow down to them in homage,

they lie flat on the ground in worship. 8 

Don’t spare them! 9 

2:10 Go up into the rocky cliffs,

hide in the ground.

Get away from the dreadful judgment of the Lord, 10 

from his royal splendor!

2:11 Proud men will be brought low,

arrogant men will be humiliated; 11 

the Lord alone will be exalted 12 

in that day.

2:12 Indeed, the Lord who commands armies has planned a day of judgment, 13 

for 14  all the high and mighty,

for all who are proud – they will be humiliated;

2:13 for all the cedars of Lebanon,

that are so high and mighty,

for all the oaks of Bashan; 15 

2:14 for all the tall mountains,

for all the high hills, 16 

2:15 for every high tower,

for every fortified wall,

2:16 for all the large ships, 17 

for all the impressive 18  ships. 19 

2:17 Proud men will be humiliated,

arrogant men will be brought low; 20 

the Lord alone will be exalted 21 

in that day.

2:18 The worthless idols will be completely eliminated. 22 

2:19 They 23  will go into caves in the rocky cliffs

and into holes in the ground, 24 

trying to escape the dreadful judgment of the Lord 25 

and his royal splendor,

when he rises up to terrify the earth. 26 

2:20 At that time 27  men will throw

their silver and gold idols,

which they made for themselves to worship, 28 

into the caves where rodents and bats live, 29 

2:21 so they themselves can go into the crevices of the rocky cliffs

and the openings under the rocky overhangs, 30 

trying to escape the dreadful judgment of the Lord 31 

and his royal splendor,

when he rises up to terrify the earth. 32 

2:22 Stop trusting in human beings,

whose life’s breath is in their nostrils.

For why should they be given special consideration?

Yesaya 13:9-22


13:9 Look, the Lord’s day of judgment 33  is coming;

it is a day of cruelty and savage, raging anger, 34 

destroying 35  the earth 36 

and annihilating its sinners.

13:10 Indeed the stars in the sky and their constellations

no longer give out their light; 37 

the sun is darkened as soon as it rises,

and the moon does not shine. 38 

13:11 39 I will punish the world for its evil, 40 

and wicked people for their sin.

I will put an end to the pride of the insolent,

I will bring down the arrogance of tyrants. 41 

13:12 I will make human beings more scarce than pure gold,

and people more scarce 42  than gold from Ophir.

13:13 So I will shake the heavens, 43 

and the earth will shake loose from its foundation, 44 

because of the fury of the Lord who commands armies,

in the day he vents his raging anger. 45 

13:14 Like a frightened gazelle 46 

or a sheep with no shepherd,

each will turn toward home, 47 

each will run to his homeland.

13:15 Everyone who is caught will be stabbed;

everyone who is seized 48  will die 49  by the sword.

13:16 Their children will be smashed to pieces before their very eyes;

their houses will be looted

and their wives raped.

13:17 Look, I am stirring up the Medes to attack them; 50 

they are not concerned about silver,

nor are they interested in gold. 51 

13:18 Their arrows will cut young men to ribbons; 52 

they have no compassion on a person’s offspring, 53 

they will not 54  look with pity on children.

13:19 Babylon, the most admired 55  of kingdoms,

the Chaldeans’ source of honor and pride, 56 

will be destroyed by God

just as Sodom and Gomorrah were. 57 

13:20 No one will live there again;

no one will ever reside there again. 58 

No bedouin 59  will camp 60  there,

no shepherds will rest their flocks 61  there.

13:21 Wild animals will rest there,

the ruined 62  houses will be full of hyenas. 63 

Ostriches will live there,

wild goats will skip among the ruins. 64 

13:22 Wild dogs will yip in her ruined fortresses,

jackals will yelp in the once-splendid palaces. 65 

Her time is almost up, 66 

her days will not be prolonged. 67 

Yesaya 22:5-14


22:5 For the sovereign master, 68  the Lord who commands armies,

has planned a day of panic, defeat, and confusion. 69 

In the Valley of Vision 70  people shout 71 

and cry out to the hill. 72 

22:6 The Elamites picked up the quiver,

and came with chariots and horsemen; 73 

the men of Kir 74  prepared 75  the shield. 76 

22:7 Your very best valleys were full of chariots; 77 

horsemen confidently took their positions 78  at the gate.

22:8 They 79  removed the defenses 80  of Judah.

At that time 81  you looked

for the weapons in the House of the Forest. 82 

22:9 You saw the many breaks

in the walls of the city of David; 83 

you stored up water in the lower pool.

22:10 You counted the houses in Jerusalem, 84 

and demolished houses so you could have material to reinforce the wall. 85 

22:11 You made a reservoir between the two walls

for the water of the old pool –

but you did not trust in 86  the one who made it; 87 

you did not depend on 88  the one who formed it long ago!

22:12 At that time the sovereign master, the Lord who commands armies, called for weeping and mourning,

for shaved heads and sackcloth. 89 

22:13 But look, there is outright celebration! 90 

You say, “Kill the ox and slaughter the sheep,

eat meat and drink wine.

Eat and drink, for tomorrow we die!” 91 

22:14 The Lord who commands armies told me this: 92  “Certainly this sin will not be forgiven as long as you live,” 93  says the sovereign master, the Lord who commands armies.

Yesaya 24:1-23

The Lord Will Judge the Earth

24:1 Look, the Lord is ready to devastate the earth

and leave it in ruins;

he will mar its surface

and scatter its inhabitants.

24:2 Everyone will suffer – the priest as well as the people, 94 

the master as well as the servant, 95 

the elegant lady as well as the female attendant, 96 

the seller as well as the buyer, 97 

the borrower as well as the lender, 98 

the creditor as well as the debtor. 99 

24:3 The earth will be completely devastated

and thoroughly ransacked.

For the Lord has decreed this judgment. 100 

24:4 The earth 101  dries up 102  and withers,

the world shrivels up and withers;

the prominent people of the earth 103  fade away.

24:5 The earth is defiled by 104  its inhabitants, 105 

for they have violated laws,

disregarded the regulation, 106 

and broken the permanent treaty. 107 

24:6 So a treaty curse 108  devours the earth;

its inhabitants pay for their guilt. 109 

This is why the inhabitants of the earth disappear, 110 

and are reduced to just a handful of people. 111 

24:7 The new wine dries up,

the vines shrivel up,

all those who like to celebrate 112  groan.

24:8 The happy sound 113  of the tambourines stops,

the revelry of those who celebrate comes to a halt,

the happy sound of the harp ceases.

24:9 They no longer sing and drink wine; 114 

the beer tastes bitter to those who drink it.

24:10 The ruined town 115  is shattered;

all of the houses are shut up tight. 116 

24:11 They howl in the streets because of what happened to the wine; 117 

all joy turns to sorrow; 118 

celebrations disappear from the earth. 119 

24:12 The city is left in ruins; 120 

the gate is reduced to rubble. 121 

24:13 This is what will happen throughout 122  the earth,

among the nations.

It will be like when they beat an olive tree,

and just a few olives are left at the end of the harvest. 123 

24:14 They 124  lift their voices and shout joyfully;

they praise 125  the majesty of the Lord in the west.

24:15 So in the east 126  extol the Lord,

along the seacoasts extol 127  the fame 128  of the Lord God of Israel.

24:16 From the ends of the earth we 129  hear songs –

the Just One is majestic. 130 

But I 131  say, “I’m wasting away! I’m wasting away! I’m doomed!

Deceivers deceive, deceivers thoroughly deceive!” 132 

24:17 Terror, pit, and snare

are ready to overtake you inhabitants of the earth! 133 

24:18 The one who runs away from the sound of the terror

will fall into the pit; 134 

the one who climbs out of the pit,

will be trapped by the snare.

For the floodgates of the heavens 135  are opened up 136 

and the foundations of the earth shake.

24:19 The earth is broken in pieces,

the earth is ripped to shreds,

the earth shakes violently. 137 

24:20 The earth will stagger around 138  like a drunk;

it will sway back and forth like a hut in a windstorm. 139 

Its sin will weigh it down,

and it will fall and never get up again.

The Lord Will Become King

24:21 At that time 140  the Lord will punish 141 

the heavenly forces in the heavens 142 

and the earthly kings on the earth.

24:22 They will be imprisoned in a pit, 143 

locked up in a prison,

and after staying there for a long time, 144  they will be punished. 145 

24:23 The full moon will be covered up, 146 

the bright sun 147  will be darkened; 148 

for the Lord who commands armies will rule 149 

on Mount Zion in Jerusalem 150 

in the presence of his assembly, in majestic splendor. 151 

Yesaya 2:1-5

The Future Glory of Jerusalem

2:1 Here is the message about Judah and Jerusalem 152  that was revealed to Isaiah son of Amoz. 153 

2:2 In the future 154 

the mountain of the Lord’s temple will endure 155 

as the most important of mountains,

and will be the most prominent of hills. 156 

All the nations will stream to it,

2:3 many peoples will come and say,

“Come, let us go up to the Lord’s mountain,

to the temple of the God of Jacob,

so 157  he can teach us his requirements, 158 

and 159  we can follow his standards.” 160 

For Zion will be the center for moral instruction; 161 

the Lord will issue edicts from Jerusalem. 162 

2:4 He will judge disputes between nations;

he will settle cases for many peoples.

They will beat their swords into plowshares, 163 

and their spears into pruning hooks. 164 

Nations will not take up the sword against other nations,

and they will no longer train for war.

2:5 O descendants 165  of Jacob,

come, let us walk in the Lord’s guiding light. 166 

Yesaya 4:2-6

The Branch of the Lord

4:2 At that time 167 

the crops given by the Lord will bring admiration and honor; 168 

the produce of the land will be a source of pride and delight

to those who remain in Israel. 169 

4:3 Those remaining in Zion, 170  those left in Jerusalem, 171 

will be called “holy,” 172 

all in Jerusalem who are destined to live. 173 

4:4 At that time 174  the sovereign master 175  will wash the excrement 176  from Zion’s women,

he will rinse the bloodstains from Jerusalem’s midst, 177 

as he comes to judge

and to bring devastation. 178 

4:5 Then the Lord will create

over all of Mount Zion 179 

and over its convocations

a cloud and smoke by day

and a bright flame of fire by night; 180 

indeed a canopy will accompany the Lord’s glorious presence. 181 

4:6 By day it will be a shelter to provide shade from the heat,

as well as safety and protection from the heavy downpour. 182 

Yesaya 11:1--12:6

An Ideal King Establishes a Kingdom of Peace

11:1 A shoot will grow out of Jesse’s 183  root stock,

a bud will sprout 184  from his roots.

11:2 The Lord’s spirit will rest on him 185 

a spirit that gives extraordinary wisdom, 186 

a spirit that provides the ability to execute plans, 187 

a spirit that produces absolute loyalty to the Lord. 188 

11:3 He will take delight in obeying the Lord. 189 

He will not judge by mere appearances, 190 

or make decisions on the basis of hearsay. 191 

11:4 He will treat the poor fairly, 192 

and make right decisions 193  for the downtrodden of the earth. 194 

He will strike the earth with the rod of his mouth, 195 

and order the wicked to be executed. 196 

11:5 Justice will be like a belt around his waist,

integrity will be like a belt around his hips. 197 

11:6 A wolf will reside 198  with a lamb,

and a leopard will lie down with a young goat;

an ox and a young lion will graze together, 199 

as a small child leads them along.

11:7 A cow and a bear will graze together,

their young will lie down together. 200 

A lion, like an ox, will eat straw.

11:8 A baby 201  will play

over the hole of a snake; 202 

over the nest 203  of a serpent

an infant 204  will put his hand. 205 

11:9 They will no longer injure or destroy

on my entire royal mountain. 206 

For there will be universal submission to the Lord’s sovereignty,

just as the waters completely cover the sea. 207 

Israel is Reclaimed and Reunited

11:10 At that time 208  a root from Jesse 209  will stand like a signal flag for the nations. Nations will look to him for guidance, 210  and his residence will be majestic. 11:11 At that time 211  the sovereign master 212  will again lift his hand 213  to reclaim 214  the remnant of his people 215  from Assyria, Egypt, Pathros, 216  Cush, 217  Elam, Shinar, 218  Hamath, and the seacoasts. 219 

11:12 He will lift a signal flag for the nations;

he will gather Israel’s dispersed people 220 

and assemble Judah’s scattered people

from the four corners of the earth.

11:13 Ephraim’s jealousy will end, 221 

and Judah’s hostility 222  will be eliminated.

Ephraim will no longer be jealous of Judah,

and Judah will no longer be hostile toward Ephraim.

11:14 They will swoop down 223  on the Philistine hills to the west; 224 

together they will loot the people of the east.

They will take over Edom and Moab, 225 

and the Ammonites will be their subjects.

11:15 The Lord will divide 226  the gulf 227  of the Egyptian Sea; 228 

he will wave his hand over the Euphrates River 229  and send a strong wind, 230 

he will turn it into seven dried-up streams, 231 

and enable them to walk across in their sandals.

11:16 There will be a highway leading out of Assyria

for the remnant of his people, 232 

just as there was for Israel,

when 233  they went up from the land of Egypt.

12:1 At that time 234  you will say:

“I praise you, O Lord,

for even though you were angry with me,

your anger subsided, and you consoled me.

12:2 Look, God is my deliverer! 235 

I will trust in him 236  and not fear.

For the Lord gives me strength and protects me; 237 

he has become my deliverer.” 238 

12:3 Joyfully you will draw water

from the springs of deliverance. 239 

12:4 At that time 240  you will say:

“Praise the Lord!

Ask him for help! 241 

Publicize his mighty acts among the nations!

Make it known that he is unique! 242 

12:5 Sing to the Lord, for he has done magnificent things,

let this be known 243  throughout the earth!

12:6 Cry out and shout for joy, O citizens of Zion,

for the Holy One of Israel 244  acts mightily 245  among you!”

Yesaya 14:1-8


14:1 The Lord will certainly have compassion on Jacob; 246  he will again choose Israel as his special people 247  and restore 248  them to their land. Resident foreigners will join them and unite with the family 249  of Jacob. 14:2 Nations will take them and bring them back to their own place. Then the family of Jacob will make foreigners their servants as they settle in the Lord’s land. 250  They will make their captors captives and rule over the ones who oppressed them. 14:3 When the Lord gives you relief from your suffering and anxiety, 251  and from the hard labor which you were made to perform, 14:4 you will taunt the king of Babylon with these words: 252 

“Look how the oppressor has met his end!

Hostility 253  has ceased!

14:5 The Lord has broken the club of the wicked,

the scepter of rulers.

14:6 It 254  furiously struck down nations

with unceasing blows. 255 

It angrily ruled over nations,

oppressing them without restraint. 256 

14:7 The whole earth rests and is quiet;

they break into song.

14:8 The evergreens also rejoice over your demise, 257 

as do the cedars of Lebanon, singing, 258 

‘Since you fell asleep, 259 

no woodsman comes up to chop us down!’ 260 

Yesaya 25:1-9


25:1 O Lord, you are my God! 261 

I will exalt you in praise, I will extol your fame. 262 

For you have done extraordinary things,

and executed plans made long ago exactly as you decreed. 263 

25:2 Indeed, 264  you have made the city 265  into a heap of rubble,

the fortified town into a heap of ruins;

the fortress of foreigners 266  is no longer a city,

it will never be rebuilt.

25:3 So a strong nation will extol you;

the towns of 267  powerful nations will fear you.

25:4 For you are a protector for the poor,

a protector for the needy in their distress,

a shelter from the rainstorm,

a shade from the heat.

Though the breath of tyrants 268  is like a winter rainstorm, 269 

25:5 like heat 270  in a dry land,

you humble the boasting foreigners. 271 

Just as the shadow of a cloud causes the heat to subside, 272 

so he causes the song of tyrants to cease. 273 

25:6 The Lord who commands armies will hold a banquet for all the nations on this mountain. 274 

At this banquet there will be plenty of meat and aged wine –

tender meat and choicest wine. 275 

25:7 On this mountain he will swallow up

the shroud that is over all the peoples, 276 

the woven covering that is over all the nations; 277 

25:8 he will swallow up death permanently. 278 

The sovereign Lord will wipe away the tears from every face,

and remove his people’s disgrace from all the earth.

Indeed, the Lord has announced it! 279 

25:9 At that time they will say, 280 

“Look, here 281  is our God!

We waited for him and he delivered us.

Here 282  is the Lord! We waited for him.

Let’s rejoice and celebrate his deliverance!”

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[2:6]  1 tn The words “O Lord” are supplied in the translation for clarification. Isaiah addresses the Lord in prayer.

[2:6]  2 tc Heb “they are full from the east.” Various scholars retain the BHS reading and suggest that the prophet makes a general statement concerning Israel’s reliance on foreign customs (J. Watts, Isaiah [WBC], 1:32; J. de Waard, Isaiah, 12-13). Nevertheless, it appears that a word is missing. Based on the parallelism (note “omen readers” in 5:6c), many suggest that קֹסְמִים (qosÿmim, “diviners”) or מִקְסָם (miqsam, “divination”) has been accidentally omitted. Homoioteleuton could account for the omission of an original קֹסְמִים (note how this word and the following מִקֶּדֶם [miqqedem, “from the east”] both end in mem); an original מִקְסָם could have fallen out by homoioarcton (note how this word and the following מִקֶּדֶם both begin with mem).

[2:6]  3 tn Heb “and omen readers like the Philistines.” Through this line and the preceding, the prophet contends that Israel has heavily borrowed the pagan practices of the east and west (in violation of Lev 19:26; Deut 18:9-14).

[2:6]  4 tn Heb “and with the children of foreigners they [?].” The precise meaning of the final word is uncertain. Some take this verb (I שָׂפַק, safaq) to mean “slap,” supply the object “hands,” and translate, “they slap [hands] with foreigners”; HALOT 1349 s.v. I שׂפק. This could be a reference to foreign alliances. This translation has two disadvantages: It requires the conjectural insertion of “hands” and the use of this verb with its object prefixed with a בְּ (bet) preposition with this meaning does not occur elsewhere. The other uses of this verb refer to clapping at someone, an indication of hostility. The translation above assumes the verb is derived from II שׂפק (“to suffice,” attested in the Qal in 1 Kgs 20:10; HALOT 1349 s.v. II שׂפק). In this case the point is that a sufficient number of foreigners (in this case, too many!) live in the land. The disadvantage of this option is that the preposition prefixed to “the children of foreigners” does not occur with this verb elsewhere. The chosen translation is preferred since it continues the idea of abundant foreign influence and does not require a conjectural insertion or emendation.

[2:7]  5 tn Or “treasuries”; KJV “treasures.”

[2:7]  6 sn Judah’s royal bureaucracy had accumulated great wealth and military might, in violation of Deut 17:16-17.

[2:8]  7 tn Or “bow down to” (NIV, NRSV).

[2:9]  8 tn Heb “men bow down, men are low.” Since the verbs שָׁחָח (shakhakh) and שָׁפַל (shafal) are used later in this discourse to describe how God will humiliate proud men (see vv. 11, 17), some understand v. 9a as a prediction of judgment, “men will be brought down, men will be humiliated.” However, these prefixed verbal forms with vav (ו) consecutive appear to carry on the description that precedes and are better taken with the accusation. They draw attention to the fact that human beings actually bow down and worship before the lifeless products of their own hands.

[2:9]  9 tn Heb “don’t lift them up.” The idiom “lift up” (נָשָׂא with לְ, nasa’ with preposition lamed) can mean “spare, forgive” (see Gen 18:24, 26). Here the idiom plays on the preceding verbs. The idolaters are bowed low as they worship their false gods; the prophet asks God not to “lift them up.”

[2:10]  10 tn Heb “from the dread of the Lord,” that is, from the dread that he produces in the objects of his judgment.” The words “get away” are supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.

[2:11]  11 tn Heb “and the eyes of the pride of men will be brought low, and the arrogance of men will be brought down.” The repetition of the verbs שָׁפַל (shafal) and שָׁחָח (shakhakh) from v. 9 draws attention to the appropriate nature of the judgment. Those proud men who “bow low” before idols will be forced to “bow low” before God when he judges their sin.

[2:11]  12 tn Or “elevated”; CEV “honored.”

[2:12]  13 tn Heb “indeed [or “for”] the Lord who commands armies [traditionally, the Lord of hosts] has a day.”

[2:12]  14 tn Or “against” (NAB, NASB, NRSV).

[2:13]  15 sn The cedars of Lebanon and oaks of Bashan were well-known for their size and prominence. They make apt symbols here for powerful men who think of themselves as prominent and secure.

[2:14]  16 sn The high mountains and hills symbolize the apparent security of proud men, as do the high tower and fortified wall of v. 15.

[2:16]  17 tn Heb “the ships of Tarshish.” This probably refers to large ships either made in or capable of traveling to the distant western port of Tarshish.

[2:16]  18 tn Heb “desirable”; NAB, NIV “stately”; NRSV “beautiful.”

[2:16]  19 tn On the meaning of this word, which appears only here in the Hebrew Bible, see H. R. Cohen, Biblical Hapax Legomena (SBLDS), 41-42.

[2:16]  sn The ships mentioned in this verse were the best of their class, and therefore an apt metaphor for the proud men being denounced in this speech.

[2:17]  20 tn Heb “and the pride of men will be brought down, and the arrogance of men will be brought low.” As in v. 11, the repetition of the verbs שָׁפַל (shafal) and שָׁחָח (shakhakh) from v. 9 draws attention to the appropriate nature of the judgment. Those proud men who “bow low” before idols will be forced to “bow low” before God when he judges their sin.

[2:17]  21 tn Or “elevated”; NCV “praised”; CEV “honored.”

[2:18]  22 tc The verb “pass away” is singular in the Hebrew text, despite the plural subject (“worthless idols”) that precedes. The verb should be emended to a plural; the final vav (ו) has been accidentally omitted by haplography (note the vav at the beginning of the immediately following form).

[2:18]  tn Heb “will completely pass away”; ASV “shall utterly pass away.”

[2:19]  23 tn The identity of the grammatical subject is unclear. The “idols” could be the subject; they will “go” into the caves and holes when the idolaters throw them there in their haste to escape God’s judgment (see vv. 20-21). The picture of the idols, which represent the foreign deities worshiped by the people, fleeing from the Lord would be highly polemical and fit the overall mood of the chapter. However it seems more likely that the idolaters themselves are the subject, for v. 10 uses similar language in sarcastically urging them to run from judgment.

[2:19]  24 tn Heb “dust”; ASV “into the holes of the earth.”

[2:19]  25 tn Heb “from the dread of the Lord,” that is, from the dread that he produces in the objects of his judgment.” The words “trying to escape” are supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.

[2:19]  26 tn Or “land.” It is not certain if these verses are describing the judgment of Judah (see vv. 6-9) or a more universal judgment on all proud men.

[2:20]  27 tn Or “in that day” (KJV).

[2:20]  28 tn Or “bow down to.”

[2:20]  29 tn Heb “to the shrews and to the bats.” On the meaning of חֲפַרְפָּרָה (khafarparah, “shrew”), see HALOT 341 s.v. חֲפַרְפָּרָה. The BHS text as it stands (לַחְפֹּר פֵּרוֹת, perot lakhpor), makes no sense. Based on Theodotion’s transliteration and a similar reading in the Qumran scroll 1QIsaa, most scholars suggest that the MT mistakenly divided a noun (a hapax legomenon) that should be translated “moles,” “shrews,” or “rodents.”

[2:21]  30 sn The precise point of vv. 20-21 is not entirely clear. Are they taking the idols into their hiding places with them, because they are so attached to their man-made images? Or are they discarding the idols along the way as they retreat into the darkest places they can find? In either case it is obvious that the gods are incapable of helping them.

[2:21]  31 tn Heb “from the dread of the Lord,” that is, from the dread that he produces in the objects of his judgment.” The words “trying to escape” are supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.

[2:21]  32 tn Or “land.” It is not certain if these verses are describing the judgment of Judah (see vv. 6-9) or a more universal judgment on all proud men. Almost all English versions translate “earth,” taking this to refer to universal judgment.

[13:9]  33 tn Heb “the day of the Lord.”

[13:9]  34 tn Heb “[with] cruelty, and fury, and rage of anger.” Three synonyms for “anger” are piled up at the end of the line to emphasize the extraordinary degree of divine anger that will be exhibited in this judgment.

[13:9]  35 tn Heb “making desolate.”

[13:9]  36 tn Or “land” (KJV, NAB, NASB, NIV, NLT).

[13:10]  37 tn Heb “do not flash forth their light.”

[13:10]  38 tn Heb “does not shed forth its light.”

[13:11]  39 sn The Lord is definitely speaking (again?) at this point. See the note at v. 4.

[13:11]  40 tn Or “I will bring disaster on the world.” Hebrew רָעָה (raah) could refer to the judgment (i.e., disaster, calamity) or to the evil that prompts it. The structure of the parallel line favors the latter interpretation.

[13:11]  41 tn Or perhaps, “the violent”; cf. NASB, NIV “the ruthless.”

[13:12]  42 tn The verb is supplied in the translation from the first line. The verb in the first line (“I will make scarce”) does double duty in the parallel structure of the verse.

[13:13]  43 tn Or “the sky.” The Hebrew term שָׁמַיִם (shamayim) may be translated “heavens” or “sky” depending on the context.

[13:13]  44 tn Heb “from its place” (so NAB, NASB, NIV, NCV).

[13:13]  45 tn Heb “and in the day of the raging of his anger.”

[13:14]  46 tn Or “like a gazelle being chased.” The verb that introduces this verse serves as a discourse particle and is untranslated; see note on “in the future” in 2:2.

[13:14]  47 tn Heb “his people” (cf. KJV, NASB, NIV, NRSV) or “his nation” (cf. TEV “their own countries”).

[13:15]  48 tn Heb “carried off,” i.e., grabbed from the fleeing crowd. See HALOT 764 s.v. ספה.

[13:15]  49 tn Heb “will fall” (so KJV, NIV, NRSV); NLT “will be run through with a sword.”

[13:17]  50 tn Heb “against them”; NLT “against Babylon.”

[13:17]  51 sn They cannot be bought off, for they have a lust for bloodshed.

[13:18]  52 tn Heb “and bows cut to bits young men.” “Bows” stands by metonymy for arrows.

[13:18]  53 tn Heb “the fruit of the womb.”

[13:18]  54 tn Heb “their eye does not.” Here “eye” is a metonymy for the whole person.

[13:19]  55 tn Or “most beautiful” (NCV, TEV).

[13:19]  56 tn Heb “the beauty of the pride of the Chaldeans.”

[13:19]  sn The Chaldeans were a group of tribes who lived in southern Mesopotamia. The established the so-called neo-Babylonian empire in the late seventh century b.c. Their most famous king, Nebuchadnezzar, conquered Judah in 605 b.c. and destroyed Jerusalem in 586 b.c.

[13:19]  57 tn Heb “and Babylon…will be like the overthrow by God of Sodom and Gomorrah.” On מַהְפֵּכַת (mahpekhat, “overthrow”) see the note on the word “destruction” in 1:7.

[13:20]  58 tn Heb “she will not be inhabited forever, and she will not be dwelt in to generation and generation (i.e., forever).” The Lord declares that Babylon, personified as a woman, will not be inhabited. In other words, her people will be destroyed and the Chaldean empire will come to a permanent end.

[13:20]  59 tn Or “Arab” (NAB, NASB, NIV); cf. CEV, NLT “nomads.”

[13:20]  60 tn יַהֵל (yahel) is probably a corrupted form of יֶאֱהַל (yeehal). See GKC 186 §68.k.

[13:20]  61 tn The words “their flocks” are supplied in the translation for clarification. The Hebrew text does not supply the object here, but see Jer 33:12.

[13:21]  62 tn The word “ruined” is supplied in the translation for clarification.

[13:21]  63 tn The precise referent of this word in uncertain. See HALOT 29 s.v. *אֹחַ. Various English versions translate as “owls” (e.g., NAB, NASB), “wild dogs” (NCV); “jackals” (NIV); “howling creatures” (NRSV, NLT).

[13:21]  64 tn Heb “will skip there.”

[13:22]  65 tc The Hebrew text reads literally, “wild dogs will yip among his widows, and jackals in the palaces of pleasure.” The verb “yip” is supplied in the second line; it does double duty in the parallel structure. “His widows” makes little sense in this context; many emend the form (אַלְמנוֹתָיו, ’almnotayv) to the graphically similar אַרְמְנוֹתֶיהָ (’armÿnoteha, “her fortresses”), a reading that is assumed in the present translation. The use of “widows” may represent an intentional wordplay on “fortresses,” indicating that the fortresses are like dejected widows (J. N. Oswalt, Isaiah [NICOT], 1:308, n. 1).

[13:22]  66 tn Heb “near to come is her time.”

[13:22]  67 sn When was the prophecy of Babylon’s fall fulfilled? Some argue that the prophecy was fulfilled in 689 b.c. when the Assyrians under Sennacherib sacked and desecrated the city (this event is alluded to in 23:13). This may have been an initial phase in the fulfillment of the prophecy, but the reference to the involvement of the Medes (v. 17) and the suggestion that Babylon’s demise will bring about the restoration of Israel (14:1-2) indicate that the fall of Babylon to the Medes and Persians in 538 b.c. is the primary focus of the prophecy. (After all, the Lord did reveal to Isaiah that the Chaldeans [not the Assyrians] would someday conquer Jerusalem and take the people into exile [see 39:5-7].) However, the vivid picture of destruction in vv. 15-22 raises a problem. The Medes and Persians did not destroy the city; in fact Cyrus’ takeover of Babylon, though preceded by a military campaign, was relatively peaceful and even welcomed by some Babylonian religious officials. How then does one explain the prophecy’s description of the city’s violent fall? As noted above, the events of 689 b.c. and 538 b.c. may have been merged in the prophecy. However, it is more likely that the language is stylized and exaggerated for rhetorical effect. See Isa 34:11-15; Jer 50:39-40 (describing Babylon’s fall in 538 b.c.); 51:36-37 (describing Babylon’s fall in 538 b.c.); Zeph 2:13-15; the extra-biblical Sefire treaty curses; and Ashurbanipal’s description of the destruction of Elam in his royal annals. In other words, the events of 538 b.c. essentially, though not necessarily literally, fulfill the prophecy.

[22:5]  68 tn The Hebrew term translated “sovereign master” here and in vv. 12, 14, 15 is אֲדֹנָי (’adonay).

[22:5]  69 tn Heb “For [there is] a day of panic, and trampling, and confusion for the master, the Lord who commands armies [traditionally, the Lord of hosts].”

[22:5]  70 tn The traditional accentuation of the Hebrew text suggests that this phrase goes with what precedes.

[22:5]  71 tn The precise meaning of this statement is unclear. Some take קִר (qir) as “wall” and interpret the verb to mean “tear down.” However, tighter parallelism (note the reference to crying for help in the next line) is achieved if one takes both the verb and noun from a root, attested in Ugaritic and Arabic, meaning “make a sound.” See J. N. Oswalt, Isaiah (NICOT), 1:404, n. 5.

[22:5]  72 sn Perhaps “the hill” refers to the temple mount.

[22:6]  73 tn Heb “[with] the chariots of men, horsemen.”

[22:6]  74 sn A distant region in the direction of Mesopotamia; see Amos 1:5; 9:7.

[22:6]  75 tn Heb “Kir uncovers” (so NAB, NIV).

[22:6]  76 sn The Elamites and men of Kir may here symbolize a fierce army from a distant land. If this oracle anticipates a Babylonian conquest of the city (see 39:5-7), then the Elamites and men of Kir are perhaps viewed here as mercenaries in the Babylonian army. See J. N. Oswalt, Isaiah (NICOT), 1:410.

[22:7]  77 tn The verb that introduces this verse serves as a discourse particle and is untranslated; see note on “in the future” in 2:2.

[22:7]  78 tn Heb “taking a stand, take their stand.” The infinitive absolute emphasizes the following finite verb. The translation attempts to bring out this emphasis with the adverb “confidently.”

[22:8]  79 tn Heb “he,” i.e., the enemy invader. NASB, by its capitalization of the pronoun, takes this to refer to the Lord.

[22:8]  80 tn Heb “covering.”

[22:8]  81 tn Heb “in that day” (so KJV), likewise at the beginning of v. 12.

[22:8]  82 sn Perhaps this refers to a royal armory, or to Solomon’s “House of the Forest of Lebanon,” where weapons may have been kept (see 1 Kgs 10:16-17).

[22:9]  83 tn Heb “the breaks of the city of David, you saw that they were many.”

[22:10]  84 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

[22:10]  85 tn Heb “you demolished the houses to fortify the wall.”

[22:11]  86 tn Heb “look at”; NAB, NRSV “did not look to.”

[22:11]  87 tn The antecedent of the third feminine singular suffix here and in the next line is unclear. The closest feminine noun is “pool” in the first half of the verse. Perhaps this “old pool” symbolizes the entire city, which had prospered because of God’s provision and protection through the years.

[22:11]  88 tn Heb “did not see.”

[22:12]  89 tn Heb “for baldness and the wearing of sackcloth.” See the note at 15:2.

[22:13]  90 tn Heb “happiness and joy.”

[22:13]  91 tn The prophet here quotes what the fatalistic people are saying. The introductory “you say” is supplied in the translation for clarification; the concluding verb “we die” makes it clear the people are speaking. The six verbs translated as imperatives are actually infinitives absolute, functioning here as finite verbs.

[22:14]  92 tn Heb “it was revealed in my ears [by?] the Lord who commands armies [traditionally, the Lord of hosts].”

[22:14]  93 tn Heb “Certainly this sin will not be atoned for until you die.” This does not imply that their death will bring atonement; rather it emphasizes that their sin is unpardonable. The statement has the form of an oath.

[24:2]  94 tn Heb “and it will be like the people, like the priest.”

[24:2]  95 tn Heb “like the servant, like his master.”

[24:2]  96 tn Heb “like the female servant, like her mistress.”

[24:2]  97 tn Heb “like the buyer, like the seller.”

[24:2]  98 tn Heb “like the lender, like the borrower.”

[24:2]  99 tn Heb “like the creditor, just as the one to whom he lends.”

[24:3]  100 tn Heb “for the Lord has spoken this word.”

[24:4]  101 tn Some prefer to read “land” here, but the word pair אֶרֶץ/תֵּבֵל (erets/tevel [see the corresponding term in the parallel line]) elsewhere clearly designates the earth/world (see 1 Sam 2:8; 1 Chr 16:30; Job 37;12; Pss 19:4; 24:1; 33:8; 89:11; 90:2; 96:13; 98:9; Prov 8:26, 31; Isa 14:16-17; 34:1; Jer 10:12; 51:15; Lam 4:12). According to L. Stadelmann, תבל designates “the habitable part of the world” (The Hebrew Conception of the World [AnBib], 130).

[24:4]  102 tn Or “mourns” (BDB 5 s.v. אָבַל). HALOT 6-7 lists the homonyms I אבל (“mourn”) and II אבל (“dry up”). They propose the second here on the basis of parallelism.

[24:4]  103 tn Heb “the height of the people of the earth.” The translation assumes an emendation of the singular form מְרוֹם (mÿrom, “height of”) to the plural construct מְרֹמֵי (mÿrome, “high ones of”; note the plural verb at the beginning of the line), and understands the latter as referring to the prominent people of human society.

[24:5]  104 tn Heb “beneath”; cf. KJV, ASV, NRSV “under”; NAB “because of.”

[24:5]  105 sn Isa 26:21 suggests that the earth’s inhabitants defiled the earth by shedding the blood of their fellow human beings. See also Num 35:33-34, which assumes that bloodshed defiles a land.

[24:5]  106 tn Heb “moved past [the?] regulation.”

[24:5]  107 tn Or “everlasting covenant” (KJV, NASB, NIV, NRSV, NLT); NAB “the ancient covenant”; CEV “their agreement that was to last forever.”

[24:5]  sn For a lengthy discussion of the identity of this covenant/treaty, see R. Chisholm, “The ‘Everlasting Covenant’ and the ‘City of Chaos’: Intentional Ambiguity and Irony in Isaiah 24,” CTR 6 (1993): 237-53. In this context, where judgment comes upon both the pagan nations and God’s covenant community, the phrase “permanent treaty” is intentionally ambiguous. For the nations this treaty is the Noahic mandate of Gen 9:1-7 with its specific stipulations and central regulation (Gen 9:7). By shedding blood, the warlike nations violated this treaty, which promotes population growth and prohibits murder. For Israel, which was also guilty of bloodshed (see Isa 1:15, 21; 4:4), this “permanent treaty” would refer more specifically to the Mosaic Law and its regulations prohibiting murder (Exod 20:13; Num 35:6-34), which are an extension of the Noahic mandate.

[24:6]  108 sn Ancient Near Eastern treaties often had “curses,” or threatened judgments, attached to them. (See Deut 28 for a biblical example of such curses.) The party or parties taking an oath of allegiance acknowledged that disobedience would activate these curses, which typically threatened loss of agricultural fertility as depicted in the following verses.

[24:6]  109 tn The verb אָשַׁם (’asham, “be guilty”) is here used metonymically to mean “pay, suffer for one’s guilt” (see HALOT 95 s.v. אשׁם).

[24:6]  110 tn BDB 359 s.v. חָרַר derives the verb חָרוּ (kharu) from חָרַר (kharar, “burn”), but HALOT 351 s.v. II חרה understands a hapax legomenon חָרָה (kharah, “to diminish in number,” a homonym of חָרָה) here, relating it to an alleged Arabic cognate meaning “to decrease.” The Qumran scroll 1QIsaa has חורו, perhaps understanding the root as חָוַר (khavar, “grow pale”; see Isa 29:22 and HALOT 299 s.v. I חור).

[24:6]  111 tn Heb “and mankind is left small [in number].”

[24:7]  112 tn The Hebrew text reads literally, “all the joyful in heart,” but the context specifies the context as parties and drinking bouts.

[24:8]  113 tn Heb “the joy” (again later in this verse).

[24:9]  114 tn Heb “with a song they do not drink wine.”

[24:10]  115 tn Heb “the city of chaos” (so NAB, NASB, NRSV). Isaiah uses the term תֹּהוּ (tohu) rather frequently of things (like idols) that are empty and worthless (see BDB 1062 s.v.), so the word might characterize the city as rebellious or morally worthless. However, in this context, which focuses on the effects of divine judgment, it probably refers to the ruined or worthless condition in which the city is left (note the use of the word in Isa 34:11). For a discussion of the identity of this city, see R. Chisholm, “The ‘Everlasting Covenant’ and the ‘City of Chaos’: Intentional Ambiguity and Irony in Isaiah 24,” CTR 6 (1993): 237-53. In the context of universal judgment depicted in Isa 24, this city represents all the nations and cities of the world which, like Babylon of old and the powers/cities mentioned in chapters 13-23, rebel against God’s authority. Behind the stereotypical language one can detect various specific manifestations of this symbolic and paradigmatic city, including Babylon, Moab, and Jerusalem, all of which are alluded or referred to in chapters 24-27.

[24:10]  116 tn Heb “every house is closed up from entering.”

[24:11]  117 tn Heb “[there is] an outcry over the wine in the streets.”

[24:11]  118 tn Heb “all joy turns to evening,” the darkness of evening symbolizing distress and sorrow.

[24:11]  119 tn Heb “the joy of the earth disappears.”

[24:12]  120 tn Heb “and there is left in the city desolation.”

[24:12]  121 tn Heb “and [into] rubble the gate is crushed.”

[24:13]  122 tn Heb “in the midst of” (so KJV, ASV, NASB).

[24:13]  123 sn The judgment will severely reduce the earth’s population. See v. 6.

[24:14]  124 sn The remnant of the nations (see v. 13) may be the unspecified subject. If so, then those who have survived the judgment begin to praise God.

[24:14]  125 tn Heb “they yell out concerning.”

[24:15]  126 tc The Hebrew text reads literally, “in the lights,” interpreted by some to mean “in the region of light,” referring to the east. Some scholars have suggested the emendation of בָּאֻרִים (baurim) to בְּאִיֵּי הַיָּם (bÿiyyey hayyam, “along the seacoasts”), a phrase that is repeated in the next line. In this case, the two lines form synonymous parallelism. If one retains the MT reading (as above), “in the east” and “along the seacoasts” depict the two ends of the earth to refer to all the earth (as a merism).

[24:15]  127 tn The word “extol” is supplied in the translation; the verb in the first line does double duty in the parallelism.

[24:15]  128 tn Heb “name,” which here stands for God’s reputation achieved by his mighty deeds.

[24:16]  129 sn The identity of the subject is unclear. Apparently in vv. 15-16a an unidentified group responds to the praise they hear in the west by exhorting others to participate.

[24:16]  130 tn Heb “Beauty belongs to the just one.” These words may summarize the main theme of the songs mentioned in the preceding line.

[24:16]  131 sn The prophet seems to contradict what he hears the group saying. Their words are premature because more destruction is coming.

[24:16]  132 tn Heb “and [with] deception deceivers deceive.”

[24:16]  tn Verse 16b is a classic example of Hebrew wordplay. In the first line (“I’m wasting away…”) four consecutive words end with hireq yod ( ִי); in the second line all forms are derived from the root בָּגַד (bagad). The repetition of sound draws attention to the prophet’s lament.

[24:17]  133 tn Heb “[are] upon you, O inhabitant of the earth.” The first line of v. 17 provides another classic example of Hebrew wordplay. The names of the three instruments of judgment (פָח,פַחַת,פַּחַד [pakhad, fakhat, fakh]) all begin with the letters פח (peh-khet) and the first two end in dental consonants (ת/ד, tet/dalet). Once again the repetition of sound draws attention to the statement and contributes to the theme of the inescapability of judgment. As their similar-sounding names suggest, terror, pit, and snare are allies in destroying the objects of divine wrath.

[24:18]  134 tn The verb that introduces this verse serves as a discourse particle and is untranslated; see note on “in the future” in 2:2.

[24:18]  135 tn Heb “from the height”; KJV “from on high.”

[24:18]  136 sn The language reflects the account of the Noahic Flood (see Gen 7:11).

[24:19]  137 tn Once more repetition is used to draw attention to a statement. In the Hebrew text each lines ends with אֶרֶץ (’erets, “earth”). Each line also uses a Hitpolel verb form from a geminate root preceded by an emphatic infinitive absolute.

[24:20]  138 tn Heb “staggering, staggers.” The Hebrew text uses the infinitive absolute before the finite verb for emphasis and sound play.

[24:20]  139 tn The words “in a windstorm” are supplied in the translation to clarify the metaphor.

[24:21]  140 tn Or “in that day” (so KJV). The verb that introduces this verse serves as a discourse particle and is untranslated; see note on “in the future” in 2:2.

[24:21]  141 tn Heb “visit [in judgment].”

[24:21]  142 tn Heb “the host of the height in the height.” The “host of the height/heaven” refers to the heavenly luminaries (stars and planets, see, among others, Deut 4:19; 17:3; 2 Kgs 17:16; 21:3, 5; 23:4-5; 2 Chr 33:3, 5) that populate the divine/heavenly assembly in mythological and prescientific Israelite thought (see Job 38:7; Isa 14:13).

[24:22]  143 tn Heb “they will be gathered [in] a gathering [as] a prisoner in a cistern.” It is tempting to eliminate אֲסֵפָה (’asefah, “a gathering”) as dittographic or as a gloss, but sound repetition is one of the main characteristics of the style of this section of the chapter.

[24:22]  144 tn Heb “and after a multitude of days.”

[24:22]  145 tn Heb “visited” (so KJV, ASV). This verse can mean to visit for good or for evil. The translation assumes the latter, based on v. 21a. However, BDB 823 s.v. פָּקַד B.Niph.2 suggests the meaning “visit graciously” here, in which case one might translate “they will be released.”

[24:23]  146 tn Heb “will be ashamed.”

[24:23]  147 tn Or “glow of the sun.”

[24:23]  148 tn Heb “will be ashamed” (so NCV).

[24:23]  149 tn Or “take his throne,” “become king.”

[24:23]  150 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

[24:23]  151 tn Heb “and before his elders [in] splendor.”

[2:1]  152 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

[2:1]  153 tn Heb “the word which Isaiah son of Amoz saw concerning Judah and Jerusalem.”

[2:2]  154 tn Heb “in the end of the days.” This phrase may refer generally to the future, or more technically to the final period of history. See BDB 31 s.v. ַאחֲרִית. The verse begins with a verb that functions as a “discourse particle” and is not translated. In numerous places throughout the OT, the “to be” verb with a prefixed conjunction (וְהָיָה [vÿhayah] and וַיְהִי [vayÿhi]) occurs in this fashion to introduce a circumstantial clause and does not require translation.

[2:2]  155 tn Or “be established” (KJV, NIV, NRSV).

[2:2]  156 tn Heb “as the chief of the mountains, and will be lifted up above the hills.” The image of Mount Zion being elevated above other mountains and hills pictures the prominence it will attain in the future.

[2:3]  157 tn The prefixed verb form with simple vav (ו) introduces a purpose/result clause after the preceding prefixed verb form (probably to be taken as a cohortative; see IBHS 650 §39.2.2a).

[2:3]  158 tn Heb “his ways.” In this context God’s “ways” are the standards of moral conduct he decrees that people should live by.

[2:3]  159 tn The cohortative with vav (ו) after the prefixed verb form indicates the ultimate purpose/goal of their action.

[2:3]  160 tn Heb “walk in his ways.”

[2:3]  161 tn Heb “for out of Zion will go instruction.”

[2:3]  162 tn Heb “the word of the Lord from Jerusalem.”

[2:4]  163 sn Instead of referring to the large plow as a whole, the plowshare is simply the metal tip which actually breaks the earth and cuts the furrow.

[2:4]  164 sn This implement was used to prune the vines, i.e., to cut off extra leaves and young shoots (H. Wildberger, Isaiah, 1:93; M. Klingbeil, NIDOTTE 1:1117-18). It was a short knife with a curved hook at the end sharpened on the inside like a sickle. Breaking weapons and fashioning agricultural implements indicates a transition from fear and stress to peace and security.

[2:5]  165 tn Heb “house,” referring to the family line or descendants (likewise in v. 6).

[2:5]  166 tn Heb “let’s walk in the light of the Lord.” In this context, which speaks of the Lord’s instruction and commands, the “light of the Lord” refers to his moral standards by which he seeks to guide his people. One could paraphrase, “let’s obey the Lord’s commands.”

[4:2]  167 tn Or “in that day” (KJV).

[4:2]  168 tn Heb “and the vegetation of the Lord will become beauty and honor.” Many English versions understand the phrase צֶמַח יְהוָה (tsemakh yÿhvah) as a messianic reference and render it, “the Branch of the Lord” (so KJV, NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV, NLT, and others). Though צֶמַח (tsemakh) is used by later prophets of a royal descendant (Jer 23;5; 33:15; Zech 3:8; 6:12), those passages contain clear contextual indicators that a human ruler is in view and that the word is being used in a metaphorical way of offspring. However, in Isa 4:2 there are no such contextual indicators. To the contrary, in the parallel structure of the verse צֶמַח יְהוָה corresponds to “produce of the land,” a phrase that refers elsewhere exclusively to literal agricultural produce (see Num 13:20, 26; Deut 1:25). In the majority of its uses צֶמַח refers to literal crops or vegetation (in Ps 65:10 the Lord is the source of this vegetation). A reference to the Lord restoring crops would make excellent sense in Isa 4 and the prophets frequently included this theme in their visions of the future age (see Isa 30:23-24; 32:20; Jer 31:12; Ezek 34:26-29; and Amos 9:13-14).

[4:2]  169 tn Heb “and the fruit of the land will become pride and beauty for the remnant of Israel.”

[4:3]  170 tn The verb that introduces this verse serves as a discourse particle and is untranslated; see note on “in the future” in 2:2.

[4:3]  171 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

[4:3]  172 tn Or “set apart,” cf. CEV “special.”

[4:3]  173 tn Heb “all who are written down for life in Jerusalem.” A city register is envisioned; everyone whose name appears on the roll will be spared. This group comprises the remnant of the city referred to earlier in the verse.

[4:4]  174 tn Heb “when” (so KJV, NAB, NASB); CEV “after”; NRSV “once.”

[4:4]  175 tn The Hebrew term translated “sovereign master” here is אֲדֹנָי (’adonai).

[4:4]  176 tn The word refers elsewhere to vomit (Isa 28:8) and fecal material (Isa 36:12). Many English versions render this somewhat euphemistically as “filth” (e.g., NAB, NIV, NRSV). Ironically in God’s sight the beautiful jewelry described earlier is nothing but vomit and feces, for it symbolizes the moral decay of the city’s residents (cf. NLT “moral filth”).

[4:4]  177 sn See 1:21 for a related concept.

[4:4]  178 tn Heb “by a spirit of judgment and by a spirit of burning.” The precise meaning of the second half of the verse is uncertain. רוּחַ (ruakh) can be understood as “wind” in which case the passage pictures the Lord using a destructive wind as an instrument of judgment. However, this would create a mixed metaphor, for the first half of the verse uses the imagery of washing and rinsing to depict judgment. Perhaps the image would be that of a windstorm accompanied by heavy rain. רוּחַ can also mean “spirit,” in which case the verse may be referring to the Lord’s Spirit or, more likely, to a disposition that the Lord brings to the task of judgment. It is also uncertain if בָּעַר (baar) here means “burning” or “sweeping away, devastating.”

[4:5]  179 tn Heb “over all the place, Mount Zion.” Cf. NLT “Jerusalem”; CEV “the whole city.”

[4:5]  180 tn Heb “a cloud by day, and smoke, and brightness of fire, a flame by night.” Though the accents in the Hebrew text suggest otherwise, it might be preferable to take “smoke” with what follows, since one would expect smoke to accompany fire.

[4:5]  sn The imagery of the cloud by day and fire by night recalls the days of Moses, when a cloud and fire were tangible reminders that the Lord was guiding and protecting his people (Exod 13:21-22; 14:19, 24). In the future age envisioned in Isa 4, the Lord’s protective presence will be a reality.

[4:5]  181 tn Heb “indeed (or “for”) over all the glory, a canopy.” This may allude to Exod 40:34-35, where a cloud overshadows the meeting tent as it is filled with God’s glory.

[4:6]  182 tn Heb “a shelter it will be for shade by day from heat, and for a place of refuge and for a hiding place from cloudburst and rain.” Since both of the last nouns of this verse can mean rain, they can either refer to the rain storm and the rain as distinct items or together refer to a heavy downpour. Regardless, they do not represent unrelated phenomena.

[11:1]  183 sn The text mentions David’s father Jesse, instead of the great king himself. Perhaps this is done for rhetorical reasons to suggest that a new David, not just another disappointing Davidic descendant, will arise. Other prophets call the coming ideal Davidic king “David” or picture him as the second coming of David, as it were. See Jer 30:9; Ezek 34:23-24; 37:24-25; Hos 3:5; and Mic 5:2 (as well as the note there).

[11:1]  184 tc The Hebrew text has יִפְרֶה (yifreh, “will bear fruit,” from פָּרָה, parah), but the ancient versions, as well as the parallelism suggest that יִפְרַח (yifrakh, “will sprout”, from פָּרַח, parakh) is the better reading here. See J. N. Oswalt, Isaiah (NICOT), 1:276, n. 2.

[11:2]  185 sn Like David (1 Sam 16:13), this king will be energized by the Lord’s spirit.

[11:2]  186 tn Heb “a spirit of wisdom and understanding.” The synonyms are joined here to emphasize the degree of wisdom he will possess. His wisdom will enable him to make just legal decisions (v. 3). A very similar phrase occurs in Eph 1:17.

[11:2]  187 tn Heb “a spirit of counsel [or “strategy”] and strength.” The construction is a hendiadys; the point is that he will have the strength/ability to execute the plans/strategies he devises. This ability will enable him to suppress oppressors and implement just policies (v. 4).

[11:2]  188 tn Heb “a spirit of knowledge and fear of the Lord.” “Knowledge” is used here in its covenantal sense and refers to a recognition of God’s authority and a willingness to submit to it. See Jer 22:16. “Fear” here refers to a healthy respect for God’s authority which produces obedience. Taken together the two terms emphasize the single quality of loyalty to the Lord. This loyalty guarantees that he will make just legal decisions and implement just policies (vv. 4-5).

[11:3]  189 tn The Hebrew text reads literally, “and his smelling is in the fear of the Lord.” In Amos 5:21 the Hiphil of רוּחַ (ruakh, “smell”) carries the nuance of “smell with delight, get pleasure from.” There the Lord declares that he does not “smell with delight” (i.e., get pleasure from) Israel’s religious assemblies, which probably stand by metonymy for the incense offered during these festivals. In Isa 11:3 there is no sacrificial context to suggest such a use, but it is possible that “the fear of the Lord” is likened to incense. This coming king will get the same kind of delight from obeying (fearing) the Lord, as a deity does in the incense offered by worshipers. Some regard such an explanation as strained in this context, and prefer to omit this line from the text as a virtual dittograph of the preceding statement.

[11:3]  190 tn Heb “by what appears to his eyes”; KJV “after the sight of his eyes”; NIV “by what he sees with his eyes.”

[11:3]  191 tn Heb “by what is heard by his ears”; NRSV “by what his ears hear.”

[11:4]  192 tn Heb “with justice” (so NAB) or “with righteousness” (so KJV, NASB, NIV, NRSV).

[11:4]  193 tn Heb “make decisions with rectitude”; cf. ASV, NRSV “and decide with equity.”

[11:4]  194 tn Or “land” (NAB, NCV, CEV). It is uncertain if the passage is picturing universal dominion or focusing on the king’s rule over his covenant people. The reference to God’s “holy mountain” in v. 9 and the description of renewed Israelite conquests in v. 14 suggest the latter, though v. 10 seems to refer to a universal kingdom (see 2:2-4).

[11:4]  195 tc The Hebrew text reads literally, “and he will strike the earth with the scepter of his mouth.” Some have suggested that in this context אֶרֶץ (’erets, “earth”) as an object of judgment seems too broad in scope. The parallelism is tighter if one emends the word to ץ(י)עָרִ (’arits, “potentate, tyrant”). The phrase “scepter of his mouth” refers to the royal (note “scepter”) decrees that he proclaims with his mouth. Because these decrees will have authority and power (see v. 2) behind them, they can be described as “striking” the tyrants down. Nevertheless, the MT reading may not need emending. Isaiah refers to the entire “earth” as the object of God’s judgment in several places without specifying the wicked as the object of the judgment (Isa 24:17-21; 26:9, 21; 28:22; cf. 13:11).

[11:4]  196 tn Heb “and by the breath of his lips he will kill the wicked.” The “breath of his lips” refers to his speech, specifically in this context his official decrees that the wicked oppressors be eliminated from his realm. See the preceding note.

[11:5]  197 tn Heb “Justice will be the belt [or “undergarment”] on his waist, integrity the belt [or “undergarment”] on his hips.” The point of the metaphor is uncertain. If a belt worn outside the robe is in view, then the point might be that justice/integrity will be readily visible or that these qualities will give support to his rule. If an undergarment is in view, then the idea might be that these characteristics support his rule or that they are basic to everything else.

[11:6]  198 tn The verb גּוּר (gur) normally refers to living as a dependent, resident alien in another society.

[11:6]  199 tc The Hebrew text reads, “and an ox, and a young lion, and a fatling together.” Since the preceding lines refer to two animals and include a verb, many emend וּמְרִיא (umÿri’, “and the fatling”) to an otherwise unattested verb יִמְרְאוּ (yimrÿu, “they will graze”); cf. NAB, TEV, CEV. One of the Qumran copies of Isaiah confirms this suggestion (1QIsaa). The present translation assumes this change.

[11:7]  200 tn Heb “and a cow and a bear will graze – together – they will lie down, their young.” This is a case of pivot pattern; יַחְדָּו (yakhddav, “together”) goes with both the preceding and following statements.

[11:8]  201 tn Heb “one sucking,” i.e., still being nursed by his mother.

[11:8]  202 tn Or perhaps, “cobra” (cf. NAB, NASB, NIV, NCV); KJV, ASV, NRSV “asp.”

[11:8]  203 tc The Hebrew text has the otherwise unattested מְאוּרַת (mÿurat, “place of light”), i.e., opening of a hole. Some prefer to emend to מְעָרַת (mÿarat, “cave, den”).

[11:8]  204 tn Heb “one who is weaned” (cf. KJV, ASV, NASB, NRSV).

[11:8]  205 sn The transformation of the animal kingdom depicted here typifies what will occur in human society under the just rule of the ideal king (see vv. 3-5). The categories “predator-prey” (i.e., oppressor-oppressed) will no longer exist.

[11:9]  206 tn Heb “in all my holy mountain.” In the most basic sense the Lord’s “holy mountain” is the mountain from which he rules over his kingdom (see Ezek 28:14, 16). More specifically it probably refers to Mount Zion/Jerusalem or to the entire land of Israel (see Pss 2:6; 15:1; 43:3; Isa 56:7; 57:13; Ezek 20:40; Ob 16; Zeph 3:11). If the Lord’s universal kingdom is in view in this context (see the note on “earth” at v. 4), then the phrase would probably be metonymic here, standing for God’s worldwide dominion (see the next line).

[11:9]  207 tn Heb “for the earth will be full of knowledge of the Lord, as the waters cover the sea.” The translation assumes that a universal kingdom is depicted here, but אֶרֶץ (’erets) could be translated “land” (see the note at v. 4). “Knowledge of the Lord” refers here to a recognition of the Lord’s sovereignty which results in a willingness to submit to his authority. See the note at v. 2.

[11:10]  208 tn Or “in that day” (KJV). The verb that introduces this verse serves as a discourse particle and is untranslated; see note on “in the future” in 2:2.

[11:10]  209 sn See the note at v. 1.

[11:10]  210 tn Heb “ a root from Jesse, which stands for a signal flag of the nations, of him nations will inquire” [or “seek”].

[11:11]  211 tn Or “in that day” (KJV). The verb that introduces this verse serves as a discourse particle and is untranslated; see note on “in the future” in 2:2.

[11:11]  212 tn The Hebrew term translated “sovereign master” here is אֲדֹנָי (’adonai).

[11:11]  213 tc The Hebrew text reads, “the sovereign master will again, a second time, his hand.” The auxiliary verb יוֹסִיף (yosif), which literally means “add,” needs a main verb to complete it. Consequently many emend שֵׁנִית (shenit, “a second time”) to an infinitive. Some propose the form שַׁנֹּת (shannot, a Piel infinitive construct from שָׁנָה, shanah) and relate it semantically to an Arabic cognate meaning “to be high.” If the Hebrew text is retained a verb must be supplied. “Second time” would allude back to the events of the Exodus (see vv. 15-16).

[11:11]  214 tn Or “acquire”; KJV, ASV, NASB, NRSV “recover.”

[11:11]  215 tn Heb “the remnant of his people who remain.”

[11:11]  216 sn Perhaps a reference to Upper (i.e., southern) Egypt (so NIV, NLT; NCV “South Egypt”).

[11:11]  217 tn Or “Ethiopia” (NAB, NRSV, NLT).

[11:11]  218 tn Or “Babylonia” (NIV, NCV, TEV, NLT).

[11:11]  219 tn Or perhaps, “the islands of the sea.”

[11:12]  220 tn Or “the banished of Israel,” i.e., the exiles.

[11:13]  221 tn Heb “turn aside”; KJV, NASB, NRSV “depart.”

[11:13]  222 tn Heb “hostile ones of Judah.” Elsewhere when the substantival participle of צָרָר (tsarar) takes a pronominal suffix or appears in a construct relationship, the following genitive is objective. (For a list of texts see BDB 865 s.v. III צָרַר) In this case the phrase “hostile ones of Judah” means “those who are hostile toward Judah,” i.e., Judah’s enemies. However, the parallel couplet that follows suggests that Judah’s hostility toward Ephraim is in view. In this case “hostile ones of Judah” means “hostile ones from Judah.” The translation above assumes the latter, giving the immediate context priority over general usage.

[11:14]  223 tn Heb “fly.” Ephraim/Judah are compared to a bird of prey.

[11:14]  224 tn Heb “on the shoulder of Philistia toward the sea.” This refers to the slopes of the hill country west of Judah. See HALOT 506 s.v. כָּתֵף.

[11:14]  225 tn Heb “Edom and Moab [will be the place of] the outstretching of their hand,” i.e., included in their area of jurisdiction (see HALOT 648 s.v. ח(וֹ)מִשְׁלֹ).

[11:15]  226 tn The verb is usually understood as “put under the ban, destroy,” or emended to חָרָב (kharav, “dry up”). However, HALOT 354 s.v. II חרם proposes a homonymic root meaning “divide.”

[11:15]  227 tn Heb “tongue” (so KJV, NAB, NASB, NRSV).

[11:15]  228 sn That is, the Red Sea.

[11:15]  229 tn Heb “the river”; capitalized in some English versions (e.g., ASV, NASB, NRSV) as a reference to the Euphrates River.

[11:15]  230 tn Heb “with the [?] of his wind” [or “breath”]. The Hebrew term עַיָם (’ayam) occurs only here. Some attempt to relate the word to an Arabic root and translate, “scorching [or “hot”] wind.” This interpretation fits especially well if one reads “dry up” in the previous line. Others prefer to emend the form to עֹצֶם (’otsem, “strong”). See HALOT 817 s.v. עֲצַם.

[11:15]  231 tn Heb “seven streams.” The Hebrew term נַחַל (nakhal, “stream”) refers to a wadi, or seasonal stream, which runs during the rainy season, but is otherwise dry. The context (see v. 15b) here favors the translation, “dried up streams.” The number seven suggests totality and completeness. Here it indicates that God’s provision for escape will be thorough and more than capable of accommodating the returning exiles.

[11:16]  232 tn Heb “and there will be a highway for the remnant of his people who remain, from Assyria.”

[11:16]  233 tn Heb “in the day” (so KJV).

[12:1]  234 tn Or “in that day” (KJV).

[12:2]  235 tn Or “salvation” (KJV, NIV, NRSV).

[12:2]  236 tn The words “in him” are supplied in the translation for clarification.

[12:2]  237 tc The Hebrew text has, “for my strength and protection [is] the Lord, the Lord (Heb “Yah, Yahweh).” The word יְהוָה (yehvah) is probably dittographic or explanatory here (note that the short form of the name [יָהּ, yah] precedes, and that the graphically similar וַיְהִי [vayÿhi] follows). Exod 15:2, the passage from which the words of v. 2b are taken, has only יָהּ. The word זִמְרָת (zimrat) is traditionally understood as meaning “song,” in which case one might translate, “for the Lord gives me strength and joy” (i.e., a reason to sing); note that in v. 5 the verb זָמַר (zamar, “sing”) appears. Many recent commentators, however, have argued that the noun is here instead a homonym, meaning “protection” or “strength.” See HALOT 274 s.v. III *זמר.

[12:2]  238 tn Or “salvation” (so many English versions, e.g., KJV, NIV, NRSV, NLT); NAB “my savior.”

[12:3]  239 tn Or “salvation” (so many English versions, e.g., KJV, NAB, NIV, NRSV, NLT); CEV “victory.”

[12:3]  sn Water is here a metaphor for renewed life; the springs symbolize the restoration of God’s favor.

[12:4]  240 tn Or “in that day” (KJV).

[12:4]  241 tn Heb “call in his name,” i.e., “invoke his name.”

[12:4]  242 tn Heb “bring to remembrance that his name is exalted.” The Lord’s “name” stands here for his character and reputation.

[12:5]  243 tc The translation follows the marginal reading (Qere), which is a Hophal participle from יָדַע (yada’), understood here in a gerundive sense.

[12:6]  244 sn See the note on the phrase “the Holy One of Israel” in 1:4.

[12:6]  245 tn Or “is great” (TEV). However, the context emphasizes his mighty acts of deliverance (cf. NCV), not some general or vague character quality.

[14:1]  246 tn The sentence begins with כִּי (ki), which is understood as asseverative (“certainly”) in the translation. Another option is to translate, “For the Lord will have compassion.” In this case one of the reasons for Babylon’s coming demise (13:22b) is the Lord’s desire to restore his people.

[14:1]  247 tn The words “as his special people” are supplied in the translation for clarification.

[14:1]  248 tn Or “settle” (NASB, NIV, NCV, NLT).

[14:1]  249 tn Heb “house.”

[14:2]  250 tn Heb “and the house of Jacob will take possession of them [i.e., the nations], on the land of the Lord, as male servants and female servants.”

[14:3]  251 tn The verb that introduces this verse serves as a discourse particle and is untranslated; see note on “in the future” in 2:2.

[14:4]  252 tn Heb “you will lift up this taunt over the king of Babylon, saying.”

[14:4]  253 tc The word in the Hebrew text (מַדְהֵבָה, madhevah) is unattested elsewhere and of uncertain meaning. Many (following the Qumran scroll 1QIsaa) assume a dalet-resh (ד-ר) confusion and emend the form to מַרְהֵבָה (marhevah, “onslaught”). See HALOT 548 s.v. II *מִדָּה and HALOT 633 s.v. *מַרְהֵבָה.

[14:6]  254 tn Or perhaps, “he” (cf. KJV; NCV “the king of Babylon”). The present translation understands the referent of the pronoun (“it”) to be the “club/scepter” of the preceding line.

[14:6]  255 tn Heb “it was striking down nations in fury [with] a blow without ceasing.” The participle (“striking down”) suggests repeated or continuous action in past time.

[14:6]  256 tn Heb “it was ruling in anger nations [with] oppression without restraint.” The participle (“ruling”) suggests repeated or continuous action in past time.

[14:8]  257 tn Heb “concerning you.”

[14:8]  258 tn The word “singing” is supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons. Note that the personified trees speak in the second half of the verse.

[14:8]  259 tn Heb “lay down” (in death); cf. NAB “laid to rest.”

[14:8]  260 tn Heb “the [wood]cutter does not come up against us.”

[25:1]  261 sn The prophet speaks here as one who has observed the coming judgment of the proud.

[25:1]  262 tn Heb “name.” See the note at 24:15.

[25:1]  263 tn Heb “plans from long ago [in] faithfulness, trustworthiness.” The feminine noun אֱמוּנָה (’emunah, “faithfulness”) and masculine noun אֹמֶן (’omen, “trustworthiness”), both of which are derived from the root אָמַן (’aman), are juxtaposed to emphasize the basic idea conveyed by the synonyms. Here they describe the absolute reliability of the divine plans.

[25:2]  264 tn Or “For” (KJV, NAB, NASB, NRSV).

[25:2]  265 tn The Hebrew text has “you have made from the city.” The prefixed mem (מ) on עִיר (’ir, “city”) was probably originally an enclitic mem suffixed to the preceding verb. See J. N. Oswalt, Isaiah (NICOT), 1:456, n. 3.

[25:2]  266 tc Some with support from the LXX emend זָרִים (zarim, “foreigners”) to זֵדִים (zedim, “the insolent”).

[25:3]  267 tn The Hebrew text has a singular form, but it should be emended to a plural or eliminated altogether. The noun may have been accidentally copied from the preceding verse.

[25:4]  268 tn Or perhaps, “the violent”; NIV, NRSV “the ruthless.”

[25:4]  269 tc The Hebrew text has, “like a rainstorm of a wall,” which might be interpreted to mean, “like a rainstorm battering against a wall.” The translation assumes an emendation of קִיר (qir, “wall”) to קֹר (qor, “cold, winter”; cf. Gen 8:22). See J. N. Oswalt, Isaiah (NICOT), 1:457, n. 6, for discussion.

[25:5]  270 tn Or “drought” (TEV).

[25:5]  271 tn Heb “the tumult of foreigners.”

[25:5]  272 tn Heb “[like] heat in the shadow of a cloud.”

[25:5]  273 tn The translation assumes that the verb יַעֲנֶה (yaaneh) is a Hiphil imperfect from עָנָה (’anah, “be afflicted, humiliated”). In this context with “song” as object it means to “quiet” (see HALOT 853-54 s.v. II ענה). Some prefer to emend the form to the second person singular, so that it will agree with the second person verb earlier in the verse. BDB 776 s.v. III עָנָה Qal.1 understands the form as Qal, with “song” as subject, in which case one might translate “the song of tyrants will be silent.” An emendation of the form to a Niphal (יֵעָנֶה, yeaneh) would yield the same translation.

[25:6]  274 sn That is, Mount Zion (see 24:23); cf. TEV; NLT “In Jerusalem.”

[25:6]  275 tn Heb “And the Lord who commands armies [traditionally, the Lord of hosts] will make for all the nations on this mountain a banquet of meats, a banquet of wine dregs, meats filled with marrow, dregs that are filtered.”

[25:7]  276 tn The Hebrew text reads, “the face of the shroud, the shroud over all the nations.” Some emend the second הַלּוֹט (hallot) to a passive participle הַלּוּט (hallut, “that is wrapped”).

[25:7]  277 sn The point of the imagery is unclear. Perhaps the shroud/covering referred to was associated with death in some way (see v. 8).

[25:8]  278 sn The image of the Lord “swallowing” death would be especially powerful, for death was viewed in Canaanite mythology and culture as a hungry enemy that swallows its victims. See the note at 5:14.

[25:8]  279 tn Heb “has spoken” (so NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV, NLT).

[25:9]  280 tn Heb “and one will say in that day.”

[25:9]  281 tn Heb “this [one].”

[25:9]  282 tn Heb “this [one].”

TIP #16: Tampilan Pasal untuk mengeksplorasi pasal; Tampilan Ayat untuk menganalisa ayat; Multi Ayat/Kutipan untuk menampilkan daftar ayat. [SEMUA]
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