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Mazmur 73:1--89:52

Konteks

Book 3
(Psalms 73-89)

Psalm 73 1 

A psalm by Asaph.

73:1 Certainly God is good to Israel, 2 

and to those whose motives are pure! 3 

73:2 But as for me, my feet almost slipped;

my feet almost slid out from under me. 4 

73:3 For I envied those who are proud,

as I observed 5  the prosperity 6  of the wicked.

73:4 For they suffer no pain; 7 

their bodies 8  are strong and well-fed. 9 

73:5 They are immune to the trouble common to men;

they do not suffer as other men do. 10 

73:6 Arrogance is their necklace, 11 

and violence their clothing. 12 

73:7 Their prosperity causes them to do wrong; 13 

their thoughts are sinful. 14 

73:8 They mock 15  and say evil things; 16 

they proudly threaten violence. 17 

73:9 They speak as if they rule in heaven,

and lay claim to the earth. 18 

73:10 Therefore they have more than enough food to eat,

and even suck up the water of the sea. 19 

73:11 They say, “How does God know what we do?

Is the sovereign one aware of what goes on?” 20 

73:12 Take a good look! This is what the wicked are like, 21 

those who always have it so easy and get richer and richer. 22 

73:13 I concluded, 23  “Surely in vain I have kept my motives 24  pure

and maintained a pure lifestyle. 25 

73:14 I suffer all day long,

and am punished every morning.”

73:15 If I had publicized these thoughts, 26 

I would have betrayed your loyal followers. 27 

73:16 When I tried to make sense of this,

it was troubling to me. 28 

73:17 Then I entered the precincts of God’s temple, 29 

and understood the destiny of the wicked. 30 

73:18 Surely 31  you put them in slippery places;

you bring them down 32  to ruin.

73:19 How desolate they become in a mere moment!

Terrifying judgments make their demise complete! 33 

73:20 They are like a dream after one wakes up. 34 

O Lord, when you awake 35  you will despise them. 36 

73:21 Yes, 37  my spirit was bitter, 38 

and my insides felt sharp pain. 39 

73:22 I was ignorant 40  and lacked insight; 41 

I was as senseless as an animal before you. 42 

73:23 But I am continually with you;

you hold my right hand.

73:24 You guide 43  me by your wise advice,

and then you will lead me to a position of honor. 44 

73:25 Whom do I have in heaven but you?

I desire no one but you on earth. 45 

73:26 My flesh and my heart may grow weak, 46 

but God always 47  protects my heart and gives me stability. 48 

73:27 Yes, 49  look! Those far from you 50  die;

you destroy everyone who is unfaithful to you. 51 

73:28 But as for me, God’s presence is all I need. 52 

I have made the sovereign Lord my shelter,

as 53  I declare all the things you have done.

Psalm 74 54 

A well-written song 55  by Asaph.

74:1 Why, O God, have you permanently rejected us? 56 

Why does your anger burn 57  against the sheep of your pasture?

74:2 Remember your people 58  whom you acquired in ancient times,

whom you rescued 59  so they could be your very own nation, 60 

as well as Mount Zion, where you dwell!

74:3 Hurry and look 61  at the permanent ruins,

and all the damage the enemy has done to the temple! 62 

74:4 Your enemies roar 63  in the middle of your sanctuary; 64 

they set up their battle flags. 65 

74:5 They invade like lumberjacks

swinging their axes in a thick forest. 66 

74:6 And now 67  they are tearing down 68  all its engravings 69 

with axes 70  and crowbars. 71 

74:7 They set your sanctuary on fire;

they desecrate your dwelling place by knocking it to the ground. 72 

74:8 They say to themselves, 73 

“We will oppress all of them.” 74 

They burn down all the places where people worship God in the land. 75 

74:9 We do not see any signs of God’s presence; 76 

there are no longer any prophets 77 

and we have no one to tell us how long this will last. 78 

74:10 How long, O God, will the adversary hurl insults?

Will the enemy blaspheme your name forever?

74:11 Why do you remain inactive?

Intervene and destroy him! 79 

74:12 But God has been my 80  king from ancient times,

performing acts of deliverance on the earth. 81 

74:13 You destroyed 82  the sea by your strength;

you shattered the heads of the sea monster 83  in the water.

74:14 You crushed the heads of Leviathan; 84 

you fed 85  him to the people who live along the coast. 86 

74:15 You broke open the spring and the stream; 87 

you dried up perpetually flowing rivers. 88 

74:16 You established the cycle of day and night; 89 

you put the moon 90  and sun in place. 91 

74:17 You set up all the boundaries 92  of the earth;

you created the cycle of summer and winter. 93 

74:18 Remember how 94  the enemy hurls insults, O Lord, 95 

and how a foolish nation blasphemes your name!

74:19 Do not hand the life of your dove 96  over to a wild animal!

Do not continue to disregard 97  the lives of your oppressed people!

74:20 Remember your covenant promises, 98 

for the dark regions of the earth are full of places where violence rules. 99 

74:21 Do not let the afflicted be turned back in shame!

Let the oppressed and poor praise your name! 100 

74:22 Rise up, O God! Defend your honor! 101 

Remember how fools insult you all day long! 102 

74:23 Do not disregard 103  what your enemies say, 104 

or the unceasing shouts of those who defy you. 105 

Psalm 75 106 

For the music director; according to the al-tashcheth style; 107  a psalm of Asaph; a song.

75:1 We give thanks to you, O God! We give thanks!

You reveal your presence; 108 

people tell about your amazing deeds.

75:2 God says, 109 

“At the appointed times, 110 

I judge 111  fairly.

75:3 When the earth and all its inhabitants dissolve in fear, 112 

I make its pillars secure.” 113  (Selah)

75:4 114 I say to the proud, “Do not be proud,”

and to the wicked, “Do not be so confident of victory! 115 

75:5 Do not be so certain you have won! 116 

Do not speak with your head held so high! 117 

75:6 For victory does not come from the east or west,

or from the wilderness. 118 

75:7 For God is the judge! 119 

He brings one down and exalts another. 120 

75:8 For the Lord holds in his hand a cup full

of foaming wine mixed with spices, 121 

and pours it out. 122 

Surely all the wicked of the earth

will slurp it up and drink it to its very last drop.” 123 

75:9 As for me, I will continually tell what you have done; 124 

I will sing praises to the God of Jacob!

75:10 God says, 125 

“I will bring down all the power of the wicked;

the godly will be victorious.” 126 

Psalm 76 127 

For the music director; to be accompanied by stringed instruments; a psalm of Asaph, a song.

76:1 God has revealed himself in Judah; 128 

in Israel his reputation 129  is great.

76:2 He lives in Salem; 130 

he dwells in Zion. 131 

76:3 There he shattered the arrows, 132 

the shield, the sword, and the rest of the weapons of war. 133  (Selah)

76:4 You shine brightly and reveal your majesty,

as you descend from the hills where you killed your prey. 134 

76:5 The bravehearted 135  were plundered; 136 

they “fell asleep.” 137 

All the warriors were helpless. 138 

76:6 At the sound of your battle cry, 139  O God of Jacob,

both rider 140  and horse “fell asleep.” 141 

76:7 You are awesome! Yes, you!

Who can withstand your intense anger? 142 

76:8 From heaven you announced what their punishment would be. 143 

The earth 144  was afraid and silent

76:9 when God arose to execute judgment,

and to deliver all the oppressed of the earth. (Selah)

76:10 Certainly 145  your angry judgment upon men will bring you praise; 146 

you reveal your anger in full measure. 147 

76:11 Make vows to the Lord your God and repay them!

Let all those who surround him 148  bring tribute to the awesome one!

76:12 He humbles princes; 149 

the kings of the earth regard him as awesome. 150 

Psalm 77 151 

For the music director, Jeduthun; a psalm of Asaph.

77:1 I will cry out to God 152  and call for help!

I will cry out to God and he will pay attention 153  to me.

77:2 In my time of trouble I sought 154  the Lord.

I kept my hand raised in prayer throughout the night. 155 

I 156  refused to be comforted.

77:3 I said, “I will remember God while I groan;

I will think about him while my strength leaves me.” 157  (Selah)

77:4 You held my eyelids open; 158 

I was troubled and could not speak. 159 

77:5 I thought about the days of old,

about ancient times. 160 

77:6 I said, “During the night I will remember the song I once sang;

I will think very carefully.”

I tried to make sense of what was happening. 161 

77:7 I asked, 162  “Will the Lord reject me forever?

Will he never again show me his favor?

77:8 Has his loyal love disappeared forever?

Has his promise 163  failed forever?

77:9 Has God forgotten to be merciful?

Has his anger stifled his compassion?”

77:10 Then I said, “I am sickened by the thought

that the sovereign One 164  might become inactive. 165 

77:11 I will remember the works of the Lord.

Yes, I will remember the amazing things you did long ago! 166 

77:12 I will think about all you have done;

I will reflect upon your deeds!”

77:13 167 O God, your deeds are extraordinary! 168 

What god can compare to our great God? 169 

77:14 You are the God who does amazing things;

you have revealed your strength among the nations.

77:15 You delivered 170  your people by your strength 171 

the children of Jacob and Joseph. (Selah)

77:16 The waters 172  saw you, O God,

the waters saw you and trembled. 173 

Yes, the depths of the sea 174  shook with fear. 175 

77:17 The clouds poured down rain; 176 

the skies thundered. 177 

Yes, your arrows 178  flashed about.

77:18 Your thunderous voice was heard in the wind;

the lightning bolts lit up the world;

the earth trembled and shook. 179 

77:19 You walked through the sea; 180 

you passed through the surging waters, 181 

but left no footprints. 182 

77:20 You led your people like a flock of sheep,

by the hand of Moses and Aaron.

Psalm 78 183 

A well-written song 184  by Asaph.

78:1 Pay attention, my people, to my instruction!

Listen to the words I speak! 185 

78:2 I will sing a song that imparts wisdom;

I will make insightful observations about the past. 186 

78:3 What we have heard and learned 187 

that which our ancestors 188  have told us –

78:4 we will not hide from their 189  descendants.

We will tell the next generation

about the Lord’s praiseworthy acts, 190 

about his strength and the amazing things he has done.

78:5 He established a rule 191  in Jacob;

he set up a law in Israel.

He commanded our ancestors

to make his deeds known to their descendants, 192 

78:6 so that the next generation, children yet to be born,

might know about them.

They will grow up and tell their descendants about them. 193 

78:7 Then they will place their confidence in God.

They will not forget the works of God,

and they will obey 194  his commands.

78:8 Then they will not be like their ancestors,

who were a stubborn and rebellious generation,

a generation that was not committed

and faithful to God. 195 

78:9 The Ephraimites 196  were armed with bows, 197 

but they retreated in the day of battle. 198 

78:10 They did not keep their covenant with God, 199 

and they refused to obey 200  his law.

78:11 They forgot what he had done, 201 

the amazing things he had shown them.

78:12 He did amazing things in the sight of their ancestors,

in the land of Egypt, in the region of Zoan. 202 

78:13 He divided the sea and led them across it;

he made the water stand in a heap.

78:14 He led them with a cloud by day,

and with the light of a fire all night long.

78:15 He broke open rocks in the wilderness,

and gave them enough water to fill the depths of the sea. 203 

78:16 He caused streams to flow from the rock,

and made the water flow like rivers.

78:17 Yet they continued to sin against him,

and rebelled against the sovereign One 204  in the desert.

78:18 They willfully challenged God 205 

by asking for food to satisfy their appetite.

78:19 They insulted God, saying, 206 

“Is God really able to give us food 207  in the wilderness?

78:20 Yes, 208  he struck a rock and water flowed out,

streams gushed forth.

But can he also give us food?

Will he provide meat for his people?”

78:21 When 209  the Lord heard this, he was furious.

A fire broke out against Jacob,

and his anger flared up 210  against Israel,

78:22 because they did not have faith in God,

and did not trust his ability to deliver them. 211 

78:23 He gave a command to the clouds above,

and opened the doors in the sky.

78:24 He rained down manna for them to eat;

he gave them the grain of heaven. 212 

78:25 Man ate the food of the mighty ones. 213 

He sent them more than enough to eat. 214 

78:26 He brought the east wind through the sky,

and by his strength led forth the south wind.

78:27 He rained down meat on them like dust,

birds as numerous as the sand on the seashores. 215 

78:28 He caused them to fall right in the middle of their camp,

all around their homes.

78:29 They ate until they were stuffed; 216 

he gave them what they desired.

78:30 They were not yet filled up, 217 

their food was still in their mouths,

78:31 when the anger of God flared up against them.

He killed some of the strongest of them;

he brought the young men of Israel to their knees.

78:32 Despite all this, they continued to sin,

and did not trust him to do amazing things. 218 

78:33 So he caused them to die unsatisfied 219 

and filled with terror. 220 

78:34 When he struck them down, 221  they sought his favor; 222 

they turned back and longed for God.

78:35 They remembered that God was their protector, 223 

and that the sovereign God was their deliverer. 224 

78:36 But they deceived him with their words, 225 

and lied to him. 226 

78:37 They were not really committed to him, 227 

and they were unfaithful to his covenant.

78:38 Yet he is compassionate.

He forgives sin and does not destroy.

He often holds back his anger,

and does not stir up his fury. 228 

78:39 He remembered 229  that they were made of flesh,

and were like a wind that blows past and does not return. 230 

78:40 How often they rebelled against him in the wilderness,

and insulted him 231  in the desert!

78:41 They again challenged God, 232 

and offended 233  the Holy One of Israel. 234 

78:42 They did not remember what he had done, 235 

how he delivered them from the enemy, 236 

78:43 when he performed his awesome deeds 237  in Egypt,

and his acts of judgment 238  in the region of Zoan.

78:44 He turned their rivers into blood,

and they could not drink from their streams.

78:45 He sent swarms of biting insects against them, 239 

as well as frogs that overran their land. 240 

78:46 He gave their crops to the grasshopper,

the fruit of their labor to the locust.

78:47 He destroyed their vines with hail,

and their sycamore-fig trees with driving rain.

78:48 He rained hail down on their cattle, 241 

and hurled lightning bolts down on their livestock. 242 

78:49 His raging anger lashed out against them, 243 

He sent fury, rage, and trouble

as messengers who bring disaster. 244 

78:50 He sent his anger in full force; 245 

he did not spare them from death;

he handed their lives over to destruction. 246 

78:51 He struck down all the firstborn in Egypt,

the firstfruits of their reproductive power 247  in the tents of Ham.

78:52 Yet he brought out his people like sheep;

he led them through the wilderness like a flock.

78:53 He guided them safely along,

while the sea covered their enemies.

78:54 He brought them to the border of his holy land,

to this mountainous land 248  which his right hand 249  acquired.

78:55 He drove the nations out from before them;

he assigned them their tribal allotments 250 

and allowed the tribes of Israel to settle down. 251 

78:56 Yet they challenged and defied 252  the sovereign God, 253 

and did not obey 254  his commands. 255 

78:57 They were unfaithful 256  and acted as treacherously as 257  their ancestors;

they were as unreliable as a malfunctioning bow. 258 

78:58 They made him angry with their pagan shrines, 259 

and made him jealous with their idols.

78:59 God heard and was angry;

he completely rejected Israel.

78:60 He abandoned 260  the sanctuary at Shiloh,

the tent where he lived among men.

78:61 He allowed the symbol of his strong presence to be captured; 261 

he gave the symbol of his splendor 262  into the hand of the enemy. 263 

78:62 He delivered his people over to the sword,

and was angry with his chosen nation. 264 

78:63 Fire consumed their 265  young men,

and their 266  virgins remained unmarried. 267 

78:64 Their 268  priests fell by the sword,

but their 269  widows did not weep. 270 

78:65 But then the Lord awoke from his sleep; 271 

he was like a warrior in a drunken rage. 272 

78:66 He drove his enemies back;

he made them a permanent target for insults. 273 

78:67 He rejected the tent of Joseph;

he did not choose the tribe of Ephraim.

78:68 He chose the tribe of Judah,

and Mount Zion, which he loves.

78:69 He made his sanctuary as enduring as the heavens above; 274 

as secure as the earth, which he established permanently. 275 

78:70 He chose David, his servant,

and took him from the sheepfolds.

78:71 He took him away from following the mother sheep, 276 

and made him the shepherd of Jacob, his people,

and of Israel, his chosen nation. 277 

78:72 David 278  cared for them with pure motives; 279 

he led them with skill. 280 

Psalm 79 281 

A psalm of Asaph.

79:1 O God, foreigners 282  have invaded your chosen land; 283 

they have polluted your holy temple

and turned Jerusalem 284  into a heap of ruins.

79:2 They have given the corpses of your servants

to the birds of the sky; 285 

the flesh of your loyal followers

to the beasts of the earth.

79:3 They have made their blood flow like water

all around Jerusalem, and there is no one to bury them. 286 

79:4 We have become an object of disdain to our neighbors;

those who live on our borders taunt and insult us. 287 

79:5 How long will this go on, O Lord? 288 

Will you stay angry forever?

How long will your rage 289  burn like fire?

79:6 Pour out your anger on the nations that do not acknowledge you, 290 

on the kingdoms that do not pray to you! 291 

79:7 For they have devoured Jacob

and destroyed his home.

79:8 Do not hold us accountable for the sins of earlier generations! 292 

Quickly send your compassion our way, 293 

for we are in serious trouble! 294 

79:9 Help us, O God, our deliverer!

For the sake of your glorious reputation, 295  rescue us!

Forgive our sins for the sake of your reputation! 296 

79:10 Why should the nations say, “Where is their God?”

Before our very eyes may the shed blood of your servants

be avenged among the nations! 297 

79:11 Listen to the painful cries of the prisoners! 298 

Use your great strength to set free those condemned to die! 299 

79:12 Pay back our neighbors in full! 300 

May they be insulted the same way they insulted you, O Lord! 301 

79:13 Then we, your people, the sheep of your pasture,

will continually thank you. 302 

We will tell coming generations of your praiseworthy acts. 303 

Psalm 80 304 

For the music director; according to the shushan-eduth style; 305  a psalm of Asaph.

80:1 O shepherd of Israel, pay attention,

you who lead Joseph like a flock of sheep!

You who sit enthroned above the winged angels, 306  reveal your splendor! 307 

80:2 In the sight of Ephraim, Benjamin, and Manasseh reveal 308  your power!

Come and deliver us! 309 

80:3 O God, restore us!

Smile on us! 310  Then we will be delivered! 311 

80:4 O Lord God, invincible warrior! 312 

How long will you remain angry at your people while they pray to you? 313 

80:5 You have given them tears as food; 314 

you have made them drink tears by the measure. 315 

80:6 You have made our neighbors dislike us, 316 

and our enemies insult us.

80:7 O God, invincible warrior, 317  restore us!

Smile on us! 318  Then we will be delivered! 319 

80:8 You uprooted a vine 320  from Egypt;

you drove out nations and transplanted it.

80:9 You cleared the ground for it; 321 

it took root, 322 

and filled the land.

80:10 The mountains were covered by its shadow,

the highest cedars 323  by its branches.

80:11 Its branches reached the Mediterranean Sea, 324 

and its shoots the Euphrates River. 325 

80:12 Why did you break down its walls, 326 

so that all who pass by pluck its fruit? 327 

80:13 The wild boars of the forest ruin it; 328 

the insects 329  of the field feed on it.

80:14 O God, invincible warrior, 330  come back!

Look down from heaven and take notice!

Take care of this vine,

80:15 the root 331  your right hand planted,

the shoot you made to grow! 332 

80:16 It is burned 333  and cut down.

They die because you are displeased with them. 334 

80:17 May you give support to the one you have chosen, 335 

to the one whom you raised up for yourself! 336 

80:18 Then we will not turn away from you.

Revive us and we will pray to you! 337 

80:19 O Lord God, invincible warrior, 338  restore us!

Smile on us! 339  Then we will be delivered! 340 

Psalm 81 341 

For the music director; according to the gittith style; 342  by Asaph.

81:1 Shout for joy to God, our source of strength!

Shout out to the God of Jacob!

81:2 Sing 343  a song and play the tambourine,

the pleasant sounding harp, and the ten-stringed instrument!

81:3 Sound the ram’s horn on the day of the new moon, 344 

and on the day of the full moon when our festival begins. 345 

81:4 For observing the festival is a requirement for Israel; 346 

it is an ordinance given by the God of Jacob.

81:5 He decreed it as a regulation in Joseph,

when he attacked the land of Egypt. 347 

I heard a voice I did not recognize. 348 

81:6 It said: 349  “I removed the burden from his shoulder;

his hands were released from holding the basket. 350 

81:7 In your distress you called out and I rescued you.

I answered you from a dark thundercloud. 351 

I tested you at the waters of Meribah. 352  (Selah)

81:8 I said, 353  ‘Listen, my people!

I will warn 354  you!

O Israel, if only you would obey me! 355 

81:9 There must be 356  no other 357  god among you.

You must not worship a foreign god.

81:10 I am the Lord, your God,

the one who brought you out of the land of Egypt.

Open your mouth wide and I will fill it!’

81:11 But my people did not obey me; 358 

Israel did not submit to me. 359 

81:12 I gave them over to their stubborn desires; 360 

they did what seemed right to them. 361 

81:13 If only my people would obey me! 362 

If only Israel would keep my commands! 363 

81:14 Then I would quickly subdue their enemies,

and attack 364  their adversaries.”

81:15 (May those who hate the Lord 365  cower in fear 366  before him!

May they be permanently humiliated!) 367 

81:16 “I would feed Israel the best wheat, 368 

and would satisfy your appetite 369  with honey from the rocky cliffs.” 370 

Psalm 82 371 

A psalm of Asaph.

82:1 God stands in 372  the assembly of El; 373 

in the midst of the gods 374  he renders judgment. 375 

82:2 He says, 376  “How long will you make unjust legal decisions

and show favoritism to the wicked? 377  (Selah)

82:3 Defend the cause of the poor and the fatherless! 378 

Vindicate the oppressed and suffering!

82:4 Rescue the poor and needy!

Deliver them from the power 379  of the wicked!

82:5 They 380  neither know nor understand.

They stumble 381  around in the dark,

while all the foundations of the earth crumble. 382 

82:6 I thought, 383  ‘You are gods;

all of you are sons of the Most High.’ 384 

82:7 Yet you will die like mortals; 385 

you will fall like all the other rulers.” 386 

82:8 Rise up, O God, and execute judgment on the earth!

For you own 387  all the nations.

Psalm 83 388 

A song, a psalm of Asaph.

83:1 O God, do not be silent!

Do not ignore us! 389  Do not be inactive, O God!

83:2 For look, your enemies are making a commotion;

those who hate you are hostile. 390 

83:3 They carefully plot 391  against your people,

and make plans to harm 392  the ones you cherish. 393 

83:4 They say, “Come on, let’s annihilate them so they are no longer a nation! 394 

Then the name of Israel will be remembered no more.”

83:5 Yes, 395  they devise a unified strategy; 396 

they form an alliance 397  against you.

83:6 It includes 398  the tents of Edom and the Ishmaelites,

Moab and the Hagrites, 399 

83:7 Gebal, 400  Ammon, and Amalek,

Philistia and the inhabitants of Tyre. 401 

83:8 Even Assyria has allied with them,

lending its strength to the descendants of Lot. 402  (Selah)

83:9 Do to them as you did to Midian 403 

as you did to Sisera and Jabin at the Kishon River! 404 

83:10 They were destroyed at Endor; 405 

their corpses were like manure 406  on the ground.

83:11 Make their nobles like Oreb and Zeeb, 407 

and all their rulers like Zebah and Zalmunna, 408 

83:12 who said, 409  “Let’s take over 410  the pastures of God!”

83:13 O my God, make them like dead thistles, 411 

like dead weeds blown away by 412  the wind!

83:14 Like the fire that burns down the forest,

or the flames that consume the mountainsides, 413 

83:15 chase them with your gale winds,

and terrify 414  them with your windstorm.

83:16 Cover 415  their faces with shame,

so they might seek 416  you, 417  O Lord.

83:17 May they be humiliated and continually terrified! 418 

May they die in shame! 419 

83:18 Then they will know 420  that you alone are the Lord, 421 

the sovereign king 422  over all the earth.

Psalm 84 423 

For the music director; according to the gittith style; 424  written by the Korahites, a psalm.

84:1 How lovely is the place where you live, 425 

O Lord who rules over all! 426 

84:2 I desperately want to be 427 

in the courts of the Lord’s temple. 428 

My heart and my entire being 429  shout for joy

to the living God.

84:3 Even the birds find a home there,

and the swallow 430  builds a nest,

where she can protect her young 431 

near your altars, O Lord who rules over all,

my king and my God.

84:4 How blessed 432  are those who live in your temple

and praise you continually! (Selah)

84:5 How blessed are those who 433  find their strength in you,

and long to travel the roads that lead to your temple! 434 

84:6 As they pass through the Baca Valley, 435 

he provides a spring for them. 436 

The rain 437  even covers it with pools of water. 438 

84:7 They are sustained as they travel along; 439 

each one appears 440  before God in Zion.

84:8 O Lord, sovereign God, 441 

hear my prayer!

Listen, O God of Jacob! (Selah)

84:9 O God, take notice of our shield! 442 

Show concern for your chosen king! 443 

84:10 Certainly 444  spending just one day in your temple courts is better

than spending a thousand elsewhere. 445 

I would rather stand at the entrance 446  to the temple of my God

than live 447  in the tents of the wicked.

84:11 For the Lord God is our sovereign protector. 448 

The Lord bestows favor 449  and honor;

he withholds no good thing from those who have integrity. 450 

84:12 O Lord who rules over all, 451 

how blessed are those who trust in you! 452 

Psalm 85 453 

For the music director; written by the Korahites, a psalm.

85:1 O Lord, you showed favor to your land;

you restored the well-being of Jacob. 454 

85:2 You pardoned 455  the wrongdoing of your people;

you forgave 456  all their sin. (Selah)

85:3 You withdrew all your fury;

you turned back from your raging anger. 457 

85:4 Restore us, O God our deliverer!

Do not be displeased with us! 458 

85:5 Will you stay mad at us forever?

Will you remain angry throughout future generations? 459 

85:6 Will you not revive us once more?

Then your people will rejoice in you!

85:7 O Lord, show us your loyal love!

Bestow on us your deliverance!

85:8 I will listen to what God the Lord says. 460 

For he will make 461  peace with his people, his faithful followers. 462 

Yet they must not 463  return to their foolish ways.

85:9 Certainly his loyal followers will soon experience his deliverance; 464 

then his splendor will again appear in our land. 465 

85:10 Loyal love and faithfulness meet; 466 

deliverance and peace greet each other with a kiss. 467 

85:11 Faithfulness grows from the ground,

and deliverance looks down from the sky. 468 

85:12 Yes, the Lord will bestow his good blessings, 469 

and our land will yield 470  its crops.

85:13 Deliverance goes 471  before him,

and prepares 472  a pathway for him. 473 

Psalm 86 474 

A prayer of David.

86:1 Listen 475  O Lord! Answer me!

For I am oppressed and needy.

86:2 Protect me, 476  for I am loyal!

O my God, deliver your servant, who trusts in you!

86:3 Have mercy on me, 477  O Lord,

for I cry out to you all day long!

86:4 Make your servant 478  glad,

for to you, O Lord, I pray! 479 

86:5 Certainly 480  O Lord, you are kind 481  and forgiving,

and show great faithfulness to all who cry out to you.

86:6 O Lord, hear my prayer!

Pay attention to my plea for mercy!

86:7 In my time of trouble I cry out to you,

for you will answer me.

86:8 None can compare to you among the gods, O Lord!

Your exploits are incomparable! 482 

86:9 All the nations, whom you created,

will come and worship you, 483  O Lord.

They will honor your name.

86:10 For you are great and do amazing things.

You alone are God.

86:11 O Lord, teach me how you want me to live! 484 

Then I will obey your commands. 485 

Make me wholeheartedly committed to you! 486 

86:12 O Lord, my God, I will give you thanks with my whole heart!

I will honor your name continually! 487 

86:13 For you will extend your great loyal love to me, 488 

and will deliver my life 489  from the depths of Sheol. 490 

86:14 O God, arrogant men attack me; 491 

a gang 492  of ruthless men, who do not respect you, seek my life. 493 

86:15 But you, O Lord, are a compassionate and merciful God.

You are patient 494  and demonstrate great loyal love and faithfulness. 495 

86:16 Turn toward me and have mercy on me!

Give your servant your strength!

Deliver your slave! 496 

86:17 Show me evidence of your favor! 497 

Then those who hate me will see it and be ashamed, 498 

for you, O Lord, will help me and comfort me. 499 

Psalm 87 500 

Written by the Korahites; a psalm, a song.

87:1 The Lord’s city is in the holy hills. 501 

87:2 The Lord loves the gates of Zion

more than all the dwelling places of Jacob.

87:3 People say wonderful things about you, 502 

O city of God. (Selah)

87:4 I mention Rahab 503  and Babylon to my followers. 504 

Here are 505  Philistia and Tyre, 506  along with Ethiopia. 507 

It is said of them, “This one was born there.” 508 

87:5 But it is said of Zion’s residents, 509 

“Each one of these 510  was born in her,

and the sovereign One 511  makes her secure.” 512 

87:6 The Lord writes in the census book of the nations, 513 

“This one was born there.” 514  (Selah)

87:7 As for the singers, as well as the pipers –

all of them sing within your walls. 515 

Psalm 88 516 

A song, a psalm written by the Korahites; for the music director; according to the machalath-leannoth style; 517  a well-written song 518  by Heman the Ezrachite.

88:1 O Lord God who delivers me! 519 

By day I cry out

and at night I pray before you. 520 

88:2 Listen to my prayer! 521 

Pay attention 522  to my cry for help!

88:3 For my life 523  is filled with troubles

and I am ready to enter Sheol. 524 

88:4 They treat me like 525  those who descend into the grave. 526 

I am like a helpless man, 527 

88:5 adrift 528  among the dead,

like corpses lying in the grave,

whom you remember no more,

and who are cut off from your power. 529 

88:6 You place me in the lowest regions of the pit, 530 

in the dark places, in the watery depths.

88:7 Your anger bears down on me,

and you overwhelm me with all your waves. (Selah)

88:8 You cause those who know me to keep their distance;

you make me an appalling sight to them.

I am trapped and cannot get free. 531 

88:9 My eyes grow weak because of oppression.

I call out to you, O Lord, all day long;

I spread out my hands in prayer to you. 532 

88:10 Do you accomplish amazing things for the dead?

Do the departed spirits 533  rise up and give you thanks? (Selah)

88:11 Is your loyal love proclaimed in the grave,

or your faithfulness in the place of the dead? 534 

88:12 Are your amazing deeds experienced 535  in the dark region, 536 

or your deliverance in the land of oblivion? 537 

88:13 As for me, I cry out to you, O Lord;

in the morning my prayer confronts you.

88:14 O Lord, why do you reject me,

and pay no attention to me? 538 

88:15 I am oppressed and have been on the verge of death since my youth. 539 

I have been subjected to your horrors and am numb with pain. 540 

88:16 Your anger overwhelms me; 541 

your terrors destroy me.

88:17 They surround me like water all day long;

they join forces and encircle me. 542 

88:18 You cause my friends and neighbors to keep their distance; 543 

those who know me leave me alone in the darkness. 544 

Psalm 89 545 

A well-written song 546  by Ethan the Ezrachite.

89:1 I will sing continually 547  about the Lord’s faithful deeds;

to future generations I will proclaim your faithfulness. 548 

89:2 For I say, “Loyal love is permanently established; 549 

in the skies you set up your faithfulness.” 550 

89:3 The Lord said, 551 

“I have made a covenant with my chosen one;

I have made a promise on oath to David, my servant:

89:4 ‘I will give you an eternal dynasty 552 

and establish your throne throughout future generations.’” 553  (Selah)

89:5 O Lord, the heavens 554  praise your amazing deeds,

as well as your faithfulness in the angelic assembly. 555 

89:6 For who in the skies can compare to the Lord?

Who is like the Lord among the heavenly beings, 556 

89:7 a God who is honored 557  in the great angelic assembly, 558 

and more awesome than 559  all who surround him?

89:8 O Lord, sovereign God! 560 

Who is strong like you, O Lord?

Your faithfulness surrounds you.

89:9 You rule over the proud sea. 561 

When its waves surge, 562  you calm them.

89:10 You crushed the Proud One 563  and killed it; 564 

with your strong arm you scattered your enemies.

89:11 The heavens belong to you, as does the earth.

You made the world and all it contains. 565 

89:12 You created the north and the south.

Tabor and Hermon 566  rejoice in your name.

89:13 Your arm is powerful,

your hand strong,

your right hand 567  victorious. 568 

89:14 Equity and justice are the foundation of your throne. 569 

Loyal love and faithfulness characterize your rule. 570 

89:15 How blessed are the people who worship you! 571 

O Lord, they experience your favor. 572 

89:16 They rejoice in your name all day long,

and are vindicated 573  by your justice.

89:17 For you give them splendor and strength. 574 

By your favor we are victorious. 575 

89:18 For our shield 576  belongs to the Lord,

our king to the Holy One of Israel. 577 

89:19 Then you 578  spoke through a vision to your faithful followers 579  and said:

“I have energized a warrior; 580 

I have raised up a young man 581  from the people.

89:20 I have discovered David, my servant.

With my holy oil I have anointed him as king. 582 

89:21 My hand will support him, 583 

and my arm will strengthen him.

89:22 No enemy will be able to exact tribute 584  from him; 585 

a violent oppressor will not be able to humiliate him. 586 

89:23 I will crush his enemies before him;

I will strike down those who hate him.

89:24 He will experience my faithfulness and loyal love, 587 

and by my name he will win victories. 588 

89:25 I will place his hand over the sea,

his right hand over the rivers. 589 

89:26 He will call out to me,

‘You are my father, 590  my God, and the protector who delivers me.’ 591 

89:27 I will appoint him to be my firstborn son, 592 

the most exalted of the earth’s kings.

89:28 I will always extend my loyal love to him,

and my covenant with him is secure. 593 

89:29 I will give him an eternal dynasty, 594 

and make his throne as enduring as the skies above. 595 

89:30 If his sons reject my law

and disobey my regulations,

89:31 if they break 596  my rules

and do not keep my commandments,

89:32 I will punish their rebellion by beating them with a club, 597 

their sin by inflicting them with bruises. 598 

89:33 But I will not remove 599  my loyal love from him,

nor be unfaithful to my promise. 600 

89:34 I will not break 601  my covenant

or go back on what I promised. 602 

89:35 Once and for all I have vowed by my own holiness,

I will never deceive 603  David.

89:36 His dynasty will last forever. 604 

His throne will endure before me, like the sun, 605 

89:37 it will remain stable, like the moon, 606 

his throne will endure like the skies.” 607  (Selah)

89:38 But you have spurned 608  and rejected him;

you are angry with your chosen king. 609 

89:39 You have repudiated 610  your covenant with your servant; 611 

you have thrown his crown to the ground. 612 

89:40 You have broken down all his 613  walls;

you have made his strongholds a heap of ruins.

89:41 All who pass by 614  have robbed him;

he has become an object of disdain to his neighbors.

89:42 You have allowed his adversaries to be victorious, 615 

and all his enemies to rejoice.

89:43 You turn back 616  his sword from the adversary, 617 

and have not sustained him in battle. 618 

89:44 You have brought to an end his splendor, 619 

and have knocked 620  his throne to the ground.

89:45 You have cut short his youth, 621 

and have covered him with shame. (Selah)

89:46 How long, O Lord, will this last?

Will you remain hidden forever? 622 

Will your anger continue to burn like fire?

89:47 Take note of my brief lifespan! 623 

Why do you make all people so mortal? 624 

89:48 No man can live on without experiencing death,

or deliver his life from the power of Sheol. 625  (Selah)

89:49 Where are your earlier faithful deeds, 626  O Lord, 627 

the ones performed in accordance with your reliable oath to David? 628 

89:50 Take note, O Lord, 629  of the way your servants are taunted, 630 

and of how I must bear so many insults from people! 631 

89:51 Your enemies, O Lord, hurl insults;

they insult your chosen king as they dog his footsteps. 632 

89:52 633 The Lord deserves praise 634  forevermore!

We agree! We agree! 635 

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[73:1]  1 sn Psalm 73. In this wisdom psalm the psalmist offers a personal testimony of his struggle with the age-old problem of the prosperity of the wicked. As he observed evil men prosper, he wondered if a godly lifestyle really pays off. In the midst of his discouragement, he reflected upon spiritual truths and realities. He was reminded that the prosperity of the wicked is only temporary. God will eventually vindicate his people.

[73:1]  2 tn Since the psalm appears to focus on an individual’s concerns, not the situation of Israel, this introduction may be a later addition designed to apply the psalm’s message to the entire community. To provide a better parallel with the next line, some emend the Hebrew phrase לְיִשְׂרָאֵל אֱלֹהִים (lÿyisraelelohim, “to Israel, God”) to אֱלֹהִים [or אֵל] לָיָּשָׁר (’elohim [or ’el] lÿyyashar, “God [is good] to the upright one”).

[73:1]  3 tn Heb “to the pure of heart.”

[73:2]  4 tn The Hebrew verb normally means “to pour out,” but here it must have the nuance “to slide.”

[73:2]  sn My feet almost slid out from under me. The language is metaphorical. As the following context makes clear, the psalmist almost “slipped” in a spiritual sense. As he began to question God’s justice, the psalmist came close to abandoning his faith.

[73:3]  5 tn The imperfect verbal form here depicts the action as continuing in a past time frame.

[73:3]  6 tn Heb “peace” (שָׁלוֹם, shalom).

[73:4]  7 tn In Isa 58:6, the only other occurrence of this word in the OT, the term refers to “bonds” or “ropes.” In Ps 73:4 it is used metaphorically of pain and suffering that restricts one’s enjoyment of life.

[73:4]  8 tn Or “bellies.”

[73:4]  9 tc Or “fat.” The MT of v. 4 reads as follows: “for there are no pains at their death, and fat [is] their body.” Since a reference to the death of the wicked seems incongruous in the immediate context (note v. 5) and premature in the argument of the psalm (see vv. 18-20, 27), some prefer to emend the text by redividing it. The term לְמוֹתָם (lÿmotam,“at their death”) is changed to לָמוֹ תָּם (lamo tam, “[there are no pains] to them, strong [and fat are their bodies]”). The term תָּם (tam, “complete; sound”) is used of physical beauty in Song 5:2; 6:9. This emendation is the basis for the present translation. However, in defense of the MT (the traditional Hebrew text), one may point to an Aramaic inscription from Nerab which views a painful death as a curse and a nonpainful death in one’s old age as a sign of divine favor. See ANET 661.

[73:5]  10 tn Heb “in the trouble of man they are not, and with mankind they are not afflicted.”

[73:6]  11 sn Arrogance is their necklace. The metaphor suggests that their arrogance is something the wicked “wear” proudly. It draws attention to them, just as a beautiful necklace does to its owner.

[73:6]  12 tn Heb “a garment of violence covers them.” The metaphor suggests that violence is habitual for the wicked. They “wear” it like clothing; when one looks at them, violence is what one sees.

[73:7]  13 tc The MT reads “it goes out from fatness their eye,” which might be paraphrased, “their eye protrudes [or “bulges”] because of fatness.” This in turn might refer to their greed; their eyes “bug out” when they see rich food or produce (the noun חֵלֶב [khelev, “fatness”] sometimes refers to such food or produce). However, when used with the verb יָצָא (yatsa’, “go out”) the preposition מִן (“from”) more naturally indicates source. For this reason it is preferable to emend עֵינֵמוֹ (’enemo, “their eye”) to עֲוֹנָמוֹ, (’avonamo, “their sin”) and read, “and their sin proceeds forth from fatness,” that is, their prosperity gives rise to their sinful attitudes. If one follows this textual reading, another interpretive option is to take חֵלֶב (“fatness”) in the sense of “unreceptive, insensitive” (see its use in Ps 17:10). In this case, the sin of the wicked proceeds forth from their spiritual insensitivity.

[73:7]  14 tn Heb “the thoughts of [their] heart [i.e., mind] cross over” (i.e., violate God’s moral boundary, see Ps 17:3).

[73:8]  15 tn The verb מוּק (muq, “mock”) occurs only here in the OT.

[73:8]  16 tn Heb “and speak with evil.”

[73:8]  17 tn Heb “oppression from an elevated place they speak.” The traditional accentuation of the MT places “oppression” with the preceding line. In this case, one might translate, “they mock and speak with evil [of] oppression, from an elevated place [i.e., “proudly”] they speak.” By placing “oppression” with what follows, one achieves better poetic balance in the parallelism.

[73:9]  18 tn Heb “they set in heaven their mouth, and their tongue walks through the earth.” The meaning of the text is uncertain. Perhaps the idea is that they lay claim to heaven (i.e., speak as if they were ruling in heaven) and move through the earth declaring their superiority and exerting their influence. Some take the preposition -בְּ (bet) the first line as adversative and translate, “they set their mouth against heaven,” that is, they defy God.

[73:10]  19 tc Heb “therefore his people return [so Qere (marginal reading); Kethib (consonantal text) has “he brings back”] to here, and waters of abundance are sucked up by them.” The traditional Hebrew text (MT) defies explanation. The present translation reflects M. Dahood’s proposed emendations (Psalms [AB], 2:190) and reads the Hebrew text as follows: לָכֵן יִשְׂבְעוּם לֶחֶם וּמֵי מָלֵא יָמֹצּוּ לָמוֹ (“therefore they are filled with food, and waters of abundance they suck up for themselves”). The reading יִשְׂבְעוּם לֶחֶם (yisvÿum lekhem, “they are filled with food”) assumes (1) an emendation of יָשׁיּב עַמּוֹ (yashyyv, “he will bring back his people”) to יִשְׂבְעוּם (yisvÿum, “they will be filled”; a Qal imperfect third masculine plural form from שָׂבַע [sava’] with enclitic mem [ם]), and (2) an emendation of הֲלֹם (halom, “to here”) to לֶחֶם (“food”). The expression “be filled/fill with food” appears elsewhere at least ten times (see Ps 132:15, for example). In the second line the Niphal form יִמָּצוּ (yimmatsu, derived from מָצָה, matsah, “drain”) is emended to a Qal form יָמֹצּוּ (yamotsu), derived from מָצַץ (matsats, “to suck”). In Isa 66:11 the verbs שָׂבַע (sava’; proposed in Ps 73:10a) and מָצַץ (proposed in Ps 73:10b) are parallel. The point of the emended text is this: Because they are seemingly sovereign (v. 9), they become greedy and grab up everything they need and more.

[73:11]  20 tn Heb “How does God know? Is there knowledge with the Most High?” They appear to be practical atheists, who acknowledge God’s existence and sovereignty in theory, but deny his involvement in the world (see Pss 10:4, 11; 14:1).

[73:12]  21 tn Heb “Look, these [are] the wicked.”

[73:12]  22 tn Heb “the ones who are always at ease [who] increase wealth.”

[73:13]  23 tn The words “I concluded” are supplied in the translation. It is apparent that vv. 13-14 reflect the psalmist’s thoughts at an earlier time (see vv. 2-3), prior to the spiritual awakening he describes in vv. 17-28.

[73:13]  24 tn Heb “heart,” viewed here as the seat of one’s thoughts and motives.

[73:13]  25 tn Heb “and washed my hands in innocence.” The psalmist uses an image from cultic ritual to picture his moral lifestyle. The reference to “hands” suggests actions.

[73:15]  26 tn Heb “If I had said, ‘I will speak out like this.’”

[73:15]  27 tn Heb “look, the generation of your sons I would have betrayed.” The phrase “generation of your [i.e., God’s] sons” occurs only here in the OT. Some equate the phrase with “generation of the godly” (Ps 14:5), “generation of the ones seeking him” (Ps 24:6), and “generation of the upright” (Ps 112:2). In Deut 14:1 the Israelites are referred to as God’s “sons.” Perhaps the psalmist refers here to those who are “Israelites” in the true sense because of their loyalty to God (note the juxtaposition of “Israel” with “the pure in heart” in v. 1).

[73:16]  28 tn Heb “and [when] I pondered to understand this, troubling it [was] in my eyes.”

[73:17]  29 tn The plural of the term מִקְדָּשׁ (miqdash) probably refers to the temple precincts (see Ps 68:35; Jer 51:51).

[73:17]  30 tn Heb “I discerned their end.” At the temple the psalmist perhaps received an oracle of deliverance announcing his vindication and the demise of the wicked (see Ps 12) or heard songs of confidence (for example, Ps 11), wisdom psalms (for example, Pss 1, 37), and hymns (for example, Ps 112) that describe the eventual downfall of the proud and wealthy.

[73:18]  31 tn The use of the Hebrew term אַךְ (’akh, “surely”) here literarily counteracts its use in v. 13. The repetition draws attention to the contrast between the two statements, the first of which expresses the psalmist’s earlier despair and the second his newly discovered confidence.

[73:18]  32 tn Heb “cause them to fall.”

[73:19]  33 tn Heb “they come to an end, they are finished, from terrors.”

[73:20]  34 tn Heb “like a dream from awakening.” They lack any real substance; their prosperity will last for only a brief time.

[73:20]  35 sn When you awake. The psalmist compares God’s inactivity to sleep and the time of God’s judgment to his awakening from sleep.

[73:20]  36 tn Heb “you will despise their form.” The Hebrew term צֶלֶם (tselem, “form; image”) also suggests their short-lived nature. Rather than having real substance, they are like the mere images that populate one’s dreams. Note the similar use of the term in Ps 39:6.

[73:21]  37 tn Or perhaps “when.”

[73:21]  38 tn The imperfect verbal form here describes a continuing attitude in a past time frame.

[73:21]  39 tn Heb “and [in] my kidneys I was pierced.” The imperfect verbal form here describes a continuing condition in a past time frame.

[73:22]  40 tn Or “brutish, stupid.”

[73:22]  41 tn Heb “and I was not knowing.”

[73:22]  42 tn Heb “an animal I was with you.”

[73:24]  43 tn The imperfect verbal form here suggests this is the psalmist’s ongoing experience.

[73:24]  44 tn Heb “and afterward [to] glory you will take me.” Some interpreters view this as the psalmist’s confidence in an afterlife in God’s presence and understand כָּבוֹד (cavod) as a metonymic reference to God’s presence in heaven. But this seems unlikely in the present context. The psalmist anticipates a time of vindication, when the wicked are destroyed and he is honored by God for his godly life style. The verb לָקַח (laqakh, “take”) here carries the nuance “lead, guide, conduct,” as in Num 23:14, 27-28; Josh 24:3 and Prov 24:11.

[73:25]  45 tn Heb “Who [is there] for me in heaven? And besides you I do not desire [anyone] in the earth.” The psalmist uses a merism (heaven/earth) to emphasize that God is the sole object of his desire and worship in the entire universe.

[73:26]  46 tn The Hebrew verb כָלָה (khalah, “to fail; to grow weak”) does not refer here to physical death per se, but to the physical weakness that sometimes precedes death (see Job 33:21; Pss 71:9; 143:7; Prov 5:11).

[73:26]  47 tn Or “forever.”

[73:26]  48 tn Heb “is the rocky summit of my heart and my portion.” The psalmist compares the Lord to a rocky summit where one could go for protection and to landed property, which was foundational to economic stability in ancient Israel.

[73:27]  49 tn Or “for.”

[73:27]  50 sn The following line defines the phrase far from you in a spiritual sense. Those “far” from God are those who are unfaithful and disloyal to him.

[73:27]  51 tn Heb “everyone who commits adultery from you.”

[73:28]  52 tn Heb “but as for me, the nearness of God for me [is] good.”

[73:28]  53 tn The infinitive construct with -לְ (lÿ) is understood here as indicating an attendant circumstance. Another option is to take it as indicating purpose (“so that I might declare”) or result (“with the result that I declare”).

[74:1]  54 sn Psalm 74. The psalmist, who has just experienced the devastation of the Babylonian invasion of Jerusalem in 586 b.c., asks God to consider Israel’s sufferings and intervene on behalf of his people. He describes the ruined temple, recalls God’s mighty deeds in the past, begs for mercy, and calls for judgment upon God’s enemies.

[74:1]  55 tn The meaning of the Hebrew term מַשְׂכִּיל (maskil) is uncertain. The word is derived from a verb meaning “to be prudent; to be wise.” Various options are: “a contemplative song,” “a song imparting moral wisdom,” or “a skillful [i.e., well-written] song.” The term occurs in the superscriptions of Pss 32, 42, 44, 45, 52-55, 74, 78, 88, 89, and 142, as well as in Ps 47:7.

[74:1]  56 sn The psalmist does not really believe God has permanently rejected his people or he would not pray as he does in this psalm. But this initial question reflects his emotional response to what he sees and is overstated for the sake of emphasis. The severity of divine judgment gives the appearance that God has permanently abandoned his people.

[74:1]  57 tn Heb “smoke.” The picture is that of a fire that continues to smolder.

[74:2]  58 tn Heb “your assembly,” which pictures God’s people as an assembled community.

[74:2]  59 tn Heb “redeemed.” The verb “redeem” casts God in the role of a leader who protects members of his extended family in times of need and crisis (see Ps 19:14).

[74:2]  60 tn Heb “the tribe of your inheritance” (see Jer 10:16; 51:19).

[74:3]  61 tn Heb “lift up your steps to,” which may mean “run, hurry.”

[74:3]  62 tn Heb “everything [the] enemy has damaged in the holy place.”

[74:4]  63 tn This verb is often used of a lion’s roar, so the psalmist may be comparing the enemy to a raging, devouring lion.

[74:4]  64 tn Heb “your meeting place.”

[74:4]  65 tn Heb “they set up their banners [as] banners.” The Hebrew noun אוֹת (’ot, “sign”) here refers to the enemy army’s battle flags and banners (see Num 2:12).

[74:5]  66 tn Heb “it is known like one bringing upwards, in a thicket of wood, axes.” The Babylonian invaders destroyed the woodwork in the temple.

[74:6]  67 tn This is the reading of the Qere (marginal reading). The Kethib (consonantal text) has “and a time.”

[74:6]  68 tn The imperfect verbal form vividly describes the act as underway.

[74:6]  69 tn Heb “its engravings together.”

[74:6]  70 tn This Hebrew noun occurs only here in the OT (see H. R. Cohen, Biblical Hapax Legomena [SBLDS], 49-50).

[74:6]  71 tn This Hebrew noun occurs only here in the OT. An Akkadian cognate refers to a “pickaxe” (cf. NEB “hatchet and pick”; NIV “axes and hatchets”; NRSV “hatchets and hammers”).

[74:7]  72 tn Heb “to the ground they desecrate the dwelling place of your name.”

[74:8]  73 tn Heb “in their heart.”

[74:8]  74 tc Heb “[?] altogether.” The Hebrew form נִינָם (ninam) is problematic. It could be understood as the noun נִין (nin, “offspring”) but the statement “their offspring altogether” would make no sense here. C. A. Briggs and E. G. Briggs (Psalms [ICC], 2:159) emends יָחַד (yakhad, “altogether”) to יָחִיד (yakhid, “alone”) and translate “let their offspring be solitary” (i.e., exiled). Another option is to understand the form as a Qal imperfect first common plural from יָנָה (yanah, “to oppress”) with a third masculine plural pronominal suffix, “we will oppress them.” However, this verb, when used in the finite form, always appears in the Hiphil. Therefore, it is preferable to emend the form to the Hiphil נוֹנֵם (nonem, “we will oppress them”).

[74:8]  75 tn Heb “they burn down all the meeting places of God in the land.”

[74:9]  76 tn Heb “our signs we do not see.” Because of the reference to a prophet in the next line, it is likely that the “signs” in view here include the evidence of God’s presence as typically revealed through the prophets. These could include miraculous acts performed by the prophets (see, for example, Isa 38:7-8) or object lessons which they acted out (see, for example, Isa 20:3).

[74:9]  77 tn Heb “there is not still a prophet.”

[74:9]  78 tn Heb “and [there is] not with us one who knows how long.”

[74:11]  79 tn Heb “Why do you draw back your hand, even your right hand? From the midst of your chest, destroy!” The psalmist pictures God as having placed his right hand (symbolic of activity and strength) inside his robe against his chest. He prays that God would pull his hand out from under his robe and use it to destroy the enemy.

[74:12]  80 tn The psalmist speaks as Israel’s representative here.

[74:12]  81 tn Heb “in the midst of the earth.”

[74:13]  82 tn The derivation and meaning of the Polel verb form פּוֹרַרְתָּ (porarta) are uncertain. The form may be related to an Akkadian cognate meaning “break, shatter,” though the biblical Hebrew cognate of this verb always appears in the Hiphil or Hophal stem. BDB 830 s.v. II פָּרַר suggests a homonym here, meaning “to split; to divide.” A Hitpolel form of a root פָּרַר (parar) appears in Isa 24:19 with the meaning “to shake violently.”

[74:13]  83 tn The Hebrew text has the plural form, “sea monsters” (cf. NRSV “dragons”), but it is likely that an original enclitic mem has been misunderstood as a plural ending. The imagery of the mythological sea monster is utilized here. See the note on “Leviathan” in v. 14.

[74:14]  84 sn You crushed the heads of Leviathan. The imagery of vv. 13-14 originates in West Semitic mythology. The description of Leviathan should be compared with the following excerpts from Ugaritic mythological texts: (1) “Was not the dragon [Ugaritic tnn, cognate with Hebrew תַּנִין (tanin), translated “sea monster” in v. 13] vanquished and captured? I did destroy the wriggling [Ugaritic ’qltn, cognate to Hebrew עֲקַלָּתוֹן (’aqallaton), translated “squirming” in Isa 27:1] serpent, the tyrant with seven heads” (note the use of the plural “heads” here and in v. 13). (See CTA 3.iii.38-39 in G. R. Driver, Canaanite Myths and Legends, 50.) (2) “For all that you smote Leviathan the slippery [Ugaritic brh, cognate to Hebrew בָּרִחַ (bariakh), translated “fast moving” in Isa 27:1] serpent, [and] made an end of the wriggling serpent, the tyrant with seven heads” (See CTA 5.i.1-3 in G. R. Driver, Canaanite Myths and Legends, 68.) In the myths Leviathan is a sea creature that symbolizes the destructive water of the sea and, in turn, the forces of chaos that threaten the established order. In the OT, the battle with the sea motif is applied to Yahweh’s victories over the forces of chaos at creation and in history (see Pss 74:13-14; 77:16-20; 89:9-10; Isa 51:9-10). Yahweh’s subjugation of the waters of chaos is related to his kingship (see Pss 29:3, 10; 93:3-4). Isa 27:1 applies imagery from Canaanite mythology to Yahweh’s eschatological victory over his enemies. Apocalyptic literature employs the imagery as well. The beasts of Dan 7 emerge from the sea, while Rev 13 speaks of a seven-headed beast coming from the sea. Here in Ps 74:13-14 the primary referent is unclear. The psalmist may be describing God’s creation of the world (note vv. 16-17 and see Ps 89:9-12), when he brought order out of a watery mass, or the exodus (see Isa 51:9-10), when he created Israel by destroying the Egyptians in the waters of the sea.

[74:14]  85 tn The prefixed verbal form is understood as a preterite in this narrational context.

[74:14]  86 sn You fed him to the people. This pictures the fragments of Leviathan’s dead corpse washing up on shore and being devoured by those who find them. If the exodus is in view, then it may allude to the bodies of the dead Egyptians which washed up on the shore of the Red Sea (see Exod 14:30).

[74:15]  87 sn You broke open the spring and the stream. Perhaps this alludes to the way in which God provided water for the Israelites as they traveled in the wilderness following the exodus (see Ps 78:15-16, 20; 105:41).

[74:15]  88 sn Perpetually flowing rivers are rivers that contain water year round, unlike the seasonal streams that flow only during the rainy season. Perhaps the psalmist here alludes to the drying up of the Jordan River when the Israelites entered the land of Canaan under Joshua (see Josh 3-4).

[74:16]  89 tn Heb “To you [is] day, also to you [is] night.”

[74:16]  90 tn Heb “[the] light.” Following the reference to “day and night” and in combination with “sun,” it is likely that the Hebrew term מָאוֹר (maor, “light”) refers here to the moon.

[74:16]  91 tn Heb “you established [the] light and [the] sun.”

[74:17]  92 tn This would appear to refer to geographical boundaries, such as mountains, rivers, and seacoasts. However, since the day-night cycle has just been mentioned (v. 16) and the next line speaks of the seasons, it is possible that “boundaries” here refers to the divisions of the seasons. See C. A. Briggs and E. G. Briggs, Psalms (ICC), 2:156.

[74:17]  93 tn Heb “summer and winter, you, you formed them.”

[74:18]  94 tn Heb “remember this.”

[74:18]  95 tn Or “[how] the enemy insults the Lord.”

[74:19]  96 sn Your dove. The psalmist compares weak and vulnerable Israel to a helpless dove.

[74:19]  97 tn Heb “do not forget forever.”

[74:20]  98 tc Heb “look at the covenant.” The LXX reads “your covenant,” which seems to assume a second person pronominal suffix. The suffix may have been accidentally omitted by haplography. Note that the following word (כִּי) begins with kaf (כ).

[74:20]  99 tn Heb “for the dark places of the earth are full of dwelling places of violence.” The “dark regions” are probably the lands where the people have been exiled (see C. A. Briggs and E. G. Briggs, Psalms [ICC], 2:157). In some contexts “dark regions” refers to Sheol (Ps 88:6) or to hiding places likened to Sheol (Ps 143:3; Lam 3:6).

[74:21]  100 sn Let the oppressed and poor praise your name! The statement is metonymic. The point is this: May the oppressed be delivered from their enemies! Then they will have ample reason to praise God’s name.

[74:22]  101 tn Or “defend your cause.”

[74:22]  102 tn Heb “remember your reproach from a fool all the day.”

[74:23]  103 tn Or “forget.”

[74:23]  104 tn Heb “the voice of your enemies.”

[74:23]  105 tn Heb “the roar of those who rise up against you, which ascends continually.”

[75:1]  106 sn Psalm 75. The psalmist celebrates God’s just rule, which guarantees that the godly will be vindicated and the wicked destroyed.

[75:1]  107 tn Heb “do not destroy.” Perhaps this refers to a particular style of music, a tune title, or a musical instrument. These words also appear in the superscription to Pss 57-59.

[75:1]  108 tn Heb “and near [is] your name.”

[75:2]  109 tn The words “God says” are not in the Hebrew text, but are supplied in the translation to clarify that God speaks in vv. 2-3.

[75:2]  110 tn Heb “when I take an appointed time.”

[75:2]  111 tn Heb “I, [in] fairness, I judge.” The statement is understood in a generalizing sense; God typically executes fair judgment as he governs the world. One could take this as referring to an anticipated (future) judgment, “I will judge.”

[75:3]  112 tn Heb “melt.”

[75:3]  113 tn The statement is understood in a generalizing sense; God typically prevents the world from being overrun by chaos. One could take this as referring to an anticipated event, “I will make its pillars secure.”

[75:4]  114 tn The identity of the speaker in vv. 4-6 is unclear. The present translation assumes that the psalmist, who also speaks in vv. 7-9 (where God/the Lord is spoken of in the third person) here addresses the proud and warns them of God’s judgment. The presence of כִּי (ki, “for”) at the beginning of both vv. 6-7 seems to indicate that vv. 4-9 are a unit. However, there is no formal indication of a new speaker in v. 4 (or in v. 10, where God appears to speak). Another option is to see God speaking in vv. 2-6 and v. 10 and to take only vv. 7-9 as the words of the psalmist. In this case one must interpret כִּי at the beginning of v. 7 in an asseverative or emphatic sense (“surely; indeed”).

[75:4]  115 tn Heb “do not lift up a horn.” The horn of an ox underlies the metaphor (see Deut 33:17; 1 Kgs 22:11; Ps 92:10). The horn of the wild ox is frequently a metaphor for military strength; the idiom “exalt/lift up the horn” signifies military victory (see 1 Sam 2:10; Pss 89:17, 24; 92:10; Lam 2:17). Here the idiom seems to refer to an arrogant attitude that assumes victory has been achieved.

[75:5]  116 tn Heb “do not lift up on high your horn.”

[75:5]  117 tn Heb “[do not] speak with unrestrained neck.” The negative particle is understood in this line by ellipsis (note the preceding line).

[75:5]  sn The image behind the language of vv. 4-5 is that of a powerful wild ox that confidently raises its head before its enemies.

[75:6]  118 tn Heb “for not from the east or from the west, and not from the wilderness of the mountains.” If one follows this reading the sentence is elliptical. One must supply “does help come,” or some comparable statement. However, it is possible to take הָרִים (harim) as a Hiphil infinitive from רוּם (rum), the same verb used in vv. 4-5 of “lifting up” a horn. In this case one may translate the form as “victory.” In this case the point is that victory does not come from alliances with other nations.

[75:7]  119 tn Or “judges.”

[75:7]  120 tn The imperfects here emphasize the generalizing nature of the statement.

[75:8]  121 tn Heb “for a cup [is] in the hand of the Lord, and wine foams, it is full of a spiced drink.” The noun מֶסֶךְ (mesekh) refers to a “mixture” of wine and spices.

[75:8]  122 tn Heb “and he pours out from this.”

[75:8]  123 tn Heb “surely its dregs they slurp up and drink, all the wicked of the earth.”

[75:8]  sn The psalmist pictures God as forcing the wicked to gulp down an intoxicating drink that will leave them stunned and vulnerable. Divine judgment is also depicted this way in Ps 60:3; Isa 51:17-23; and Hab 2:16.

[75:9]  124 tn Heb “I will declare forever.” The object needs to be supplied; God’s just judgment is in view.

[75:10]  125 tn The words “God says” are not in the Hebrew text. They are supplied in the translation to clarify that God speaks in v. 10.

[75:10]  126 tn Heb “and all the horns of the wicked I will cut off, the horns of the godly will be lifted up.” The imagery of the wild ox’s horn is once more utilized (see vv. 4-5).

[76:1]  127 sn Psalm 76. The psalmist depicts God as a mighty warrior who destroys Israel’s enemies.

[76:1]  128 tn Or “God is known in Judah.”

[76:1]  129 tn Heb “name,” which here stands metonymically for God’s reputation.

[76:2]  130 sn Salem is a shorter name for Jerusalem (see Gen 14:18).

[76:2]  131 tn Heb “and his place of refuge is in Salem, and his lair in Zion.” God may be likened here to a lion (see v. 4).

[76:3]  132 tn Heb “flames of the bow,” i.e., arrows.

[76:3]  133 tn Heb “shield and sword and battle.” “Battle” probably here stands by metonymy for the weapons of war in general.

[76:3]  sn This verse may allude to the miraculous defeat of the Assyrians in 701 b.c. (see Isa 36-37).

[76:4]  134 tn Heb “radiant [are] you, majestic from the hills of prey.” God is depicted as a victorious king and as a lion that has killed its victims.

[76:5]  135 tn Heb “strong of heart.” In Isa 46:12, the only other text where this phrase appears, it refers to those who are stubborn, but here it seems to describe brave warriors (see the next line).

[76:5]  136 tn The verb is a rare Aramaized form of the Hitpolel (see GKC 149 §54.a, n. 2); the root is שָׁלַל (shalal, “to plunder”).

[76:5]  137 tn Heb “they slept [in] their sleep.” “Sleep” here refers to the “sleep” of death. A number of modern translations take the phrase to refer to something less than death, however: NASB “cast into a deep sleep”; NEB “fall senseless”; NIV “lie still”; NRSV “lay stunned.”

[76:5]  138 tn Heb “and all the men of strength did not find their hands.”

[76:6]  139 tn Heb “from your shout.” The noun is derived from the Hebrew verb גָּעַר (gaar), which is often understood to mean “rebuke.” In some cases it is apparent that scolding or threatening is in view (see Gen 37:10; Ruth 2:16; Zech 3:2). However, in militaristic contexts this translation is inadequate, for the verb refers in this setting to the warrior’s battle cry, which terrifies and paralyzes the enemy. See A. Caquot, TDOT 3:53, and note the use of the verb in Pss 68:30; 106:9; Nah 1:4, as well as the related noun in Job 26:11; Pss 9:5; 18:15; 104:7; Isa 50:2; 51:20; 66:15.

[76:6]  140 tn Or “chariot,” but even so the term is metonymic for the charioteer.

[76:6]  141 tn Heb “he fell asleep, and [the] chariot and [the] horse.” Once again (see v. 5) “sleep” refers here to the “sleep” of death.

[76:7]  142 tc Heb “and who can stand before you from the time of your anger?” The Hebrew expression מֵאָז (meaz, “from the time of”) is better emended to מֵאֹז (meoz, “from [i.e., “because of”] the strength of your anger”; see Ps 90:11).

[76:8]  143 tn Heb “a [legal] decision,” or “sentence.”

[76:8]  144 tn “The earth” stands here by metonymy for its inhabitants.

[76:10]  145 tn Or “for.”

[76:10]  146 tn Heb “the anger of men will praise you.” This could mean that men’s anger (subjective genitive), when punished by God, will bring him praise, but this interpretation does not harmonize well with the next line. The translation assumes that God’s anger is in view here (see v. 7) and that “men” is an objective genitive. God’s angry judgment against men brings him praise because it reveals his power and majesty (see vv. 1-4).

[76:10]  147 tn Heb “the rest of anger you put on.” The meaning of the statement is not entirely clear. Perhaps the idea is that God, as he prepares for battle, girds himself with every last ounce of his anger, as if it were a weapon.

[76:11]  148 tn The phrase “all those who surround him” may refer to the surrounding nations (v. 12 may favor this), but in Ps 89:7 the phrase refers to God’s heavenly assembly.

[76:12]  149 tn Heb “he reduces the spirit of princes.” According to HALOT 148 s.v. II בצר, the Hebrew verb בָּצַר (batsar) is here a hapax legomenon meaning “reduce, humble.” The statement is generalizing, with the imperfect tense highlighting God’s typical behavior.

[76:12]  150 tn Heb “[he is] awesome to the kings of the earth.”

[77:1]  151 sn Psalm 77. The psalmist recalls how he suffered through a time of doubt, but tells how he found encouragement and hope as he recalled the way in which God delivered Israel at the Red Sea.

[77:1]  152 tn Heb “my voice to God.” The Hebrew verb קָרָא (qara’, “to call out; to cry out”) should probably be understood by ellipsis (see Ps 3:4) both here and in the following (parallel) line.

[77:1]  153 tn The perfect with vav (ו) consecutive is best taken as future here (although some translations render this as a past tense; cf. NEB, NIV). The psalmist expresses his confidence that God will respond to his prayer. This mood of confidence seems premature (see vv. 3-4), but v. 1 probably reflects the psalmist’s attitude at the end of the prayer (see vv. 13-20). Having opened with an affirmation of confidence, he then retraces how he gained confidence during his trial (see vv. 2-12).

[77:2]  154 tn Here the psalmist refers back to the very recent past, when he began to pray for divine help.

[77:2]  155 tn Heb “my hand [at] night was extended and was not growing numb.” The verb נָגַר (nagar), which can mean “flow” in certain contexts, here has the nuance “be extended.” The imperfect form (תָפוּג, tafug, “to be numb”) is used here to describe continuous action in the past.

[77:2]  156 tn Or “my soul.” The Hebrew term נֶפֶשׁ (nefesh) with a pronominal suffix is often equivalent to a pronoun, especially in poetry (see BDB 660 s.v. נֶפֶשׁ 4.a).

[77:3]  157 tn Heb “I will remember God and I will groan, I will reflect and my spirit will grow faint.” The first three verbs are cohortatives, the last a perfect with vav (ו) consecutive. The psalmist’s statement in v. 4 could be understood as concurrent with v. 1, or, more likely, as a quotation of what he had said earlier as he prayed to God (see v. 2). The words “I said” are supplied in the translation at the beginning of the verse to reflect this interpretation (see v. 10).

[77:4]  158 tn Heb “you held fast the guards of my eyes.” The “guards of the eyes” apparently refers to his eyelids. The psalmist seems to be saying that God would not bring him relief, which would have allowed him to shut his eyes and get some sleep (see v. 2).

[77:4]  159 tn The imperfect is used in the second clause to emphasize that this was an ongoing condition in the past.

[77:5]  160 tn Heb “the years of antiquity.”

[77:6]  161 tn Heb “I will remember my song in the night, with my heart I will reflect. And my spirit searched.” As in v. 4, the words of v. 6a are understood as what the psalmist said earlier. Consequently the words “I said” are supplied in the translation for clarification (see v. 10). The prefixed verbal form with vav (ו) consecutive at the beginning of the final line is taken as sequential to the perfect “I thought” in v. 6.

[77:7]  162 tn As in vv. 4 and 6a, the words of vv. 7-9 are understood as a quotation of what the psalmist said earlier. Therefore the words “I asked” are supplied in the translation for clarification.

[77:8]  163 tn Heb “word,” which may refer here to God’s word of promise (note the reference to “loyal love” in the preceding line).

[77:10]  164 tn Heb “Most High.” This divine title (עֶלְיוֹן, ’elyon) pictures God as the exalted ruler of the universe who vindicates the innocent and judges the wicked. See especially Pss 7:17; 9:2; 18:13; 21:7; 47:2.

[77:10]  165 tc Heb “And I said, ‘This is my wounding, the changing of the right hand of the Most High.’” The form חַלּוֹתִי (khallotiy) appears to be a Qal infinitive construct (with a first person singular pronominal suffix) from the verbal root חָלַל (khalal, “to pierce; to wound”). The present translation assumes an emendation to חֲלוֹתִי (khalotiy), a Qal infinitive construct (with a first person singular pronominal suffix) from the verbal root חָלָה (khalah, “be sick, weak”). The form שְׁנוֹת (shÿnot) is understood as a Qal infinitive construct from שָׁנָה (shanah, “to change”) rather than a plural noun form, “years” (see v. 5). “Right hand” here symbolizes by metonymy God’s power and activity. The psalmist observes that his real problem is theological in nature. His experience suggests that the sovereign Lord has abandoned him and become inactive. However, this goes against the grain of his most cherished beliefs.

[77:11]  166 tn Heb “yes, I will remember from old your wonders.”

[77:11]  sn The psalmist refuses to allow skepticism to win out. God has revealed himself to his people in tangible, incontrovertible ways in the past and the psalmist vows to remember the historical record as a source of hope for the future.

[77:13]  167 sn Verses 13-20 are the content of the psalmist’s reflection (see vv. 11-12). As he thought about God’s work in Israel’s past, he reached the place where he could confidently cry out for God’s help (see v. 1).

[77:13]  168 tn Heb “O God, in holiness [is] your way.” God’s “way” here refers to his actions. “Holiness” is used here in the sense of “set apart, unique,” rather than in a moral/ethical sense. As the next line and the next verse emphasize, God’s deeds are incomparable and set him apart as the one true God.

[77:13]  169 tn Heb “Who [is] a great god like God?” The rhetorical question assumes the answer, “No one!”

[77:15]  170 tn Or “redeemed.”

[77:15]  171 tn Heb “with [your] arm.”

[77:16]  172 tn The waters of the Red Sea are here personified; they are portrayed as seeing God and fearing him.

[77:16]  173 tn The prefixed verbal form may be taken as a preterite or as an imperfect with past progressive force.

[77:16]  174 tn The words “of the sea” are supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.

[77:16]  175 tn The prefixed verbal form may be taken as a preterite or as an imperfect with past progressive force.

[77:17]  176 tn Heb “water.”

[77:17]  177 tn Heb “a sound the clouds gave.”

[77:17]  178 tn The lightning accompanying the storm is portrayed as the Lord’s “arrows” (see v. 18).

[77:18]  179 tn The prefixed verbal form may be taken as a preterite or as an imperfect with past progressive force.

[77:18]  sn Verses 16-18 depict the Lord coming in the storm to battle his enemies and subdue the sea. There is no record of such a storm in the historical account of the Red Sea crossing. The language the psalmist uses here is stereotypical and originates in Canaanite myth, where the storm god Baal subdues the sea in his quest for kingship. The psalmist has employed the stereotypical imagery to portray the exodus vividly and at the same time affirm that it is not Baal who subdues the sea, but Yahweh.

[77:19]  180 tn Heb “in the sea [was] your way.”

[77:19]  181 tn Heb “and your paths [were] in the mighty waters.”

[77:19]  182 tn Heb “and your footprints were not known.”

[78:1]  183 sn Psalm 78. The author of this lengthy didactic psalm rehearses Israel’s history. He praises God for his power, goodness and patience, but also reminds his audience that sin angers God and prompts his judgment. In the conclusion to the psalm the author elevates Jerusalem as God’s chosen city and David as his chosen king.

[78:1]  184 tn The meaning of the Hebrew term מַשְׂכִּיל (maskil) is uncertain. See the note on the phrase “well-written song” in the superscription of Ps 74.

[78:1]  185 tn Heb “Turn your ear to the words of my mouth.”

[78:2]  186 tn Heb “I will open with a wise saying my mouth, I will utter insightful sayings from long ago.” Elsewhere the Hebrew word pair חִידָה+מָשָׁל (mashal + khidah) refers to a taunt song (Hab 2:6), a parable (Ezek 17:2), proverbial sayings (Prov 1:6), and an insightful song that reflects on the mortality of humankind and the ultimate inability of riches to prevent death (Ps 49:4).

[78:3]  187 tn Or “known.”

[78:3]  188 tn Heb “fathers” (also in vv. 5, 8, 12, 57).

[78:4]  189 tn The pronominal suffix refers back to the “fathers” (“our ancestors,” v. 3).

[78:4]  190 tn Heb “to a following generation telling the praises of the Lord.” “Praises” stand by metonymy for the mighty acts that prompt worship. Cf. Ps 9:14.

[78:5]  191 tn The Hebrew noun עֵדוּת (’edut) refers here to God’s command that the older generation teach their children about God’s mighty deeds in the nation’s history (see Exod 10:2; Deut 4:9; 6:20-25).

[78:5]  192 tn Heb “which he commanded our fathers to make them known to their sons.” The plural suffix “them” probably refers back to the Lord’s mighty deeds (see vv. 3-4).

[78:6]  193 tn Heb “in order that they might know, a following generation, sons [who] will be born, they will arise and will tell to their sons.”

[78:7]  194 tn Heb “keep.”

[78:8]  195 tn Heb “a generation that did not make firm its heart and whose spirit was not faithful with God.” The expression “make firm the heart” means “to be committed, devoted” (see 1 Sam 7:3).

[78:9]  196 tn Heb “the sons of Ephraim.” Ephraim probably stands here by synecdoche (part for whole) for the northern kingdom of Israel.

[78:9]  197 tn Heb “ones armed, shooters of bow.” It is possible that the term נוֹשְׁקֵי (noshÿqey, “ones armed [with]”) is an interpretive gloss for the rare רוֹמֵי (romey, “shooters of”; on the latter see BDB 941 s.v. I רָמָה). The phrase נוֹשְׁקֵי קֶשֶׁת (noshÿqey qeshet, “ones armed with a bow”) appears in 1 Chr 12:2; 2 Chr 17:17.

[78:9]  198 sn They retreated. This could refer to the northern tribes’ failure to conquer completely their allotted territory (see Judg 1), or it could refer generally to the typical consequence (military defeat) of their sin (see vv. 10-11).

[78:10]  199 tn Heb “the covenant of God.”

[78:10]  200 tn Heb “walk in.”

[78:11]  201 tn Heb “his deeds.”

[78:12]  202 sn The region of Zoan was located in the Egyptian delta, where the enslaved Israelites lived (see Num 13:22; Isa 19:11, 13; 30:4; Ezek 30:14).

[78:15]  203 tn Heb “and caused them to drink, like the depths, abundantly.”

[78:17]  204 tn Heb “rebelling [against] the Most High.”

[78:18]  205 tn Heb “and they tested God in their heart.” The “heart” is viewed here as the center of their volition.

[78:19]  206 tn Heb “they spoke against God, they said.”

[78:19]  207 tn Heb “to arrange a table [for food].”

[78:20]  208 tn Heb “look.”

[78:21]  209 tn Heb “therefore.”

[78:21]  210 tn Heb “and also anger went up.”

[78:22]  211 tn Heb “and they did not trust his deliverance.”

[78:24]  212 sn Manna was apparently shaped like a seed (Exod 16:31), perhaps explaining why it is here compared to grain.

[78:25]  213 sn Because of the reference to “heaven” in the preceding verse, it is likely that mighty ones refers here to the angels of heaven. The LXX translates “angels” here, as do a number of modern translations (NEB, NIV, NRSV).

[78:25]  214 tn Heb “provision he sent to them to satisfaction.”

[78:27]  215 tn Heb “and like the sand of the seas winged birds.”

[78:29]  216 tn Heb “and they ate and were very satisfied.”

[78:30]  217 tn Heb “they were not separated from their desire.”

[78:32]  218 tn Heb “and did not believe in his amazing deeds.”

[78:33]  219 tn Heb “and he ended in vanity their days.”

[78:33]  220 tn Heb “and their years in terror.”

[78:34]  221 tn Or “killed them,” that is, killed large numbers of them.

[78:34]  222 tn Heb “they sought him.”

[78:35]  223 tn Heb “my high rocky summit.”

[78:35]  224 tn Heb “and [that] God Most High [was] their redeemer.”

[78:36]  225 tn Heb “with their mouth.”

[78:36]  226 tn Heb “and with their tongue they lied to him.”

[78:37]  227 tn Heb “and their heart was not firm with him.”

[78:38]  228 tn One could translate v. 38 in the past tense (“he was compassionate…forgave sin and did not destroy…held back his anger, and did not stir up his fury”), but the imperfect verbal forms are probably best understood as generalizing. Verse 38 steps back briefly from the narrational summary of Israel’s history and lays the theological basis for v. 39, which focuses on God’s mercy toward sinful Israel.

[78:39]  229 tn The prefixed verbal form with vav (ו) consecutive signals a return to the narrative.

[78:39]  230 tn Heb “and he remembered that they [were] flesh, a wind [that] goes and does not return.”

[78:40]  231 tn Or “caused him pain.”

[78:41]  232 tn Heb “and they returned and tested God.” The Hebrew verb שׁוּב (shuv, “to return”) is used here in an adverbial sense to indicate that an earlier action was repeated.

[78:41]  233 tn Or “wounded, hurt.” The verb occurs only here in the OT.

[78:41]  234 sn The basic sense of the word “holy” is “set apart from that which is commonplace, special, unique.” The Lord’s holiness is first and foremost his transcendent sovereignty as the ruler of the world. He is “set apart” from the world over which he rules. At the same time his holiness encompasses his moral authority, which derives from his royal position. As king he has the right to dictate to his subjects how they are to live; indeed his very own character sets the standard for proper behavior. This expression is a common title for the Lord in the book of Isaiah.

[78:42]  235 tn Heb “his hand,” symbolizing his saving activity and strength, as the next line makes clear.

[78:42]  236 tn Heb “[the] day [in] which he ransomed them from [the] enemy.”

[78:43]  237 tn Or “signs” (see Ps 65:8).

[78:43]  238 tn Or “portents, omens” (see Ps 71:7). The Egyptian plagues are referred to here (see vv. 44-51).

[78:45]  239 tn Heb “and he sent an insect swarm against them and it devoured them.”

[78:45]  240 tn Heb “and a swarm of frogs and it destroyed them.”

[78:48]  241 tn Heb “and he turned over to the hail their cattle.”

[78:48]  242 tn Heb “and their livestock to the flames.” “Flames” here refer to the lightning bolts that accompanied the storm.

[78:49]  243 tn Heb “he sent against them the rage of his anger.” The phrase “rage of his anger” employs an appositional genitive. Synonyms are joined in a construct relationship to emphasize the single idea. For a detailed discussion of the grammatical point with numerous examples, see Y. Avishur, “Pairs of Synonymous Words in the Construct State (and in Appositional Hendiadys) in Biblical Hebrew,” Semitics 2 (1971): 17-81.

[78:49]  244 tn Heb “fury and indignation and trouble, a sending of messengers of disaster.”

[78:50]  245 tn Heb “he leveled a path for his anger.” There were no obstacles to impede its progress; it moved swiftly and destructively.

[78:50]  246 tn Or perhaps “[the] plague.”

[78:51]  247 tn Heb “the beginning of strength.” If retained, the plural form אוֹנִים (’onim, “strength”) probably indicates degree (“great strength”), but many ancient witnesses read “their strength,” which presupposes an emendation to אֹנָם (’onam; singular form of the noun with third masculine plural pronominal suffix).

[78:54]  248 tn Heb “this mountain.” The whole land of Canaan seems to be referred to here. In Exod 15:17 the promised land is called the “mountain of your [i.e., God’s] inheritance.”

[78:54]  249 tn The “right hand” here symbolizes God’s military strength (see v. 55).

[78:55]  250 tn Heb “he caused to fall [to] them with a measuring line an inheritance.”

[78:55]  251 tn Heb “and caused the tribes of Israel to settle down in their tents.”

[78:56]  252 tn Or “tested and rebelled against.”

[78:56]  253 tn Heb “God, the Most High.”

[78:56]  254 tn Or “keep.”

[78:56]  255 tn Heb “his testimonies” (see Ps 25:10).

[78:57]  256 tn Heb “they turned back.”

[78:57]  257 tn Or “acted treacherously like.”

[78:57]  258 tn Heb “they turned aside like a deceitful bow.”

[78:58]  259 tn Traditionally, “high places.”

[78:60]  260 tn Or “rejected.”

[78:61]  261 tn Heb “and he gave to captivity his strength.” The expression “his strength” refers metonymically to the ark of the covenant, which was housed in the tabernacle at Shiloh.

[78:61]  262 tn Heb “and his splendor into the hand of an enemy.” The expression “his splendor” also refers metonymically to the ark of the covenant.

[78:61]  263 sn Verses 60-61 refer to the Philistines’ capture of the ark in the days of Eli (1 Sam 4:1-11).

[78:62]  264 tn Heb “his inheritance.”

[78:63]  265 tn Heb “his.” The singular pronominal suffix is collective, referring back to God’s “people” (v. 62).

[78:63]  266 tn Heb “his.” The singular pronominal suffix is collective, referring back to God’s “people” (v. 62).

[78:63]  267 tn Heb “were not praised,” that is, in wedding songs. The young men died in masses, leaving no husbands for the young women.

[78:64]  268 tn Heb “his.” The singular pronominal suffix is collective, referring back to God’s “people” (v. 62).

[78:64]  269 tn Heb “his.” The singular pronominal suffix is collective, referring back to God’s “people” (v. 62).

[78:64]  270 sn Because of the invading army and the ensuing panic, the priests’ widows had no time to carry out the normal mourning rites.

[78:65]  271 tn Heb “and the master awoke like one sleeping.” The Lord’s apparent inactivity during the time of judgment is compared to sleep.

[78:65]  272 tn Heb “like a warrior overcome with wine.” The Hebrew verb רוּן (run, “overcome”) occurs only here in the OT. The phrase “overcome with wine” could picture a drunken warrior controlled by his emotions and passions (as in the present translation), or it could refer to a warrior who awakes from a drunken stupor.

[78:66]  273 tn Heb “a permanent reproach he made them.”

[78:69]  274 tc Heb “and he built like the exalting [ones] his sanctuary.” The phrase כְּמוֹ־רָמִים (kÿmo-ramim, “like the exalting [ones]”) is a poetic form of the comparative preposition followed by a participial form of the verb רוּם (rum, “be exalted”). The text should be emended to כִּמְרֹמִים (kimromim, “like the [heavenly] heights”). See Ps 148:1, where “heights” refers to the heavens above.

[78:69]  275 tn Heb “like the earth, [which] he established permanently.” The feminine singular suffix on the Hebrew verb יָסַד (yasad, “to establish”) refers to the grammatically feminine noun “earth.”

[78:71]  276 tn Heb “from after the ewes he brought him.”

[78:71]  277 tn Heb “to shepherd Jacob, his people, and Israel, his inheritance.”

[78:72]  278 tn Heb “He”; the referent (David, God’s chosen king, mentioned in v. 70) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[78:72]  279 tn Heb “and he shepherded them according to the integrity of his heart.”

[78:72]  280 tn Heb “and with the understanding of his hands he led them.”

[79:1]  281 sn Psalm 79. The author laments how the invading nations have destroyed the temple and city of Jerusalem. He asks God to forgive his people and to pour out his vengeance on those who have mistreated them.

[79:1]  282 tn Or “nations.”

[79:1]  283 tn Heb “have come into your inheritance.”

[79:1]  284 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

[79:2]  285 tn Heb “[as] food for the birds of the sky.”

[79:3]  286 tn Heb “they have poured out their blood like water, all around Jerusalem, and there is no one burying.”

[79:4]  287 tn Heb “an [object of] taunting and [of] mockery to those around us.” See Ps 44:13.

[79:5]  288 tn Heb “How long, O Lord?”

[79:5]  289 tn Or “jealous anger.”

[79:6]  290 tn Heb “which do not know you.” Here the Hebrew term “know” means “acknowledge the authority of.”

[79:6]  291 sn The kingdoms that do not pray to you. The people of these kingdoms pray to other gods, not the Lord, because they do not recognize his authority over them.

[79:8]  292 tn Heb “do not remember against us sins, former.” Some understand “former” as an attributive adjective modifying sins, “former [i.e., chronologically prior] sins” (see BDB 911 s.v. רִאשׁוֹן). The present translation assumes that ראשׁנים (“former”) here refers to those who lived formerly, that is, the people’s ancestors (see Lam 5:7). The word is used in this way in Lev 26:45; Deut 19:14 and Eccl 1:11.

[79:8]  293 tn Heb “may your compassion quickly confront us.” The prefixed verbal form is understood as a jussive, indicating a tone of prayer.

[79:8]  294 tn Heb “for we are very low.”

[79:9]  295 tn Heb “the glory of your name.” Here and in the following line “name” stands metonymically for God’s reputation.

[79:9]  296 tn Heb “your name.”

[79:10]  297 tn Heb “may it be known among the nations, to our eyes, the vengeance of the shed blood of your servants.”

[79:11]  298 tn Heb “may the painful cry of the prisoner come before you.”

[79:11]  299 tn Heb “according to the greatness of your arm leave the sons of death.” God’s “arm” here symbolizes his strength to deliver. The verbal form הוֹתֵר (hoter) is a Hiphil imperative from יָתַר (yatar, “to remain; to be left over”). Here it must mean “to leave over; to preserve.” However, it is preferable to emend the form to הַתֵּר (hatter), a Hiphil imperative from נָתַר (natar, “be free”). The Hiphil form is used in Ps 105:20 of Pharaoh freeing Joseph from prison. The phrase “sons of death” (see also Ps 102:21) is idiomatic for those condemned to die.

[79:12]  300 tn Heb “Return to our neighbors sevenfold into their lap.” The number seven is used rhetorically to express the thorough nature of the action. For other rhetorical/figurative uses of the Hebrew phrase שִׁבְעָתַיִם (shivatayim, “seven times”) see Gen 4:15, 24; Ps 12:6; Prov 6:31; Isa 30:26.

[79:12]  301 tn Heb “their reproach with which they reproached you, O Lord.”

[79:13]  302 tn Or (hyperbolically) “will thank you forever.”

[79:13]  303 tn Heb “to a generation and a generation we will report your praise.” Here “praise” stands by metonymy for the mighty acts that prompt worship. Cf. Ps 9:14.

[80:1]  304 sn Psalm 80. The psalmist laments Israel’s demise and asks the Lord to show favor toward his people, as he did in earlier times.

[80:1]  305 tn The Hebrew expression shushan-eduth means “lily of the testimony.” It may refer to a particular music style or to a tune title. See the superscription to Ps 60.

[80:1]  306 sn Winged angels (Heb “cherubs”). Cherubs, as depicted in the OT, possess both human and animal (lion, ox, and eagle) characteristics (see Ezek 1:10; 10:14, 21; 41:18). They are pictured as winged creatures (Exod 25:20; 37:9; 1 Kgs 6:24-27; Ezek 10:8, 19) and serve as the very throne of God when the ark of the covenant is in view (Ps 99:1; see Num 7:89; 1 Sam 4:4; 2 Sam 6:2; 2 Kgs 19:15). The picture of the Lord seated on the cherubs suggests they might be used by him as a vehicle, a function they carry out in Ezek 1:22-28 (the “living creatures” mentioned here are identified as cherubs in Ezek 10:20). In Ps 18:10 the image of a cherub serves to personify the wind.

[80:1]  307 tn Heb “shine forth.”

[80:1]  sn Reveal your splendor. The psalmist may allude to Deut 33:2, where God “shines forth” from Sinai and comes to superintend Moses’ blessing of the tribes.

[80:2]  308 tn Heb “stir up”; “arouse.”

[80:2]  309 tn Heb “come for our deliverance.”

[80:3]  310 tn The idiom “cause your face to shine” probably refers to a smile (see Eccl 8:1), which in turn suggests favor and blessing (see Num 6:25; Pss 4:6; 31:16; 44:3; 67:1; 89:15; Dan 9:17).

[80:3]  311 tn Heb “cause your face to shine in order that we may be delivered.” After the imperative, the cohortative with prefixed vav (ו) indicates purpose/result.

[80:4]  312 tn HebLord, God, hosts.” One expects the construct form אֱלֹהֵי (’elohey) before צְבָאוֹת (tsÿvaot; “hosts”; see Ps 89:9), but יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים (yehvahelohim) precedes צְבָאוֹת (tsÿvaot) in Pss 59:5 and 84:8 as well. In this context the term “hosts” (meaning “armies”) has been rendered “invincible warrior.”

[80:4]  313 tn Heb “How long will you remain angry during the prayer of your people.” Some take the preposition -בְּ (bet) in an adversative sense here (“at/against the prayer of your people”), but the temporal sense is preferable. The psalmist expects persistent prayer to pacify God.

[80:5]  314 tn Heb “you have fed them the food of tears.”

[80:5]  315 tn Heb “[by] the third part [of a measure].” The Hebrew term שָׁלִישׁ (shalish, “third part [of a measure]”) occurs only here and in Isa 40:12.

[80:6]  316 tn Heb “you have made us an object of contention to our neighbors.”

[80:7]  317 tn Heb “O God, hosts.” One expects the construct form אֱלֹהֵי before צְבָאוֹת (tsÿvaot, “hosts”; see Ps 89:9), but יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים (yehvahelohim) precedes צְבָאוֹת (tsÿvaot) in Pss 59:5 and 84:8 as well. See also v. 4 for a similar construction.

[80:7]  318 tn The idiom “cause your face to shine” probably refers to a smile (see Eccl 8:1), which in turn suggests favor and blessing (see Num 6:25; Pss 4:6; 31:16; 44:3; 67:1; 89:15; Dan 9:17).

[80:7]  319 tn Heb “cause your face to shine in order that we may be delivered.” After the imperative, the cohortative with prefixed vav (ו) indicates purpose/result.

[80:8]  320 sn The vine is here a metaphor for Israel (see Ezek 17:6-10; Hos 10:1).

[80:9]  321 tn Heb “you cleared away before it.”

[80:9]  322 tn Heb “and it took root [with] its roots.”

[80:10]  323 tn Heb “cedars of God.” The divine name אֵל (’al, “God”) is here used in an idiomatic manner to indicate the superlative.

[80:11]  324 tn Heb “to [the] sea.” The “sea” refers here to the Mediterranean Sea.

[80:11]  325 tn Heb “to [the] river.” The “river” is the Euphrates River in Mesopotamia. Israel expanded both to the west and to the east.

[80:12]  326 sn The protective walls of the metaphorical vineyard are in view here (see Isa 5:5).

[80:12]  327 tn Heb “pluck it.”

[80:13]  328 tn The Hebrew verb כִּרְסֵם (kirsem, “to eat away; to ruin”) occurs only here in the OT.

[80:13]  329 tn The precise referent of the Hebrew word translated “insects,” which occurs only here and in Ps 50:11, is uncertain. Aramaic, Arabic, and Akkadian cognates refer to insects, such as locusts or crickets.

[80:14]  330 tn Heb “O God, hosts.” One expects the construct form אֱלֹהֵי before צְבָאוֹת (tsÿvaot, “hosts”; see Ps 89:9), but יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים (yehvahelohim) precedes צְבָאוֹת (tsÿvaot) in Pss 59:5 and 84:8 as well. See also vv. 4, 7 for a similar construction.

[80:15]  331 tn The Hebrew noun occurs only here in the OT. HALOT 483 s.v. III כֵּן emends the form to כַּנָּהּ (kannah, “its shoot”).

[80:15]  332 tn Heb “and upon a son you strengthened for yourself.” In this context, where the extended metaphor of the vine dominates, בֵּן (ben, “son”) probably refers to the shoots that grow from the vine. Cf. Gen 49:22.

[80:16]  333 tn Heb “burned with fire.”

[80:16]  334 tn Heb “because of the rebuke of your face they perish.”

[80:17]  335 tn Heb “may your hand be upon the man of your right hand.” The referent of the otherwise unattested phrase “man of your right hand,” is unclear. It may refer to the nation collectively as a man. (See the note on the word “yourself” in v. 17b.)

[80:17]  336 tn Heb “upon the son of man you strengthened for yourself.” In its only other use in the Book of Psalms, the phrase “son of man” refers to the human race in general (see Ps 8:4). Here the phrase may refer to the nation collectively as a man. Note the use of the statement “you strengthened for yourself” both here and in v. 15, where the “son” (i.e., the branch of the vine) refers to Israel.

[80:18]  337 tn Heb “and in your name we will call.”

[80:19]  338 tn Heb “O Lord, God, hosts.” One expects the construct form אֱלֹהֵי before צְבָאוֹת (tsÿvaot, “hosts”; see Ps 89:9), but יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים (yehvahelohim) precedes צְבָאוֹת (tsÿvaot) in Pss 59:5 and 84:8 as well. See also vv. 4, 7, 14 for a similar construction.

[80:19]  339 tn The idiom “cause your face to shine” probably refers to a smile (see Eccl 8:1), which in turn suggests favor and blessing (see Num 6:25; Pss 4:6; 31:16; 44:3; 67:1; 89:15; Dan 9:17).

[80:19]  340 tn Heb “cause your face to shine in order that we may be delivered.” After the imperative, the cohortative with prefixed vav (ו) indicates purpose/result.

[81:1]  341 sn Psalm 81. The psalmist calls God’s people to assemble for a festival and then proclaims God’s message to them. The divine speech (vv. 6-16) recalls how God delivered the people from Egypt, reminds Israel of their rebellious past, expresses God’s desire for his people to obey him, and promises divine protection in exchange for obedience.

[81:1]  342 tn The precise meaning of the Hebrew term הַגִּתִּית (haggittit) is uncertain; it probably refers to a musical style or instrument. See the superscription to Ps 8.

[81:2]  343 tn Heb “lift up.”

[81:3]  344 tn Heb “at the new moon.”

[81:3]  sn New moon festivals were a monthly ritual in Israel (see R. de Vaux, Ancient Israel, 469-70). In this context the New Moon festival of the seventh month, when the Feast of Tabernacles was celebrated (note the reference to a “festival” in the next line), may be in view.

[81:3]  345 tn Heb “at the full moon on the day of our festival.” The Hebrew word כֶּסֶה (keseh) is an alternate spelling of כֶּסֶא (kese’, “full moon”).

[81:3]  sn The festival in view is probably the Feast of Tabernacles (Booths), which began on the fifteenth day of the seventh month when the moon was full. See Lev 23:34; Num 29:12.

[81:4]  346 tn Heb “because a statute for Israel [is] it.”

[81:5]  347 tn Heb “in his going out against the land of Egypt.” This apparently refers to the general time period of Israel’s exodus from Egypt. The LXX reads, “from Egypt,” in which case “Joseph” (see the preceding line) would be the subject of the verb, “when he [Joseph = Israel] left Egypt.”

[81:5]  348 tn Heb “a lip I did not know, I heard.” Here the term “lip” probably stands for speech or a voice. Apparently the psalmist speaks here and refers to God’s voice, whose speech is recorded in the following verses.

[81:6]  349 tn The words “It said” are not included in the Hebrew text. They are supplied in the translation for clarification.

[81:6]  350 sn I removed the burden. The Lord speaks metaphorically of how he delivered his people from Egyptian bondage. The reference to a basket/burden probably alludes to the hard labor of the Israelites in Egypt, where they had to carry loads of bricks (see Exod 1:14).

[81:7]  351 tn Heb “I answered you in the hidden place of thunder.” This may allude to God’s self-revelation at Mount Sinai, where he appeared in a dark cloud accompanied by thunder (see Exod 19:16).

[81:7]  352 sn The name Meribah means “strife.” Two separate but similar incidents at the place called Meribah are recorded in the Pentateuch (Exod 17:1-7; Num 20:1-13). In both cases the Israelites complained about lack of water and the Lord miraculously provided for them.

[81:8]  353 tn The words “I said” are supplied in the translation for clarification. Verses 8-10 appear to recall what the Lord commanded the generation of Israelites that experienced the events described in v. 7. Note the statement in v. 11, “my people did not listen to me.”

[81:8]  354 tn Or perhaps “command.”

[81:8]  355 tn The Hebrew particle אִם (“if”) and following prefixed verbal form here express a wish (GKC 321 §109.b). Note that the apodosis (the “then” clause of the conditional sentence) is suppressed.

[81:9]  356 tn The imperfect verbal forms in v. 9 have a modal function, expressing what is obligatory.

[81:9]  357 tn Heb “different”; “illicit.”

[81:11]  358 tn Heb “did not listen to my voice.”

[81:11]  359 tn The Hebrew expression אָבָה לִי (’avah liy) means “submit to me” (see Deut 13:8).

[81:12]  360 tn Heb “and I sent him away in the stubbornness of their heart.”

[81:12]  361 tn Heb “they walked in their counsel.” The prefixed verbal form is either preterite (“walked”) or a customary imperfect (“were walking”).

[81:13]  362 tn Heb “if only my people were listening to me.” The Hebrew particle לוּ (lu, “if not”) introduces a purely hypothetical or contrary to fact condition (see 2 Sam 18:12).

[81:13]  363 tn Heb “[and if only] Israel would walk in my ways.”

[81:14]  364 tn Heb “turn my hand against.” The idiom “turn the hand against” has the nuance of “strike with the hand, attack” (see Isa 1:25; Ezek 38:12; Amos 1:8; Zech 13:7).

[81:15]  365 tn “Those who hate the Lord” are also mentioned in 2 Chr 19:2 and Ps 139:21.

[81:15]  366 tn See Deut 33:29; Ps 66:3 for other uses of the verb כָּחַשׁ (kakhash) in the sense “cower in fear.” In Ps 18:44 the verb seems to carry the nuance “to be weak; to be powerless” (see also Ps 109:24). The prefixed verbal form is taken as a jussive, parallel to the jussive form in the next line.

[81:15]  367 tc Heb “and may their time be forever.” The Hebrew term עִתָּם (’ittam, “their time”) must refer here to the “time” of the demise and humiliation of those who hate the Lord. Some propose an emendation to בַּעֲתָתָם (baatatam) or בִּעֻתָם (biutam; “their terror”; i.e., “may their terror last forever”), but the omission of bet (ב) in the present Hebrew text is difficult to explain, making the proposed emendation unlikely.

[81:15]  tn The verb form at the beginning of the line is jussive, indicating that this is a prayer. The translation assumes that v. 15 is a parenthetical “curse” offered by the psalmist. Having heard the reference to Israel’s enemies (v. 14), the psalmist inserts this prayer, reminding the Lord that they are God’s enemies as well.

[81:16]  368 tn Heb “and he fed him from the best of the wheat.” The Hebrew text has a third person form of the preterite with a vav (ו) consecutive attached. However, it is preferable, in light of the use of the first person in v. 14 and in the next line, to emend the verb to a first person form and understand the vav as conjunctive, continuing the apodosis of the conditional sentence of vv. 13-14. The third masculine singular pronominal suffix refers to Israel, as in v. 6.

[81:16]  sn I would feed. After the parenthetical “curse” in v. 15, the Lord’s speech continues here.

[81:16]  369 tn Heb “you.” The second person singular pronominal suffix refers to Israel, as in vv. 7-10.

[81:16]  370 sn The language in this verse, particularly the references to wheat and honey, is reminiscent of Deut 32:13-14.

[82:1]  371 sn Psalm 82. The psalmist pictures God standing in the “assembly of El” where he accuses the “gods” of failing to promote justice on earth. God pronounces sentence upon them, announcing that they will die like men. Having witnessed the scene, the psalmist then asks God to establish his just rule over the earth.

[82:1]  372 tn Or “presides over.”

[82:1]  373 tn The phrase עֲדַת אֵל (’adatel, “assembly of El”) appears only here in the OT. (1) Some understand “El” to refer to God himself. In this case he is pictured presiding over his own heavenly assembly. (2) Others take אֵל as a superlative here (“God stands in the great assembly”), as in Pss 36:6 and 80:10. (3) The present translation assumes this is a reference to the Canaanite high god El, who presided over the Canaanite divine assembly. (See Isa 14:13, where El’s assembly is called “the stars of El.”) In the Ugaritic myths the phrase ’dtilm refers to the “assembly of the gods,” who congregate in King Kirtu’s house, where Baal asks El to bless Kirtu’s house (see G. R. Driver, Canaanite Myths and Legends, 91). If the Canaanite divine assembly is referred to here in Ps 82:1, then the psalm must be understood as a bold polemic against Canaanite religion. Israel’s God invades El’s assembly, denounces its gods as failing to uphold justice, and announces their coming demise. For an interpretation of the psalm along these lines, see W. VanGemeren, “Psalms,” EBC 5:533-36.

[82:1]  374 sn The present translation assumes that the Hebrew term אֱלֹהִים (’elohim, “gods”) here refers to the pagan gods who supposedly comprise El’s assembly according to Canaanite religion. Those who reject the polemical view of the psalm prefer to see the referent as human judges or rulers (אֱלֹהִים sometimes refers to officials appointed by God, see Exod 21:6; 22:8-9; Ps 45:6) or as angelic beings (אֱלֹהִים sometimes refers to angelic beings, see Gen 3:5; Ps 8:5).

[82:1]  375 sn The picture of God rendering judgment among the gods clearly depicts his sovereign authority as universal king (see v. 8, where the psalmist boldly affirms this truth).

[82:2]  376 tn The words “he says” are supplied in the translation to indicate that the following speech is God’s judicial decision (see v. 1).

[82:2]  377 tn Heb “and the face of the wicked lift up.”

[82:3]  378 tn The Hebrew noun יָתוֹם (yatom) refers to one who has lost his father (not necessarily his mother, see Ps 109:9). Because they were so vulnerable and were frequently exploited, fatherless children are often mentioned as epitomizing the oppressed (see Pss 10:14; 68:5; 94:6; 146:9; as well as Job 6:27; 22:9; 24:3, 9; 29:12; 31:17, 21).

[82:4]  379 tn Heb “hand.”

[82:5]  380 sn Having addressed the defendants, God now speaks to those who are observing the trial, referring to the gods in the third person.

[82:5]  381 tn Heb “walk.” The Hitpael stem indicates iterative action, picturing these ignorant “judges” as stumbling around in the darkness.

[82:5]  382 sn These gods, though responsible for justice, neglect their duty. Their self-imposed ignorance (which the psalmist compares to stumbling around in the dark) results in widespread injustice, which threatens the social order of the world (the meaning of the phrase all the foundations of the earth crumble).

[82:6]  383 tn Heb “said.”

[82:6]  384 sn Normally in the OT the title Most High belongs to the God of Israel, but in this context, where the mythological overtones are so strong, it probably refers to the Canaanite high god El (see v. 1, as well as Isa 14:13).

[82:7]  385 tn Heb “men.” The point in the context is mortality, however, not maleness.

[82:7]  sn You will die like mortals. For the concept of a god losing immortality and dying, see Isa 14:12-15, which alludes to a pagan myth in which the petty god “Shining One, son of the Dawn,” is hurled into Sheol for his hubris.

[82:7]  386 tn Heb “like one of the rulers.” The comparison does not necessarily imply that they are not rulers. The expression “like one of” can sometimes mean “as one of” (Gen 49:16; Obad 11) or “as any other of” (Judg 16:7, 11).

[82:8]  387 tn The translation assumes that the Qal of נָחַל (nakhal) here means “to own; to possess,” and that the imperfect emphasizes a general truth. Another option is to translate the verb as future, “for you will take possession of all the nations” (cf. NIV “all the nations are your inheritance”).

[83:1]  388 sn Psalm 83. The psalmist asks God to deliver Israel from the attacks of foreign nations. Recalling how God defeated Israel’s enemies in the days of Deborah and Gideon, he prays that the hostile nations would be humiliated.

[83:1]  389 tn Heb “do not be deaf.”

[83:2]  390 tn Heb “lift up [their] head[s].” The phrase “lift up [the] head” here means “to threaten; to be hostile,” as in Judg 8:28.

[83:3]  391 tn Heb “they make crafty a plot.”

[83:3]  392 tn Heb “and consult together against.”

[83:3]  393 tn The passive participle of the Hebrew verb צָפַן (tsafan, “to hide”) is used here in the sense of “treasured; cherished.”

[83:4]  394 tn Heb “we will cause them to disappear from [being] a nation.”

[83:5]  395 tn Or “for.”

[83:5]  396 tn Heb “they consult [with] a heart together.”

[83:5]  397 tn Heb “cut a covenant.”

[83:6]  398 tn The words “it includes” are supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.

[83:6]  399 sn The Hagrites are also mentioned in 1 Chr 5:10, 19-20.

[83:7]  400 sn Some identify Gebal with the Phoenician coastal city of Byblos (see Ezek 27:9, where the name is spelled differently), though others locate this site south of the Dead Sea (see BDB 148 s.v. גְּבַל; HALOT 174 s.v. גְּבַל).

[83:7]  401 map For location see Map1 A2; Map2 G2; Map4 A1; JP3 F3; JP4 F3.

[83:8]  402 tn Heb “they are an arm for the sons of Lot.” The “arm” is here a symbol of military might.

[83:8]  sn The descendants of Lot were the Moabites and Ammonites.

[83:9]  403 tn Heb “do to them like Midian.”

[83:9]  404 sn The psalmist alludes here to Gideon’s victory over the Midianites (see Judg 7-8) and to Barak’s victory over Jabin’s army, which was led by his general Sisera (Judg 4-5).

[83:10]  405 sn Endor is not mentioned in the accounts of Gideon’s or Barak’s victories, but both battles took place in the general vicinity of the town. (See Y. Aharoni and M. Avi-Yonah, The Macmillan Bible Atlas, 46, 54.) Because Sisera and Jabin are mentioned in v. 9b, many understand them to be the subject of the verbs in v. 10, though they relate v. 10 to Gideon’s victory, which is referred to in v. 9a, 11. (See, for example, Y. Aharoni, The Land of the Bible, 263.)

[83:10]  406 tn Heb “they were manure.” In addition to this passage, corpses are compared to manure in 2 Kgs 9:37; Jer 8:2; 9:21; 16:4; 25:33.

[83:11]  407 sn Oreb and Zeeb were the generals of the Midianite army that was defeated by Gideon. The Ephraimites captured and executed both of them and sent their heads to Gideon (Judg 7:24-25).

[83:11]  408 sn Zebah and Zalmunna were the Midianite kings. Gideon captured them and executed them (Judg 8:1-21).

[83:12]  409 tn The translation assumes that “Zebah and Zalmunna” are the antecedents of the relative pronoun (“who [said]”). Another option is to take “their nobles…all their rulers” as the antecedent and to translate, “those who say.”

[83:12]  410 tn Heb “let’s take possession for ourselves.”

[83:13]  411 tn Or “tumbleweed.” The Hebrew noun גַּלְגַּל (galgal) refers to a “wheel” or, metaphorically, to a whirling wind (see Ps 77:18). If taken in the latter sense here, one could understand the term as a metonymical reference to dust blown by a whirlwind (cf. NRSV “like whirling dust”). However, HALOT 190 s.v. II גַּלְגַּל understands the noun as a homonym referring to a “dead thistle” here and in Isa 17:13. The parallel line, which refers to קַשׁ (qash, “chaff”), favors this interpretation.

[83:13]  412 tn Heb “before.”

[83:14]  413 sn The imagery of fire and flames suggests unrelenting, destructive judgment.

[83:15]  414 tn The two imperfect verbal forms in v. 15 express the psalmist’s wish or prayer.

[83:16]  415 tn Heb “fill.”

[83:16]  416 tn After the preceding imperative, the prefixed verbal form with prefixed vav (ו) indicates purpose or result (“then they will seek”).

[83:16]  417 tn Heb “your name,” which stands here for God’s person.

[83:17]  418 tn Heb “and may they be terrified to perpetuity.” The Hebrew expression עֲדֵי־עַד (’adey-ad, “to perpetuity”) can mean “forevermore” (see Pss 92:7; 132:12, 14), but here it may be used hyperbolically, for the psalmist asks that the experience of judgment might lead the nations to recognize (v. 18) and even to seek (v. 16) God.

[83:17]  419 tn Heb “may they be ashamed and perish.” The four prefixed verbal forms in this verse are understood as jussives. The psalmist concludes his prayer with an imprecation, calling severe judgment down on his enemies. The strong language of the imprecation seems to run contrary to the positive outcome of divine judgment envisioned in v. 16b. Perhaps the language of v. 17 is overstated for effect. Another option is that v. 16b expresses an ideal, while the strong imprecation of vv. 17-18 anticipates reality. It would be nice if the defeated nations actually pursued a relationship with God, but if judgment does not bring them to that point, the psalmist asks that they be annihilated so that they might at least be forced to acknowledge God’s power.

[83:18]  420 tn After the preceding jussives (v. 17), the prefixed verbal form with prefixed vav (ו) indicates purpose (“so that they may know”) or result.

[83:18]  421 tn Heb “that you, your name [is] the Lord, you alone.”

[83:18]  422 tn Traditionally “the Most High.”

[84:1]  423 sn Psalm 84. The psalmist expresses his desire to be in God’s presence in the Jerusalem temple, for the Lord is the protector of his people.

[84:1]  424 tn The precise meaning of the Hebrew term הַגִּתִּית (haggittit) is uncertain; it probably refers to a musical style or instrument.

[84:1]  425 tn Or “your dwelling place[s].” The plural form of the noun may indicate degree or quality; this is the Lord’s special dwelling place (see Pss 43:3; 46:4; 132:5, 7).

[84:1]  426 tn Traditionally, “Lord of hosts.” The title draws attention to God’s sovereign position (see Ps 69:6).

[84:2]  427 tn Heb “my soul longs, it even pines for.”

[84:2]  428 tn Heb “the courts of the Lord” (see Ps 65:4).

[84:2]  429 tn Heb “my flesh,” which stands for his whole person and being.

[84:3]  430 tn The word translated “swallow” occurs only here and in Prov 26:2.

[84:3]  431 tn Heb “even a bird finds a home, and a swallow a nest for herself, [in] which she places her young.”

[84:3]  sn The psalmist here romanticizes the temple as a place of refuge and safety. As he thinks of the birds nesting near its roof, he envisions them finding protection in God’s presence.

[84:4]  432 tn The Hebrew noun is an abstract plural. The word often refers metonymically to the happiness that God-given security and prosperity produce (see v. 12 and Pss 1:1; 2:12; 34:9; 41:1; 65:4; 89:15; 106:3; 112:1; 127:5; 128:1; 144:15).

[84:5]  433 tn Heb “[Oh] the happiness [of] the man.” Hebrew literature often assumes and reflects the male-oriented perspective of ancient Israelite society. The principle stated here was certainly applicable to all people, regardless of their gender or age. To facilitate modern application, we translate the gender and age specific “man” with the plural “those.” The individual referred to in v. 5a is representative of followers of God, as the use of plural forms in vv. 5b-7 indicates.

[84:5]  434 tn Heb “roads [are] in their heart[s].” The roads are here those that lead to Zion (see v. 7).

[84:6]  435 tn The translation assumes that the Hebrew phrase עֵמֶק הַבָּכָא (’emeq habbakha’) is the name of an otherwise unknown arid valley through which pilgrims to Jerusalem passed. The term בָּכָא (bakha’) may be the name of a particular type of plant or shrub that grew in this valley. O. Borowski (Agriculture in Iron Age Israel, 130) suggests it is the black mulberry. Some take the phrase as purely metaphorical and relate בָּכָא to the root בָּכָה (bakhah, “to weep”). In this case one might translate, “the valley of weeping” or “the valley of affliction.”

[84:6]  436 tc The MT reads “a spring they make it,” but this makes little sense. Many medieval Hebrew mss, as well as the LXX, understand God to be the subject and the valley to be the object, “he [God] makes it [the valley] [into] a spring.”

[84:6]  437 tn This rare word may refer to the early (or autumn) rains (see Joel 2:23).

[84:6]  438 tc The MT reads בְּרָכוֹת (bÿrakhot, “blessings”) but the preceding reference to a “spring” favors an emendation to בְּרֵכוֹת (bÿrekhot, “pools”).

[84:6]  sn Pools of water. Because water is so necessary for life, it makes an apt symbol for divine favor and blessing. As the pilgrims traveled to Jerusalem, God provided for their physical needs and gave them a token of his favor and of the blessings awaiting them at the temple.

[84:7]  439 tn Heb “they go from strength to strength.” The phrase “from strength to strength” occurs only here in the OT. With a verb of motion, the expression “from [common noun] to [same common noun]” normally suggests movement from one point to another or through successive points (see Num 36:7; 1 Chr 16:20; 17:5; Ps 105:13; Jer 25:32). Ps 84:7 may be emphasizing that the pilgrims move successively from one “place of strength” to another as they travel toward Jerusalem. All along the way they find adequate provisions and renewed energy for the trip.

[84:7]  440 tn The psalmist returns to the singular (see v. 5a), which he uses in either a representative or distributive (“each one” ) sense.

[84:8]  441 tn HebLord, God, hosts.” One expects the construct form אֱלֹהֵי before צְבָאוֹת (tsÿvaot, “hosts”; see Ps 89:9) but יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים (yehvahelohim) precedes צְבָאוֹת in Pss 59:5 and 80:4, 19 as well.

[84:9]  442 tn The phrase “our shield” refers metaphorically to the Davidic king, who, as God’s vice-regent, was the human protector of the people. Note the parallelism with “your anointed one” here and with “our king” in Ps 89:18.

[84:9]  443 tn Heb “look [on] the face of your anointed one.” The Hebrew phrase מְשִׁיחֶךָ (mÿshikhekha, “your anointed one”) refers here to the Davidic king (see Pss 2:2; 18:50; 20:6; 28:8; 89:38, 51; 132:10, 17).

[84:10]  444 tn Or “for.”

[84:10]  445 tn Heb “better is a day in your courts than a thousand [spent elsewhere].”

[84:10]  446 tn Heb “I choose being at the entrance of the house of my God over living in the tents of the wicked.” The verb סָפַף (safaf) appears only here in the OT; it is derived from the noun סַף (saf, “threshold”). Traditionally some have interpreted this as a reference to being a doorkeeper at the temple, though some understand it to mean “lie as a beggar at the entrance to the temple” (see HALOT 765 s.v. ספף).

[84:10]  447 tn The verb דּוּר (dur, “to live”) occurs only here in the OT.

[84:11]  448 tn Heb “[is] a sun and a shield.” The epithet “sun,” though rarely used of Israel’s God in the OT, was a well-attested royal title in the ancient Near East. For several examples from Ugaritic texts, the Amarna letters, and Assyrian royal inscriptions, see R. B. Chisholm, “An Exegetical and Theological Study of Psalm 18/2 Samuel 22” (Th.D. diss., Dallas Theological Seminary, 1983), 131, n. 2.

[84:11]  449 tn Or “grace.”

[84:11]  450 tn Heb “he does not withhold good to those walking in integrity.”

[84:12]  451 tn Traditionally “Lord of hosts.”

[84:12]  452 tn Heb “[Oh] the happiness [of] the man [who] trusts in you.” Hebrew literature often assumes and reflects the male-oriented perspective of ancient Israelite society. The principle stated here is certainly applicable to all people, regardless of their gender or age. To facilitate modern application, we translate the gender and age specific “man” with the plural “those.” The individual referred to here is representative of all followers of God, as the use of the plural form in v. 12b indicates.

[85:1]  453 sn Psalm 85. God’s people recall how he forgave their sins in the past, pray that he might now restore them to his favor, and anticipate renewed blessings.

[85:1]  454 tn Heb “you turned with a turning [toward] Jacob.” The Hebrew term שְׁבוּת (shÿvut) is apparently a cognate accusative of שׁוּב (shuv). See Pss 14:7; 53:6.

[85:2]  455 tn Heb “lifted up.”

[85:2]  456 tn Heb “covered over.”

[85:3]  457 tn Heb “the rage of your anger.” The phrase “rage of your anger” employs an appositional genitive. Synonyms are joined in a construct relationship to emphasize the single idea. For a detailed discussion of the grammatical point with numerous examples, see Y. Avishur, “Pairs of Synonymous Words in the Construct State (and in Appositional Hendiadys) in Biblical Hebrew,” Semitics 2 (1971): 17-81. See Pss 69:24; 78:49.

[85:4]  458 tn Heb “break your displeasure with us.” Some prefer to emend הָפֵר (hafer, “break”) to הָסֵר (haser, “turn aside”).

[85:5]  459 tn Heb “Will your anger stretch to a generation and a generation?”

[85:8]  460 sn I will listen. Having asked for the Lord’s favor, the psalmist (who here represents the nation) anticipates a divine word of assurance.

[85:8]  461 tn Heb “speak.” The idiom “speak peace” refers to establishing or maintaining peaceful relations with someone (see Gen 37:4; Zech 9:10; cf. Ps 122:8).

[85:8]  462 tn Heb “to his people and to his faithful followers.” The translation assumes that “his people” and “his faithful followers” are viewed as identical here.

[85:8]  463 tn Or “yet let them not.” After the negative particle אֵל (’el), the prefixed verbal form is jussive, indicating the speaker’s desire or wish.

[85:9]  464 tn Heb “certainly his deliverance [is] near to those who fear him.”

[85:9]  465 tn Heb “to dwell, glory, in our land.” “Glory” is the subject of the infinitive. The infinitive with -לְ (lÿ), “to dwell,” probably indicates result here (“then”). When God delivers his people and renews his relationship with them, he will once more reveal his royal splendor in the land.

[85:10]  466 tn The psalmist probably uses the perfect verbal forms in v. 10 in a dramatic or rhetorical manner, describing what he anticipates as if it were already occurring or had already occurred.

[85:10]  467 sn Deliverance and peace greet each other with a kiss. The psalmist personifies these abstract qualities to emphasize that God’s loyal love and faithfulness will yield deliverance and peace for his people.

[85:11]  468 sn The psalmist already sees undeniable signs of God’s faithfulness and expects deliverance to arrive soon.

[85:12]  469 tn Heb “what is good.”

[85:12]  470 tn Both “bestow” and “yield” translate the same Hebrew verb (נָתַן, natan). The repetition of the word emphasizes that agricultural prosperity is the direct result of divine blessing.

[85:13]  471 tn Or “will go.”

[85:13]  472 tn Or “will prepare.”

[85:13]  473 tn Heb “and it prepares for a way his footsteps.” Some suggest emending וְיָשֵׂם (vÿyasem, “and prepares”) to וְשָׁלוֹם (vÿshalom, “and peace”) since “deliverance” and “peace” are closely related earlier in v. 13. This could be translated, “and peace [goes ahead, making] a pathway for his footsteps” (cf. NEB).

[86:1]  474 sn Psalm 86. The psalmist appeals to God’s mercy as he asks for deliverance from his enemies.

[86:1]  475 tn Heb “turn your ear.”

[86:2]  476 tn Heb “my life.”

[86:3]  477 tn Or “show me favor.”

[86:4]  478 tn Heb “the soul of your servant.”

[86:4]  479 tn Heb “I lift up my soul.”

[86:5]  480 tn Or “for.”

[86:5]  481 tn Heb “good.”

[86:8]  482 tn Heb “and there are none like your acts.”

[86:9]  483 tn Or “bow down before you.”

[86:11]  484 tn Heb “teach me your way.” The Lord’s “way” refers here to the moral principles he expects the psalmist to follow. See Pss 25:4; 27:11.

[86:11]  485 tn Heb “I will walk in your truth.” The Lord’s commandments are referred to as “truth” here because they are a trustworthy and accurate expression of the divine will. See Ps 25:5.

[86:11]  486 tn Heb “Bind my heart to the fearing of your name.” The verb translated “bind” occurs only here in the Piel stem. It appears twice in the Qal, meaning “be joined” in both cases (Gen 49:6; Isa 14:20). To “fear” God’s name means to have a healthy respect for him which in turn motivates one to obey his commands (see Pss 61:5; 102:15).

[86:12]  487 tn Or “forever.”

[86:13]  488 tn Heb “for your loyal love [is] great over me.”

[86:13]  489 tn Or “for he will have delivered my life.” The verb form indicates a future perfect here.

[86:13]  490 tn Or “lower Sheol.”

[86:14]  491 tn Heb “rise up against me.”

[86:14]  492 tn Or “assembly.”

[86:14]  493 tn Heb “seek my life and do not set you before them.” See Ps 54:3.

[86:15]  494 tn Heb “slow to anger.”

[86:15]  495 tn Heb “and great of loyal love and faithfulness.”

[86:15]  sn The psalmist’s confession of faith in this verse echoes Exod 34:6.

[86:16]  496 tn Heb “the son of your female servant.” The phrase “son of a female servant” (see also Ps 116:16) is used of a son born to a secondary wife or concubine (Exod 23:12). In some cases the child’s father is the master of the house (see Gen 21:10, 13; Judg 9:18). The use of the expression here certainly does not imply that the Lord has such a secondary wife or concubine! It is used metaphorically and idiomatically to emphasize the psalmist’s humility before the Lord and his status as the Lord’s servant.

[86:17]  497 tn Heb “Work with me a sign for good.” The expression “work a sign” also occurs in Judg 6:17.

[86:17]  498 tn After the imperative in the preceding line (“work”), the prefixed verb forms with prefixed vav (ו) conjunctive indicate purpose or result.

[86:17]  499 tn The perfect verbal forms are understood here as dramatic/rhetorical, expressing the psalmist’s certitude that such a sign from the Lord will be followed by his intervention. Another option is to understand the forms as future perfects (“for you, O Lord, will have helped me and comforted me”).

[87:1]  500 sn Psalm 87. The psalmist celebrates the Lord’s presence in Zion and the special status of its citizens.

[87:1]  501 tn Heb “his foundation [is] in the hills of holiness.” The expression “his foundation” refers here by metonymy to the Lord’s dwelling place in Zion. The “hills” are the ones surrounding Zion (see Pss 125:2; 133:3).

[87:3]  502 tn Heb “glorious things are spoken about you.” The translation assumes this is a general reference to compliments paid to Zion by those who live within her walls and by those who live in the surrounding areas and lands. Another option is that this refers to a prophetic oracle about the city’s glorious future. In this case one could translate, “wonderful things are announced concerning you.”

[87:4]  503 snRahab,” which means “proud one,” is used here as a title for Egypt (see Isa 30:7).

[87:4]  504 tn Heb “to those who know me” (see Ps 36:10). Apparently the Lord speaks here. The verbal construction (the Hiphil of זָכַר, zakhar, “remember” followed by the preposition -לְ [le] with a substantive) is rare, but the prepositional phrase is best understood as indicating the recipient of the announcement (see Jer 4:16). Some take the preposition in the sense of “among” and translate, “among those who know me” (cf. NEB, NIV, NRSV). In this case these foreigners are viewed as the Lord’s people and the psalm is interpreted as anticipating a time when all nations will worship the Lord (see Ps 86:9) and be considered citizens of Zion.

[87:4]  505 tn Heb “Look.”

[87:4]  506 map For location see Map1 A2; Map2 G2; Map4 A1; JP3 F3; JP4 F3.

[87:4]  507 tn Heb “Cush.”

[87:4]  508 tn Heb “and this one was born there.” The words “It is said of them” are not in the Hebrew text, but are supplied for clarification and stylistic purposes (see v. 5). Those advocating the universalistic interpretation understand “there” as referring to Zion, but it seems more likely that the adverb refers to the nations just mentioned. The foreigners are identified by their native lands.

[87:5]  509 tn Heb “and of Zion it is said.” Another option is to translate, “and to Zion it is said.” In collocation with the Niphal of אָמַר (’amar), the preposition lamed (-לְ) can introduce the recipient of the statement (see Josh 2:2; Jer 4:11; Hos 1:10; Zeph 3:16), carry the nuance “concerning, of” (see Num 23:23), or mean “be named” (see Isa 4:3; 62:4).

[87:5]  510 tn Heb “a man and a man.” The idiom also appears in Esth 1:8. The translation assumes that the phrase refers to each of Zion’s residents, in contrast to the foreigners mentioned in v. 4. Those advocating the universalistic interpretation understand this as a reference to each of the nations, including those mentioned in v. 4.

[87:5]  511 tn Traditionally “Most High.”

[87:5]  512 tn Heb “and he makes her secure, the Most High.”

[87:6]  513 tn Heb “the Lord records in the writing of the nations.”

[87:6]  514 tn As noted in v. 4, the translation assumes a contrast between “there” (the various foreign lands) and “in her” (Zion). In contrast to foreigners, the citizens of Zion have special status because of their birthplace (v. 5). In this case vv. 4 and 6 form a structural frame around v. 5.

[87:7]  515 tc Heb “and singers, like pipers, all my springs [are] in you.” The participial form חֹלְלִים (kholÿlim) appears to be from a denominative verb meaning “play the pipe,” though some derive the form from חוּל (khul, “dance”). In this case the duplicated lamed (ל) requires an emendation to מְחֹלְלִים (mÿkholÿlim, “a Polel form). The words are addressed to Zion. As it stands, the Hebrew text makes little, if any, sense. “Springs” are often taken here as a symbol of divine blessing and life”), but this reading does not relate to the preceding line in any apparent way. The present translation assumes an emendation of כָּל־מַעְיָנַי (kol-mayanay, “all my springs”) to כֻּלָּם עָנוּ (kullamanu, “all of them sing,” with the form עָנוּ being derived from עָנָה, ’anah, “sing”).

[88:1]  516 sn Psalm 88. The psalmist cries out in pain to the Lord, begging him for relief from his intense and constant suffering. The psalmist regards God as the ultimate cause of his distress, but nevertheless clings to God in hope.

[88:1]  517 tn The Hebrew phrase מָחֲלַת לְעַנּוֹת (makhalat lÿannot) may mean “illness to afflict.” Perhaps it refers to a particular style of music, a tune title, or a musical instrument. The term מָחֲלַת also appears in the superscription of Ps 53.

[88:1]  518 tn The meaning of the Hebrew term מַשְׂכִּיל (maskil) is uncertain. The word is derived from a verb meaning “to be prudent; to be wise.” Various options are: “a contemplative song,” “a song imparting moral wisdom,” or “a skillful [i.e., well-written] song.” The term occurs in the superscriptions of Pss 32, 42, 44, 45, 52-55, 74, 78, 88, 89, and 142, as well as in Ps 47:7.

[88:1]  519 tn Heb “O Lord God of my deliverance.” In light of the content of the psalm, this reference to God as the one who delivers seems overly positive. For this reason some emend the text to אַלֹהַי שִׁוַּעְתִּי (’alohay shivvatiy, “[O Lord] my God, I cry out”). See v. 13.

[88:1]  520 tn Heb “[by] day I cry out, in the night before you.”

[88:2]  521 tn Heb “may my prayer come before you.” The prefixed verbal form is understood as a jussive, indicating the psalmist’s desire or prayer.

[88:2]  522 tn Heb “turn your ear.”

[88:3]  523 tn Or “my soul.”

[88:3]  524 tn Heb “and my life approaches Sheol.”

[88:4]  525 tn Heb “I am considered with.”

[88:4]  526 tn Heb “the pit.” The noun בּוֹר (bor, “pit,” “cistern”) is sometimes used of the grave and/or the realm of the dead.

[88:4]  527 tn Heb “I am like a man [for whom] there is no help.”

[88:5]  528 tn Heb “set free.”

[88:5]  529 tn Heb “from your hand.”

[88:6]  530 tn The noun בּוֹר (bor, “pit,” “cistern”) is sometimes used of the grave and/or the realm of the dead. See v. 4.

[88:8]  531 tn Heb “[I am] confined and I cannot go out.”

[88:9]  532 tn Heb “I spread out my hands to you.” Spreading out the hands toward God was a prayer gesture (see Exod 9:29, 33; 1 Kgs 8:22, 38; 2 Chr 6:12-13, 29; Ezra 9:15; Job 11:13; Isa 1:15). The words “in prayer” have been supplied in the translation to clarify this.

[88:10]  533 tn Heb “Rephaim,” a term that refers to those who occupy the land of the dead (see Isa 14:9; 26:14, 19).

[88:11]  534 tn Heb “in Abaddon,” a name for Sheol. The noun is derived from a verbal root meaning “to perish,” “to die.”

[88:12]  535 tn Heb “known.”

[88:12]  536 tn Heb “darkness,” here a title for Sheol.

[88:12]  537 tn Heb “forgetfulness.” The noun, which occurs only here in the OT, is derived from a verbal root meaning “to forget.”

[88:12]  sn The rhetorical questions in vv. 10-12 expect the answer, “Of course not!”

[88:14]  538 tn Heb “[why] do you hide your face from me?”

[88:15]  539 tn Heb “and am dying from youth.”

[88:15]  540 tn Heb “I carry your horrors [?].” The meaning of the Hebrew form אָפוּנָה (’afunah), which occurs only here in the OT, is unclear. It may be an adverb meaning “very much” (BDB 67 s.v.), though some prefer to emend the text to אָפוּגָה (’afugah, “I am numb”) from the verb פוּג (pug; see Pss 38:8; 77:2).

[88:16]  541 tn Heb “passes over me.”

[88:17]  542 tn Heb “they encircle me together.”

[88:18]  543 tn Heb “you cause to be far from me friend and neighbor.”

[88:18]  544 tn Heb “those known by me, darkness.”

[89:1]  545 sn Psalm 89. The psalmist praises God as the sovereign creator of the world. He recalls God’s covenant with David, but then laments that the promises of the covenant remain unrealized. The covenant promised the Davidic king military victories, but the king has now been subjected to humiliating defeat.

[89:1]  546 tn The meaning of the Hebrew term מַשְׂכִּיל (maskil) is uncertain. See the note on the phrase “well-written song” in the superscription of Ps 88.

[89:1]  547 tn Or “forever.”

[89:1]  548 tn Heb “to a generation and a generation I will make known your faithfulness with my mouth.”

[89:2]  549 tn Heb “built.”

[89:2]  550 sn You set up your faithfulness. This may allude to the Lord’s heavenly throne, which symbolizes his just rule and from which the Lord decrees his unconditional promises (see vv. 8, 14).

[89:3]  551 tn The words “the Lord said” are supplied in the translation for clarification. It is clear that the words of vv. 3-4 are spoken by the Lord, in contrast to vv. 1-2, which are spoken by the psalmist.

[89:4]  552 tn Heb “forever I will establish your offspring.”

[89:4]  553 tn Heb “and I will build to a generation and a generation your throne.”

[89:5]  554 tn As the following context makes clear, the personified “heavens” here stand by metonymy for the angelic beings that surround God’s heavenly throne.

[89:5]  555 tn Heb “in the assembly of the holy ones.” The phrase “holy ones” sometimes refers to God’s people (Ps 34:9) or to their priestly leaders (2 Chr 35:3), but here it refers to God’s heavenly assembly and the angels that surround his throne (see vv. 6-7).

[89:6]  556 tn Heb “sons of gods”; or “sons of God.” Though אֵלִים (’elim) is vocalized as a plural form (“gods”) in the Hebrew text, it is likely that the final mem (ם) is actually enclitic rather than a plural marker. In this case one may read “God.” Some, following a Qumran text and the LXX, also propose the phrase occurred in the original text of Deut 32:8. The phrase בְנֵי אֵלִים (vÿneyelim, “sons of gods” or “sons of God”) occurs only here and in Ps 29:1. Since the “sons of gods/God” are here associated with “the assembly of the holy ones” and “council of the holy ones,” the heavenly assembly (comprised of so-called “angels” and other supernatural beings) appears to be in view. See Job 5:1; 15:15 and Zech 14:5, where these supernatural beings are referred to as “holy ones.” In Canaanite mythological texts the divine council of the high god El is called “the sons of El.” The OT apparently uses the Canaanite phrase, applying it to the supernatural beings that surround the Lord’s heavenly throne.

[89:7]  557 tn Heb “feared.”

[89:7]  558 tn Heb “in the great assembly of the holy ones.”

[89:7]  559 tn Or perhaps “feared by.”

[89:8]  560 tn Traditionally “God of hosts.” The title here pictures the Lord as enthroned in the midst of the angelic hosts of heaven.

[89:9]  561 tn Heb “the majesty of the sea.”

[89:9]  562 tn Heb “rise up.”

[89:10]  563 tn Heb “Rahab.” The name “Rahab” means “proud one.” Since it is sometimes used of Egypt (see Ps 87:4; Isa 30:7), the passage may allude to the exodus. However, the name is also used of the sea (or the mythological sea creature) which symbolizes the disruptive forces of the world that seek to replace order with chaos (see Job 9:13; 26:12). Isa 51:9 appears to combine the mythological and historical referents. The association of Rahab with the sea in Ps 89 (see v. 9) suggests that the name carries symbolic force in this context. In this case the passage may allude to creation (see vv. 11-12), when God overcame the great deep and brought order out of chaos.

[89:10]  564 tn Heb “like one fatally wounded.”

[89:11]  565 tn Heb “the world and its fullness, you established them.”

[89:12]  566 sn Tabor and Hermon were two of the most prominent mountains in Palestine.

[89:13]  567 sn The Lord’s arm, hand, and right hand all symbolize his activities, especially his exploits in war.

[89:13]  568 tn Heb “is lifted up.” The idiom “the right hand is lifted up” refers to victorious military deeds (see Pss 89:42; 118:16).

[89:14]  569 sn The Lord’s throne symbolizes his kingship.

[89:14]  570 tn Heb “are in front of your face.” The idiom can mean “confront” (Ps 17:13) or “meet, enter the presence of” (Ps 95:2).

[89:15]  571 tn Heb “who know the shout.” “Shout” here refers to the shouts of the Lord’s worshipers (see Pss 27:6; 33:3; 47:5).

[89:15]  572 tn Heb “in the light of your face they walk.” The idiom “light of your face” probably refers to a smile (see Eccl 8:1), which in turn suggests favor and blessing (see Num 6:25; Pss 4:6; 31:16; 44:3; 67:1; 80:3, 7, 19; Dan 9:17).

[89:16]  573 tn Heb “are lifted up.”

[89:17]  574 tn Heb “for the splendor of their strength [is] you.”

[89:17]  575 tn Heb “you lift up our horn,” or if one follows the marginal reading (Qere), “our horn is lifted up.” The horn of an ox underlies the metaphor (see Deut 33:17; 1 Kgs 22:11; Ps 92:10). The horn of the wild ox is frequently a metaphor for military strength; the idiom “exalt/lift up the horn” signifies military victory (see 1 Sam 2:10; Pss 75:10; 89:24; 92:10; Lam 2:17).

[89:18]  576 tn The phrase “our shield” refers metaphorically to the Davidic king, who, as God’s vice-regent, was the human protector of the people. Note the parallelism with “our king" here and with “your anointed one” in Ps 84:9.

[89:18]  577 sn The basic sense of the word “holy” is “set apart from that which is commonplace, special, unique.” The Lord’s holiness is first and foremost his transcendent sovereignty as the ruler of the world. He is “set apart” from the world over which he rules. At the same time his holiness encompasses his moral authority, which derives from his royal position. As king he has the right to dictate to his subjects how they are to live; indeed his very own character sets the standard for proper behavior. This expression is a common title for the Lord in the book of Isaiah.

[89:19]  578 tn The pronoun “you” refers to the Lord, who is addressed here. The quotation that follows further develops the announcement of vv. 3-4.

[89:19]  579 tc Many medieval mss read the singular here, “your faithful follower.” In this case the statement refers directly to Nathan’s oracle to David (see 2 Sam 7:17).

[89:19]  580 tn Heb “I have placed help upon a warrior.”

[89:19]  581 tn Or perhaps “a chosen one.”

[89:20]  582 tn The words “as king” are supplied in the translation for clarification, indicating that a royal anointing is in view.

[89:21]  583 tn Heb “with whom my hand will be firm.”

[89:22]  584 tn Heb “an enemy will not exact tribute.” The imperfect is understood in a modal sense, indicating capability or potential.

[89:22]  585 tn The translation understands the Hiphil of נָשַׁא (nasha’) in the sense of “act as a creditor.” This may allude to the practice of a conqueror forcing his subjects to pay tribute in exchange for “protection.” Another option is to take the verb from a homonymic verbal root meaning “to deceive,” “to trick.” Still another option is to emend the form to יִשָּׂא (yisa’), a Qal imperfect from נָאַשׂ (naas, “rise up”) and to translate “an enemy will not rise up against him” (see M. Dahood, Psalms [AB], 2:317).

[89:22]  586 tn Heb “and a son of violence will not oppress him.” The imperfect is understood in a modal sense, indicating capability or potential. The reference to a “son of violence” echoes the language of God’s promise to David in 2 Sam 7:10 (see also 1 Chr 17:9).

[89:24]  587 tn Heb “and my faithfulness and my loyal love [will be] with him.”

[89:24]  588 tn Heb “and by my name his horn will be lifted up.” The horn of an ox underlies the metaphor (see Deut 33:17; 1 Kgs 22:11; Ps 92:10). The horn of the wild ox is frequently a metaphor for military strength; the idiom “exalt/lift up the horn” signifies military victory (see 1 Sam 2:10; Pss 75:10; 92:10; Lam 2:17).

[89:25]  589 tn Some identify “the sea” as the Mediterranean and “the rivers” as the Euphrates and its tributaries. However, it is more likely that “the sea” and “the rivers” are symbols for hostile powers that oppose God and the king (see v. 9, as well as Ps 93:3-4).

[89:26]  590 sn You are my father. The Davidic king was viewed as God’s “son” (see 2 Sam 7:14; Ps 2:7). The idiom reflects ancient Near Eastern adoption language associated with covenants of grant, by which a lord would reward a faithful subject by elevating him to special status, referred to as “sonship.” Like a son, the faithful subject received an “inheritance,” viewed as an unconditional, eternal gift. Such gifts usually took the form of land and/or an enduring dynasty. See M. Weinfeld, “The Covenant of Grant in the Old Testament and in the Ancient Near East,” JAOS 90 (1970): 184-203, for general discussion and some striking extra-biblical parallels.

[89:26]  591 tn Heb “the rocky summit of my deliverance.”

[89:27]  592 sn The firstborn son typically had special status and received special privileges.

[89:28]  593 tn Heb “forever I will keep for him my loyal love and will make my covenant secure for him.”

[89:29]  594 tn Heb “and I will set in place forever his offspring.”

[89:29]  595 tn Heb “and his throne like the days of the heavens.”

[89:31]  596 tn Or “desecrate.”

[89:32]  597 tn Heb “I will punish with a club their rebellion.”

[89:32]  sn Despite the harsh image of beating…with a club, the language reflects a father-son relationship (see v. 30; 2 Sam 7:14). According to Proverbs, a שֵׁבֶט (shevet, “club”) was sometimes utilized to administer corporal punishment to rebellious children (see Prov 13:24; 22:15; 23:13-14; 29:15).

[89:32]  598 tn Heb “with blows their sin.”

[89:33]  599 tn Heb “break”; “make ineffectual.” Some prefer to emend אָפִיר (’afir; the Hiphil of פָּרַר, parar, “to break”) to אָסִיר (’asir; the Hiphil of סוּר, sur, “to turn aside”), a verb that appears in 2 Sam 7:15.

[89:33]  600 tn Heb “and I will not deal falsely with my faithfulness.”

[89:34]  601 tn Or “desecrate.”

[89:34]  602 tn Heb “and what proceeds out of my lips I will not alter.”

[89:35]  603 tn Or “lie to.”

[89:36]  604 tn Heb “his offspring forever will be.”

[89:36]  605 tn Heb “and his throne like the sun before me.”

[89:37]  606 tn Heb “like the moon it will be established forever.”

[89:37]  607 tn Heb “and a witness in the sky, secure.” Scholars have offered a variety of opinions as to the identity of the “witness” referred to here, none of which is very convincing. It is preferable to join וְעֵד (vÿed) to עוֹלָם (’olam) in the preceding line and translate the commonly attested phrase עוֹלָם וְעֵד (“forever”). In this case one may translate the second line, “[it] will be secure like the skies.” Another option (the one reflected in the present translation) is to take עד as a rare noun meaning “throne” or “dais.” This noun is attested in Ugaritic; see, for example, CTA 16 vi 22-23, where ksi (= כִּסֵּא, kisse’, “throne”) and ’d (= עד, “dais”) appear as synonyms in the poetic parallelism (see G. R. Driver, Canaanite Myths and Legends, 91). Emending בַּשַּׁחַק (bashakhaq, “in the heavens”) to כַּשַׁחַק (kashakhaq, “like the heavens”) – bet/kaf (כ/ב) confusion is widely attested – one can then read “[his] throne like the heavens [is] firm/stable.” Verse 29 refers to the enduring nature of the heavens, while Job 37:18 speaks of God spreading out the heavens (שְׁחָקִים, shÿkhaqim) and compares their strength to a bronze mirror. Ps 89:29 uses the term שָׁמַיִם (shamayim, “skies”) which frequently appears in parallelism to שְׁחָקִים.

[89:38]  608 tn The Hebrew construction (conjunction + pronoun, followed by the verb) draws attention to the contrast between what follows and what precedes.

[89:38]  609 tn Heb “your anointed one.” The Hebrew phrase מְשִׁיחֶךָ (mÿshikhekha, “your anointed one”) refers here to the Davidic king (see Pss 2:2; 18:50; 20:6; 28:8; 84:9; 132:10, 17).

[89:39]  610 tn The Hebrew verb appears only here and in Lam 2:7.

[89:39]  611 tn Heb “the covenant of your servant.”

[89:39]  612 tn Heb “you dishonor [or “desecrate”] on the ground his crown.”

[89:40]  613 tn The king here represents the land and cities over which he rules.

[89:41]  614 tn Heb “all the passersby on the road.”

[89:42]  615 tn Heb “you have lifted up the right hand of his adversaries.” The idiom “the right hand is lifted up” refers to victorious military deeds (see Pss 89:13; 118:16).

[89:43]  616 tn The perfect verbal form predominates in vv. 38-45. The use of the imperfect in this one instance may be for rhetorical effect. The psalmist briefly lapses into dramatic mode, describing the king’s military defeat as if it were happening before his very eyes.

[89:43]  617 tc Heb “you turn back, rocky summit, his sword.” The Hebrew term צוּר (tsur, “rocky summit”) makes no sense here, unless it is a divine title understood as vocative, “you turn back, O Rocky Summit, his sword.” Some emend the form to צֹר (tsor, “flint”) on the basis of Josh 5:2, which uses the phrase חַרְבוֹת צֻרִים (kharvot tsurim, “flint knives”). The noun צֹר (tsor, “flint”) can then be taken as “flint-like edge,” indicating the sharpness of the sword. Others emend the form to אָחוֹר (’akhor, “backward”) or to מִצַּר (mitsar, “from the adversary”). The present translation reflects the latter, assuming an original reading תָּשִׁיב מִצָּר חַרְבּוֹ (tashiv mitsar kharbo), which was corrupted to תָּשִׁיב צָר חַרְבּוֹ (tashiv tsar kharbo) by virtual haplography (confusion of bet/mem is well-attested) with צָר (tsar, “adversary”) then being misinterpreted as צוּר in the later tradition.

[89:43]  618 tn Heb “and you have not caused him to stand in the battle.”

[89:44]  619 tc The Hebrew text appears to read, “you have brought to an end from his splendor,” but the form מִטְּהָרוֹ (mittÿharo) should be slightly emended (the daghesh should be removed from the tet [ת]) and read simply “his splendor” (the initial mem [מ] is not the preposition, but a nominal prefix).

[89:44]  620 tn The Hebrew verb מָגַר (magar) occurs only here and perhaps in Ezek 21:17.

[89:45]  621 tn Heb “the days of his youth” (see as well Job 33:25).

[89:46]  622 tn Heb “How long, O Lord, will hide yourself forever?”

[89:47]  623 tn Heb “remember me, what is [my] lifespan.” The Hebrew term חֶלֶד (kheled) is also used of one’s lifespan in Ps 39:5. Because the Hebrew text is so awkward here, some prefer to emend it to read מֶה חָדֵל אָנִי (meh khadelaniy, “[remember] how transient [that is, “short-lived”] I am”; see Ps 39:4).

[89:47]  624 tn Heb “For what emptiness do you create all the sons of mankind?” In this context the term שָׁוְא (shavah) refers to mankind’s mortal nature and the brevity of life (see vv. 45, 48).

[89:48]  625 tn Heb “Who [is] the man [who] can live and not see death, [who] can deliver his life from the hand of Sheol?” The rhetorical question anticipates the answer, “No one!”

[89:49]  626 sn The Lord’s faithful deeds are also mentioned in Pss 17:7 and 25:6.

[89:49]  627 tc Many medieval Hebrew mss read here יְהוָה (yehvah, “the Lord”).

[89:49]  628 tn Heb “[which] you swore on oath to David by your faithfulness.”

[89:50]  629 tc Many medieval Hebrew mss read here יְהוָה (yehvah, “the Lord”).

[89:50]  630 tn Heb “remember, O Lord, the taunt against your servants.” Many medieval Hebrew mss read the singular here, “your servant” (that is, the psalmist).

[89:50]  631 tn Heb “my lifting up in my arms [or “against my chest”] all of the many, peoples.” The term רַבִּים (rabbim, “many”) makes no apparent sense here. For this reason some emend the text to רִבֵי (rivey, “attacks by”), a defectively written plural construct form of רִיב (riv, “dispute; quarrel”).

[89:51]  632 tn Heb “[by] which your enemies, O Lord, taunt, [by] which they taunt [at] the heels of your anointed one.”

[89:52]  633 sn The final verse of Ps 89, v. 52, is a conclusion to this third “book” (or major editorial division) of the Psalter. Similar statements appear at or near the end of each of the first, second and fourth “books” of the Psalter (see Pss 41:13; 72:18-19; 106:48, respectively).

[89:52]  634 tn Heb “[be] blessed.” See Pss 18:46; 28:6; 31:21.

[89:52]  635 tn Heb “surely and surely” (אָמֵן וְאָמֵן [’amen vÿamen], i.e., “Amen and amen”). This is probably a congregational response to the immediately preceding statement about the propriety of praising God; thus it has been translated “We agree! We agree!”



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