TB NETBible YUN-IBR Ref. Silang Nama Gambar Himne

Kisah Para Rasul 11:1--13:52

Konteks
Peter Defends His Actions to the Jerusalem Church

11:1 Now the apostles and the brothers who were throughout Judea heard that the Gentiles too had accepted 1  the word of God. 2  11:2 So when Peter went up to Jerusalem, 3  the circumcised believers 4  took issue with 5  him, 11:3 saying, “You went to 6  uncircumcised men and shared a meal with 7  them.” 11:4 But Peter began and explained it to them point by point, 8  saying, 11:5 “I was in the city of Joppa praying, and in a trance I saw a vision, 9  an object something like a large sheet descending, 10  being let down from heaven 11  by its four corners, and it came to me. 11:6 As I stared 12  I looked into it and saw four-footed animals of the earth, wild animals, reptiles, 13  and wild birds. 14  11:7 I also heard a voice saying to me, ‘Get up, Peter; slaughter 15  and eat!’ 11:8 But I said, ‘Certainly not, Lord, for nothing defiled or ritually unclean 16  has ever entered my mouth!’ 11:9 But the voice replied a second time from heaven, ‘What God has made clean, you must not consider 17  ritually unclean!’ 11:10 This happened three times, and then everything was pulled up to heaven again. 11:11 At that very moment, 18  three men sent to me from Caesarea 19  approached 20  the house where we were staying. 21  11:12 The Spirit told me to accompany them without hesitation. These six brothers 22  also went with me, and we entered the man’s house. 11:13 He informed us how he had seen an angel standing in his house and saying, ‘Send to Joppa and summon Simon, who is called Peter, 11:14 who will speak a message 23  to you by which you and your entire household will be saved.’ 11:15 Then as I began to speak, the Holy Spirit fell on 24  them just as he did 25  on us at the beginning. 26  11:16 And I remembered the word of the Lord, 27  as he used to say, 28  ‘John baptized with water, but you will be baptized with the Holy Spirit.’ 29  11:17 Therefore if God 30  gave them the same gift 31  as he also gave us after believing 32  in the Lord Jesus Christ, 33  who was I to hinder 34  God?” 11:18 When they heard this, 35  they ceased their objections 36  and praised 37  God, saying, “So then, God has granted the repentance 38  that leads to life even to the Gentiles.” 39 

Activity in the Church at Antioch

11:19 Now those who had been scattered because of the persecution that took place over Stephen 40  went as far as 41  Phoenicia, 42  Cyprus, 43  and Antioch, 44  speaking the message 45  to no one but Jews. 11:20 But there were some men from Cyprus 46  and Cyrene 47  among them who came 48  to Antioch 49  and began to speak to the Greeks 50  too, proclaiming the good news of the Lord Jesus. 11:21 The 51  hand of the Lord was with them, and a great number who believed 52  turned 53  to the Lord. 11:22 A report 54  about them came to the attention 55  of the church in Jerusalem, 56  and they sent Barnabas 57  to Antioch. 58  11:23 When 59  he came and saw the grace of God, he rejoiced and encouraged them all to remain true 60  to the Lord with devoted hearts, 61  11:24 because he was a good man, full of the Holy Spirit and of faith, and a significant number of people 62  were brought to the Lord. 11:25 Then Barnabas departed for Tarsus to look for Saul, 11:26 and when he found him, he brought him to Antioch. 63  So 64  for a whole year Barnabas and Saul 65  met with the church and taught a significant number of people. 66  Now it was in Antioch 67  that the disciples were first called Christians. 68 

Famine Relief for Judea

11:27 At that time 69  some 70  prophets 71  came down 72  from Jerusalem 73  to Antioch. 74  11:28 One of them, named Agabus, got up 75  and predicted 76  by the Spirit that a severe 77  famine 78  was about to come over the whole inhabited world. 79  (This 80  took place during the reign of Claudius.) 81  11:29 So the disciples, each in accordance with his financial ability, 82  decided 83  to send relief 84  to the brothers living in Judea. 11:30 They did so, 85  sending their financial aid 86  to the elders by Barnabas and Saul.

James is Killed and Peter Imprisoned

12:1 About that time King Herod 87  laid hands on 88  some from the church to harm them. 89  12:2 He had James, the brother of John, executed with a sword. 90  12:3 When he saw that this pleased the Jews, 91  he proceeded to arrest Peter too. (This took place during the feast of Unleavened Bread.) 92  12:4 When he had seized him, he put him in prison, handing him over to four squads 93  of soldiers to guard him. Herod 94  planned 95  to bring him out for public trial 96  after the Passover. 12:5 So Peter was kept in prison, but those in the church were earnestly 97  praying to God for him. 98  12:6 On that very night before Herod was going to bring him out for trial, 99  Peter was sleeping between two soldiers, bound with two chains, while 100  guards in front of the door were keeping watch 101  over the prison. 12:7 Suddenly 102  an angel of the Lord 103  appeared, and a light shone in the prison cell. He struck 104  Peter on the side and woke him up, saying, “Get up quickly!” And the chains fell off Peter’s 105  wrists. 106  12:8 The angel said to him, “Fasten your belt 107  and put on your sandals.” Peter 108  did so. Then the angel 109  said to him, “Put on your cloak 110  and follow me.” 12:9 Peter 111  went out 112  and followed him; 113  he did not realize that what was happening through the angel was real, 114  but thought he was seeing a vision. 12:10 After they had passed the first and second guards, 115  they came to the iron 116  gate leading into the city. It 117  opened for them by itself, 118  and they went outside and walked down one narrow street, 119  when at once the angel left him. 12:11 When 120  Peter came to himself, he said, “Now I know for certain that the Lord has sent his angel and rescued 121  me from the hand 122  of Herod 123  and from everything the Jewish people 124  were expecting to happen.”

12:12 When Peter 125  realized this, he went to the house of Mary, the mother of John Mark, 126  where many people had gathered together and were praying. 12:13 When he knocked at the door of the outer gate, a slave girl named Rhoda answered. 127  12:14 When she recognized Peter’s voice, she was so overjoyed she did not open the gate, but ran back in and told 128  them 129  that Peter was standing at the gate. 12:15 But they said to her, “You’ve lost your mind!” 130  But she kept insisting that it was Peter, 131  and they kept saying, 132  “It is his angel!” 133  12:16 Now Peter continued knocking, and when they opened the door 134  and saw him, they were greatly astonished. 135  12:17 He motioned to them 136  with his hand to be quiet and then related 137  how the Lord had brought 138  him out of the prison. He said, “Tell James and the brothers these things,” and then he left and went to another place. 139 

12:18 At daybreak 140  there was great consternation 141  among the soldiers over what had become of Peter. 12:19 When Herod 142  had searched 143  for him and did not find him, he questioned 144  the guards and commanded that they be led away to execution. 145  Then 146  Herod 147  went down from Judea to Caesarea 148  and stayed there.

12:20 Now Herod 149  was having an angry quarrel 150  with the people of Tyre 151  and Sidon. 152  So they joined together 153  and presented themselves before him. And after convincing 154  Blastus, the king’s personal assistant, 155  to help them, 156  they asked for peace, 157  because their country’s food supply was provided by the king’s country. 12:21 On a day determined in advance, Herod 158  put on his royal robes, 159  sat down on the judgment seat, 160  and made a speech 161  to them. 12:22 But the crowd 162  began to shout, 163  “The voice of a god, 164  and not of a man!” 12:23 Immediately an angel of the Lord 165  struck 166  Herod 167  down because he did not give the glory to God, and he was eaten by worms and died. 168  12:24 But the word of God 169  kept on increasing 170  and multiplying.

12:25 So Barnabas and Saul returned to 171  Jerusalem 172  when they had completed 173  their mission, 174  bringing along with them John Mark. 175 

The Church at Antioch Commissions Barnabas and Saul

13:1 Now there were these prophets and teachers in the church at Antioch: 176  Barnabas, Simeon called Niger, 177  Lucius the Cyrenian, 178  Manaen (a close friend of Herod 179  the tetrarch 180  from childhood 181 ) and Saul. 13:2 While they were serving 182  the Lord and fasting, the Holy Spirit said, “Set apart 183  for me Barnabas and Saul for the work to which I have called them.” 13:3 Then, after they had fasted 184  and 185  prayed and placed their hands 186  on them, they sent them off.

Paul and Barnabas Preach in Cyprus

13:4 So Barnabas and Saul, 187  sent out by the Holy Spirit, went down to Seleucia, 188  and from there they sailed to Cyprus. 189  13:5 When 190  they arrived 191  in Salamis, 192  they began to proclaim 193  the word of God in the Jewish synagogues. 194  (Now they also had John 195  as their assistant.) 196  13:6 When they had crossed over 197  the whole island as far as Paphos, 198  they found a magician, a Jewish false prophet named Bar-Jesus, 199  13:7 who was with the proconsul 200  Sergius Paulus, an intelligent man. The proconsul 201  summoned 202  Barnabas and Saul and wanted to hear 203  the word of God. 13:8 But the magician Elymas 204  (for that is the way his name is translated) 205  opposed them, trying to turn the proconsul 206  away from the faith. 13:9 But Saul (also known as Paul), 207  filled with the Holy Spirit, 208  stared straight 209  at him 13:10 and said, “You who are full of all deceit and all wrongdoing, 210  you son of the devil, you enemy of all righteousness – will you not stop making crooked the straight paths of the Lord? 211  13:11 Now 212  look, the hand of the Lord is against 213  you, and you will be blind, unable to see the sun for a time!” Immediately mistiness 214  and darkness came over 215  him, and he went around seeking people 216  to lead him by the hand. 13:12 Then when the proconsul 217  saw what had happened, he believed, 218  because he was greatly astounded 219  at the teaching about 220  the Lord.

Paul and Barnabas at Pisidian Antioch

13:13 Then Paul and his companions put out to sea 221  from Paphos 222  and came to Perga 223  in Pamphylia, 224  but John 225  left them and returned to Jerusalem. 226  13:14 Moving on from 227  Perga, 228  they arrived at Pisidian Antioch, 229  and on the Sabbath day they went into 230  the synagogue 231  and sat down. 13:15 After the reading from the law and the prophets, 232  the leaders of the synagogue 233  sent them a message, 234  saying, “Brothers, 235  if you have any message 236  of exhortation 237  for the people, speak it.” 238  13:16 So Paul stood up, 239  gestured 240  with his hand and said,

“Men of Israel, 241  and you Gentiles who fear God, 242  listen: 13:17 The God of this people Israel 243  chose our ancestors 244  and made the people great 245  during their stay as foreigners 246  in the country 247  of Egypt, and with uplifted arm 248  he led them out of it. 13:18 For 249  a period of about forty years he put up with 250  them in the wilderness. 251  13:19 After 252  he had destroyed 253  seven nations 254  in the land of Canaan, he gave his people their land as an inheritance. 255  13:20 All this took 256  about four hundred fifty years. After this 257  he gave them judges until the time of 258  Samuel the prophet. 13:21 Then they asked for a king, and God gave them Saul son of Kish, a man from the tribe of Benjamin, who ruled 259  forty years. 13:22 After removing him, God 260  raised up 261  David their king. He testified about him: 262 I have found David 263  the son of Jesse to be a man after my heart, 264  who will accomplish everything I want him to do.’ 265  13:23 From the descendants 266  of this man 267  God brought to Israel a Savior, Jesus, just as he promised. 268  13:24 Before 269  Jesus 270  arrived, John 271  had proclaimed a baptism for repentance 272  to all the people of Israel. 13:25 But while John was completing his mission, 273  he said repeatedly, 274  ‘What do you think I am? I am not he. But look, one is coming after me. I am not worthy to untie the sandals on his feet!’ 275  13:26 Brothers, 276  descendants 277  of Abraham’s family, 278  and those Gentiles among you who fear God, 279  the message 280  of this salvation has been sent to us. 13:27 For the people who live in Jerusalem and their rulers did not recognize 281  him, 282  and they fulfilled the sayings 283  of the prophets that are read every Sabbath by condemning 284  him. 285  13:28 Though 286  they found 287  no basis 288  for a death sentence, 289  they asked Pilate to have him executed. 13:29 When they had accomplished 290  everything that was written 291  about him, they took him down 292  from the cross 293  and placed him 294  in a tomb. 13:30 But God raised 295  him from the dead, 13:31 and 296  for many days he appeared to those who had accompanied 297  him from Galilee to Jerusalem. These 298  are now his witnesses to the people. 13:32 And we proclaim to you the good news about the promise to our ancestors, 299  13:33 that this promise 300  God has fulfilled to us, their children, by raising 301  Jesus, as also it is written in the second psalm, ‘You are my Son; 302  today I have fathered you.’ 303  13:34 But regarding the fact that he has raised Jesus 304  from the dead, never 305  again to be 306  in a state of decay, God 307  has spoken in this way: ‘I will give you 308  the holy and trustworthy promises 309  made to David.’ 310  13:35 Therefore he also says in another psalm, 311 You will not permit your Holy One 312  to experience 313  decay.’ 314  13:36 For David, after he had served 315  God’s purpose in his own generation, died, 316  was buried with his ancestors, 317  and experienced 318  decay, 13:37 but the one 319  whom God raised up did not experience 320  decay. 13:38 Therefore let it be known to you, brothers, that through this one 321  forgiveness of sins is proclaimed to you, 13:39 and by this one 322  everyone who believes is justified 323  from everything from which the law of Moses could not justify 324  you. 325  13:40 Watch out, 326  then, that what is spoken about by 327  the prophets does not happen to you:

13:41Look, you scoffers; be amazed and perish! 328 

For I am doing a work in your days,

a work you would never believe, even if someone tells you.’” 329 

13:42 As Paul and Barnabas 330  were going out, 331  the people 332  were urging 333  them to speak about these things 334  on the next Sabbath. 13:43 When the meeting of the synagogue 335  had broken up, 336  many of the Jews and God-fearing proselytes 337  followed Paul and Barnabas, who were speaking with them and were persuading 338  them 339  to continue 340  in the grace of God.

13:44 On the next Sabbath almost the whole city assembled together to hear the word of the Lord. 341  13:45 But when the Jews saw the crowds, they were filled with jealousy, 342  and they began to contradict 343  what Paul was saying 344  by reviling him. 345  13:46 Both Paul and Barnabas replied courageously, 346  “It was necessary to speak the word of God 347  to you first. Since you reject it and do not consider yourselves worthy 348  of eternal life, we 349  are turning to the Gentiles. 350  13:47 For this 351  is what the Lord has commanded us: ‘I have appointed 352  you to be a light 353  for the Gentiles, to bring salvation 354  to the ends of the earth.’” 355  13:48 When the Gentiles heard this, they began to rejoice 356  and praise 357  the word of the Lord, and all who had been appointed for eternal life 358  believed. 13:49 So the word of the Lord was spreading 359  through the entire region. 13:50 But the Jews incited 360  the God-fearing women of high social standing and the prominent men of the city, stirred up persecution against Paul and Barnabas, and threw them out 361  of their region. 13:51 So after they shook 362  the dust off their feet 363  in protest against them, they went to Iconium. 364  13:52 And the disciples were filled with joy 365  and with the Holy Spirit.

Seret untuk mengatur ukuranSeret untuk mengatur ukuran

[11:1]  1 tn See BDAG 221 s.v. δέχομαι 5 for this translation of ἐδέξαντο (edexanto) here.

[11:1]  2 tn Here the phrase “word of God” is another way to describe the gospel (note the preceding verb ἐδέξαντο, edexanto, “accepted”). The phrase could also be translated “the word [message] from God.”

[11:2]  3 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

[11:2]  4 tn Or “the Jewish Christians”; Grk “those of the circumcision.” Within the larger group of Christians were some whose loyalties ran along ethnic-religious lines.

[11:2]  5 tn Or “believers disputed with,” “believers criticized” (BDAG 231 s.v. διακρίνω 5.b).

[11:3]  6 tn Or “You were a guest in the home of” (according to L&N 23.12).

[11:3]  7 tn Or “and ate with.” It was table fellowship and the possibility of eating unclean food that disturbed them.

[11:4]  8 tn Or “to them in logical sequence,” “to them in order.” BDAG 490 s.v. καθεξῆς has “explain to someone point by point” for this phrase. This is the same term used in Luke 1:3.

[11:5]  9 tn This term describes a supernatural vision and reflects a clear distinction from something imagined (BDAG 718 s.v. ὅραμα 1). Peter repeated the story virtually word for word through v. 13. The repetition with this degree of detail shows the event’s importance.

[11:5]  10 tn Or “coming down.”

[11:5]  11 tn Or “the sky” (the same Greek word means both “heaven” and “sky”).

[11:6]  12 tn Grk “Staring I looked into it.” The participle ἀτενίσας (atenisa") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

[11:6]  13 tn Or “snakes.” Grk “creeping things.” According to L&N 4.51, in most biblical contexts the term (due to the influence of Hebrew classifications such as Gen 1:25-26, 30) included small four-footed animals like rats, mice, frogs, toads, salamanders, and lizards. In this context, however, where “creeping things” are contrasted with “four-footed animals,” the English word “reptiles,” which primarily but not exclusively designates snakes, is probably more appropriate.

[11:6]  14 tn Grk “the birds of the sky” or “the birds of the heaven”; the Greek word οὐρανός (ouranos) may be translated either “sky” or “heaven,” depending on the context. The idiomatic expression “birds of the sky” refers to wild birds as opposed to domesticated fowl (cf. BDAG 809 s.v. πετεινόν).

[11:7]  15 tn Or “kill.” Traditionally θῦσον (quson) is translated “kill,” but in the case of animals intended for food, “slaughter” is more appropriate.

[11:8]  16 tn Possibly there is a subtle distinction in meaning between κοινός (koinos) and ἀκάθαρτος (akaqartos) here, but according to L&N 53.39 it is difficult to determine precise differences in meaning based on existing contexts. The sentiment Peter expressed is like Ezek 4:14.

[11:9]  17 tn Or “declare.” The wording matches Acts 10:15.

[11:11]  18 tn Grk “And behold.”

[11:11]  19 sn Caesarea was a city on the coast of Palestine south of Mount Carmel (not Caesarea Philippi). See the note on Caesarea in Acts 10:1.

[11:11]  map For location see Map2 C1; Map4 B3; Map5 F2; Map7 A1; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

[11:11]  20 tn See BDAG 418 s.v. ἐφίστημι 1 for this meaning for ἐπέστησαν (epesthsan) here.

[11:11]  21 tn The word “staying” is not in the Greek text but is implied.

[11:12]  22 sn Six witnesses is three times more than what would normally be required. They could confirm the events were not misrepresented by Peter.

[11:14]  23 tn Grk “words” (ῥήματα, rJhmata), but in this context the overall message is meant rather than the individual words.

[11:15]  24 tn Or “came down on.”

[11:15]  25 tn The words “he did” are not in the Greek text but are implied. They form an ellipsis which must be supplied for the modern English reader. Some modern translations supply “it” rather than “he” because the gender of πνεῦμα (pneuma) in Greek is neuter, but there are sufficient NT contexts that use masculine pronouns to refer to the Spirit to justify the use of a masculine pronoun here in the translation.

[11:15]  26 sn At the beginning is an allusion to Acts 2 and Pentecost. The beginning is a way to refer to the start of the period of the realization of Jesus’ promise in Luke 24:49 and Acts 1:8. Peter was arguing that God gave Gentiles the same benefits he gave the Jews at the start of their mission.

[11:16]  27 sn The word of the Lord is a technical expression in OT literature, often referring to a divine prophetic utterance (e.g., Gen 15:1, Isa 1:10, Jonah 1:1). In the NT it occurs 15 times: 3 times as ῥῆμα τοῦ κυρίου (rJhma tou kuriou; here and in Luke 22:61, 1 Pet 1:25) and 12 times as λόγος τοῦ κυρίου (logo" tou kuriou; Acts 8:25; 13:44, 48, 49; 15:35, 36; 16:32; 19:10, 20; 1 Thess 1:8, 4:15; 2 Thess 3:1). As in the OT, this phrase focuses on the prophetic nature and divine origin of what has been said.

[11:16]  28 tn The imperfect verb ἔλεγεν (elegen) is taken as a customary imperfect.

[11:16]  29 sn John…Spirit. This remark repeats Acts 1:5.

[11:17]  30 tc Codex Bezae (D) and {a few other Western witnesses} here lack ὁ θεός (Jo qeo", “God”), perhaps because these scribes considered the Holy Spirit to be the gift of Christ rather than the gift of God; thus leaving the subject implicit would naturally draw the reader back to v. 16 to see the Lord Jesus as the bestower of the Spirit.

[11:17]  31 sn That is, the same gift of the Holy Spirit.

[11:17]  32 tn Or “gave us when we believed”; or “gave us after we believed”; or “gave us who believed”; or “gave them when they believed the same gift as he also gave us.” The aorist dative plural participle πιστεύσασιν (pisteusasin) can be understood in several different ways: (1) It could modify ἡμῖν (Jhmin, “us”) or αὐτοῖς (autois, “them”). Proximity (it immediately follows ἡμῖν) would suggest that it belongs with ἡμῖν, so the last option (“gave them when they believed the same gift he also gave us”) is less likely. (2) The participle could be either adverbial or adjectival, modifying ἡμῖν. This decision is primarily a contextual one. The point Peter made is not whether or not the Gentiles believed, since both groups (“us” and “they”) had believed in the Lord Jesus Christ. The point was whether or not the Gentiles received the Spirit when they believed, just as Jewish Christians had received the Spirit on the day of Pentecost when they believed. Translated as an adjectival participle, πιστεύσασιν only affirms the fact of belief, however, and raises somewhat of a theological problem if one realizes, “Would God have given the Gentiles the Spirit if they had not believed?” (In other words, belief in itself is a theological prerequisite for receiving the Spirit. As such, in the case of the Gentiles, it is assumed.) Thus in context it makes more sense to understand the participle πιστεύσασιν as adverbial, related to the time of belief in connection with the giving of the Spirit. (3) The participle πιστεύσασιν as a temporal participle can refer to action antecedent to the action of the main verb ἔδωκεν (edwken) or contemporaneous with it. Logically, at least, the gift of the Spirit followed belief in the case of the original Christians, who had believed before the day of Pentecost. In the case of Cornelius and his household, belief and the reception of the Spirit were virtually simultaneous. One can argue that Peter is “summarizing” the experience of Jewish Christians, and therefore the actions of belief and reception of the Spirit, while historically separate, have been “telescoped” into one (“gave them the same gift as he gave us when we believed”), but to be technically accurate the participle πιστεύσασιν should be translated “gave them the same gift as he also gave us after we believed.” A number of these problems can be avoided, however, by using a translation in English that maintains some of the ambiguity of the Greek original. Thus “if God gave them the same gift as he also gave us after believing” is used, where the phrase “after believing” can refer either to “them” or to “us,” or both.

[11:17]  33 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”

[11:17]  34 tn Or “prevent,” “forbid” (BDAG 580 s.v. κωλύω 1.a). Peter’s point is that he will not stand in the way of God.

[11:18]  35 tn Grk “these things.”

[11:18]  36 tn Or “became silent,” but this would create an apparent contradiction with the subsequent action of praising God. The point, in context, is that they ceased objecting to what Peter had done.

[11:18]  37 tn Or “glorified.”

[11:18]  38 sn Here the summary phrase for responding to the gospel is the repentance that leads to life. Note how the presence of life is tied to the presence of the Spirit (cf. John 4:7-42; 7:37-39).

[11:18]  39 sn In the Greek text the phrase even to the Gentiles is in an emphatic position.

[11:19]  40 sn The phrase over Stephen means in connection with Stephen’s death. See Acts 8:1b-3.

[11:19]  41 tn Or “finally reached.” The translations “went as far as” and “finally reached” for διῆλθον (dihlqon) in this verse are given in L&N 15.17.

[11:19]  42 sn Phoenicia was an area along the Mediterranean coast north of Palestine.

[11:19]  43 tn Grk “and Cyprus,” but καί (kai) has not been translated since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.

[11:19]  sn Cyprus was a large island in the Mediterranean off the south coast of Asia Minor.

[11:19]  44 sn Antioch was a city in Syria (not Antioch in Pisidia). This was probably the third largest city in the Greco-Roman world (Alexandria in Egypt was the second largest, and Rome the largest) and was the seat of government in Syria. Five miles away was a major temple to Artemis, Apollo, and Astarte, major pagan deities.

[11:19]  map For location see JP1 F2; JP2 F2; JP3 F2; JP4 F2.

[11:19]  45 tn Grk “word.”

[11:20]  46 sn Cyprus was a large island in the Mediterranean off the south coast of Asia Minor.

[11:20]  47 sn Cyrene was a city on the northern African coast west of Egypt.

[11:20]  48 tn Grk “among them, coming to Antioch began to speak.” The participle ἐλθόντες (elqonte") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

[11:20]  49 sn Antioch was a city in Syria (not Antioch in Pisidia). See the note in 11:19.

[11:20]  50 sn The statement that some men from Cyprus and Cyrene…began to speak to the Greeks shows that Peter’s experience of reaching out to the Gentiles was not unique.

[11:21]  51 tn Grk “And the.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

[11:21]  52 tn The participle πιστεύσας (pisteusa") is articular and thus cannot be adverbial. It is adjectival, modifying ἀριθμός (ariqmo"), but has been translated into English as a relative clause (“who believed”).

[11:21]  53 sn Again, the expression turned is a summary term for responding to the gospel.

[11:22]  54 tn Grk “Word.”

[11:22]  55 tn Grk “was heard in the ears,” an idiom. L&N 24.67 states that the idiom means “to hear in secret” (which it certainly does in Matt 10:27), but secrecy does not seem to be part of the context here, and there is no particular reason to suggest the report was made in secret.

[11:22]  56 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

[11:22]  57 tc ‡ Most mss read the infinitive “to travel” after “Barnabas.” διελθεῖν (dielqein) is found before ἕως (Jews) in D E Ψ 33 Ï and some versional mss. It is lacking in Ì74 א A B 81 1739 pc and some versional mss. Although the infinitive with ἕως fits Lukan style, it has the appearance of a scribal clarification. The infinitive has the earmarks of a Western expansion on the text and thus is unlikely to be original. NA27 has the infinitive in brackets, indicating doubt as to its authenticity.

[11:22]  58 sn Antioch was a city in Syria (not Antioch in Pisidia). See the note in 11:19. Again the Jerusalem church exercised an oversight role.

[11:23]  59 tn Grk “Antioch, who when.” The relative pronoun was omitted and a new sentence was begun in the translation at this point to improve the English style, due to the length of the sentence in Greek.

[11:23]  60 tn BDAG 883 s.v. προσμένω 1.a.β has “remain true to the Lord” for προσμένειν (prosmenein) in this verse.

[11:23]  sn He…encouraged them all to remain true to the Lord. The call to faithfulness is frequent in Acts (2:40; 14:22; 15:32; 16:39; 20:1-2).

[11:23]  61 tn Grk “with purpose of heart”; BDAG 869 s.v. πρόθεσις 2.a translates this phrase “purpose of heart, i.e. devotion” here.

[11:24]  62 tn Grk “a significant crowd.”

[11:26]  63 sn Antioch was a city in Syria (not Antioch in Pisidia). See the note in 11:19.

[11:26]  64 tn Grk “So it happened that” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.

[11:26]  65 tn Grk “year they”; the referents (Barnabas and Saul) have been specified in the translation for clarity.

[11:26]  66 tn Grk “a significant crowd.”

[11:26]  67 sn Antioch was a city in Syria (not Antioch in Pisidia). See the note in 11:19.

[11:26]  68 sn The term Christians appears only here, in Acts 26:28, and 1 Pet 4:16 in the NT.

[11:27]  69 tn Grk “In these days,” but the dative generally indicates a specific time.

[11:27]  70 tn The word “some” is not in the Greek text, but is usually used in English when an unspecified number is mentioned.

[11:27]  71 sn Prophets are mentioned only here and in 13:1 and 21:10 in Acts.

[11:27]  72 sn Came down from Jerusalem. Antioch in Syria lies due north of Jerusalem. In Western languages it is common to speak of north as “up” and south as “down,” but the NT maintains the Hebrew idiom which speaks of any direction away from Jerusalem as down (since Mount Zion was thought of in terms of altitude).

[11:27]  73 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

[11:27]  74 sn Antioch was a city in Syria (not Antioch in Pisidia). See the note in 11:19.

[11:27]  map For location see JP1 F2; JP2 F2; JP3 F2; JP4 F2

[11:28]  75 tn Grk “getting up, predicted.” The participle ἀναστάς (anasta") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

[11:28]  76 tn Or “made clear”; Grk “indicated beforehand” (BDAG 920 s.v. σημαίνω 2).

[11:28]  77 tn Grk “great.”

[11:28]  78 sn This famine is one of the firmly fixed dates in Acts. It took place from a.d. 45-48. The events described in chap. 11 of Acts occurred during the early part of that period.

[11:28]  79 tn Or “whole Roman Empire.” While the word οἰκουμένη (oikoumenh) does occasionally refer specifically to the Roman Empire, BDAG 699 s.v. οἰκουνένη 2 does not list this passage (only Acts 24:5 and 17:6).

[11:28]  80 tn Grk “world, which.” The relative pronoun (“which”) was replaced by the demonstrative pronoun “this” and a new sentence was begun in the translation at this point to improve the English style, due to the length of the sentence in Greek.

[11:28]  81 sn This is best taken as a parenthetical note by the author. Claudius was the Roman emperor Tiberius Claudius Nero Germanicus, known as Claudius, who ruled from a.d. 41-54.

[11:29]  82 tn So BDAG 410 s.v. εὐπορέω.

[11:29]  83 tn Or “determined,” “resolved.”

[11:29]  84 tn Grk “to send [something] for a ministry,” but today it is common to speak of sending relief for victims of natural disasters.

[11:29]  sn The financial relief reflects the oneness of the church, meeting the needs of another (even racially distinct) community. Jerusalem, having ministered to them, now received ministry back. A later collection from Greece is noted in Rom 15:25-27, but it reflects the same spirit as this gift.

[11:30]  85 tn Grk “Judea, which they did.” The relative pronoun was omitted and a new sentence was begun in the translation at this point to improve the English style, due to the length of the sentence in Greek.

[11:30]  86 tn The words “their financial aid” are not in the Greek text, but are implied. Direct objects in Greek were often omitted when clear from the context, but must be supplied for the modern English reader.

[12:1]  87 sn King Herod was Herod Agrippa I, the grandson of Herod I (Herod the Great). His mediocre career is summarized in Josephus, Ant. 18-19. This event took place in a.d. 42 or 43.

[12:1]  88 tn Or “King Herod had some from the church arrested.”

[12:1]  89 tn Or “to cause them injury.”

[12:2]  90 sn The expression executed with a sword probably refers to a beheading. James was the first known apostolic martyr (Eusebius, Eccl. Hist. 2.9.1-3). On James, not the Lord’s brother, see Luke 5:10; 6:14. This death ended a short period of peace noted in Acts 9:31 after the persecution mentioned in 8:1-3.

[12:3]  91 tn This could be a reference to the Jewish people (so CEV) or to the Jewish leaders (so NLT). The statement in v. 4 that Herod intended to bring Peter “out to the people” (i.e., for a public trial) may suggest the former is somewhat more likely.

[12:3]  92 sn This is a parenthetical note by the author.

[12:4]  93 sn Four squads of soldiers. Each squad was a detachment of four soldiers.

[12:4]  94 tn Grk “guard him, planning to bring him out.” The Greek construction continues with a participle (βουλόμενος, boulomeno") and an infinitive (ἀναγαγεῖν, anagagein), but this creates an awkward and lengthy sentence in English. Thus a reference to Herod was introduced as subject and the participle translated as a finite verb (“Herod planned”).

[12:4]  95 tn Or “intended”; Grk “wanted.”

[12:4]  96 tn Grk “to bring him out to the people,” but in this context a public trial (with certain condemnation as the result) is doubtless what Herod planned. L&N 15.176 translates this phrase “planning to bring him up for a public trial after the Passover.”

[12:5]  97 tn Or “constantly.” This term also appears in Luke 22:14 and Acts 26:7.

[12:5]  98 tn Grk “but earnest prayer was being made by the church to God for him.” The order of the clauses has been rearranged to follow English style, and the somewhat awkward passive “prayer was being made” has been changed to the simpler active verb “were praying.” Luke portrays what follows as an answer to prayer.

[12:6]  99 tn Grk “was going to bring him out,” but the upcoming trial is implied. See Acts 12:4.

[12:6]  100 tn Grk “two chains, and.” Logically it makes better sense to translate this as a temporal clause, although technically it is a coordinate clause in Greek.

[12:6]  101 tn Or “were guarding.”

[12:7]  102 tn Grk “And behold.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here. The interjection ἰδού (idou), often difficult to translate into English, expresses the suddenness of the angel’s appearance.

[12:7]  103 tn Or “the angel of the Lord.” See the note on the word “Lord” in 5:19.

[12:7]  104 tn Grk “striking the side of Peter, he awoke him saying.” The term refers to a push or a light tap (BDAG 786 s.v. πατάσσω 1.a). The participle πατάξας (pataxa") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

[12:7]  105 tn Grk “his”; the referent (Peter) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[12:7]  106 tn Grk “the hands,” but the wrist was considered a part of the hand.

[12:8]  107 tn While ζώννυμι (zwnnumi) sometimes means “to dress,” referring to the fastening of the belt or sash as the final act of getting dressed, in this context it probably does mean “put on your belt” since in the conditions of a prison Peter had probably not changed into a different set of clothes to sleep. More likely he had merely removed his belt or sash, which the angel now told him to replace. The translation “put on your belt” is given by L&N 49.14 for this verse. The archaic English “girdle” for the sash or belt has an entirely different meaning today.

[12:8]  108 tn Grk “He”; the referent (Peter) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[12:8]  109 tn Grk “he”; the referent (the angel) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[12:8]  110 tn Or “outer garment.”

[12:9]  111 tn Grk “And going out he followed.”

[12:9]  112 tn Grk “Peter going out followed him.” The participle ἐξελθών (exelqwn) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

[12:9]  113 tn The word “him” is not in the Greek text. Direct objects in Greek were often omitted when clear from the context, but must be supplied for the modern English reader.

[12:9]  114 tn Grk “what was done through the angel was a reality” (see BDAG 43 s.v. ἀληθής 3).

[12:10]  115 tn Or perhaps, “guard posts.”

[12:10]  116 sn The iron gate shows how important security was here. This door was more secure than one made of wood (which would be usual).

[12:10]  117 tn Grk “which.” The relative pronoun (“which”) was replaced by the pronoun “it,” and a new sentence was begun in the translation at this point to improve the English style, due to the length of the sentence in Greek.

[12:10]  118 tn The Greek term here, αὐτομάτη (automath), indicates something that happens without visible cause (BDAG 152 s.v. αὐτόματος).

[12:10]  119 tn Or “lane,” “alley” (BDAG 907 s.v. ῥύμη).

[12:11]  120 tn Grk “And when.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

[12:11]  121 tn Or “delivered.”

[12:11]  122 sn Here the hand of Herod is a metaphor for Herod’s power or control.

[12:11]  123 sn King Herod was Herod Agrippa I, the grandson of Herod I (Herod the Great).

[12:11]  124 sn Luke characterizes the opposition here as the Jewish people, including their leadership (see 12:3).

[12:12]  125 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Peter) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[12:12]  126 tn Grk “John who was also called Mark.”

[12:12]  sn John Mark becomes a key figure in Acts 12:25; 13:5, 13; 15:37-39.

[12:13]  127 tn Or “responded.”

[12:14]  128 tn Or “informed.”

[12:14]  129 tn The word “them” is not in the Greek text, but is implied. Direct objects in Greek were often omitted when clear from the context, but must be supplied for the modern English reader.

[12:15]  130 sn “You’ve lost your mind!” Such a response to the miraculous is not unusual in Luke-Acts. See Luke 24:11; Acts 26:25. The term μαίνομαι (mainomai) can have the idea of being “raving mad” or “totally irrational” (BDAG 610 s.v.). It is a strong expression.

[12:15]  131 tn Grk “she kept insisting that the situation was thus” (cf. BDAG 422 s.v. ἔχω 10.a). Most translations supply a less awkward English phrase like “it was so”; the force of her insistence, however, is that “it was Peter,” which was the point under dispute.

[12:15]  132 tn The two imperfect tense verbs, διϊσχυρίζετο (diiscurizeto) and ἔλεγον (elegon), are both taken iteratively. The picture is thus virtually a shouting match between Rhoda and the rest of the believers.

[12:15]  133 sn The assumption made by those inside, “It is his angel,” seems to allude to the idea of an attending angel (cf. Gen 48:16 LXX; Matt 18:10; Test. Jacob 1:10).

[12:16]  134 tn The words “the door” are not in the Greek text, but are implied (see Acts 12:13).

[12:16]  135 sn That they were greatly astonished is a common response in Luke-Acts to God’s work (Luke 8:56; Acts 2:7, 12; 8:13; 9:21; 10:45).

[12:17]  136 tn Or “He gave them a signal.” Grk “Giving them a signal…he related to them.” The participle κατασείσας (kataseisa") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

[12:17]  137 tc ‡ Most mss, including some of the most important ones (B D E Ψ Ï sy), read αὐτοῖς (autoi", “to them”) here, while some excellent and early witnesses (Ì45vid,74vid א A 33 81 945 1739 pc) lack the pronoun. Although it is possible that the pronoun was deleted because it was seen as superfluous, it is also possible that it was added as a natural expansion on the text, strengthening the connection between Peter and his listeners. Although a decision is difficult, the shorter reading is slightly preferred. NA27 puts the pronoun in brackets, indicating some doubts as to its authenticity.

[12:17]  138 tn Or “led.”

[12:17]  139 sn He…went to another place. This is Peter’s last appearance in Acts with the exception of the Jerusalem council in Acts 15.

[12:18]  140 tn BDAG 436 s.v. ἡμέρα 1.a has “day is breaking” for ἡμέρα γίνεται (Jhmera ginetai) in this verse.

[12:18]  141 tn Grk “no little consternation.” The translation given for τάραχος (taraco") in this verse by BDAG 991 s.v. τάραχος 1 is “mental agitation.” The situation indicated by the Greek word is described in L&N 25.243 as “a state of acute distress and great anxiety, with the additional possible implications of dismay and confusion – ‘great distress, extreme anxiety.’” The English word “consternation” is preferred here because it conveys precisely such a situation of anxiety mixed with fear. The reason for this anxiety is explained in the following verse.

[12:19]  142 sn King Herod was Herod Agrippa I, the grandson of Herod I (Herod the Great).

[12:19]  143 tn Or “had instigated a search” (Herod would have ordered the search rather than conducting it himself).

[12:19]  144 tn “Questioned” is used to translate ἀνακρίνας (anakrina") here because a possible translation offered by BDAG 66 s.v. ἀνακρίνω for this verse is “examined,” which could be understood to mean Herod inspected the guards rather than questioned them. The translation used by the NIV, “cross-examined,” also avoids this possible misunderstanding.

[12:19]  145 tn The meaning “led away to execution” for ἀπαχθῆναι (apacqhnai) in this verse is given by BDAG 95 s.v. ἀπάγω 2.c. Although an explicit reference to execution is lacking here, it is what would usually occur in such a case (Acts 16:27; 27:42; Code of Justinian 9.4.4). “Led away to torture” is a less likely option (Pliny the Younger, Letters 10, 96, 8).

[12:19]  146 tn Grk “and,” but the sequence of events is better expressed in English by “then.” A new sentence is begun in the translation because of the length of the sentence in Greek, which exceeds normal English sentence length.

[12:19]  147 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Herod) has been specified in the translation for clarity. Since Herod has been the subject of the preceding material, and the circumstances of his death are the subject of the following verses (20-23), it is best to understand Herod as the subject here. This is especially true since according to Josephus, Ant. 19.8.2 [19.343-352], Herod Agrippa I died at Caesarea in a.d. 44, and vv. 20-23 here describe his death. Thus the end of v. 19 provides Luke’s transition to explain how Herod got from Jerusalem to Caesarea where he died. In spite of all this evidence, the NRSV translates this phrase “Then Peter went down from Judea to Caesarea and stayed there,” understanding the referent to be Peter rather than Herod Agrippa I.

[12:19]  sn King Herod was Herod Agrippa I, the grandson of Herod I (Herod the Great), who died at Caesarea in a.d. 44 according to Josephus, Ant. 19.8.2 [19.343-352].

[12:19]  148 sn Caesarea was a city on the coast of Palestine south of Mount Carmel (not Caesarea Philippi). See the note on Caesarea in Acts 10:1.

[12:19]  map For location see Map2 C1; Map4 B3; Map5 F2; Map7 A1; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

[12:20]  149 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Herod) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[12:20]  sn Herod was Herod Agrippa I, the grandson of Herod I (Herod the Great).

[12:20]  150 tn Or “was extremely angry.” L&N 33.453 gives the meaning “be angry and quarrel, quarrel angrily” here. However, in L&N 88.180 the alternative “to be violently angry, to be furious” is given. The term is used only once in the NT (BDAG 461 s.v. θυμομαχέω).

[12:20]  151 sn Tyre was a city and seaport on the coast of Phoenicia.

[12:20]  map For location see Map1 A2; Map2 G2; Map4 A1; JP3 F3; JP4 F3.

[12:20]  152 sn Sidon was an ancient Phoenician royal city on the coast between Berytus (Beirut) and Tyre (BDAG 923 s.v. Σιδών).

[12:20]  map For location see Map1 A1; JP3 F3; JP4 F3.

[12:20]  153 tn Or “with one accord.”

[12:20]  154 tn Or “persuading.”

[12:20]  155 tn On the term translated “personal assistant” BDAG 554 s.v. κοιτῶν states, “used as part of a title: ὁ ἐπὶ τοῦ κοιτῶνος the one in charge of the bed-chamber, the chamberlain.” This individual was not just a domestic servant or butler, but a highly respected person who had considerable responsibility for the king’s living quarters and personal affairs. The English word “chamberlain” corresponds very closely to this meaning but is not in common use today. The term “personal assistant,” while it might convey more business associations than management of personal affairs, nevertheless communicates the concept well in contemporary English.

[12:20]  156 tn The words “to help them” are not in the Greek text, but are implied.

[12:20]  157 tn Or “for a reconciliation.” There were grave political risks in having Herod angry at them. The detail shows the ruler’s power.

[12:21]  158 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Herod) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[12:21]  sn Herod was Herod Agrippa I, the grandson of Herod I (Herod the Great).

[12:21]  159 tn Or “apparel.” On Herod’s robes see Josephus, Ant. 19.8.2 (19.344), summarized in the note at the end of v. 23.

[12:21]  160 tn Although BDAG 175 s.v. βῆμα 3 gives the meaning “speakers platform” for this verse, and a number of modern translations use similar terms (“rostrum,” NASB; “platform,” NRSV), since the bema was a standard feature in Greco-Roman cities of the time, there is no need for an alternative translation here.

[12:21]  sn The judgment seat (βῆμα, bhma) was a raised platform mounted by steps and sometimes furnished with a seat, used by officials in addressing an assembly or making pronouncements, often on judicial matters. The judgment seat was a familiar item in Greco-Roman culture, often located in the agora, the public square or marketplace in the center of a city.

[12:21]  161 tn Or “delivered a public address.”

[12:22]  162 tn The translation “crowd” is given by BDAG 223 s.v. δῆμος; the word often means a gathering of citizens to conduct public business. Here it is simply the group of people gathered to hear the king’s speech.

[12:22]  163 tn The imperfect verb ἐπεφώνει (epefwnei) is taken ingressively in the sequence of events. Presumably the king had started his speech when the crowd began shouting.

[12:22]  164 sn The voice of a god. Contrast the response of Paul and Barnabas in Acts 14:13-15.

[12:23]  165 tn Or “the angel of the Lord.” See the note on the word “Lord” in 5:19.

[12:23]  166 sn On being struck…down by an angel, see Acts 23:3; 1 Sam 25:28; 2 Sam 12:15; 2 Kgs 19:35; 2 Chr 13:20; 2 Macc 9:5.

[12:23]  167 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Herod) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[12:23]  168 sn He was eaten by worms and died. Josephus, Ant. 19.8.2 (19.343-352), states that Herod Agrippa I died at Caesarea in a.d. 44. The account by Josephus, while not identical to Luke’s account, is similar in many respects: On the second day of a festival, Herod Agrippa appeared in the theater with a robe made of silver. When it sparkled in the sun, the people cried out flatteries and declared him to be a god. The king, carried away by the flattery, saw an owl (an omen of death) sitting on a nearby rope, and immediately was struck with severe stomach pains. He was carried off to his house and died five days later. The two accounts can be reconciled without difficulty, since while Luke states that Herod was immediately struck down by an angel, his death could have come several days later. The mention of worms with death adds a humiliating note to the scene. The formerly powerful ruler had been thoroughly reduced to nothing (cf. Jdt 16:17; 2 Macc 9:9; cf. also Josephus, Ant. 17.6.5 [17.168-170], which details the sickness which led to Herod the Great’s death).

[12:24]  169 sn A metonymy for the number of adherents to God’s word.

[12:24]  170 tn Or “spreading.”

[12:25]  171 tc There are a number of variants at this point in the text: εἰς (eis, “to”) in א B Ï sams syhmg; ἀπό (apo, “from”) in D E Ψ 36 323 453 614 1175 al; ἐξ (ex, “from”) in Ì74 A 33 945 1739 al; ἐξ ᾿Ιερουσαλήμ εἰς ᾿Αντιόχειαν (ex Ierousalhm ei" Antioceian, “from Jerusalem to Antioch”) in {a few later manuscripts and part of the Itala}. A decision on this problem is very difficult, but for several reasons εἰς can be preferred. It is the most difficult reading by far in light of the context, since Paul and Barnabas were going to Jerusalem in 11:30. It is found in better witnesses, א and B being very strong evidence. The other readings, ἐξ and ἀπό, are different from εἰς yet bear essentially the same meaning as each other; this seems to suggest that scribes had problems with εἰς and tried to choose an acceptable revision. If εἰς is the earliest reading, ἀπό may be a clarification of ἐξ, and ἐξ could have arisen through confusion of letters. Or ἐξ and ἀπό could both have independently arisen from εἰς as a more acceptable preposition. Despite such arguments, however, the case for εἰς is not airtight: either ἐξ or ἀπό could be preferred on other lines of reasoning. The reading ἐξ enjoys the earliest support, and εἰς could have arisen through the same confusion of letters mentioned above. The immediate and wider context seems to mitigate against εἰς as the original reading: The aorist participle πληρώσαντες (plhrwsante", “when they had completed”) seems to signal the end of the mission to Jerusalem with the famine relief, so it would make sense in the context for the team to be coming from Jerusalem (to Antioch) rather than to Jerusalem, and 13:1 certainly presents the scene at Antioch. The later addition εἰς ᾿Αντιόχειαν after ᾿Ιερουσαλήμ in some mss seems to be a clarification in light of 13:1 (notice that some of the mss that read ἐξ add εἰς ᾿Αντιόχειαν [945 1739], and some that read ἀπό also add εἰς ᾿Αντιόχειαν [E 323 1175]). Thus, the idea of spatial separation from Jerusalem is strongly implied by the context. This problem is so difficult that some scholars resort to conjectural emendation to determine the original reading. All in all, the reading εἰς should be preferred as original, recognizing that there is a good measure of uncertainty with this solution. For additional discussion, see TCGNT 350-52.

[12:25]  172 sn That is, from Jerusalem to Antioch (see Acts 11:29-30).

[12:25]  map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

[12:25]  173 tn Grk “fulfilled.”

[12:25]  174 tn Grk “ministry” or “service.”

[12:25]  175 tn Grk “John who was also called Mark.”

[13:1]  176 sn Antioch was a city in Syria (not Antioch in Pisidia).

[13:1]  map For location see JP1 F2; JP2 F2; JP3 F2; JP4 F2.

[13:1]  177 sn Simeon may well have been from North Africa, since the Latin loanword Niger refers to someone as “dark-complexioned.”

[13:1]  178 sn The Cyrenian refers to a native of the city of Cyrene, on the coast of northern Africa west of Egypt.

[13:1]  179 sn Herod is generally taken as a reference to Herod Antipas, who governed Galilee from 4 b.c. to a.d. 39, who had John the Baptist beheaded, and who is mentioned a number of times in the gospels.

[13:1]  180 tn Or “the governor.”

[13:1]  sn A tetrarch was a ruler with rank and authority lower than a king, who ruled only with the approval of the Roman authorities. This was roughly equivalent to being governor of a region. Several times in the NT, Herod tetrarch of Galilee is called a king (Matt 14:9, Mark 6:14-29), reflecting popular usage.

[13:1]  181 tn Or “(a foster brother of Herod the tetrarch).” The meaning “close friend from childhood” is given by L&N 34.15, but the word can also mean “foster brother” (L&N 10.51). BDAG 976 s.v. σύντροφας states, “pert. to being brought up with someone, either as a foster-brother or as a companion/friend,” which covers both alternatives. Context does not given enough information to be certain which is the case here, although many modern translations prefer the meaning “close friend from childhood.”

[13:2]  182 tn This term is frequently used in the LXX of the service performed by priests and Levites in the tabernacle (Exod 28:35, 43; 29:30; 30:20; 35:19; 39:26; Num 1:50; 3:6, 31) and the temple (2 Chr 31:2; 35:3; Joel 1:9, 13; 2:17, and many more examples). According to BDAG 591 s.v. λειτουργέω 1.b it is used “of other expression of religious devotion.” Since the previous verse described the prophets and teachers in the church at Antioch, it is probable that the term here describes two of them (Barnabas and Saul) as they were serving in that capacity. Since they were not in Jerusalem where the temple was located, general religious service is referred to here.

[13:2]  183 tn Or “Appoint.”

[13:3]  184 tn The three aorist participles νηστεύσαντες (nhsteusante"), προσευξάμενοι (proseuxamenoi), and ἐπιθέντες (epiqente") are translated as temporal participles. Although they could indicate contemporaneous time when used with an aorist main verb, logically here they are antecedent. On fasting and prayer, see Matt 6:5, 16; Luke 2:37; 5:33; Acts 14:23.

[13:3]  185 tn Normally English style, which uses a coordinating conjunction between only the last two elements of a series of three or more, would call for omission of “and” here. However, since the terms “fasting and prayer” are something of a unit, often linked together, the conjunction has been retained here.

[13:3]  186 sn The placing of hands on Barnabas and Saul (traditionally known as “the laying on of hands”) refers to an act picturing the commission of God and the church for the task at hand.

[13:4]  187 tn Grk “they”; the referents (Barnabas and Saul) have been specified in the translation for clarity.

[13:4]  188 sn Seleucia was the port city of Antioch in Syria.

[13:4]  189 sn Cyprus was a large island in the Mediterranean off the south coast of Asia Minor.

[13:5]  190 tn Grk “And when.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

[13:5]  191 tn The participle γενόμενοι (genomenoi) is taken temporally.

[13:5]  192 sn Salamis was a city on the southeastern coast of the island of Cyprus. This was a commercial center and a center of Judaism.

[13:5]  193 tn The imperfect verb κατήγγελλον (kathngellon) has been translated as an ingressive imperfect.

[13:5]  194 sn See the note on synagogue in 6:9.

[13:5]  195 sn John refers here to John Mark (see Acts 12:25).

[13:5]  196 tn The word ὑπηρέτης (Juphreth") usually has the meaning “servant,” but it is doubtful John Mark fulfilled that capacity for Barnabas and Saul. He was more likely an apprentice or assistant to them.

[13:5]  sn This is a parenthetical note by the author.

[13:6]  197 tn Or “had passed through,” “had traveled through.”

[13:6]  198 sn Paphos. A city on the southwestern coast of the island of Cyprus. It was the seat of the Roman proconsul.

[13:6]  199 sn Named Bar-Jesus. “Jesus” is the Latin form of the name “Joshua.” The Aramaic “bar” means “son of,” so this man was surnamed “son of Joshua.” The scene depicts the conflict between Judaism and the emerging new faith at a cosmic level, much like the Simon Magus incident in Acts 8:9-24. Paul’s ministry looks like Philip’s and Peter’s here.

[13:7]  200 sn The proconsul was the Roman official who ruled over a province traditionally under the control of the Roman senate.

[13:7]  201 tn Grk “This one”; the referent (the proconsul) is specified in the translation for clarity.

[13:7]  202 tn Grk “summoning Barnabas and Saul, wanted to hear.” The participle προσκαλεσάμενος (proskalesameno") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

[13:7]  203 sn The proconsul…wanted to hear the word of God. This description of Sergius Paulus portrays him as a sensitive, secular Gentile leader.

[13:8]  204 tn On the debate over what the name “Elymas” means, see BDAG 320 s.v. ᾿Ελύμας. The magician’s behavior is more directly opposed to the faith than Simon Magus’ was.

[13:8]  205 sn A parenthetical note by the author.

[13:8]  206 sn The proconsul was the Roman official who ruled over a province traditionally under the control of the Roman senate.

[13:9]  207 sn A parenthetical note by the author.

[13:9]  208 sn This qualifying clause in the narrative indicates who represented God in the dispute.

[13:9]  209 tn Or “gazed intently.”

[13:10]  210 tn Or “unscrupulousness.”

[13:10]  211 sn “You who…paths of the Lord?” This rebuke is like ones from the OT prophets: Jer 5:27; Gen 32:11; Prov 10:7; Hos 14:9. Five separate remarks indicate the magician’s failings. The closing rhetorical question of v. 10 (“will you not stop…?”) shows how opposed he is to the way of God.

[13:11]  212 tn Grk “And now.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

[13:11]  213 tn Grk “upon,” but in a negative sense.

[13:11]  214 sn The term translated mistiness here appears in the writings of the physician Galen as a medical technical description of a person who is blind. The picture of judgment to darkness is symbolic as well. Whatever power Elymas had, it represented darkness. Magic will again be an issue in Acts 19:18-19. This judgment is like that of Ananias and his wife in Acts 5:1-11.

[13:11]  215 tn Grk “fell on.”

[13:11]  216 tn The noun χειραγωγός (ceiragwgo") is plural, so “people” is used rather than singular “someone.”

[13:12]  217 sn See the note on proconsul in v. 8.

[13:12]  218 sn He believed. The faith of the proconsul in the face of Jewish opposition is a theme of the rest of Acts. Paul has indeed become “a light to the Gentiles” (Acts 13:47).

[13:12]  219 tn The translation “greatly astounded” for ἐκπλησσόμενος (ekplhssomeno") is given by L&N 25.219.

[13:12]  220 tn Grk “of,” but this could give the impression the Lord himself had done the teaching (a subjective genitive) when actually the Lord was the object of the teaching (an objective genitive).

[13:13]  221 tn BDAG 62 s.v. ἀνάγω 4, “as a nautical t.t. (. τὴν ναῦν put a ship to sea), mid. or pass. ἀνάγεσθαι to begin to go by boat, put out to sea.”

[13:13]  222 sn Paphos was a city on the southwestern coast of the island of Cyprus. See Acts 13:6.

[13:13]  223 sn Perga was a city in Pamphylia near the southern coast of Asia Minor. The journey from Paphos to Perga is about 105 mi (175 km).

[13:13]  224 sn Pamphylia was a province in the southern part of Asia Minor.

[13:13]  225 sn That is, John Mark.

[13:13]  226 sn Returned to Jerusalem. John Mark had originally accompanied them from Jerusalem (see Acts 12:25). John Mark’s decision to leave became an issue later for Barnabas and Paul (Acts 15:36-39).

[13:13]  map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

[13:14]  227 tn Or “Passing by.”

[13:14]  228 sn Perga was a city in Pamphylia near the southern coast of Asia Minor.

[13:14]  229 tn Or “at Antioch in Pisidia.”

[13:14]  sn Pisidian Antioch was a city in Pisidia about 100 mi (160 km) north of Perga. It was both a Roman colony and the seat of military and civil authority in S. Galatia. One had to trek over the Taurus Mountains to get there, since the city was 3,600 ft (1,100 m) above sea level.

[13:14]  map For location see JP1 E2; JP2 E2; JP3 E2; JP4 E2.

[13:14]  230 tn Grk “going into the synagogue they sat down.” The participle εἰσελθόντες (eiselqonte") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

[13:14]  231 sn See the note on synagogue in 6:9.

[13:15]  232 sn After the reading from the law and the prophets. In the 1st century Jewish synagogue, it was customary after the reading of the Torah (law) and prophets for men to give exhortation from the scriptures.

[13:15]  233 tn Normally ἀρχισυνάγωγος (arcisunagwgo") refers to the “president of a synagogue” (so BDAG 139 s.v. and L&N 53.93). Since the term is plural here, however, and it would sound strange to the English reader to speak of “the presidents of the synagogue,” the alternative translation “leaders” is used. “Rulers” would also be acceptable, but does not convey quite the same idea.

[13:15]  234 tn Grk “sent to them”; the word “message” is an understood direct object. Direct objects in Greek were often omitted when clear from the context, but must be supplied for the modern English reader.

[13:15]  235 tn Grk “Men brothers,” but this is both awkward and unnecessary in English.

[13:15]  236 tn Or “word.”

[13:15]  237 tn Or “encouragement.”

[13:15]  238 tn Or “give it.”

[13:16]  239 tn This participle, ἀναστάς (anasta"), and the following one, κατασείσας (kataseisa"), are both translated as adverbial participles of attendant circumstance.

[13:16]  240 tn Or “motioned.”

[13:16]  241 tn Or “Israelite men,” although this is less natural English. The Greek term here is ἀνήρ (anhr), which only exceptionally is used in a generic sense of both males and females. In this context involving an address to a synagogue gathering, it is conceivable that this is a generic usage, although it can also be argued that Paul’s remarks were addressed primarily to the men present, even if women were there.

[13:16]  242 tn Grk “and those who fear God,” but this is practically a technical term for the category called God-fearers, Gentiles who worshiped the God of Israel and in many cases kept the Mosaic law, but did not take the final step of circumcision necessary to become a proselyte to Judaism. See further K. G. Kuhn, TDNT 6:732-34, 743-44.

[13:17]  243 tn Or “people of Israel.”

[13:17]  244 tn Or “forefathers”; Grk “fathers.”

[13:17]  sn Note how Paul identifies with his audience by referring to our ancestors. He speaks as a Jew. God’s design in history is the theme of the speech. The speech is like Stephen’s, only here the focus is on a promised Son of David.

[13:17]  245 tn That is, in both numbers and in power. The implication of greatness in both numbers and in power is found in BDAG 1046 s.v. ὑψόω 2.

[13:17]  246 tn Or “as resident aliens.”

[13:17]  247 tn Or “land.”

[13:17]  248 sn Here uplifted arm is a metaphor for God’s power by which he delivered the Israelites from Egypt. See Exod 6:1, 6; 32:11; Deut 3:24; 4:34; Ps 136:11-12.

[13:18]  249 tn Grk “And for.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

[13:18]  250 tn For this verb, see BDAG 1017 s.v. τροποφορέω (cf. also Deut 1:31; Exod 16:35; Num 14:34).

[13:18]  251 tn Or “desert.”

[13:19]  252 tn Grk “And after.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

[13:19]  253 tn The participle καθελών (kaqelwn) is taken temporally.

[13:19]  254 sn Seven nations. See Deut 7:1.

[13:19]  255 tn Grk “he gave their land as an inheritance.” The words “his people” are supplied to complete an ellipsis specifying the recipients of the land.

[13:20]  256 tn The words “all this took” are not in the Greek text, but are supplied to make a complete statement in English. There is debate over where this period of 450 years fits and what it includes: (1) It could include the years in Egypt, the conquest of Canaan, and the distribution of the land; (2) some connect it with the following period of the judges. This latter approach seems to conflict with 1 Kgs 6:1; see also Josephus, Ant. 8.3.1 (8.61).

[13:20]  257 tn Grk “And after these things.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

[13:20]  258 tn The words “the time of” are not in the Greek text, but are implied.

[13:21]  259 tn The words “who ruled” are not in the Greek text, but are implied. They have been supplied as a clarification for the English reader. See Josephus, Ant. 6.14.9 (6.378).

[13:22]  260 tn Grk “he”; the referent (God) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[13:22]  261 sn The expression raised up refers here to making someone king. There is a wordplay here: “raising up” refers to bringing someone onto the scene of history, but it echoes with the parallel to Jesus’ resurrection.

[13:22]  262 tn Grk “about whom.” The relative pronoun (“whom”) was replaced by the pronoun “him” and a new sentence was begun in the translation at this point to improve the English style, due to the length of the sentence in Greek. The verb εἶπεν (eipen) has not been translated (literally “he said testifying”) because it is redundant when combined with the participle μαρτυρήσας (marturhsa", “testifying”). Instead the construction of verb plus participle has been translated as a single English verb (“testified”).

[13:22]  263 sn A quotation from Ps 89:20.

[13:22]  264 sn A quotation from 1 Sam 13:14.

[13:22]  265 tn Or “who will perform all my will,” “who will carry out all my wishes.”

[13:23]  266 tn Or “From the offspring”; Grk “From the seed.”

[13:23]  sn From the descendants (Grk “seed”). On the importance of the seed promise involving Abraham, see Gal 3:6-29.

[13:23]  267 sn The phrase this man is in emphatic position in the Greek text.

[13:23]  268 tn Grk “according to [his] promise.” The comparative clause “just as he promised” is less awkward in English.

[13:23]  sn Just as he promised. Note how Paul describes Israel’s history carefully to David and then leaps forward immediately to Jesus. Paul is expounding the initial realization of Davidic promise as it was delivered in Jesus.

[13:24]  269 tn Grk “John having already proclaimed before his coming a baptism…,” a genitive absolute construction which is awkward in English. A new sentence was begun in the translation at this point.

[13:24]  270 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the context for clarity, since God is mentioned in the preceding context and John the Baptist in the following clause.

[13:24]  271 sn John refers here to John the Baptist.

[13:24]  272 tn Grk “a baptism of repentance”; the genitive has been translated as a genitive of purpose.

[13:25]  273 tn Or “task.”

[13:25]  274 tn The verb ἔλεγεν (elegen) has been translated as an iterative imperfect, since John undoubtedly said this or something similar on numerous occasions.

[13:25]  275 tn Literally a relative clause, “of whom I am not worthy to untie the sandals of his feet.” Because of the awkwardness of this construction in English, a new sentence was begun here.

[13:26]  276 tn Grk “Men brothers,” but this is both awkward and unnecessary in English.

[13:26]  277 tn Grk “sons”

[13:26]  278 tn Or “race.”

[13:26]  279 tn Grk “and those among you who fear God,” but this is practically a technical term for the category called God-fearers, Gentiles who worshiped the God of Israel and in many cases kept the Mosaic law, but did not take the final step of circumcision necessary to become a proselyte to Judaism. See further K. G. Kuhn, TDNT 6:732-34, 743-44. Note how Paul includes God-fearing Gentiles as recipients of this promise.

[13:26]  280 tn Grk “word.”

[13:27]  281 tn BDAG 12-13 s.v. ἀγνοέω 1.b gives “not to know w. acc. of pers.” as the meaning here, but “recognize” is a better translation in this context because recognition of the true identity of the one they condemned is the issue. See Acts 2:22-24; 4:26-28.

[13:27]  282 tn Grk “this one.”

[13:27]  283 tn Usually φωνή (fwnh) means “voice,” but BDAG 1071-72 s.v. φωνή 2.c has “Also of sayings in scripture…Ac 13:27.”

[13:27]  sn They fulfilled the sayings. The people in Jerusalem and the Jewish rulers should have known better, because they had the story read to them weekly in the synagogue.

[13:27]  284 tn The participle κρίναντες (krinante") is instrumental here.

[13:27]  285 tn The word “him” is not in the Greek text but is implied. Direct objects were often omitted in Greek when clear from the context, but must be supplied for the modern English reader.

[13:28]  286 tn Grk “And though.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

[13:28]  287 tn The participle εὑρόντες (Jeuronte") has been translated as a concessive adverbial participle.

[13:28]  288 sn No basis. Luke insists on Jesus’ innocence again and again in Luke 23:1-25.

[13:28]  289 tn Grk “no basis for death,” but in this context a sentence of death is clearly indicated.

[13:29]  290 tn Or “carried out.”

[13:29]  291 sn That is, everything that was written in OT scripture.

[13:29]  292 tn Grk “taking him down from the cross, they placed him.” The participle καθελόντες (kaqelonte") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

[13:29]  293 tn Grk “tree,” but frequently figurative for a cross. The allusion is to Deut 21:23. See Acts 5:30; 10:39.

[13:29]  294 tn The word “him” is not in the Greek text but is implied. Direct objects were often omitted in Greek when clear from the context, but must be supplied for the modern English reader.

[13:30]  295 sn See the note on the phrase “raised up” in v. 22, which is the same Greek verb used here.

[13:31]  296 tn Grk “who.” The relative pronoun (“who”) was replaced by the conjunction “and” and the pronoun “he” at this point to improve the English style.

[13:31]  297 sn Those who had accompanied him refers to the disciples, who knew Jesus in ministry. Luke is aware of resurrection appearances in Galilee though he did not relate any of them in Luke 24.

[13:31]  298 tn Grk “who.” The relative pronoun (“who”) was replaced by the demonstrative pronoun “these” and a new sentence was begun in the translation at this point to improve the English style, due to the length of the sentence in Greek and the awkwardness of two relative clauses (“who for many days appeared” and “who are now his witnesses”) following one another.

[13:32]  299 tn Or “to our forefathers”; Grk “the fathers.”

[13:33]  300 tn Grk “that this”; the referent (the promise mentioned in the previous verse) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[13:33]  sn This promise refers to the promise of a Savior through the seed (descendants) of David that is proclaimed as fulfilled (Rom 1:1-7).

[13:33]  301 tn Or “by resurrecting.” The participle ἀναστήσας (anasthsa") is taken as instrumental here.

[13:33]  sn By raising (i.e., by resurrection) tells how this promise came to be realized, though again the wordplay also points to his presence in history through this event (see the note on “raised up” in v. 22).

[13:33]  302 sn You are my Son. The key to how the quotation is used is the naming of Jesus as “Son” to the Father. The language is that of kingship, as Ps 2 indicates. Here is the promise about what the ultimate Davidic heir would be.

[13:33]  303 tn Grk “I have begotten you.” The traditional translation for γεγέννηκα (gegennhka, “begotten”) is misleading to the modern English reader because it is no longer in common use. Today one speaks of “fathering” a child in much the same way speakers of English formerly spoke of “begetting a child.”

[13:33]  sn A quotation from Ps 2:7.

[13:34]  304 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[13:34]  305 tn Although μηκέτι (mhketi) can mean “no longer” or “no more,” the latter is more appropriate here, since to translate “no longer” in this context could give the reader the impression that Jesus did experience decay before his resurrection. Since the phrase “no more again to be” is somewhat awkward in English, the simpler phrase “never again to be” was used instead.

[13:34]  306 tn The translation “to be in again” for ὑποστρέφω (Jupostrefw) is given in L&N 13.24.

[13:34]  307 tn Grk “he”; the referent (God) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[13:34]  308 tn The pronoun “you” is plural here. The promises of David are offered to the people.

[13:34]  309 tn Or “the trustworthy decrees made by God to David.” The phrase τὰ ὅσια Δαυὶδ τὰ πιστά (ta Josia Dauid ta pista) is “compressed,” that is, in a very compact or condensed form. It could be expanded in several different ways. BDAG 728 s.v. ὅσιος 3 understands it to refer to divine decrees: “I will grant you the sure decrees of God relating to David.” BDAG then states that this quotation from Isa 55:3 is intended to show that the following quotation from Ps 16:10 could not refer to David himself, but must refer to his messianic descendant (Jesus). L&N 33.290 render the phrase “I will give to you the divine promises made to David, promises that can be trusted,” although they also note that τὰ ὅσια in Acts 13:34 can mean “divine decrees” or “decrees made by God.” In contemporary English it is less awkward to translate πιστά as an adjective (“trustworthy”). The concept of “divine decrees,” not very understandable to the modern reader, has been replaced by “promises,” and since God is the implied speaker in the context, it is clear that these promises were made by God.

[13:34]  310 sn A quotation from Isa 55:3. The point of this citation is to make clear that the promise of a Davidic line and blessings are made to the people as well.

[13:35]  311 tn Grk “Therefore he also says in another”; the word “psalm” is not in the Greek text but is implied.

[13:35]  312 tn The Greek word translated “Holy One” here (ὅσιόν, {osion) is related to the use of ὅσια (Josia) in v. 34. The link is a wordplay. The Holy One, who does not die, brings the faithful holy blessings of promise to the people.

[13:35]  313 tn Grk “to see,” but the literal translation of the phrase “to see decay” could be misunderstood to mean simply “to look at decay,” while here “see decay” is really figurative for “experience decay.”

[13:35]  314 sn A quotation from Ps 16:10.

[13:36]  315 tn The participle ὑπηρετήσας (Juphrethsa") is taken temporally.

[13:36]  316 tn The verb κοιμάω (koimaw) literally means “sleep,” but it is often used in the Bible as a euphemism for the death of a believer.

[13:36]  317 tn Or “forefathers”; Grk “was gathered to his fathers” (a Semitic idiom).

[13:36]  318 tn Grk “saw,” but the literal translation of the phrase “saw decay” could be misunderstood to mean simply “looked at decay,” while here “saw decay” is really figurative for “experienced decay.” This remark explains why David cannot fulfill the promise.

[13:37]  319 sn The one whom God raised up refers to Jesus.

[13:37]  320 tn Grk “see,” but the literal translation of the phrase “did not see decay” could be misunderstood to mean simply “did not look at decay,” while here “did not see decay” is really figurative for “did not experience decay.”

[13:38]  321 tn That is, Jesus. This pronoun is in emphatic position in the Greek text. Following this phrase in the Greek text is the pronoun ὑμῖν (Jumin, “to you”), so that the emphasis for the audience is that “through Jesus to you” these promises have come.

[13:39]  322 sn This one refers here to Jesus.

[13:39]  323 tn Or “is freed.” The translation of δικαιωθῆναι (dikaiwqhnai) and δικαιοῦται (dikaioutai) in Acts 13:38-39 is difficult. BDAG 249 s.v. δικαιόω 3 categorizes δικαιωθῆναι in 13:38 (Greek text) under the meaning “make free/pure” but categorizes δικαιοῦται in Acts 13:39 as “be found in the right, be free of charges” (BDAG 249 s.v. δικαιόω 2.b.β). In the interest of consistency both verbs are rendered as “justified” in this translation.

[13:39]  324 tn Or “could not free.”

[13:39]  325 tn Grk “from everything from which you could not be justified by the law of Moses.” The passive construction has been converted to an active one in the translation, with “by the law of Moses” becoming the subject of the final clause. The words “from everything from which the law of Moses could not justify you” are part of v. 38 in the Greek text, but due to English style and word order must be placed in v. 39 in the translation.

[13:40]  326 sn The speech closes with a warning, “Watch out,” that also stresses culpability.

[13:40]  327 tn Or “in.”

[13:41]  328 tn Or “and die!”

[13:41]  329 sn A quotation from Hab 1:5. The irony in the phrase even if someone tells you, of course, is that Paul has now told them. So the call in the warning is to believe or else face the peril of being scoffers whom God will judge. The parallel from Habakkuk is that the nation failed to see how Babylon’s rising to power meant perilous judgment for Israel.

[13:42]  330 tn Grk “they”; the referents (Paul and Barnabas) have been specified in the translation for clarity.

[13:42]  331 tn Or “were leaving.” The participle ἐξιόντων (exiontwn) is taken temporally.

[13:42]  332 tn Grk “they”; the referent (the people) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[13:42]  333 tn Or “begging,” “inviting.”

[13:42]  334 tn Or “matters.”

[13:43]  335 sn See the note on synagogue in 6:9.

[13:43]  336 tn BDAG 607 s.v. λύω 3 has “λυθείσης τ. συναγωγῆς when the meeting of the synagogue had broken up Ac 13:43.”

[13:43]  337 tn Normally the phrase σεβόμενοι τὸν θεόν (sebomenoi ton qeon) refers to Gentiles (“God-fearers”) who believed in God, attended the synagogue, and followed the Mosaic law to some extent, but stopped short of undergoing circumcision. BDAG 918 s.v. σέβω 1.b lists in this category references in Acts 16:14; 18:7; with σεβόμενοι alone, Acts 13:50; 17:4, 17; the phrase is also found in Josephus, Ant. 14.7.2 (14.110). Unique to this particular verse is the combination σεβόμενοι προσηλύτων (sebomenoi proshlutwn). Later rabbinic discussion suggests that to be regarded as a proper proselyte, a Gentile male had to submit to circumcision. If that is the case here, these Gentiles in the synagogue at Pisidian Antioch should be regarded as full proselytes who had converted completely to Judaism and undergone circumcision. It is probably more likely, however, that προσηλύτων is used here in a somewhat looser sense (note the use of σεβομένας [sebomena"] alone to refer to women in Acts 13:50) and that these Gentiles were still in the category commonly called “God-fearers” without being full, technical proselytes to Judaism. See further K. G. Kuhn, TDNT 6:732-34, 743-44. Regardless, the point is that many Gentiles, as well as Jews, came to faith.

[13:43]  338 tn This is the meaning given for ἔπειθον (epeiqon) in this verse by BDAG 791 s.v. πείθω 1.b.

[13:43]  339 tn Grk “who, as they were speaking with them, were persuading them.”

[13:43]  340 tn The verb προμένειν (promenein) is similar in force to the use of μένω (menw, “to reside/remain”) in the Gospel and Epistles of John.

[13:44]  341 tc Most mss (B* C E Ψ Ï sy bo) read θεοῦ (qeou, “of God”) here instead of κυρίου (kuriou, “of the Lord”). Other mss, among them some important early witnesses (Ì74 א A B2 33 81 323 945 1175 1739 al sa), read κυρίου. The external evidence favors κυρίου, though not decisively. Internally, the mention of “God” in v. 43, and especially “the word of God” in v. 46, would provide some temptation for scribes to assimilate the wording in v. 44 to these texts.

[13:44]  sn The word of the Lord is a technical expression in OT literature, often referring to a divine prophetic utterance (e.g., Gen 15:1, Isa 1:10, Jonah 1:1). In the NT it occurs 15 times: 3 times as ῥῆμα τοῦ κυρίου (rJhma tou kuriou; Luke 22:61, Acts 11:16, 1 Pet 1:25) and 12 times as λόγος τοῦ κυρίου (logo" tou kuriou; here and in vv. 48 and 49; Acts 8:25; 15:35, 36; 16:32; 19:10, 20; 1 Thess 1:8, 4:15; 2 Thess 3:1). As in the OT, this phrase focuses on the prophetic nature and divine origin of what has been said.

[13:45]  342 sn They were filled with jealousy. Their foolish response to the gospel is noted again (see Acts 5:17). The same verb is used in Acts 7:9; 17:5.

[13:45]  343 tn The imperfect verb ἀντέλεγον (antelegon) has been translated as an ingressive imperfect in the logical sequence of events: After they were filled with jealousy, the Jewish opponents began to contradict what Paul said.

[13:45]  344 tn Grk “the things being said by Paul.” For smoothness and simplicity of English style, the passive construction has been converted to active voice in the translation.

[13:45]  345 tn The participle βλασφημοῦντες (blasfhmounte") has been regarded as indicating the means of the action of the main verb. It could also be translated as a finite verb (“and reviled him”) in keeping with contemporary English style. The direct object (“him”) is implied rather than expressed and could be impersonal (“it,” referring to what Paul was saying rather than Paul himself), but the verb occurs more often in contexts involving defamation or slander against personal beings (not always God). For a very similar context to this one, compare Acts 18:6. The translation “blaspheme” is not used because in contemporary English its meaning is more narrowly defined and normally refers to blasphemy against God (not what Paul’s opponents were doing here). The modern term “slandering” comes close to what was being done to Paul here.

[13:46]  346 tn Grk “Both Paul and Barnabas spoke out courageously and said.” The redundancy is removed in the translation and the verb “replied” is used in keeping with the logical sequence of events. The theme of boldness reappears: Acts 4:24-30; 9:27-28.

[13:46]  347 tn Grk “It was necessary that the word of God be spoken.” For smoothness and simplicity of English style, the passive construction has been converted to active voice in the translation.

[13:46]  348 tn Or “and consider yourselves unworthy.”

[13:46]  349 tn Grk “behold, we.” In this context ἰδού (idou) is not easily translated into English.

[13:46]  350 sn This turning to the Gentiles would be a shocking rebuke to 1st century Jews who thought they alone were the recipients of the promise.

[13:47]  351 tn Here οὕτως (Joutws) is taken to refer to what follows, the content of the quotation, as given for this verse by BDAG 742 s.v. οὕτω/οὕτως 2.

[13:47]  352 tn BDAG 1004 s.v. τίθημι 3.a has “τιθέναι τινὰ εἴς τι place/appoint someone to or for (to function as) someth….Ac 13:47.” This is a double accusative construction of object (“you”) and complement (“a light”).

[13:47]  353 sn Paul alludes here to the language of the Servant in Isaiah, pointing to Isa 42:6; 49:6. He and Barnabas do the work of the Servant in Isaiah.

[13:47]  354 tn Grk “that you should be for salvation,” but more simply “to bring salvation.”

[13:47]  355 sn An allusion to Isa 42:6 and 49:6. The expression the ends of the earth recalls Luke 3:6 and Acts 1:8. Paul sees himself and Barnabas as carrying out the commission of Luke 24:27. (See 2 Cor 6:2, where servant imagery also appears concerning Paul’s message.)

[13:48]  356 tn The imperfect verb ἔχαιρον (ecairon) and the following ἐδόξαζον (edoxazon) are translated as ingressive imperfects.

[13:48]  357 tn Or “glorify.” Although “honor” is given by BDAG 258 s.v. δοξάζω as a translation, it would be misleading here, because the meaning is “to honor in the sense of attributing worth to something,” while in contemporary English usage one speaks of “honoring” a contract in the sense of keeping its stipulations. It is not a synonym for “obey” in this context (“obey the word of the Lord”), but that is how many English readers would understand it.

[13:48]  358 sn Note the contrast to v. 46 in regard to eternal life.

[13:49]  359 tn BDAG 239 s.v. διαφέρω 1 has “spread” for διαφέρετο (diafereto) in connection with a teaching. This is the first summary since Acts 9:31.

[13:50]  360 tn For the translation of παρώτρυναν (parwtrunan) as “incited” see BDAG 780 s.v. παροτρύνω.

[13:50]  361 tn BDAG 299 s.v. ἐκβάλλω 1 has “throw out.” Once again, many Jews reacted to the message (Acts 5:17, 33; 6:11; 13:45).

[13:51]  362 tn The participle ἐκτιναξάμενοι (ektinaxamenoi) is taken temporally. It could also be translated as a participle of attendant circumstance (“So they shook…and went”).

[13:51]  363 sn Shaking the dust off their feet was a symbolic gesture commanded by Jesus to his disciples, Matt 10:14; Mark 6:11; Luke 9:5. It shows a group of people as culpable before God.

[13:51]  364 sn Iconium was a city in Lycaonia about 90 mi (145 km) east southeast of Pisidian Antioch. It was the easternmost city of Phrygia.

[13:52]  365 sn The citizens of Pisidian Antioch were not discouraged by the persecution, but instead were filled with joy.



TIP #01: Selamat Datang di Antarmuka dan Sistem Belajar Alkitab SABDA™!! [SEMUA]
dibuat dalam 0.04 detik
dipersembahkan oleh YLSA