TB NETBible YUN-IBR Ref. Silang Nama Gambar Himne

Kejadian 31:1--33:20

Konteks
Jacob’s Flight from Laban

31:1 Jacob heard that Laban’s sons were complaining, 1  “Jacob has taken everything that belonged to our father! He has gotten rich 2  at our father’s expense!” 3  31:2 When Jacob saw the look on Laban’s face, he could tell his attitude toward him had changed. 4 

31:3 The Lord said to Jacob, “Return to the land of your fathers 5  and to your relatives. I will be with you.” 6  31:4 So Jacob sent a message for Rachel and Leah 7  to come to the field 8  where his flocks were. 9  31:5 There he said to them, “I can tell that your father’s attitude toward me has changed, 10  but the God of my father has been with me. 31:6 You know that I’ve worked for your father as hard as I could, 11  31:7 but your father has humiliated 12  me and changed my wages ten times. But God has not permitted him to do me any harm. 31:8 If he said, 13  ‘The speckled animals 14  will be your wage,’ then the entire flock gave birth to speckled offspring. But if he said, ‘The streaked animals will be your wage,’ then the entire flock gave birth to streaked offspring. 31:9 In this way God has snatched away your father’s livestock and given them to me.

31:10 “Once 15  during breeding season I saw 16  in a dream that the male goats mating with 17  the flock were streaked, speckled, and spotted. 31:11 In the dream the angel of God said to me, ‘Jacob!’ ‘Here I am!’ I replied. 31:12 Then he said, ‘Observe 18  that all the male goats mating with 19  the flock are streaked, speckled, or spotted, for I have observed all that Laban has done to you. 31:13 I am the God of Bethel, 20  where you anointed 21  the sacred stone and made a vow to me. 22  Now leave this land immediately 23  and return to your native land.’”

31:14 Then Rachel and Leah replied to him, “Do we still have any portion or inheritance 24  in our father’s house? 31:15 Hasn’t he treated us like foreigners? He not only sold us, but completely wasted 25  the money paid for us! 26  31:16 Surely all the wealth that God snatched away from our father belongs to us and to our children. So now do everything God has told you.”

31:17 So Jacob immediately put his children and his wives on the camels. 27  31:18 He took 28  away all the livestock he had acquired in Paddan Aram and all his moveable property that he had accumulated. Then he set out toward the land of Canaan to return to his father Isaac. 29 

31:19 While Laban had gone to shear his sheep, 30  Rachel stole the household idols 31  that belonged to her father. 31:20 Jacob also deceived 32  Laban the Aramean by not telling him that he was leaving. 33  31:21 He left 34  with all he owned. He quickly crossed 35  the Euphrates River 36  and headed for 37  the hill country of Gilead.

31:22 Three days later Laban discovered Jacob had left. 38  31:23 So he took his relatives 39  with him and pursued Jacob 40  for seven days. 41  He caught up with 42  him in the hill country of Gilead. 31:24 But God came to Laban the Aramean in a dream at night and warned him, 43  “Be careful 44  that you neither bless nor curse Jacob.” 45 

31:25 Laban overtook Jacob, and when Jacob pitched his tent in the hill country of Gilead, Laban and his relatives set up camp there too. 46  31:26 “What have you done?” Laban demanded of Jacob. “You’ve deceived me 47  and carried away my daughters as if they were captives of war! 48  31:27 Why did you run away secretly 49  and deceive me? 50  Why didn’t you tell me so I could send you off with a celebration complete with singing, tambourines, and harps? 51  31:28 You didn’t even allow me to kiss my daughters and my grandchildren 52  good-bye. You have acted foolishly! 31:29 I have 53  the power to do you harm, but the God of your father told me last night, ‘Be careful 54  that you neither bless nor curse Jacob.’ 55  31:30 Now I understand that 56  you have gone away 57  because you longed desperately 58  for your father’s house. Yet why did you steal my gods?” 59 

31:31 “I left secretly because I was afraid!” 60  Jacob replied to Laban. “I thought 61  you might take your daughters away from me by force. 62  31:32 Whoever has taken your gods will be put to death! 63  In the presence of our relatives 64  identify whatever is yours and take it.” 65  (Now Jacob did not know that Rachel had stolen them.) 66 

31:33 So Laban entered Jacob’s tent, and Leah’s tent, and the tent of the two female servants, but he did not find the idols. 67  Then he left Leah’s tent and entered Rachel’s. 68  31:34 (Now Rachel had taken the idols and put them inside her camel’s saddle 69  and sat on them.) 70  Laban searched the whole tent, but did not find them. 71  31:35 Rachel 72  said to her father, “Don’t be angry, 73  my lord. I cannot stand up 74  in your presence because I am having my period.” 75  So he searched thoroughly, 76  but did not find the idols.

31:36 Jacob became angry 77  and argued with Laban. “What did I do wrong?” he demanded of Laban. 78  “What sin of mine prompted you to chase after me in hot pursuit? 79  31:37 When you searched through all my goods, did you find anything that belonged to you? 80  Set it here before my relatives and yours, 81  and let them settle the dispute between the two of us! 82 

31:38 “I have been with you for the past twenty years. Your ewes and female goats have not miscarried, nor have I eaten rams from your flocks. 31:39 Animals torn by wild beasts I never brought to you; I always absorbed the loss myself. 83  You always made me pay for every missing animal, 84  whether it was taken by day or at night. 31:40 I was consumed by scorching heat 85  during the day and by piercing cold 86  at night, and I went without sleep. 87  31:41 This was my lot 88  for twenty years in your house: I worked like a slave 89  for you – fourteen years for your two daughters and six years for your flocks, but you changed my wages ten times! 31:42 If the God of my father – the God of Abraham, the one whom Isaac fears 90  – had not been with me, you would certainly have sent me away empty-handed! But God saw how I was oppressed and how hard I worked, 91  and he rebuked you last night.”

31:43 Laban replied 92  to Jacob, “These women 93  are my daughters, these children are my grandchildren, 94  and these flocks are my flocks. All that you see belongs to me. But how can I harm these daughters of mine today 95  or the children to whom they have given birth? 31:44 So now, come, let’s make a formal agreement, 96  you and I, and it will be 97  proof that we have made peace.” 98 

31:45 So Jacob took a stone and set it up as a memorial pillar. 31:46 Then he 99  said to his relatives, “Gather stones.” So they brought stones and put them in a pile. 100  They ate there by the pile of stones. 31:47 Laban called it Jegar Sahadutha, 101  but Jacob called it Galeed. 102 

31:48 Laban said, “This pile of stones is a witness of our agreement 103  today.” That is why it was called Galeed. 31:49 It was also called Mizpah 104  because he said, “May the Lord watch 105  between us 106  when we are out of sight of one another. 107  31:50 If you mistreat my daughters or if you take wives besides my daughters, although no one else is with us, realize 108  that God is witness to your actions.” 109 

31:51 “Here is this pile of stones and this pillar I have set up between me and you,” Laban said to Jacob. 110  31:52 “This pile of stones and the pillar are reminders that I will not pass beyond this pile to come to harm you and that you will not pass beyond this pile and this pillar to come to harm me. 111  31:53 May the God of Abraham and the god of Nahor, 112  the gods of their father, judge between us.” Jacob took an oath by the God whom his father Isaac feared. 113  31:54 Then Jacob offered a sacrifice 114  on the mountain and invited his relatives to eat the meal. 115  They ate the meal and spent the night on the mountain.

31:55 (32:1) 116  Early in the morning Laban kissed 117  his grandchildren 118  and his daughters goodbye and blessed them. Then Laban left and returned home. 119 

Jacob Wrestles at Peniel

32:1 So Jacob went on his way and the angels of God 120  met him. 32:2 When Jacob saw them, he exclaimed, 121  “This is the camp of God!” So he named that place Mahanaim. 122 

32:3 Jacob sent messengers on ahead 123  to his brother Esau in the land of Seir, the region 124  of Edom. 32:4 He commanded them, “This is what you must say to my lord Esau: ‘This is what your servant 125  Jacob says: I have been staying with Laban until now. 32:5 I have oxen, donkeys, sheep, and male and female servants. I have sent 126  this message 127  to inform my lord, so that I may find favor in your sight.’”

32:6 The messengers returned to Jacob and said, “We went to your brother Esau. He is coming to meet you and has four hundred men with him.” 32:7 Jacob was very afraid and upset. So he divided the people who were with him into two camps, as well as the flocks, herds, and camels. 32:8 “If Esau attacks one camp,” 128  he thought, 129  “then the other camp will be able to escape.” 130 

32:9 Then Jacob prayed, 131  “O God of my father Abraham, God of my father Isaac, O Lord, you said 132  to me, ‘Return to your land and to your relatives and I will make you prosper.’ 133  32:10 I am not worthy of all the faithful love 134  you have shown 135  your servant. With only my walking stick 136  I crossed the Jordan, 137  but now I have become two camps. 32:11 Rescue me, 138  I pray, from the hand 139  of my brother Esau, 140  for I am afraid he will come 141  and attack me, as well as the mothers with their children. 142  32:12 But you 143  said, ‘I will certainly make you prosper 144  and will make 145  your descendants like the sand on the seashore, too numerous to count.’” 146 

32:13 Jacob 147  stayed there that night. Then he sent 148  as a gift 149  to his brother Esau 32:14 two hundred female goats and twenty male goats, two hundred ewes and twenty rams, 32:15 thirty female camels with their young, forty cows and ten bulls, and twenty female donkeys and ten male donkeys. 32:16 He entrusted them to 150  his servants, who divided them into herds. 151  He told his servants, “Pass over before me, and keep some distance between one herd and the next.” 32:17 He instructed the servant leading the first herd, 152  “When my brother Esau meets you and asks, ‘To whom do you belong? 153  Where are you going? Whose herds are you driving?’ 154  32:18 then you must say, 155  ‘They belong 156  to your servant Jacob. 157  They have been sent as a gift to my lord Esau. 158  In fact Jacob himself is behind us.’” 159 

32:19 He also gave these instructions to the second and third servants, as well as all those who were following the herds, saying, “You must say the same thing to Esau when you meet him. 160  32:20 You must also say, ‘In fact your servant Jacob is behind us.’” 161  Jacob thought, 162  “I will first appease him 163  by sending a gift ahead of me. 164  After that I will meet him. 165  Perhaps he will accept me.” 166  32:21 So the gifts were sent on ahead of him 167  while he spent that night in the camp. 168 

32:22 During the night Jacob quickly took 169  his two wives, his two female servants, and his eleven sons 170  and crossed the ford of the Jabbok. 171  32:23 He took them and sent them across the stream along with all his possessions. 172  32:24 So Jacob was left alone. Then a man 173  wrestled 174  with him until daybreak. 175  32:25 When the man 176  saw that he could not defeat Jacob, 177  he struck 178  the socket of his hip so the socket of Jacob’s hip was dislocated while he wrestled with him.

32:26 Then the man 179  said, “Let me go, for the dawn is breaking.” 180  “I will not let you go,” Jacob replied, 181  “unless you bless me.” 182  32:27 The man asked him, 183  “What is your name?” 184  He answered, “Jacob.” 32:28 “No longer will your name be Jacob,” the man told him, 185  “but Israel, 186  because you have fought 187  with God and with men and have prevailed.”

32:29 Then Jacob asked, “Please tell me your name.” 188  “Why 189  do you ask my name?” the man replied. 190  Then he blessed 191  Jacob 192  there. 32:30 So Jacob named the place Peniel, 193  explaining, 194  “Certainly 195  I have seen God face to face 196  and have survived.” 197 

32:31 The sun rose 198  over him as he crossed over Penuel, 199  but 200  he was limping because of his hip. 32:32 That is why to this day 201  the Israelites do not eat the sinew which is attached to the socket of the hip, because he struck 202  the socket of Jacob’s hip near the attached sinew.

Jacob Meets Esau

33:1 Jacob looked up 203  and saw that Esau was coming 204  along with four hundred men. So he divided the children among Leah, Rachel, and the two female servants. 33:2 He put the servants and their children in front, with Leah and her children behind them, and Rachel and Joseph behind them. 205  33:3 But Jacob 206  himself went on ahead of them, and he bowed toward the ground seven times as he approached 207  his brother. 33:4 But Esau ran to meet him, embraced him, hugged his neck, and kissed him. Then they both wept. 33:5 When Esau 208  looked up 209  and saw the women and the children, he asked, “Who are these people with you?” Jacob 210  replied, “The children whom God has graciously given 211  your servant.” 33:6 The female servants came forward with their children and bowed down. 212  33:7 Then Leah came forward with her children and they bowed down. Finally Joseph and Rachel came forward and bowed down.

33:8 Esau 213  then asked, “What did you intend 214  by sending all these herds to meet me?” 215  Jacob 216  replied, “To find favor in your sight, my lord.” 33:9 But Esau said, “I have plenty, my brother. Keep what belongs to you.” 33:10 “No, please take them,” Jacob said. 217  “If I have found favor in your sight, accept 218  my gift from my hand. Now that I have seen your face and you have accepted me, 219  it is as if I have seen the face of God. 220  33:11 Please take my present 221  that was brought to you, for God has been generous 222  to me and I have all I need.” 223  When Jacob urged him, he took it. 224 

33:12 Then Esau 225  said, “Let’s be on our way! 226  I will go in front of you.” 33:13 But Jacob 227  said to him, “My lord knows that the children are young, 228  and that I have to look after the sheep and cattle that are nursing their young. 229  If they are driven too hard for even a single day, all the animals will die. 33:14 Let my lord go on ahead of his servant. I will travel more slowly, at the pace of the herds and the children, 230  until I come to my lord at Seir.”

33:15 So Esau said, “Let me leave some of my men with you.” 231  “Why do that?” Jacob replied. 232  “My lord has already been kind enough to me.” 233 

33:16 So that same day Esau made his way back 234  to Seir. 33:17 But 235  Jacob traveled to Succoth 236  where he built himself a house and made shelters for his livestock. That is why the place was called 237  Succoth. 238 

33:18 After he left Paddan Aram, Jacob came safely to the city of Shechem in the land of Canaan, and he camped near 239  the city. 33:19 Then he purchased the portion of the field where he had pitched his tent; he bought it 240  from the sons of Hamor, Shechem’s father, for a hundred pieces of money. 241  33:20 There he set up an altar and called it “The God of Israel is God.” 242 

Seret untuk mengatur ukuranSeret untuk mengatur ukuran

[31:1]  1 tn Heb “and he heard the words of the sons of Laban, saying.”

[31:1]  2 sn The Hebrew word translated “gotten rich” (כָּבוֹד, cavod) has the basic idea of “weight.” If one is heavy with possessions, then that one is wealthy (13:2). Abraham, Jacob, and Joseph all became wealthy when they left the promised land. Jacob’s wealth foreshadows what will happen to Israel when they leave the land of Egypt (Exod 12:35-38).

[31:1]  3 tn Heb “and from that which belonged to our father he has gained all this wealth.”

[31:2]  4 tn Heb “and Jacob saw the face of Laban, and look, he was not with him as formerly.” Jacob knew from the expression on Laban’s face that his attitude toward him had changed – Jacob had become persona non grata.

[31:3]  5 tn Or perhaps “ancestors” (so NRSV), although the only “ancestors” Jacob had there were his grandfather Abraham and his father Isaac.

[31:3]  6 sn I will be with you. Though Laban was no longer “with him,” the Lord promised to be.

[31:4]  7 tn Heb “sent and called for Rachel and for Leah.” Jacob did not go in person, but probably sent a servant with a message for his wives to meet him in the field.

[31:4]  8 tn Heb “the field.” The word is an adverbial accusative, indicating that this is where Jacob wanted them to meet him. The words “to come to” are supplied in the translation for clarification and stylistic reasons.

[31:4]  9 tn Heb “to his flock.”

[31:5]  10 tn Heb “I see the face of your father, that he is not toward me as formerly.”

[31:6]  11 tn Heb “with all my strength.”

[31:7]  12 tn This rare verb means “to make a fool of” someone. It involves deceiving someone so that their public reputation suffers (see Exod 8:25).

[31:8]  13 tn In the protasis (“if” section) of this conditional clause, the imperfect verbal form has a customary nuance – whatever he would say worked to Jacob’s benefit.

[31:8]  14 tn Heb “speckled” (twice this verse). The word “animals” (after the first occurrence of “speckled”) and “offspring” (after the second) have been supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons. The same two terms (“animals” and “offspring”) have been supplied after the two occurrences of “streaked” later in this verse.

[31:10]  15 tn The sentence begins with the temporal indicator, “and it happened at the time of.”

[31:10]  16 tn Heb “in the time of the breeding of the flock I lifted up my eyes and I saw.”

[31:10]  17 tn Heb “going up on,” that is, mounting for intercourse.

[31:12]  18 tn Heb “lift up (now) your eyes and see.”

[31:12]  19 tn Heb “going up on,” that is, mounting for intercourse.

[31:13]  20 map For location see Map4 G4; Map5 C1; Map6 E3; Map7 D1; Map8 G3.

[31:13]  21 sn You anointed the sacred stone. In Gen 28:18 the text simply reported that Jacob poured oil on top of the stone. Now that pouring is interpreted by the Lord as an anointing. Jacob had consecrated the place.

[31:13]  22 sn And made a vow to me. The second clause reminds Jacob of the vow he made to the Lord when he anointed the stone (Gen 28:20-22). God is now going to take him back to the land, and so he will have to fulfill his vow.

[31:13]  23 tn Heb “arise, leave!” The first imperative draws attention to the need for immediate action.

[31:13]  sn Leave this land immediately. The decision to leave was a wise one in view of the changed attitude in Laban and his sons. But more than that, it was the will of God. Jacob needed to respond to God’s call – the circumstances simply made it easier.

[31:14]  24 tn The two nouns may form a hendiadys, meaning “a share in the inheritance” or “a portion to inherit.”

[31:15]  25 tn Heb “and he devoured, even devouring.” The infinitive absolute (following the finite verb here) is used for emphasis.

[31:15]  sn He sold us and…wasted our money. The precise nature of Rachel’s and Leah’s complaint is not entirely clear. Since Jacob had to work to pay for them, they probably mean that their father has cheated Jacob and therefore cheated them as well. See M. Burrows, “The Complaint of Laban’s Daughters,” JAOS 57 (1937): 250-76.

[31:15]  26 tn Heb “our money.” The word “money” is used figuratively here; it means the price paid for Leah and Rachel. A literal translation (“our money”) makes it sound as if Laban wasted money that belonged to Rachel and Leah, rather than the money paid for them.

[31:17]  27 tn Heb “and Jacob arose and he lifted up his sons and his wives on to the camels.”

[31:18]  28 tn Heb “drove,” but this is subject to misunderstanding in contemporary English.

[31:18]  29 tn Heb “and he led away all his cattle and all his moveable property which he acquired, the cattle he obtained, which he acquired in Paddan Aram to go to Isaac his father to the land of Canaan.”

[31:19]  30 tn This disjunctive clause (note the pattern conjunction + subject + verb) introduces a new scene. In the English translation it may be subordinated to the following clause.

[31:19]  31 tn Or “household gods.” Some translations merely transliterate the Hebrew term תְּרָפִים (tÿrafim) as “teraphim,” which apparently refers to household idols. Some contend that possession of these idols guaranteed the right of inheritance, but it is more likely that they were viewed simply as protective deities. See M. Greenberg, “Another Look at Rachel’s Theft of the Teraphim,” JBL 81 (1962): 239-48.

[31:20]  32 tn Heb “stole the heart of,” an expression which apparently means “to deceive.” The repetition of the verb “to steal” shows that Jacob and Rachel are kindred spirits. Any thought that Laban would have resigned himself to their departure was now out of the question.

[31:20]  33 tn Heb “fleeing,” which reflects Jacob’s viewpoint.

[31:21]  34 tn Heb “and he fled.”

[31:21]  35 tn Heb “he arose and crossed.” The first verb emphasizes that he wasted no time in getting across.

[31:21]  36 tn Heb “the river”; the referent (the Euphrates) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[31:21]  37 tn Heb “he set his face.”

[31:22]  38 tn Heb “and it was told to Laban on the third day that Jacob had fled.”

[31:23]  39 tn Heb “his brothers.”

[31:23]  40 tn Heb “him”; the referent (Jacob) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[31:23]  41 tn Heb “and he pursued after him a journey of seven days.”

[31:23]  42 tn Heb “drew close to.”

[31:24]  43 tn Heb “said to him.”

[31:24]  44 tn Heb “watch yourself,” which is a warning to be on guard against doing something that is inappropriate.

[31:24]  45 tn Heb “lest you speak with Jacob from good to evil.” The precise meaning of the expression, which occurs only here and in v. 29, is uncertain. Since Laban proceeded to speak to Jacob at length, it cannot mean to maintain silence. Nor does it seem to be a prohibition against criticism (see vv. 26-30). Most likely it refers to a formal pronouncement, whether it be a blessing or a curse. Laban was to avoid saying anything to Jacob that would be intended to enhance him or to harm him.

[31:25]  46 tn Heb “and Jacob pitched his tent in the hill country, and Laban pitched with his brothers in the hill country of Gilead.” The juxtaposition of disjunctive clauses (note the pattern conjunction + subject + verb in both clauses) indicates synchronism of action.

[31:26]  47 tn Heb “and you have stolen my heart.” This expression apparently means “to deceive” (see v. 20).

[31:26]  48 tn Heb “and you have led away my daughters like captives of a sword.”

[31:27]  49 tn Heb “Why did you hide in order to flee?” The verb “hide” and the infinitive “to flee” form a hendiadys, the infinitive becoming the main verb and the other the adverb: “flee secretly.”

[31:27]  50 tn Heb “and steal me.”

[31:27]  51 tn Heb “And [why did] you not tell me so I could send you off with joy and with songs, with a tambourine and with a harp?”

[31:28]  52 tn Heb “my sons and my daughters.” Here “sons” refers to “grandsons,” and has been translated “grandchildren” since at least one granddaughter, Dinah, was involved. The order has been reversed in the translation for stylistic reasons.

[31:29]  53 tn Heb “there is to my hand.”

[31:29]  54 tn Heb “watch yourself,” which is a warning to be on guard against doing something that is inappropriate.

[31:29]  55 tn Heb “from speaking with Jacob from good to evil.” The precise meaning of the expression, which occurs only here and in v. 24, is uncertain. See the note on the same phrase in v. 24.

[31:30]  56 tn Heb “and now.” The words “I understand that” have been supplied in the translation for clarity and for stylistic reasons.

[31:30]  57 tn The infinitive absolute appears before the perfect verbal form to emphasize the certainty of the action.

[31:30]  58 tn The infinitive absolute appears before the perfect verbal form to emphasize the degree of emotion involved.

[31:30]  59 sn Yet why did you steal my gods? This last sentence is dropped into the speech rather suddenly. See C. Mabee, “Jacob and Laban: The Structure of Judicial Proceedings,” VT 30 (1980): 192-207, and G. W. Coats, “Self-Abasement and Insult Formulas,” JBL 91 (1972): 90-92.

[31:31]  60 tn Heb “and Jacob answered and said to Laban, ‘Because I was afraid.’” This statement is a not a response to the question about Laban’s household gods that immediately precedes, but to the earlier question about Jacob’s motivation for leaving so quickly and secretly (see v. 27). For this reason the words “I left secretly” are supplied in the translation to indicate the connection to Laban’s earlier question in v. 27. Additionally the order of the introductory clause and the direct discourse have been rearranged in the translation for stylistic reasons.

[31:31]  61 tn Heb “for I said.”

[31:31]  62 tn Heb “lest you steal your daughters from with me.”

[31:32]  63 tn Heb “With whomever you find your gods, he will not live.”

[31:32]  64 tn Heb “brothers.”

[31:32]  65 tn Heb “recognize for yourself what is with me and take for yourself.”

[31:32]  66 tn The disjunctive clause (introduced here by a vav [ו] conjunction) provides supplemental material that is important to the story. Since this material is parenthetical in nature, it has been placed in parentheses in the translation.

[31:33]  67 tn No direct object is specified for the verb “find” in the Hebrew text. The words “the idols” have been supplied in the translation for clarification.

[31:33]  68 tn Heb “and he went out from the tent of Leah and went into the tent of Rachel.”

[31:34]  69 tn The “camel’s saddle” was probably some sort of basket-saddle, a cushioned saddle with a basket bound on. Cf. NAB “inside a camel cushion.”

[31:34]  70 tn The disjunctive clause (introduced by a vav [ו] conjunction) provides another parenthetical statement necessary to the storyline.

[31:34]  71 tn The word “them” has been supplied in the translation for clarification.

[31:35]  72 tn Heb “she”; the referent (Rachel) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[31:35]  73 tn Heb “let it not be hot in the eyes of my lord.” This idiom refers to anger, in this case as a result of Rachel’s failure to stand in the presence of her father as a sign of respect.

[31:35]  74 tn Heb “I am unable to rise.”

[31:35]  75 tn Heb “the way of women is to me.” This idiom refers to a woman’s menstrual period.

[31:35]  76 tn The word “thoroughly” is not in the Hebrew text, but is implied.

[31:36]  77 tn Heb “it was hot to Jacob.” This idiom refers to anger.

[31:36]  78 tn Heb “and Jacob answered and said to Laban, ‘What is my sin?’” The proper name “Jacob” has been replaced by the pronoun (“he”) in the translation and the order of the introductory clause and direct discourse rearranged for stylistic reasons.

[31:36]  79 tn Heb “What is my sin that you have hotly pursued after me.” The Hebrew verb translated “pursue hotly” is used elsewhere of soldiers chasing defeated enemies (1 Sam 17:53).

[31:37]  80 tn Heb “what did you find from all the goods of your house?”

[31:37]  81 tn Heb “your relatives.” The word “relatives” has not been repeated in the translation here for stylistic reasons.

[31:37]  82 tn Heb “that they may decide between us two.”

[31:39]  83 tn The imperfect verbal form indicates that this was a customary or typical action.

[31:39]  84 tn Heb “from my hand you exacted it.” The imperfect verbal form again indicates that this was a customary or typical action. The words “for every missing animal” are supplied in the translation for clarity; the following clause in Hebrew, “stolen by day or stolen by night,” probably means “stolen by wild beasts” and refers to the same animals “torn by wild beasts” in the previous clause, although it may refer to animals stolen by people. The translation used here, “missing,” is ambiguous enough to cover either eventuality.

[31:40]  85 tn Or “by drought.”

[31:40]  86 tn Heb “frost, ice,” though when contrasted with the חֹרֶב (khorev, “drought, parching heat”) of the day, “piercing cold” is more appropriate as a contrast.

[31:40]  87 tn Heb “and my sleep fled from my eyes.”

[31:41]  88 tn Heb “this to me.”

[31:41]  89 tn Heb “served you,” but in this accusatory context the meaning is more “worked like a slave.”

[31:42]  90 tn Heb “the fear of Isaac,” that is, the one whom Isaac feared and respected. For further discussion of this title see M. Malul, “More on pahad yitschaq (Gen. 31:42,53) and the Oath by the Thigh,” VT 35 (1985): 192-200.

[31:42]  91 tn Heb “My oppression and the work of my hands God saw.”

[31:43]  92 tn Heb “answered and said.”

[31:43]  93 tn Heb “daughters.”

[31:43]  94 tn Heb “children.”

[31:43]  95 tn Heb “but to my daughters what can I do to these today?”

[31:44]  96 tn Heb “cut a covenant.”

[31:44]  97 tn The verb הָיָה (hayah) followed by the preposition לְ (lÿ) means “become.”

[31:44]  98 tn Heb “and it will become a witness between me and you.”

[31:46]  99 tn Heb “Jacob”; the proper name has been replaced by the pronoun (“he”) in the translation for stylistic reasons.

[31:46]  100 sn The Hebrew word for “pile” is גַּל (gal), which sounds like the name “Galeed” (גַּלְעֵד, galed). See v. 48.

[31:47]  101 sn Jegar Sahadutha. Laban the Aramean gave the place an Aramaic name which means “witness pile” or “the pile is a witness.”

[31:47]  102 sn Galeed also means “witness pile” or “the pile is a witness,” but this name is Canaanite or Western Semitic and closer to later Hebrew. Jacob, though certainly capable of speaking Aramaic, here prefers to use the western dialect.

[31:48]  103 tn Heb “a witness between me and you.”

[31:49]  104 tn Heb “and Mizpah.”

[31:49]  105 sn The name Mizpah (מִצְפָּה, mitspah), which means “watchpost,” sounds like the verb translated “may he watch” (יִצֶף, yitsef). Neither Laban nor Jacob felt safe with each other, and so they agreed to go their separate ways, trusting the Lord to keep watch at the border. Jacob did not need this treaty, but Laban, perhaps because he had lost his household gods, felt he did.

[31:49]  106 tn Heb “between me and you.”

[31:49]  107 tn Heb “for we will be hidden, each man from his neighbor.”

[31:50]  108 tn Heb “see.”

[31:50]  109 tn Heb “between me and you.”

[31:51]  110 tn Heb “and Laban said to Jacob, ‘Behold this heap and behold the pillar which I have set between men and you.’” The order of the introductory clause and the direct discourse has been rearranged in the translation for stylistic reasons.

[31:52]  111 tn Heb “This pile is a witness and the pillar is a witness, if I go past this pile to you and if you go past this pile and this pillar to me for harm.”

[31:53]  112 tn The God of Abraham and the god of Nahor. The Hebrew verb translated “judge” is plural, suggesting that Laban has more than one “god” in mind. The Samaritan Pentateuch and the LXX, apparently in an effort to make the statement monotheistic, have a singular verb. In this case one could translate, “May the God of Abraham and the God of Nahor, the God of their father, judge between us.” However, Laban had a polytheistic world view, as evidenced by his possession of household idols (cf. 31:19). The translation uses “God” when referring to Abraham’s God, for Genesis makes it clear that Abraham worshiped the one true God. It employs “god” when referring to Nahor’s god, for in the Hebrew text Laban refers to a different god here, probably one of the local deities.

[31:53]  113 tn Heb “by the fear of his father Isaac.” See the note on the word “fears” in v. 42.

[31:54]  114 tn The construction is a cognate accusative with the verb, expressing a specific sacrifice.

[31:54]  115 tn Heb “bread, food.” Presumably this was a type of peace offering, where the person bringing the offering ate the animal being sacrificed.

[31:55]  116 sn Beginning with 31:55, the verse numbers in the English Bible through 32:32 differ by one from the verse numbers in the Hebrew text (BHS), with 31:55 ET = 32:1 HT, 32:1 ET = 32:2 HT, etc., through 32:32 ET = 32:33 HT. From 33:1 the verse numbers in the ET and HT are again the same.

[31:55]  117 tn Heb “and Laban got up early in the morning and he kissed.”

[31:55]  118 tn Heb “his sons.”

[31:55]  119 tn Heb “to his place.”

[32:1]  120 sn The phrase angels of God occurs only here and in Gen 28:12 in the OT. Jacob saw a vision of angels just before he left the promised land. Now he encounters angels as he prepares to return to it. The text does not give the details of the encounter, but Jacob’s response suggests it was amicable. This location was a spot where heaven made contact with earth, and where God made his presence known to the patriarch. See C. Houtman, “Jacob at Mahanaim: Some Remarks on Genesis XXXII 2-3,” VT 28 (1978): 37-44.

[32:2]  121 tn Heb “and Jacob said when he saw them.”

[32:2]  122 sn The name Mahanaim apparently means “two camps.” Perhaps the two camps were those of God and of Jacob.

[32:3]  123 tn Heb “before him.”

[32:3]  124 tn Heb “field.”

[32:4]  125 sn Your servant. The narrative recounts Jacob’s groveling in fear before Esau as he calls his brother his “lord,” as if to minimize what had been done twenty years ago.

[32:5]  126 tn Or “I am sending.” The form is a preterite with the vav consecutive; it could be rendered as an English present tense – as the Hebrew perfect/preterite allows – much like an epistolary aorist in Greek. The form assumes the temporal perspective of the one who reads the message.

[32:5]  127 tn The words “this message” are not in the Hebrew text, but have been supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.

[32:8]  128 tn Heb “If Esau comes to one camp and attacks it.”

[32:8]  129 tn Heb “and he said, ‘If Esau comes to one camp and attacks it.” The Hebrew verb אָמַר (’amar) here represents Jacob’s thought or reasoning, and is therefore translated “he thought.” The order of the introductory clause and the direct discourse has been rearranged in the translation for stylistic reasons.

[32:8]  130 tn Heb “the surviving camp will be for escape.” The word “escape” is a feminine noun. The term most often refers to refugees from war.

[32:9]  131 tn Heb “said.”

[32:9]  132 tn Heb “the one who said.”

[32:9]  133 tn Heb “I will cause good” or “I will treat well [or “favorably”].” The idea includes more than prosperity, though that is its essential meaning. Here the form is subordinated to the preceding imperative and indicates purpose or result. Jacob is reminding God of his promise in the hope that God will honor his word.

[32:10]  134 tn Heb “the loving deeds and faithfulness” (see 24:27, 49).

[32:10]  135 tn Heb “you have done with.”

[32:10]  136 tn Heb “for with my staff.” The Hebrew word מַקֵל (maqel), traditionally translated “staff,” has been rendered as “walking stick” because a “staff” in contemporary English refers typically to the support personnel in an organization.

[32:10]  137 tn Heb “this Jordan.”

[32:11]  138 tn The imperative has the force of a prayer here, not a command.

[32:11]  139 tn The “hand” here is a metonymy for “power.”

[32:11]  140 tn Heb “from the hand of my brother, from the hand of Esau.”

[32:11]  141 tn Heb “for I am afraid of him, lest he come.”

[32:11]  142 sn Heb “me, [the] mother upon [the] sons.” The first person pronoun “me” probably means here “me and mine,” as the following clause suggests.

[32:12]  143 tn Heb “But you, you said.” One of the occurrences of the pronoun “you” has been left untranslated for stylistic reasons.

[32:12]  sn Some commentators have thought this final verse of the prayer redundant, but it actually follows the predominant form of a lament in which God is motivated to act. The primary motivation Jacob can offer to God is God’s promise, and so he falls back on that at the end of the prayer.

[32:12]  144 tn Or “will certainly deal well with you.” The infinitive absolute appears before the imperfect, underscoring God’s promise to bless. The statement is more emphatic than in v. 9.

[32:12]  145 tn The form is the perfect tense with a vav (ו) consecutive, carrying the nuance of the preceding verb forward.

[32:12]  146 tn Heb “which cannot be counted because of abundance.” The imperfect verbal form indicates potential here.

[32:13]  147 tn Heb “and he”; the referent (Jacob) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[32:13]  148 tn Heb “and he took from that which was going into his hand,” meaning that he took some of what belonged to him.

[32:13]  149 sn The Hebrew noun translated gift can in some contexts refer to the tribute paid by a subject to his lord. Such a nuance is possible here, because Jacob refers to Esau as his lord and to himself as Esau’s servant (v. 4).

[32:16]  150 tn Heb “and he put them in the hand of.”

[32:16]  151 tn Heb “a herd, a herd, by itself,” or “each herd by itself.” The distributive sense is expressed by repetition.

[32:17]  152 tn Heb “the first”; this has been specified as “the servant leading the first herd” in the translation for clarity.

[32:17]  153 tn Heb “to whom are you?”

[32:17]  154 tn Heb “and to whom are these before you?”

[32:18]  155 tn The form is the perfect tense with the vav (ו) consecutive; it has the nuance of an imperfect of instruction.

[32:18]  156 tn The words “they belong” have been supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.

[32:18]  157 tn Heb “to your servant, to Jacob.”

[32:18]  158 tn Heb “to my lord, to Esau.”

[32:18]  159 tn Heb “and look, also he [is] behind us.” The referent of the pronoun “he” (Jacob) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[32:19]  160 tn Heb “And he commanded also the second, also the third, also all the ones going after the herds, saying: ‘According to this word you will speak when you find him.’”

[32:20]  161 tn Heb “and look, your servant Jacob [is] behind us.”

[32:20]  162 tn Heb “for he said.” The referent (Jacob) has been specified in the translation for clarity. The Hebrew word מַקֵל (maqel), traditionally represents Jacob’s thought or reasoning, and is therefore translated “thought.”

[32:20]  163 tn Heb “I will appease his face.” The cohortative here expresses Jacob’s resolve. In the Book of Leviticus the Hebrew verb translated “appease” has the idea of removing anger due to sin or guilt, a nuance that fits this passage very well. Jacob wanted to buy Esau off with a gift of more than five hundred and fifty animals.

[32:20]  164 tn Heb “with a gift going before me.”

[32:20]  165 tn Heb “I will see his face.”

[32:20]  166 tn Heb “Perhaps he will lift up my face.” In this context the idiom refers to acceptance.

[32:21]  167 tn Heb “and the gift passed over upon his face.”

[32:21]  168 tn The disjunctive clause is circumstantial/temporal.

[32:22]  169 tn Heb “and he arose in that night and he took.” The first verb is adverbial, indicating that he carried out the crossing right away.

[32:22]  170 tn The Hebrew term used here is יֶלֶד (yeled) which typically describes male offspring. Some translations render the term “children” but this is a problem because by this time Jacob had twelve children in all, including one daughter, Dinah, born to Leah (Gen 30:21). Benjamin, his twelfth son and thirteenth child, was not born until later (Gen 35:16-19).

[32:22]  171 sn Hebrew narrative style often includes a summary statement of the whole passage followed by a more detailed report of the event. Here v. 22 is the summary statement, while v. 23 begins the detailed account.

[32:23]  172 tn Heb “and he sent across what he had.”

[32:24]  173 sn Reflecting Jacob’s perspective at the beginning of the encounter, the narrator calls the opponent simply “a man.” Not until later in the struggle does Jacob realize his true identity.

[32:24]  174 sn The verb translated “wrestled” (וַיֵּאָבֵק, vayyeaveq) sounds in Hebrew like the names “Jacob” (יַעֲקֹב, yaaqov) and “Jabbok” (יַבֹּק, yabboq). In this way the narrator links the setting, the main action, and the main participant together in the mind of the reader or hearer.

[32:24]  175 tn Heb “until the rising of the dawn.”

[32:25]  176 tn Heb “he”; the referent (the man) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[32:25]  177 tn Heb “him”; the referent (Jacob) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[32:25]  178 tn Or “injured”; traditionally “touched.” The Hebrew verb translated “struck” has the primary meanings “to touch; to reach; to strike.” It can, however, carry the connotation “to harm; to molest; to injure.” God’s “touch” cripples Jacob – it would be comparable to a devastating blow.

[32:26]  179 tn Heb “he”; the referent (the man) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[32:26]  180 tn Heb “dawn has arisen.”

[32:26]  181 tn Heb “and he said, ‘I will not let you go.’” The referent of the pronoun “he” (Jacob) has been specified for clarity, and the order of the introductory clause and the direct discourse has been rearranged in the translation for stylistic reasons.

[32:26]  182 sn Jacob wrestled with a man thinking him to be a mere man, and on that basis was equal to the task. But when it had gone on long enough, the night visitor touched Jacob and crippled him. Jacob’s request for a blessing can only mean that he now knew that his opponent was supernatural. Contrary to many allegorical interpretations of the passage that make fighting equivalent to prayer, this passage shows that Jacob stopped fighting, and then asked for a blessing.

[32:27]  183 tn Heb “and he said to him.” The referent of the pronoun “he” (the man who wrestled with Jacob) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[32:27]  184 sn What is your name? The question is rhetorical, since the Lord obviously knew Jacob’s identity. But since the Lord is going to change Jacob’s name, this question is designed to bring focus Jacob’s attention on all that his name had come to signify.

[32:28]  185 tn Heb “and he said.” The referent of the pronoun “he” (the man who wrestled with Jacob) has been specified for clarity, and the order of the introductory clause and the direct discourse has been rearranged in the translation for stylistic reasons.

[32:28]  186 sn The name Israel is a common construction, using a verb with a theophoric element (אֵל, ’el) that usually indicates the subject of the verb. Here it means “God fights.” This name will replace the name Jacob; it will be both a promise and a call for faith. In essence, the Lord was saying that Jacob would have victory and receive the promises because God would fight for him.

[32:28]  187 sn You have fought. The explanation of the name Israel includes a sound play. In Hebrew the verb translated “you have fought” (שָׂרִיתָ, sarita) sounds like the name “Israel” (יִשְׂרָאֵל, yisrael ), meaning “God fights” (although some interpret the meaning as “he fights [with] God”). The name would evoke the memory of the fight and what it meant. A. Dillmann says that ever after this the name would tell the Israelites that, when Jacob contended successfully with God, he won the battle with man (Genesis, 2:279). To be successful with God meant that he had to be crippled in his own self-sufficiency (A. P. Ross, “Jacob at the Jabboq, Israel at Peniel,” BSac 142 [1985]: 51-62).

[32:29]  188 sn Tell me your name. In primitive thought to know the name of a deity or supernatural being would enable one to use it for magical manipulation or power (A. S. Herbert, Genesis 12-50 [TBC], 108). For a thorough structural analysis of the passage discussing the plays on the names and the request of Jacob, see R. Barthes, “The Struggle with the Angel: Textual Analysis of Genesis 32:23-33,” Structural Analysis and Biblical Exegesis (PTMS), 21-33.

[32:29]  189 tn The question uses the enclitic pronoun “this” to emphasize the import of the question.

[32:29]  190 tn Heb “and he said, ‘Why is it that you ask my name?’” The referent of the pronoun “he” (the man who wrestled with Jacob) has been specified for clarity, and the order of the introductory clause and the direct discourse has been rearranged in the translation for stylistic reasons.

[32:29]  191 tn The verb here means that the Lord endowed Jacob with success; he would be successful in everything he did, including meeting Esau.

[32:29]  192 tn Heb “him”; the referent (Jacob) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[32:30]  193 sn The name Peniel means “face of God.” Since Jacob saw God face to face here, the name is appropriate.

[32:30]  194 tn The word “explaining” is supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.

[32:30]  195 tn Or “because.”

[32:30]  196 sn I have seen God face to face. See the note on the name “Peniel” earlier in the verse.

[32:30]  197 tn Heb “and my soul [= life] has been preserved.”

[32:30]  sn I have survived. It was commonly understood that no one could see God and live (Gen 48:16; Exod 19:21, 24:10; and Judg 6:11, 22). On the surface Jacob seems to be saying that he saw God and survived. But the statement may have a double meaning, in light of his prayer for deliverance in v. 11. Jacob recognizes that he has survived his encounter with God and that his safety has now been guaranteed.

[32:31]  198 tn Heb “shone.”

[32:31]  199 sn The name is spelled Penuel here, apparently a variant spelling of Peniel (see v. 30).

[32:31]  200 tn The disjunctive clause draws attention to an important fact: He may have crossed the stream, but he was limping.

[32:32]  201 sn On the use of the expression to this day, see B. S. Childs, “A Study of the Formula ‘Until This Day’,” JBL 82 (1963): 279-92.

[32:32]  202 tn Or “because the socket of Jacob’s hip was struck.” Some translations render this as an impersonal passive. On the translation of the word “struck” see the note on this term in v. 25.

[33:1]  203 tn Heb “and Jacob lifted up his eyes.”

[33:1]  204 tn Or “and look, Esau was coming.” By the use of the particle הִנֵּה (hinneh, “look”), the narrator invites the reader to view the scene through Jacob’s eyes.

[33:2]  205 sn This kind of ranking according to favoritism no doubt fed the jealousy over Joseph that later becomes an important element in the narrative. It must have been painful to the family to see that they were expendable.

[33:3]  206 tn Heb “and he”; the referent (Jacob) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[33:3]  207 tn Heb “until his drawing near unto his brother.” The construction uses the preposition with the infinitive construct to express a temporal clause.

[33:5]  208 tn Heb “and he”; the referent (Esau) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[33:5]  209 tn Heb “lifted up his eyes.”

[33:5]  210 tn Heb “and he”; the referent (Jacob) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[33:5]  211 tn The Hebrew verb means “to be gracious; to show favor”; here it carries the nuance “to give graciously.”

[33:6]  212 tn Heb “and the female servants drew near, they and their children and they bowed down.”

[33:8]  213 tn Heb “and he”; the referent (Esau) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[33:8]  214 tn Heb “Who to you?”

[33:8]  215 tn Heb “all this camp which I met.”

[33:8]  216 tn Heb “and he”; the referent (Jacob) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[33:10]  217 tn Heb “and Jacob said, ‘No, please.’” The words “take them” have been supplied in the translation for clarity, and the order of the introductory clause and the direct discourse rearranged for stylistic reasons.

[33:10]  218 tn The form is the perfect tense with a vav (ו) consecutive, expressing a contingent future nuance in the “then” section of the conditional sentence.

[33:10]  219 tn The verbal form is the preterite with a vav (ו) consecutive, indicating result here.

[33:10]  220 tn Heb “for therefore I have seen your face like seeing the face of God and you have accepted me.”

[33:10]  sn This is an allusion to the preceding episode (32:22-31) in which Jacob saw the face of God and realized his prayer was answered.

[33:11]  221 tn Heb “blessing.” It is as if Jacob is trying to repay what he stole from his brother twenty years earlier.

[33:11]  222 tn Or “gracious,” but in the specific sense of prosperity.

[33:11]  223 tn Heb “all.”

[33:11]  224 tn Heb “and he urged him and he took.” The referent of the first pronoun in the sequence (“he”) has been specified as “Jacob” in the translation for clarity.

[33:12]  225 tn Heb “and he”; the referent (Esau) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[33:12]  226 tn Heb “let us travel and let us go.” The two cohortatives are used in combination with the sense, “let’s travel along, get going, be on our way.”

[33:13]  227 tn Heb “he”; the referent (Jacob) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[33:13]  228 tn Heb “weak.”

[33:13]  229 tn Heb “and the sheep and the cattle nursing [are] upon me.”

[33:14]  230 tn Heb “and I, I will move along according to my leisure at the foot of the property which is before me and at the foot of the children.”

[33:15]  231 tn The cohortative verbal form here indicates a polite offer of help.

[33:15]  232 tn Heb “and he said, ‘Why this?’” The referent of the pronoun “he” (Jacob) has been specified for clarity, and the order of the introductory clause and the direct discourse has been rearranged in the translation for stylistic reasons.

[33:15]  233 tn Heb “I am finding favor in the eyes of my lord.”

[33:16]  234 tn Heb “returned on his way.”

[33:17]  235 tn The disjunctive clause contrasts Jacob’s action with Esau’s.

[33:17]  236 sn But Jacob traveled to Succoth. There are several reasons why Jacob chose not to go to Mt. Seir after Esau. First, as he said, his herds and children probably could not keep up with the warriors. Second, he probably did not fully trust his brother. The current friendliness could change, and he could lose everything. And third, God did tell him to return to his land, not Seir. But Jacob is still not able to deal truthfully, probably because of fear of Esau.

[33:17]  237 tn Heb “why he called.” One could understand “Jacob” as the subject of the verb, but it is more likely that the subject is indefinite, in which case the verb is better translated as passive.

[33:17]  238 sn The name Succoth means “shelters,” an appropriate name in light of the shelters Jacob built there for his livestock.

[33:18]  239 tn Heb “in front of.”

[33:19]  240 tn The words “he bought it” are supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons. In the Hebrew text v. 19 is one long sentence.

[33:19]  241 tn The Hebrew word קְשִׂיטָה (qÿsitah) is generally understood to refer to a unit of money, but the value is unknown. (However, cf. REB, which renders the term as “sheep”).

[33:20]  242 tn Heb “God, the God of Israel.” Rather than translating the name, a number of modern translations merely transliterate it from the Hebrew as “El Elohe Israel” (cf. NIV, NRSV, REB). It is not entirely clear how the name should be interpreted grammatically. One option is to supply an equative verb, as in the translation: “The God of Israel [is] God.” Another interpretive option is “the God of Israel [is] strong [or “mighty”].” Buying the land and settling down for a while was a momentous step for the patriarch, so the commemorative naming of the altar is significant.



TIP #18: Centang "Hanya dalam TB" pada Pencarian Universal untuk pencarian teks alkitab hanya dalam versi TB [SEMUA]
dibuat dalam 0.03 detik
dipersembahkan oleh YLSA