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Kejadian 37:1--39:23

Konteks
Joseph’s Dreams

37:1 But Jacob lived in the land where his father had stayed, 1  in the land of Canaan. 2 

37:2 This is the account of Jacob.

Joseph, his seventeen-year-old son, 3  was taking care of 4  the flocks with his brothers. Now he was a youngster 5  working with the sons of Bilhah and Zilpah, his father’s wives. 6  Joseph brought back a bad report about them 7  to their father.

37:3 Now Israel loved Joseph more than all his sons 8  because he was a son born to him late in life, 9  and he made a special 10  tunic for him. 37:4 When Joseph’s 11  brothers saw that their father loved him more than any of them, 12  they hated Joseph 13  and were not able to speak to him kindly. 14 

37:5 Joseph 15  had a dream, 16  and when he told his brothers about it, 17  they hated him even more. 18  37:6 He said to them, “Listen to this dream I had: 19  37:7 There we were, 20  binding sheaves of grain in the middle of the field. Suddenly my sheaf rose up and stood upright and your sheaves surrounded my sheaf and bowed down 21  to it!” 37:8 Then his brothers asked him, “Do you really think you will rule over us or have dominion over us?” 22  They hated him even more 23  because of his dream and because of what he said. 24 

37:9 Then he had another dream, 25  and told it to his brothers. “Look,” 26  he said. “I had another dream. The sun, the moon, and eleven stars were bowing down to me.” 37:10 When he told his father and his brothers, his father rebuked him, saying, “What is this dream that you had? 27  Will I, your mother, and your brothers really come and bow down to you?” 28  37:11 His brothers were jealous 29  of him, but his father kept in mind what Joseph said. 30 

37:12 When his brothers had gone to graze their father’s flocks near Shechem, 37:13 Israel said to Joseph, “Your brothers 31  are grazing the flocks near Shechem. Come, I will send you to them.” “I’m ready,” 32  Joseph replied. 33  37:14 So Jacob 34  said to him, “Go now and check on 35  the welfare 36  of your brothers and of the flocks, and bring me word.” So Jacob 37  sent him from the valley of Hebron.

37:15 When Joseph reached Shechem, 38  a man found him wandering 39  in the field, so the man asked him, “What are you looking for?” 37:16 He replied, “I’m looking for my brothers. Please tell 40  me where they are grazing their flocks.” 37:17 The man said, “They left this area, 41  for I heard them say, ‘Let’s go to Dothan.’” So Joseph went after his brothers and found them at Dothan.

37:18 Now Joseph’s brothers 42  saw him from a distance, and before he reached them, they plotted to kill him. 37:19 They said to one another, “Here comes this master of dreams! 43  37:20 Come now, let’s kill him, throw him into one of the cisterns, and then say that a wild 44  animal ate him. Then we’ll see how his dreams turn out!” 45 

37:21 When Reuben heard this, he rescued Joseph 46  from their hands, 47  saying, 48  “Let’s not take his life!” 49  37:22 Reuben continued, 50  “Don’t shed blood! Throw him into this cistern that is here in the wilderness, but don’t lay a hand on him.” 51  (Reuben said this 52  so he could rescue Joseph 53  from them 54  and take him back to his father.)

37:23 When Joseph reached his brothers, they stripped him 55  of his tunic, the special tunic that he wore. 37:24 Then they took him and threw him into the cistern. (Now the cistern was empty; 56  there was no water in it.)

37:25 When they sat down to eat their food, they looked up 57  and saw 58  a caravan of Ishmaelites coming from Gilead. Their camels were carrying spices, balm, and myrrh down to Egypt. 59  37:26 Then Judah said to his brothers, “What profit is there if we kill our brother and cover up his blood? 37:27 Come, let’s sell him to the Ishmaelites, but let’s not lay a hand on him, 60  for after all, he is our brother, our own flesh.” His brothers agreed. 61  37:28 So when the Midianite 62  merchants passed by, Joseph’s brothers pulled 63  him 64  out of the cistern and sold him to the Ishmaelites for twenty pieces of silver. The Ishmaelites 65  then took Joseph to Egypt.

37:29 Later Reuben returned to the cistern to find that Joseph was not in it! 66  He tore his clothes, 37:30 returned to his brothers, and said, “The boy isn’t there! And I, where can I go?” 37:31 So they took Joseph’s tunic, killed a young goat, 67  and dipped the tunic in the blood. 37:32 Then they brought the special tunic to their father 68  and said, “We found this. Determine now whether it is your son’s tunic or not.”

37:33 He recognized it and exclaimed, “It is my son’s tunic! A wild animal has eaten him! 69  Joseph has surely been torn to pieces!” 37:34 Then Jacob tore his clothes, put on sackcloth, 70  and mourned for his son many days. 37:35 All his sons and daughters stood by 71  him to console him, but he refused to be consoled. “No,” he said, “I will go to the grave mourning my son.” 72  So Joseph’s 73  father wept for him.

37:36 Now 74  in Egypt the Midianites 75  sold Joseph 76  to Potiphar, one of Pharaoh’s officials, the captain of the guard. 77 

Judah and Tamar

38:1 At that time Judah left 78  his brothers and stayed 79  with an Adullamite man 80  named Hirah.

38:2 There Judah saw the daughter of a Canaanite man 81  named Shua. 82  Judah acquired her as a wife 83  and had marital relations with her. 84  38:3 She became pregnant 85  and had a son. Judah named 86  him Er. 38:4 She became pregnant again and had another son, whom she named Onan. 38:5 Then she had 87  yet another son, whom she named Shelah. She gave birth to him in Kezib. 88 

38:6 Judah acquired 89  a wife for Er his firstborn; her name was Tamar. 38:7 But Er, Judah’s firstborn, was evil in the Lord’s sight, so the Lord killed him.

38:8 Then Judah said to Onan, “Have sexual relations with 90  your brother’s wife and fulfill the duty of a brother-in-law to her so that you may raise 91  up a descendant for your brother.” 92  38:9 But Onan knew that the child 93  would not be considered his. 94  So whenever 95  he had sexual relations with 96  his brother’s wife, he withdrew prematurely 97  so as not to give his brother a descendant. 38:10 What he did was evil in the Lord’s sight, so the Lord 98  killed him too.

38:11 Then Judah said to his daughter-in-law Tamar, “Live as a widow in your father’s house until Shelah my son grows up.” For he thought, 99  “I don’t want him to die like his brothers.” 100  So Tamar went and lived in her father’s house.

38:12 After some time 101  Judah’s wife, the daughter of Shua, died. After Judah was consoled, he left for Timnah to visit his sheepshearers, along with 102  his friend Hirah the Adullamite. 38:13 Tamar was told, 103  “Look, your father-in-law is going up 104  to Timnah to shear his sheep.” 38:14 So she removed her widow’s clothes and covered herself with a veil. She wrapped herself and sat at the entrance to Enaim which is on the way to Timnah. (She did this because 105  she saw that she had not been given to Shelah as a wife, even though he had now grown up.) 106 

38:15 When Judah saw her, he thought she was a prostitute 107  because she had covered her face. 38:16 He turned aside to her along the road and said, “Come on! I want to have sex with you.” 108  (He did not realize 109  it was his daughter-in-law.) She asked, “What will you give me in exchange for having sex with you?” 110  38:17 He replied, “I’ll send you a young goat from the flock.” She asked, “Will you give me a pledge until you send it?” 111  38:18 He said, “What pledge should I give you?” She replied, “Your seal, your cord, and the staff that’s in your hand.” So he gave them to her and had sex with her. 112  She became pregnant by him. 38:19 She left immediately, 113  removed her veil, and put on her widow’s clothes.

38:20 Then Judah had his friend Hirah 114  the Adullamite take a young goat to get back from the woman the items he had given in pledge, 115  but Hirah 116  could not find her. 38:21 He asked the men who were there, 117  “Where is the cult prostitute 118  who was at Enaim by the road?” But they replied, “There has been no cult prostitute here.” 38:22 So he returned to Judah and said, “I couldn’t find her. Moreover, the men of the place said, ‘There has been no cult prostitute here.’” 38:23 Judah said, “Let her keep the things 119  for herself. Otherwise we will appear to be dishonest. 120  I did indeed send this young goat, but you couldn’t find her.”

38:24 After three months Judah was told, 121  “Your daughter-in-law Tamar has turned to prostitution, 122  and as a result she has become pregnant.” 123  Judah said, “Bring her out and let her be burned!” 38:25 While they were bringing her out, she sent word 124  to her father-in-law: “I am pregnant by the man to whom these belong.” 125  Then she said, “Identify 126  the one to whom the seal, cord, and staff belong.” 38:26 Judah recognized them and said, “She is more upright 127  than I am, because I wouldn’t give her to Shelah my son.” He did not have sexual relations with her 128  again.

38:27 When it was time for her to give birth, there were twins in her womb. 38:28 While she was giving birth, one child 129  put out his hand, and the midwife took a scarlet thread and tied it on his hand, saying, “This one came out first.” 38:29 But then he drew back his hand, and his brother came out before him. 130  She said, “How you have broken out of the womb!” 131  So he was named Perez. 132  38:30 Afterward his brother came out – the one who had the scarlet thread on his hand – and he was named Zerah. 133 

Joseph and Potiphar’s Wife

39:1 Now Joseph had been brought down to Egypt. 134  An Egyptian named Potiphar, an official of Pharaoh and the captain of the guard, 135  purchased him from 136  the Ishmaelites who had brought him there. 39:2 The Lord was with Joseph. He was successful 137  and lived 138  in the household of his Egyptian master. 39:3 His master observed that the Lord was with him and that the Lord made everything he was doing successful. 139  39:4 So Joseph found favor in his sight and became his personal attendant. 140  Potiphar appointed Joseph 141  overseer of his household and put him in charge 142  of everything he owned. 39:5 From the time 143  Potiphar 144  appointed him over his household and over all that he owned, the Lord blessed 145  the Egyptian’s household for Joseph’s sake. The blessing of the Lord was on everything that he had, both 146  in his house and in his fields. 147  39:6 So Potiphar 148  left 149  everything he had in Joseph’s care; 150  he gave no thought 151  to anything except the food he ate. 152 

Now Joseph was well built and good-looking. 153  39:7 Soon after these things, his master’s wife took notice of 154  Joseph and said, “Have sex with me.” 155  39:8 But he refused, saying 156  to his master’s wife, “Look, my master does not give any thought 157  to his household with me here, 158  and everything that he owns he has put into my care. 159  39:9 There is no one greater in this household than I am. He has withheld nothing from me except you because you are his wife. So how could I do 160  such a great evil and sin against God?” 39:10 Even though she continued to speak 161  to Joseph day after day, he did not respond 162  to her invitation to have sex with her. 163 

39:11 One day 164  he went into the house to do his work when none of the household servants 165  were there in the house. 39:12 She grabbed him by his outer garment, saying, “Have sex with me!” But he left his outer garment in her hand and ran 166  outside. 167  39:13 When she saw that he had left his outer garment in her hand and had run outside, 39:14 she called for her household servants and said to them, “See, my husband brought 168  in a Hebrew man 169  to us to humiliate us. 170  He tried to have sex with me, 171  but I screamed loudly. 172  39:15 When he heard me raise 173  my voice and scream, he left his outer garment beside me and ran outside.”

39:16 So she laid his outer garment beside her until his master came home. 39:17 This is what she said to him: 174  “That Hebrew slave 175  you brought to us tried to humiliate me, 176  39:18 but when I raised my voice and screamed, he left his outer garment and ran outside.”

39:19 When his master heard his wife say, 177  “This is the way 178  your slave treated me,” 179  he became furious. 180  39:20 Joseph’s master took him and threw him into the prison, 181  the place where the king’s prisoners were confined. So he was there in the prison. 182 

39:21 But the Lord was with Joseph and showed him kindness. 183  He granted him favor in the sight of the prison warden. 184  39:22 The warden put all the prisoners under Joseph’s care. He was in charge of whatever they were doing. 185  39:23 The warden did not concern himself 186  with anything that was in Joseph’s 187  care because the Lord was with him and whatever he was doing the Lord was making successful.

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[37:1]  1 tn Heb “the land of the sojournings of his father.”

[37:1]  2 sn The next section begins with the heading This is the account of Jacob in Gen 37:2, so this verse actually forms part of the preceding section as a concluding contrast with Esau and his people. In contrast to all the settled and expanded population of Esau, Jacob was still moving about in the land without a permanent residence and without kings. Even if the Edomite king list was added later (as the reference to kings in Israel suggests), its placement here in contrast to Jacob and his descendants is important. Certainly the text deals with Esau before dealing with Jacob – that is the pattern. But the detail is so great in chap. 36 that the contrast cannot be missed.

[37:2]  3 tn Heb “a son of seventeen years.” The word “son” is in apposition to the name “Joseph.”

[37:2]  4 tn Or “tending”; Heb “shepherding” or “feeding.”

[37:2]  5 tn Or perhaps “a helper.” The significance of this statement is unclear. It may mean “now the lad was with,” or it may suggest Joseph was like a servant to them.

[37:2]  6 tn Heb “and he [was] a young man with the sons of Bilhah and with the sons of Zilpah, the wives of his father.”

[37:2]  7 tn Heb “their bad report.” The pronoun is an objective genitive, specifying that the bad or damaging report was about the brothers.

[37:2]  sn Some interpreters portray Joseph as a tattletale for bringing back a bad report about them [i.e., his brothers], but the entire Joseph story has some of the characteristics of wisdom literature. Joseph is presented in a good light – not because he was perfect, but because the narrative is showing how wisdom rules. In light of that, this section portrays Joseph as faithful to his father in little things, even though unpopular – and so he will eventually be given authority over greater things.

[37:3]  8 tn The disjunctive clause provides supplemental information vital to the story. It explains in part the brothers’ animosity toward Joseph.

[37:3]  sn The statement Israel loved Joseph more than all his sons brings forward a motif that played an important role in the family of Isaac – parental favoritism. Jacob surely knew what that had done to him and his brother Esau, and to his own family. But now he showers affection on Rachel’s son Joseph.

[37:3]  9 tn Heb “a son of old age was he to him.” This expression means “a son born to him when he [i.e., Jacob] was old.”

[37:3]  10 tn It is not clear what this tunic was like, because the meaning of the Hebrew word that describes it is uncertain. The idea that it was a coat of many colors comes from the Greek translation of the OT. An examination of cognate terms in Semitic suggests it was either a coat or tunic with long sleeves (cf. NEB, NRSV), or a tunic that was richly embroidered (cf. NIV). It set Joseph apart as the favored one.

[37:4]  11 tn Heb “his”; the referent (Joseph) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[37:4]  12 tn Heb “of his brothers.” This is redundant in contemporary English and has been replaced in the translation by the pronoun “them.”

[37:4]  13 tn Heb “him”; the referent (Joseph) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[37:4]  14 tn Heb “speak to him for peace.”

[37:5]  15 tn Heb “and he”; the referent (Joseph) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[37:5]  16 tn Heb “dreamed a dream.”

[37:5]  17 sn Some interpreters see Joseph as gloating over his brothers, but the text simply says he told his brothers about it (i.e., the dream). The text gives no warrant for interpreting his manner as arrogant or condescending. It seems normal that he would share a dream with the family.

[37:5]  18 tn The construction uses a hendiadys, “they added to hate,” meaning they hated him even more.

[37:6]  19 tn Heb “hear this dream which I dreamed.”

[37:7]  20 tn All three clauses in this dream report begin with וְהִנֵּה (vÿhinneh, “and look”), which lends vividness to the report. This is represented in the translation by the expression “there we were.”

[37:7]  21 tn The verb means “to bow down to the ground.” It is used to describe worship and obeisance to masters.

[37:8]  22 tn Heb “Ruling, will you rule over us, or reigning, will you reign over us?” The statement has a poetic style, with the two questions being in synonymous parallelism. Both verbs in this statement are preceded by the infinitive absolute, which lends emphasis. It is as if Joseph’s brothers said, “You don’t really think you will rule over us, do you? You don’t really think you will have dominion over us, do you?”

[37:8]  23 tn This construction is identical to the one in Gen 37:5.

[37:8]  24 sn The response of Joseph’s brothers is understandable, given what has already been going on in the family. But here there is a hint of uneasiness – they hated him because of his dream and because of his words. The dream bothered them, as well as his telling them. And their words in the rhetorical question are ironic, for this is exactly what would happen. The dream was God’s way of revealing it.

[37:9]  25 tn Heb “And he dreamed yet another dream.”

[37:9]  26 tn Heb “and he said, ‘Look.’” The order of the introductory clause and the direct discourse have been rearranged in the translation for stylistic reasons. Both clauses of the dream report begin with הִנֵּה (hinneh, “look”), which lends vividness to the report.

[37:10]  27 sn The question What is this dream that you had? expresses Jacob’s dismay at what he perceives to be Joseph’s audacity.

[37:10]  28 tn Heb “Coming, will we come, I and your mother and your brothers, to bow down to you to the ground?” The verb “come” is preceded by the infinitive absolute, which lends emphasis. It is as if Jacob said, “You don’t really think we will come…to bow down…do you?”

[37:11]  29 sn Joseph’s brothers were already jealous of him, but this made it even worse. Such jealousy easily leads to action, as the next episode in the story shows. Yet dreams were considered a form of revelation, and their jealousy was not only of the favoritism of their father, but of the dreams. This is why Jacob kept the matter in mind.

[37:11]  30 tn Heb “kept the word.” The referent of the Hebrew term “word” has been specified as “what Joseph said” in the translation for clarity, and the words “in mind” have been supplied for stylistic reasons.

[37:13]  31 tn The text uses an interrogative clause: “Are not your brothers,” which means “your brothers are.”

[37:13]  32 sn With these words Joseph is depicted here as an obedient son who is ready to do what his father commands.

[37:13]  33 tn Heb “and he said, ‘Here I am.’” The referent of the pronoun “he” (Joseph) has been specified in the translation for clarity, and the order of the introductory clause and the direct discourse has been rearranged for stylistic reasons.

[37:14]  34 tn Heb “he”; the referent (Jacob) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[37:14]  35 tn Heb “see.”

[37:14]  36 tn Heb “peace.”

[37:14]  37 tn Heb “he”; the referent (Jacob) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[37:15]  38 tn Heb “and he [i.e., Joseph] went to Shechem.” The referent (Joseph) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[37:15]  39 tn Heb “and a man found him and look, he was wandering in the field.” By the use of וְהִנֵּה (vÿhinneh, “and look”), the narrator invites the reader to see the action through this unnamed man’s eyes.

[37:16]  40 tn The imperative in this sentence has more of the nuance of a request than a command.

[37:17]  41 tn Heb “they traveled from this place.”

[37:18]  42 tn Heb “and they”; the referent (Joseph’s brothers) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[37:19]  43 tn Heb “Look, this master of dreams is coming.” The brothers’ words have a sarcastic note and indicate that they resent his dreams.

[37:20]  44 tn The Hebrew word can sometimes carry the nuance “evil,” but when used of an animal it refers to a dangerous wild animal.

[37:20]  45 tn Heb “what his dreams will be.”

[37:21]  46 tn Heb “him”; the referent (Joseph) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[37:21]  47 sn From their hands. The instigators of this plot may have been the sons of Bilhah and Zilpah (see v. 2).

[37:21]  48 tn Heb “and he said.”

[37:21]  49 tn Heb “we must not strike him down [with respect to] life.”

[37:22]  50 tn Heb “and Reuben said to them.”

[37:22]  51 sn The verbs translated shed, throw, and lay sound alike in Hebrew; the repetition of similar sounds draws attention to Reuben’s words.

[37:22]  52 tn The words “Reuben said this” are not in the Hebrew text, but have been supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.

[37:22]  53 tn Heb “him”; the referent (Joseph) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[37:22]  54 tn Heb “from their hands” (cf. v. 21). This expression has been translated as “them” here for stylistic reasons.

[37:23]  55 tn Heb “Joseph”; the proper name has been replaced by the pronoun (“him”) in the translation for stylistic reasons.

[37:24]  56 tn The disjunctive clause gives supplemental information that helps the reader or hearer to picture what happened.

[37:25]  57 tn Heb “lifted up their eyes.”

[37:25]  58 tn Heb “and they saw and look.” By the use of וְהִנֵּה (vÿhinneh, “and look”), the narrator invites the reader to see the event through the eyes of the brothers.

[37:25]  59 tn Heb “and their camels were carrying spices, balm, and myrrh, going to go down to Egypt.”

[37:27]  60 tn Heb “let not our hand be upon him.”

[37:27]  61 tn Heb “listened.”

[37:28]  62 sn On the close relationship between Ishmaelites (v. 25) and Midianites, see Judg 8:24.

[37:28]  63 tn Heb “they drew and they lifted up.” The referent (Joseph’s brothers) has been specified in the translation for clarity; otherwise the reader might assume the Midianites had pulled Joseph from the cistern (but cf. NAB).

[37:28]  64 tn Heb “Joseph” (both here and in the following clause); the proper name has been replaced both times by the pronoun “him” in the translation for stylistic reasons.

[37:28]  65 tn Heb “they”; the referent (the Ishmaelites) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[37:29]  66 tn Heb “and look, Joseph was not in the cistern.” By the use of וְהִנֵּה (vÿhinneh, “and look”), the narrator invites the reader to see the situation through Reuben’s eyes.

[37:31]  67 sn It was with two young goats that Jacob deceived his father (Gen 27:9); now with a young goat his sons continue the deception that dominates this family.

[37:32]  68 tn Heb “and they sent the special tunic and they brought [it] to their father.” The text as it stands is problematic. It sounds as if they sent the tunic on ahead and then came and brought it to their father. Some emend the second verb to a Qal form and read “and they came.” In this case, they sent the tunic on ahead.

[37:33]  69 sn A wild animal has eaten him. Jacob draws this conclusion on his own without his sons actually having to lie with their words (see v. 20). Dipping the tunic in the goat’s blood was the only deception needed.

[37:34]  70 tn Heb “and put sackcloth on his loins.”

[37:35]  71 tn Heb “arose, stood”; which here suggests that they stood by him in his time of grief.

[37:35]  72 tn Heb “and he said, ‘Indeed I will go down to my son mourning to Sheol.’” Sheol was viewed as the place where departed spirits went after death.

[37:35]  73 tn Heb “his”; the referent (Joseph) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[37:36]  74 tn The disjunctive clause formally signals closure for this episode of Joseph’s story, which will be resumed in Gen 39.

[37:36]  75 tc The MT spells the name of the merchants as מְדָנִים (mÿdanim, “Medanites”) rather than מִדְיָנִים (midyanim, “Midianites”) as in v. 28. It is likely that the MT is corrupt at this point, with the letter yod (י) being accidentally omitted. The LXX, Vulgate, Samaritan Pentateuch, and Syriac read “Midianites” here. Some prefer to read “Medanites” both here and in v. 28, but Judg 8:24, which identifies the Midianites and Ishmaelites, favors the reading “Midianites.”

[37:36]  76 tn Heb “him”; the referent (Joseph) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[37:36]  77 sn The expression captain of the guard might indicate that Potiphar was the chief executioner.

[38:1]  78 tn Heb “went down from.”

[38:1]  79 tn Heb “and he turned aside unto.”

[38:1]  80 tn Heb “a man, an Adullamite.”

[38:2]  81 tn Heb “a man, a Canaanite.”

[38:2]  82 tn Heb “and his name was Shua.”

[38:2]  83 tn Heb “and he took her.”

[38:2]  84 tn Heb “and he went to her.” This expression is a euphemism for sexual intercourse.

[38:3]  85 tn Or “she conceived” (also in the following verse).

[38:3]  86 tc Some mss read this verb as feminine, “she called,” to match the pattern of the next two verses. But the MT, “he called,” should probably be retained as the more difficult reading.

[38:3]  tn Heb “and he called his name.” The referent (Judah) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[38:5]  87 tn Heb “and she added again and she gave birth.” The first verb and the adverb emphasize that she gave birth once more.

[38:5]  88 tn Or “and he [i.e., Judah] was in Kezib when she gave birth to him.”

[38:6]  89 tn Heb “and Judah took.”

[38:8]  90 tn Heb “go to.” The expression is a euphemism for sexual intercourse.

[38:8]  91 tn The imperative with the prefixed conjunction here indicates purpose.

[38:8]  92 sn Raise up a descendant for your brother. The purpose of this custom, called the levirate system, was to ensure that no line of the family would become extinct. The name of the deceased was to be maintained through this custom of having a child by the nearest relative. See M. Burrows, “Levirate Marriage in Israel,” JBL 59 (1940): 23-33.

[38:9]  93 tn Heb “offspring.”

[38:9]  94 tn Heb “would not be his,” that is, legally speaking. Under the levirate system the child would be legally considered the child of his deceased brother.

[38:9]  95 tn The construction shows that this was a repeated practice and not merely one action.

[38:9]  sn The text makes it clear that the purpose of the custom was to produce an heir for the deceased brother. Onan had no intention of doing that. But he would have sex with the girl as much as he wished. He was willing to use the law to gratify his desires, but was not willing to do the responsible thing.

[38:9]  96 tn Heb “he went to.” This expression is a euphemism for sexual intercourse.

[38:9]  97 tn Heb “he spoiled [his semen] to the ground.” Onan withdrew prematurely and ejaculated on the ground to prevent his brother’s widow from becoming pregnant.

[38:10]  98 tn Heb “he”; the referent (the Lord) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[38:11]  99 tn Heb “said.”

[38:11]  100 tn Heb “Otherwise he will die, also he, like his brothers.”

[38:11]  sn I don’t want him to die like his brothers. This clause explains that Judah had no intention of giving Shelah to Tamar for the purpose of the levirate marriage. Judah apparently knew the nature of his sons, and feared that God would be angry with the third son and kill him as well.

[38:12]  101 sn After some time. There is not enough information in the narrative to know how long this was. The text says “the days increased.” It was long enough for Shelah to mature and for Tamar to realize she would not have him.

[38:12]  102 tn Heb “and he went up to the shearers of his sheep, he and.”

[38:13]  103 tn Heb “And it was told to Tamar, saying.”

[38:13]  104 tn The active participle indicates the action was in progress or about to begin.

[38:14]  105 tn The Hebrew text simply has “because,” connecting this sentence to what precedes. For stylistic reasons the words “she did this” are supplied in the translation and a new sentence begun.

[38:14]  106 tn Heb “she saw that Shelah had grown up, but she was not given to him as a wife.”

[38:15]  107 tn Heb “he reckoned her for a prostitute,” which was what Tamar had intended for him to do. She obviously had some idea of his inclinations, or she would not have tried this risky plan.

[38:16]  108 tn Heb “I will go to you.” The imperfect verbal form probably indicates his desire here. The expression “go to” is a euphemism for sexual intercourse.

[38:16]  109 tn Heb “for he did not know that.”

[38:16]  110 tn Heb “when you come to me.” This expression is a euphemism for sexual intercourse.

[38:17]  111 tn Heb “until you send.”

[38:18]  112 tn Heb “and he went to her.” This expression is a euphemism for sexual intercourse.

[38:19]  113 tn Heb “and she arose and left,” the first verb in the pair emphasizing that she wasted no time.

[38:20]  114 tn Heb “sent by the hand of his friend.” Here the name of the friend (“Hirah”) has been included in the translation for clarity.

[38:20]  115 tn Heb “to receive the pledge from the woman’s hand.”

[38:20]  116 tn Heb “he”; the referent (Judah’s friend Hirah the Adullamite) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[38:21]  117 tn Heb “the men of her place,” that is, who lived at the place where she had been.

[38:21]  118 sn The Hebrew noun translated “cult prostitute” is derived from a verb meaning “to be set apart; to be distinct.” Thus the term refers to a woman who did not marry, but was dedicated to temple service as a cult prostitute. The masculine form of this noun is used for male cult prostitutes. Judah thought he had gone to an ordinary prostitute (v. 15); but Hirah went looking for a cult prostitute, perhaps because it had been a sheep-shearing festival. For further discussion see E. M. Yamauchi, “Cultic Prostitution,” Orient and Occident (AOAT), 213-23.

[38:23]  119 tn The words “the things” have been supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.

[38:23]  120 tn Heb “we will become contemptible.” The Hebrew word בּוּז (buz) describes the contempt that a respectable person would have for someone who is worthless, foolish, or disreputable.

[38:24]  121 tn Heb “it was told to Judah, saying.”

[38:24]  122 tn Or “has been sexually promiscuous.” The verb may refer here to loose or promiscuous activity, not necessarily prostitution.

[38:24]  123 tn Heb “and also look, she is with child by prostitution.”

[38:25]  124 tn Heb “she was being brought out and she sent.” The juxtaposition of two clauses, both of which place the subject before the predicate, indicates synchronic action.

[38:25]  125 tn Heb “who these to him.”

[38:25]  126 tn Or “ recognize; note.” This same Hebrew verb (נָכַר, nakhar) is used at the beginning of v. 26, where it is translated “recognized.”

[38:26]  127 tn Traditionally “more righteous”; cf. NCV, NRSV, NLT “more in the right.”

[38:26]  sn She is more upright than I. Judah had been irresponsible and unfaithful to his duty to see that the family line continued through the levirate marriage of his son Shelah. Tamar fought for her right to be the mother of Judah’s line. When she was not given Shelah and Judah’s wife died, she took action on her own to ensure that the line did not die out. Though deceptive, it was a desperate and courageous act. For Tamar it was within her rights; she did nothing that the law did not entitle her to do. But for Judah it was wrong because he thought he was going to a prostitute. See also Susan Niditch, “The Wronged Woman Righted: An Analysis of Genesis 38,” HTR 72 (1979): 143-48.

[38:26]  128 tn Heb “and he did not add again to know her.” Here “know” is a euphemism for sexual intercourse.

[38:28]  129 tn The word “child” has been supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.

[38:29]  130 tn Heb “Look, his brother came out.” By the use of the particle הִנֵּה (hinneh, “look”), the narrator invites the reader to view the scene through the midwife’s eyes. The words “before him” are supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.

[38:29]  131 tn Heb “How you have made a breach for yourself!” The Hebrew verb translated “make a breach” frequently occurs, as here, with a cognate accusative. The event provided the meaningful name Perez, “he who breaks through.”

[38:29]  132 sn The name Perez means “he who breaks through,” referring to Perez reaching out his hand at birth before his brother was born. The naming signified the completion of Tamar’s struggle and also depicted the destiny of the tribe of Perez who later became dominant (Gen 46:12 and Num 26:20). Judah and his brothers had sold Joseph into slavery, thinking they could thwart God’s plan that the elder brothers should serve the younger. God demonstrated that principle through these births in Judah’s own family, affirming that the elder will serve the younger, and that Joseph’s leadership could not so easily be set aside. See J. Goldin, “The Youngest Son; or, Where Does Genesis 38 Belong?” JBL 96 (1977): 27-44.

[38:30]  133 sn Perhaps the child was named Zerah because of the scarlet thread. Though the Hebrew word used for “scarlet thread” in v. 28 is not related to the name Zerah, there is a related root in Babylonian and western Aramaic that means “scarlet” or “scarlet thread.” In Hebrew the name appears to be derived from a root meaning “to shine.” The name could have originally meant something like “shining one” or “God has shined.” Zerah became the head of a tribe (Num 26:20) from whom Achan descended (Josh 7:1).

[39:1]  134 tn The disjunctive clause resumes the earlier narrative pertaining to Joseph by recapitulating the event described in 37:36. The perfect verbal form is given a past perfect translation to restore the sequence of the narrative for the reader.

[39:1]  135 sn Captain of the guard. See the note on this phrase in Gen 37:36.

[39:1]  136 tn Heb “from the hand of.”

[39:2]  137 tn Heb “and he was a prosperous man.” This does not mean that Joseph became wealthy, but that he was successful in what he was doing, or making progress in his situation (see 24:21).

[39:2]  138 tn Heb “and he was.”

[39:3]  139 tn The Hebrew text adds “in his hand,” a phrase not included in the translation for stylistic reasons.

[39:4]  140 sn The Hebrew verb translated became his personal attendant refers to higher domestic service, usually along the lines of a personal attendant. Here Joseph is made the household steward, a position well-attested in Egyptian literature.

[39:4]  141 tn Heb “him”; the referent (Joseph) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[39:4]  142 tn Heb “put into his hand.”

[39:5]  143 tn Heb “and it was from then.”

[39:5]  144 tn Heb “he”; the referent (Potiphar) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[39:5]  145 sn The Hebrew word translated blessed carries the idea of enrichment, prosperity, success. It is the way believers describe success at the hand of God. The text illustrates the promise made to Abraham that whoever blesses his descendants will be blessed (Gen 12:1-3).

[39:5]  146 tn Heb “in the house and in the field.” The word “both” has been supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.

[39:5]  147 sn The passage gives us a good picture of Joseph as a young man who was responsible and faithful, both to his master and to his God. This happened within a very short time of his being sold into Egypt. It undermines the view that Joseph was a liar, a tattletale, and an arrogant adolescent.

[39:6]  148 tn Heb “he”; the referent (Potiphar) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[39:6]  149 sn The Hebrew verb translated left indicates he relinquished the care of it to Joseph. This is stronger than what was said earlier. Apparently Potiphar had come to trust Joseph so much that he knew it was in better care with Joseph than with anyone else.

[39:6]  150 tn Heb “hand.” This is a metonymy for being under the control or care of Joseph.

[39:6]  151 tn Heb “did not know.”

[39:6]  152 sn The expression except the food he ate probably refers to Potiphar’s private affairs and should not be limited literally to what he ate.

[39:6]  153 tn Heb “handsome of form and handsome of appearance.” The same Hebrew expressions were used in Gen 29:17 for Rachel.

[39:7]  154 tn Heb “she lifted up her eyes toward,” an expression that emphasizes her deliberate and careful scrutiny of him.

[39:7]  155 tn Heb “lie with me.” Here the expression “lie with” is a euphemism for sexual intercourse.

[39:7]  sn The story of Joseph and Potiphar’s wife has long been connected with the wisdom warnings about the strange woman who tries to seduce the young man with her boldness and directness (see Prov 5-7, especially 7:6-27). This is part of the literary background of the story of Joseph that gives it a wisdom flavor. See G. von Rad, God at Work in Israel, 19-35; and G. W. Coats, “The Joseph Story and Ancient Wisdom: A Reappraisal,” CBQ 35 (1973): 285-97.

[39:8]  156 tn Heb “and he said.”

[39:8]  157 tn Heb “know.”

[39:8]  158 tn The word “here” has been supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.

[39:8]  159 tn Heb “hand.” This is a metonymy for being under the control or care of Joseph.

[39:9]  160 tn The nuance of potential imperfect fits this context.

[39:10]  161 tn The verse begins with the temporal indicator, followed by the infinitive construct with the preposition כְּ (kÿ). This clause could therefore be taken as temporal.

[39:10]  162 tn Heb “listen to.”

[39:10]  163 tn Heb “to lie beside her to be with her.” Here the expression “to lie beside” is a euphemism for sexual intercourse.

[39:11]  164 tn Heb “and it was about this day.”

[39:11]  165 tn Heb “the men of the house.”

[39:12]  166 tn Heb “he fled and he went out.” The construction emphasizes the point that Joseph got out of there quickly.

[39:12]  167 sn For discussion of this episode, see A. M. Honeyman, “The Occasion of Joseph’s Temptation,” VT 2 (1952): 85-87.

[39:14]  168 tn The verb has no expressed subject, and so it could be treated as a passive (“a Hebrew man was brought in”; cf. NIV). But it is clear from the context that her husband brought Joseph into the household, so Potiphar is the apparent referent here. Thus the translation supplies “my husband” as the referent of the unspecified pronominal subject of the verb (cf. NEB, NRSV).

[39:14]  169 sn A Hebrew man. Potiphar’s wife raises the ethnic issue when talking to her servants about what their boss had done.

[39:14]  170 tn Heb “to make fun of us.” The verb translated “to humiliate us” here means to hold something up for ridicule, or to toy with something harmfully. Attempted rape would be such an activity, for it would hold the victim in contempt.

[39:14]  171 tn Heb “he came to me to lie with me.” Here the expression “lie with” is a euphemism for sexual intercourse.

[39:14]  172 tn Heb “and I cried out with a loud voice.”

[39:15]  173 tn Heb “that I raised.”

[39:17]  174 tn Heb “and she spoke to him according to these words, saying.”

[39:17]  175 sn That Hebrew slave. Now, when speaking to her husband, Potiphar’s wife refers to Joseph as a Hebrew slave, a very demeaning description.

[39:17]  176 tn Heb “came to me to make fun of me.” The statement needs no explanation because of the connotations of “came to me” and “to make fun of me.” See the note on the expression “humiliate us” in v. 14.

[39:19]  177 tn Heb “and when his master heard the words of his wife which she spoke to him, saying.”

[39:19]  178 tn Heb “according to these words.”

[39:19]  179 tn Heb “did to me.”

[39:19]  180 tn Heb “his anger burned.”

[39:20]  181 tn Heb “the house of roundness,” suggesting that the prison might have been a fortress or citadel.

[39:20]  182 sn The story of Joseph is filled with cycles and repetition: He has two dreams (chap. 37), he interprets two dreams in prison (chap. 40) and the two dreams of Pharaoh (chap. 41), his brothers make two trips to see him (chaps. 42-43), and here, for the second time (see 37:24), he is imprisoned for no good reason, with only his coat being used as evidence. For further discussion see H. Jacobsen, “A Legal Note on Potiphar’s Wife,” HTR 69 (1976): 177.

[39:21]  183 tn Heb “and he extended to him loyal love.”

[39:21]  184 tn Or “the chief jailer” (also in the following verses).

[39:22]  185 tn Heb “all which they were doing there, he was doing.” This probably means that Joseph was in charge of everything that went on in the prison.

[39:23]  186 tn Heb “was not looking at anything.”

[39:23]  187 tn Heb “his”; the referent (Joseph) has been specified in the translation for clarity.



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