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Amsal 3:13

Konteks
Blessings of Obtaining Wisdom

3:13 Blessed 1  is the one 2  who finds 3  wisdom,

and the one who obtains 4  understanding.

Amsal 5:6

Konteks

5:6 Lest 5  she should make level the path leading to life, 6 

her paths are unstable 7  but she does not know it. 8 

Amsal 5:21

Konteks

5:21 For the ways of a person 9  are in front of the Lord’s eyes,

and the Lord 10  weighs 11  all that person’s 12  paths.

Amsal 8:12

Konteks

8:12 “I, wisdom, live with prudence, 13 

and I find 14  knowledge and discretion.

Amsal 14:4

Konteks

14:4 Where there are no oxen, the feeding trough is clean,

but an abundant harvest is produced by strong oxen. 15 

Amsal 15:11

Konteks

15:11 Death and Destruction 16  are before the Lord

how much more 17  the hearts of humans! 18 

Amsal 17:8

Konteks

17:8 A bribe works like 19  a charm 20  for the one who offers it; 21 

in whatever he does 22  he succeeds. 23 

Amsal 18:3

Konteks

18:3 When a wicked person 24  arrives, contempt 25  shows up with him,

and with shame comes 26  a reproach.

Amsal 20:8

Konteks

20:8 A king sitting on the throne to judge 27 

separates out 28  all evil with his eyes. 29 

Amsal 21:1

Konteks

21:1 The king’s heart 30  is in the hand 31  of the Lord like channels of water; 32 

he turns it wherever he wants.

Amsal 24:14

Konteks

24:14 Likewise, know 33  that wisdom is sweet 34  to your soul;

if you find it, 35  you will have a future, 36 

and your hope will not be cut off.

Amsal 24:22

Konteks

24:22 for suddenly their destruction will overtake them, 37 

and who knows the ruinous judgment both the Lord and the king can bring? 38 

Amsal 28:2

Konteks

28:2 When a country is rebellious 39  it has many princes, 40 

but by someone who is discerning and knowledgeable 41  order is maintained. 42 

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[3:13]  1 tn Although the word אַשְׁרֵי (’ashre, “blessed”) is frequently translated “happy” here (so KJV, ASV, NAB, NCV, NRSV, TEV, NLT), such a translation can be somewhat misleading because the word means more than that – “happiness” depends on one’s circumstances. This word reflects that inner joy and heavenly bliss which comes to the person who is pleasing to God, whose way is right before God.

[3:13]  2 tn Heb “the man” (also again in the following line).

[3:13]  3 tn The perfect tense verb may be classified as a characteristic or gnomic perfect, as the parallel imperfect tense verb suggests (see note on v. 13b).

[3:13]  4 tn The imperfect tense verb may be classified as a progressive or habitual imperfect.

[5:6]  5 tn The particle פֶּן (pen) means “lest” (probably from “for the aversion of”). It occurs this once, unusually, preceding the principal clause (BDB 814 s.v.). It means that some action has been taken to avert or avoid what follows. She avoids the path of life, albeit ignorantly.

[5:6]  6 tn Heb “the path of life.” The noun חַיִּים (khayyim, “of life”) functions as a genitive of direction (“leading to”).

[5:6]  7 sn The verb נוּעַ (nua’) means “to quiver; to wave; to waver; to tremble”; cf. KJV “her ways are moveable”; NAB “her paths will ramble”; NLT “She staggers down a crooked trail.” The ways of the adulterous woman are unstable (BDB 631 s.v.).

[5:6]  8 sn The sadder part of the description is that this woman does not know how unstable her life is, or how uneven. However, Thomas suggests that it means, “she is not tranquil.” See D. W. Thomas, “A Note on לא תדע in Proverbs v 6,” JTS 37 (1936): 59.

[5:21]  9 tn Heb “man.”

[5:21]  10 tn Heb “he”; the referent (the Lord) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[5:21]  11 tn BDB 814 s.v. פָּלַס 2 suggests that the participle מְפַּלֵּס (mÿpalles) means “to make level [or, straight].” As one’s ways are in front of the eyes of the Lord, they become straight or right. It could be translated “weighs” since it is a denominative from the noun for “balance, scale”; the Lord weighs or examines the actions.

[5:21]  12 tn Heb “all his”; the referent (the person mentioned in the first half of the verse) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[8:12]  13 tn The noun is “shrewdness,” i.e., the right use of knowledge in special cases (see also the discussion in 1:4); cf. NLT “good judgment.” The word in this sentence is an adverbial accusative of specification.

[8:12]  14 tn This verb form is an imperfect, whereas the verb in the first colon was a perfect tense. The perfect should be classified as a gnomic perfect, and this form a habitual imperfect, because both verbs describe the nature of wisdom.

[14:4]  15 tn Heb “the strength of oxen.” The genitive שׁוֹר (shor, “oxen”) functions as an attributed genitive: “strong oxen.” Strong oxen are indispensable for a good harvest, and for oxen to be strong they must be well-fed. The farmer has to balance grain consumption with the work oxen do.

[15:11]  16 tn Heb “Sheol and Abaddon” (שְׁאוֹל וַאֲבַדּוֹן (shÿol vaadon); so ASV, NASB, NRSV; cf. KJV “Hell and destruction”; NAB “the nether world and the abyss.” These terms represent the remote underworld and all the mighty powers that reside there (e.g., Prov 27:20; Job 26:6; Ps 139:8; Amos 9:2; Rev 9:11). The Lord knows everything about this remote region.

[15:11]  17 tn The construction אַף כִּי (’af ki, “how much more!”) introduces an argument from the lesser to the greater: If all this is open before the Lord, how much more so human hearts. “Hearts” here is a metonymy of subject, meaning the motives and thoughts (cf. NCV “the thoughts of the living”).

[15:11]  18 tn Heb “the hearts of the sons of man,” although here “sons of man” simply means “men” or “human beings.”

[17:8]  19 tn The phrase “works like” does not appear in the Hebrew text, but is implied by the metaphor; it is supplied for the sake of clarity.

[17:8]  20 tn Heb “a stone of favors”; NAB, NRSV “a magic stone.” The term שֹׁחַד (shokhad, “bribe”) could be simply translated as “a gift”; but the second half of the verse says that the one who offers it is successful. At best it could be a gift that opens doors; at worst it is a bribe. The word שֹׁחַד is never used of a disinterested gift, so there is always something of the bribe in it (e.g., Ps 15:5; Isa 1:23). Here it is “a stone that brings favor,” the genitive being the effect or the result of the gift. In other words, it has magical properties and “works like a charm.”

[17:8]  21 tn Heb “in the eyes of its owner.”

[17:8]  22 tn Heb “in all that he turns”; NASB, NIV “wherever he turns.”

[17:8]  23 sn As C. H. Toy points out, the sage is merely affirming a point without making a comment – those who use bribery meet with widespread success (Proverbs [ICC], 341). This does not amount to an endorsement of bribery.

[18:3]  24 tc The MT has “a wicked [person].” Many commentators emend the text to רֶשַׁע (resha’, “wickedness”) which makes better parallelism with “shame” (W. McKane, Proverbs [OTL], 521; R. B. Y. Scott, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes [AB], 112; C. H. Toy, Proverbs [ICC], 355; cf. NAB, NIV, NRSV). However, there is no external evidence for this emendation.

[18:3]  25 sn “Contempt” (בּוּז, buz) accompanies the wicked; “reproach” (חֶרְפָּה, kherpah) goes with shame. This reproach refers to the critical rebukes and taunts of the community against a wicked person.

[18:3]  26 tn The term “comes” does not appear in the Hebrew but is supplied in the translation for the sake of clarity and smoothness.

[20:8]  27 tn The infinitive construct is דִּין; it indicates purpose, “to judge” (so NIV, NCV) even though it does not have the preposition with it.

[20:8]  28 tn The second line uses the image of winnowing (cf. NIV, NRSV) to state that the king’s judgment removes evil from the realm. The verb form is מִזָרֶה (mÿzareh), the Piel participle. It has been translated “to sift; to winnow; to scatter” and “to separate” – i.e., separate out evil from the land. The text is saying that a just government roots out evil (cf. NAB “dispels all evil”), but few governments have been consistently just.

[20:8]  29 sn The phrase with his eyes indicates that the king will closely examine or look into all the cases that come before him.

[21:1]  30 sn “Heart” is a metonymy of subject; it signifies the ability to make decisions, if not the decisions themselves.

[21:1]  31 sn “Hand” in this passage is a personification; the word is frequently used idiomatically for “power,” and that is the sense intended here.

[21:1]  32 tn “Channels of water” (פַּלְגֵי, palge) is an adverbial accusative, functioning as a figure of comparison – “like channels of water.” Cf. NAB “Like a stream”; NIV “watercourse”; NRSV, NLT “a stream of water.”

[21:1]  sn The farmer channels irrigation ditches where he wants them, where they will do the most good; so does the Lord with the king. No king is supreme; the Lord rules.

[24:14]  33 tn D. W. Thomas argues for a meaning of “seek” in place of “know” (“Notes on Some Passages in the Book of Proverbs,” JTS 38 [1937]: 400-403).

[24:14]  34 tn The phrase “is sweet” is supplied in the translation as a clarification.

[24:14]  35 tn The term “it” is supplied in the translation.

[24:14]  36 tn Heb “there will be an end.” The word is אַחֲרִית (’akhrit, “after-part, end”). BDB 31 s.v. b says in a passage like this it means “a future,” i.e., a happy close of life, sometimes suggesting the idea of posterity promised to the righteous, often parallel to “hope.”

[24:22]  37 tn Heb “will rise” (so NASB).

[24:22]  38 tn Heb “the ruin of the two of them.” Judgment is sent on the rebels both by God and the king. The term פִּיד (pid, “ruin; disaster”) is a metonymy of effect, the cause being the sentence of judgment (= “ruinous judgment” in the translation; cf. NLT “punishment”). The word “two of them” is a subjective genitive – they two bring the disaster on the rebels. The referents (the Lord and the king) have been specified in the translation for clarity.

[24:22]  sn The reward for living in peace under God in this world is that those who do will escape the calamities that will fall on the rebellious. Verse 21a is used in 1 Peter 2:17, and v. 22 is used in Romans 13:1-7 (v. 4). This is the thirtieth and last of this collection.

[28:2]  39 sn The Hebrew word translated “rebellious” has rebellion as its basic meaning, and that is the idea here. The proverb is describing a time when sinfulness brings about social and political unrest.

[28:2]  40 tn Heb “many are its princes” (so NASB).

[28:2]  sn In such a chaotic time there will be many rulers, either simultaneously or in a rapid sequence. The times of the judges or the days of the northern kings of Israel provide examples.

[28:2]  41 tn Heb “a man who understands [and] knows”; NRSV “an intelligent ruler”; NLT “wise and knowledgeable leaders.”

[28:2]  42 tc The LXX reads (probably from a different underlying Hebrew text): “It is the fault of a violent man that quarrels start, but they are settled by a man of discernment.” For a survey of suggestions, see C. H. Toy, Proverbs (ICC), 495, and W. McKane, Proverbs (OTL), 630.

[28:2]  tn This last line is difficult. The MT has כֵּן יַאֲרִיךְ (ken yaarikh). The verb means “to prolong,” but כֵּן (ken) is open to several possibilities for meaning. J. H. Greenstone’s interpretation of it as a noun from the Hollow root כּוּן (kun) with a meaning of “established order” is what is expected here (Proverbs, 293).

[28:2]  sn For a study of the verses in chapters 28 and 29 concerning kings and governments, see B. V. Malchow, “A Manual for Future Monarchs,” CBQ 47 (1985): 238-45.



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