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Teks -- Psalms 51:1-19 (NET)

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Konteks
Psalm 51
51:1 For the music director; a psalm of David, written when Nathan the prophet confronted him after David’s affair with Bathsheba. Have mercy on me, O God, because of your loyal love! Because of your great compassion, wipe away my rebellious acts! 51:2 Wash away my wrongdoing! Cleanse me of my sin! 51:3 For I am aware of my rebellious acts; I am forever conscious of my sin. 51:4 Against you– you above all– I have sinned; I have done what is evil in your sight. So you are just when you confront me; you are right when you condemn me. 51:5 Look, I was guilty of sin from birth, a sinner the moment my mother conceived me. 51:6 Look, you desire integrity in the inner man; you want me to possess wisdom. 51:7 Sprinkle me with water and I will be pure; wash me and I will be whiter than snow. 51:8 Grant me the ultimate joy of being forgiven! May the bones you crushed rejoice! 51:9 Hide your face from my sins! Wipe away all my guilt! 51:10 Create for me a pure heart, O God! Renew a resolute spirit within me! 51:11 Do not reject me! Do not take your Holy Spirit away from me! 51:12 Let me again experience the joy of your deliverance! Sustain me by giving me the desire to obey! 51:13 Then I will teach rebels your merciful ways, and sinners will turn to you. 51:14 Rescue me from the guilt of murder, O God, the God who delivers me! Then my tongue will shout for joy because of your deliverance. 51:15 O Lord, give me the words! Then my mouth will praise you. 51:16 Certainly you do not want a sacrifice, or else I would offer it; you do not desire a burnt sacrifice. 51:17 The sacrifices God desires are a humble spirit– O God, a humble and repentant heart you will not reject. 51:18 Because you favor Zion, do what is good for her! Fortify the walls of Jerusalem! 51:19 Then you will accept the proper sacrifices, burnt sacrifices and whole offerings; then bulls will be sacrificed on your altar.
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Bathsheba daughter of Shua the Canaanite; wife of Judah,daughter of Ammiel/Eliam; the wife David took from Uriah
 · David a son of Jesse of Judah; king of Israel,son of Jesse of Judah; king of Israel
 · Jerusalem the capital city of Israel,a town; the capital of Israel near the southern border of Benjamin
 · Nathan a son of David; the father of Mattatha; an ancestor of Jesus.,son of David and Bathsheba,brother of Joel in David's army; a prophet,father of Igal, one of David's military elite; a man from Zobah,father of Azariah and Zabud, priestly officials of King Solomon,son of Attai of Judah,brother of Joel, one of David's military elite,one of the leaders Ezra sent to Iddo to ask for recruits,a layman of the Binnui Clan who put away his heathen wife
 · Zion one of the hills on which Jerusalem was built; the temple area; the city of Jerusalem; God's people,a town and citidel; an ancient part of Jerusalem


Topik/Tema Kamus: Prayer | Repentance | BATH-SHEBA | Intercession | PSALMS, BOOK OF | GOD, 2 | COMMANDMENT, THE NEW | CONFESSION | NATHAN (2) | BLOODGUILTINESS | Remorse | David | Backsliders | Conscience | Sanctification | ADULTERY | ATONEMENT | Homicide | Desire | Conviction | selebihnya
Daftar Isi

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Wesley , JFB , Clarke , Calvin , Defender , TSK

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Poole , PBC , Haydock , Gill

Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki
NET Notes , Geneva Bible

Catatan Rentang Ayat
Maclaren , MHCC , Matthew Henry , Keil-Delitzsch , Constable

Lainnya
Evidence

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per frasa)

Wesley: Psa 51:4 - Thee only Which is not to be, understood absolutely, because he had sinned against Bathsheba and Uriah, and many others; but comparatively. So the sense is, tho...

Which is not to be, understood absolutely, because he had sinned against Bathsheba and Uriah, and many others; but comparatively. So the sense is, though I have sinned against my own conscience, and against others; yet nothing is more grievous to me, than that I have sinned against thee.

Wesley: Psa 51:4 - Thy sight With gross contempt of thee, whom I knew to be a spectator of my most secret actions.

With gross contempt of thee, whom I knew to be a spectator of my most secret actions.

Wesley: Psa 51:4 - Justified This will be the fruit of my sin, that whatsoever severities thou shalt use towards me, it will be no blemish to thy righteousness, but thy justice wi...

This will be the fruit of my sin, that whatsoever severities thou shalt use towards me, it will be no blemish to thy righteousness, but thy justice will be glorified by all men.

Wesley: Psa 51:4 - Speakest Heb. in thy words, in all thy threatenings denounced against me.

Heb. in thy words, in all thy threatenings denounced against me.

Wesley: Psa 51:4 - Judgest When thou dost execute thy sentence upon me.

When thou dost execute thy sentence upon me.

Wesley: Psa 51:5 - Behold Nor is this the only sin which I have reason to bewail before thee; for this filthy stream leads me to a corrupt fountain: and upon a review of my hea...

Nor is this the only sin which I have reason to bewail before thee; for this filthy stream leads me to a corrupt fountain: and upon a review of my heart, I find, that this heinous crime, was the proper fruit of my vile nature, which, ever was, and still is ready to commit ten thousand sins, as occasion offers.

Wesley: Psa 51:6 - Truth Uprightness of heart; and this may be added; as an aggravation of the sinfulness of original corruption, because it is contrary to the holy nature and...

Uprightness of heart; and this may be added; as an aggravation of the sinfulness of original corruption, because it is contrary to the holy nature and will of God, which requires rectitude of heart: and, as an aggravation of his actual sin, that it was committed against that knowledge, which God had wrote in his heart.

Wesley: Psa 51:7 - Hyssop As lepers, are by thy appointment purified by the use of hyssop and other things, so do thou cleanse me a leprous and polluted creature, by thy grace,...

As lepers, are by thy appointment purified by the use of hyssop and other things, so do thou cleanse me a leprous and polluted creature, by thy grace, and by that blood of Christ, which is signified by those ceremonial usages.

Wesley: Psa 51:8 - Joy By thy spirit, seal the pardon of my sins on my conscience, which will fill me with joy.

By thy spirit, seal the pardon of my sins on my conscience, which will fill me with joy.

Wesley: Psa 51:8 - Rejoice That my heart which hath been sorely wounded may be comforted.

That my heart which hath been sorely wounded may be comforted.

Wesley: Psa 51:10 - Create Work in me an holy frame of heart, whereby my inward filth may be purged away.

Work in me an holy frame of heart, whereby my inward filth may be purged away.

Wesley: Psa 51:10 - Right Heb. firm or constant, that my resolution may be fixed and unmoveable.

Heb. firm or constant, that my resolution may be fixed and unmoveable.

Wesley: Psa 51:10 - Spirit Temper or disposition of soul.

Temper or disposition of soul.

Wesley: Psa 51:12 - The joy The comfortable sense of thy saving grace, promised and vouchsafed to me, both for my present and everlasting salvation.

The comfortable sense of thy saving grace, promised and vouchsafed to me, both for my present and everlasting salvation.

Wesley: Psa 51:12 - Free Or, ingenuous, or liberal, or princely. Which he seems to oppose to his own base and illiberal and disingenuous and servile spirit, which he had disco...

Or, ingenuous, or liberal, or princely. Which he seems to oppose to his own base and illiberal and disingenuous and servile spirit, which he had discovered in his wicked practices: a spirit, which may free me from the bondage of sin, and enable me chearfully to run the way of God's precepts.

Wesley: Psa 51:14 - Thy righteousness Thy clemency and goodness.

Thy clemency and goodness.

Wesley: Psa 51:15 - My lips Which are shut with shame and grief.

Which are shut with shame and grief.

Wesley: Psa 51:16 - Not sacrifice This is not to be understood absolutely, with respect to David's crimes, which were not to be expiated by any sacrifice.

This is not to be understood absolutely, with respect to David's crimes, which were not to be expiated by any sacrifice.

Wesley: Psa 51:17 - A broken spirit This is of more value than many sacrifices.

This is of more value than many sacrifices.

Wesley: Psa 51:18 - Good pleasure Thy free and rich mercy.

Thy free and rich mercy.

Wesley: Psa 51:18 - Build Perfect the walls and buildings of that city, and especially let the temple be built, notwithstanding my sins.

Perfect the walls and buildings of that city, and especially let the temple be built, notwithstanding my sins.

JFB: Psa 51:1-4 - -- On the occasion, compare 2Sa 11:12. The Psalm illustrates true repentance, in which are comprised conviction, confession, sorrow, prayer for mercy, an...

On the occasion, compare 2Sa 11:12. The Psalm illustrates true repentance, in which are comprised conviction, confession, sorrow, prayer for mercy, and purposes of amendment, and it is accompanied by a lively faith. (Psa. 51:1-19)

A plea for mercy is a confession of guilt.

JFB: Psa 51:1-4 - blot out As from a register.

As from a register.

JFB: Psa 51:1-4 - transgressions Literally, "rebellions" (Psa 19:13; Psa 32:1).

Literally, "rebellions" (Psa 19:13; Psa 32:1).

JFB: Psa 51:2 - Wash me Purity as well as pardon is desired by true penitents.

Purity as well as pardon is desired by true penitents.

JFB: Psa 51:3 - For . . . before me Conviction precedes forgiveness; and, as a gift of God, is a plea for it (2Sa 12:13; Psa 32:5; 1Jo 1:9).

Conviction precedes forgiveness; and, as a gift of God, is a plea for it (2Sa 12:13; Psa 32:5; 1Jo 1:9).

JFB: Psa 51:4 - Against thee Chiefly, and as sins against others are violations of God's law, in one sense only.

Chiefly, and as sins against others are violations of God's law, in one sense only.

JFB: Psa 51:4 - that . . . judgest That is, all palliation of his crime is excluded; it is the design in making this confession to recognize God's justice, however severe the sentence.

That is, all palliation of his crime is excluded; it is the design in making this confession to recognize God's justice, however severe the sentence.

JFB: Psa 51:5-6 - -- His guilt was aggravated by his essential, native sinfulness, which is as contrary to God's requisitions of inward purity as are outward sins to those...

His guilt was aggravated by his essential, native sinfulness, which is as contrary to God's requisitions of inward purity as are outward sins to those for right conduct.

JFB: Psa 51:6 - thou shalt make, &c. May be taken to express God's gracious purpose in view of His strict requisition; a purpose of which David might have availed himself as a check to hi...

May be taken to express God's gracious purpose in view of His strict requisition; a purpose of which David might have availed himself as a check to his native love for sin, and, in not doing so, aggravated his guilt.

JFB: Psa 51:6 - truth . . . and . . .wisdom Are terms often used for piety (compare Job 28:28; Psa 119:30).

Are terms often used for piety (compare Job 28:28; Psa 119:30).

JFB: Psa 51:7-12 - -- A series of prayers for forgiveness and purifying.

A series of prayers for forgiveness and purifying.

JFB: Psa 51:7-12 - Purge . . . hyssop The use of this plant in the ritual (Exo 12:22; Num 19:6, Num 19:18) suggests the idea of atonement as prominent here; "purge" refers to vicarious sat...

The use of this plant in the ritual (Exo 12:22; Num 19:6, Num 19:18) suggests the idea of atonement as prominent here; "purge" refers to vicarious satisfaction (Num 19:17-20).

JFB: Psa 51:8 - Make . . . joy By forgiving me, which will change distress to joy.

By forgiving me, which will change distress to joy.

JFB: Psa 51:9 - Hide, &c. Turn from beholding.

Turn from beholding.

JFB: Psa 51:10 - Create A work of almighty power.

A work of almighty power.

JFB: Psa 51:10 - in me Literally, "to me," or, "for me"; bestow as a gift, a heart free from taint of sin (Psa 24:4; Psa 73:1).

Literally, "to me," or, "for me"; bestow as a gift, a heart free from taint of sin (Psa 24:4; Psa 73:1).

JFB: Psa 51:10 - renew Implies that he had possessed it; the essential principle of a new nature had not been lost, but its influence interrupted (Luk 22:32); for Psa 51:11 ...

Implies that he had possessed it; the essential principle of a new nature had not been lost, but its influence interrupted (Luk 22:32); for Psa 51:11 shows that he had not lost God's presence and Spirit (1Sa 16:13), though he had lost the "joy of his salvation" (Psa 51:12), for whose return he prays.

JFB: Psa 51:10 - right spirit Literally, "constant," "firm," not yielding to temptation.

Literally, "constant," "firm," not yielding to temptation.

JFB: Psa 51:12 - free spirit "thy" ought not to be supplied, for the word "free" is, literally, "willing," and "spirit" is that of David. "Let a willing spirit uphold me," that is...

"thy" ought not to be supplied, for the word "free" is, literally, "willing," and "spirit" is that of David. "Let a willing spirit uphold me," that is, with a soul willingly conformed to God's law, he would be preserved in a right course of conduct.

JFB: Psa 51:13 - Then Such will be the effect of this gracious work.

Such will be the effect of this gracious work.

JFB: Psa 51:13 - ways Of providence and human duty (Psa 18:21, Psa 18:30; Psa 32:8; Luk 22:32).

Of providence and human duty (Psa 18:21, Psa 18:30; Psa 32:8; Luk 22:32).

JFB: Psa 51:14 - Deliver Or, "Free me" (Psa 39:8) from the guilt of murder (2Sa 12:9-10; Psa 5:6).

Or, "Free me" (Psa 39:8) from the guilt of murder (2Sa 12:9-10; Psa 5:6).

JFB: Psa 51:14 - righteousness As in Psa 7:17; Psa 31:1.

As in Psa 7:17; Psa 31:1.

JFB: Psa 51:15 - open . . . lips By removing my sense of guilt.

By removing my sense of guilt.

JFB: Psa 51:16 - -- Praise is better than sacrifice (Psa 50:14), and implying faith, penitence, and love, glorifies God. In true penitents the joys of pardon mingle with ...

Praise is better than sacrifice (Psa 50:14), and implying faith, penitence, and love, glorifies God. In true penitents the joys of pardon mingle with sorrow for sin.

JFB: Psa 51:18 - Do good, &c. Visit not my sin on Thy Church.

Visit not my sin on Thy Church.

JFB: Psa 51:18 - build . . . walls Is to show favor; compare Psa 89:40, for opposite form and idea.

Is to show favor; compare Psa 89:40, for opposite form and idea.

JFB: Psa 51:19 - -- God reconciled, material sacrifices will be acceptable (Psa 4:5; compare Isa 1:11-17).

God reconciled, material sacrifices will be acceptable (Psa 4:5; compare Isa 1:11-17).

Clarke: Psa 51:1 - Have mercy upon me, O God Have mercy upon me, O God - Without mercy I am totally, finally ruined and undone

Have mercy upon me, O God - Without mercy I am totally, finally ruined and undone

Clarke: Psa 51:1 - According to thy loving-kindness According to thy loving-kindness - Mark the gradation in the sense of these three words, Have Mercy on me, חנני chonneni ; thy Loving-Kindness...

According to thy loving-kindness - Mark the gradation in the sense of these three words, Have Mercy on me, חנני chonneni ; thy Loving-Kindness, חסדך chasdecha ; - thy Tender Mercies, רחמיך rachameycha , here used to express the Divine compassion. The propriety of the order in which they are placed deserves particular observation

The first, rendered have mercy or pity, denotes that kind of affection which is expressed by moaning over an object we love and pity; that natural affection and tenderness which even the brute creation show to their young by the several noises they respectively make over them

The second, rendered loving-kindness, denotes a strong proneness, a ready, large, and liberal disposition, to goodness and compassion, powerfully prompting to all instances of kindness and bounty; flowing as freely as waters from a perpetual fountain. This denotes a higher degree of goodness than the former

The third, rendered tender mercies, denotes what the Greeks called splagcnizesqai, that most tender pity which we signify by the moving of the heart and bowels, which argues the highest degree of compassion of which nature is susceptible. See Chandler

Clarke: Psa 51:1 - Blot out my transgressions Blot out my transgressions - מחה mecheh , wipe out. There is a reference here to an indictment: the psalmist knows what it contains; he pleads g...

Blot out my transgressions - מחה mecheh , wipe out. There is a reference here to an indictment: the psalmist knows what it contains; he pleads guilty, but begs that the writing may be defaced; that a proper fluid may be applied to the parchment, to discharge the ink, that no record of it may ever appear against him: and this only the mercy, loving-kindness, and tender compassions of the Lord can do.

Clarke: Psa 51:2 - Wash me throughly Wash me throughly - הרבה כבסני harbeh cabbeseni , "Wash me again and again, - cause my washings to be multiplied."My stain is deep; ordina...

Wash me throughly - הרבה כבסני harbeh cabbeseni , "Wash me again and again, - cause my washings to be multiplied."My stain is deep; ordinary purgation will not be sufficient.

Clarke: Psa 51:3 - For I acknowledge my transgressions For I acknowledge my transgressions - I know, I feel, I confess that I have sinned

For I acknowledge my transgressions - I know, I feel, I confess that I have sinned

Clarke: Psa 51:3 - My sin is ever before me My sin is ever before me - A true, deep, and unsophisticated mark of a genuine penitent. Wherever he turns his face, he sees his sin, and through it...

My sin is ever before me - A true, deep, and unsophisticated mark of a genuine penitent. Wherever he turns his face, he sees his sin, and through it the eye of an angry God.

Clarke: Psa 51:4 - Against thee, thee only, have I sinned Against thee, thee only, have I sinned - This verse is supposed to show the impropriety of affixing the above title to this Psalm. It could not have...

Against thee, thee only, have I sinned - This verse is supposed to show the impropriety of affixing the above title to this Psalm. It could not have been composed on account of the matter with Bath-sheba and the murder of Uriah; for, surely, these sins could not be said to have been committed against God Only, if we take the words of this verse in their common acceptation. That was a public sin, grievous, and against society at large, as well as against the peace, honor, comfort, and life of an innocent, brave, and patriotic man. This is readily granted: but see below

Clarke: Psa 51:4 - That thou mightest be justified when thou speakest That thou mightest be justified when thou speakest - Perhaps, to save the propriety of the title, we might understand the verse thus: David, being k...

That thou mightest be justified when thou speakest - Perhaps, to save the propriety of the title, we might understand the verse thus: David, being king, was not liable to be called to account by any of his subjects; nor was there any authority in the land by which he could be judged and punished. In this respect, God Alone was greater than the king; and to him Alone, as king, he was responsible. Nam quando rex deliquit, Soli Deo reus est; guia hominem non habet qui ejus facta dijudicet, says Cassiodorus . "For when a king transgresses, he is accountable to God Only; for there is no person who has authority to take cognizance of his conduct."On this very maxim, which is a maxim in all countries, David might say, Against thee only have I sinned. "I cannot be called to the bar of my subjects; but I arraign myself before thy bar. They can neither judge nor condemn me; but thou canst: and such are my crimes that thou wilt be justified in the eyes of all men, and cleared of all severity, shouldst thou inflict upon me the heaviest punishment."This view,of the subject will reconcile the Psalm to the title. As to the eighteenth and nineteenth verses, we shall consider them in their own place; and probably find that the objection taken from them has not much weight.

Clarke: Psa 51:5 - Behold, I was shapen in iniquity Behold, I was shapen in iniquity - A genuine penitent will hide nothing of his state; he sees and bewails, not only the acts of sin which he has com...

Behold, I was shapen in iniquity - A genuine penitent will hide nothing of his state; he sees and bewails, not only the acts of sin which he has committed, but the disposition that led to those acts. He deplores, not only the transgression, but the carnal mind which is enmity against God. The light that shines into his soul shows him the very source whence transgression proceeds; he sees his fallen nature, as well as his sinful life; he asks pardon for his transgressions, and he asks washing and cleansing for his inward defilement. Notwithstanding all that Grotius and others have said to the contrary, I believe David to speak here of what is commonly called original sin; the propensity to evil which every man brings into the world with him, and which is the fruitful source whence all transgression proceeds. The word חוללתי cholalti , which we translate shaped, means more properly, I was brought forth from the womb; and יחמתני yechemathni rather signifies made me warm, alluding to the whole process of the formation of the fetus in utero, the formative heat which is necessary to develope the parts of all embryo animals; to incubate the ova in the female, after having been impregnated by the male; and to bring the whole into such a state of maturity and perfection as to render it capable of subsisting and growing up by aliment received from without. "As my parts were developed in the womb, the sinful principle diffused itself through the whole, so that body and mind grew up in a state of corruption and moral imperfection."

Clarke: Psa 51:6 - Behold, thou desirest truth Behold, thou desirest truth - I am the very reverse of what I should be. Those desirest truth in the heart, but in me there is nothing but sin and f...

Behold, thou desirest truth - I am the very reverse of what I should be. Those desirest truth in the heart, but in me there is nothing but sin and falsity

Clarke: Psa 51:6 - Thou shalt make one to know wisdom Thou shalt make one to know wisdom - Thou wilt teach me to restrain every inordinate propensity, and to act according to the dictates of sound wisdo...

Thou shalt make one to know wisdom - Thou wilt teach me to restrain every inordinate propensity, and to act according to the dictates of sound wisdom, the rest of my life.

Clarke: Psa 51:7 - Purge me with hyssop Purge me with hyssop - תחטאני techatteeni , "thou shalt make a sin-offering for me;"probably alluding to the cleansing of the leper: Lev 14:1...

Purge me with hyssop - תחטאני techatteeni , "thou shalt make a sin-offering for me;"probably alluding to the cleansing of the leper: Lev 14:1, etc. The priest took two clean birds, cedar-wood, scarlet, and hyssop; one of the birds was killed; and the living bird, with the scarlet, cedar, and hyssop, dipped in the blood of the bird that had been killed, and then sprinkled over the person who had been infected. But it is worthy of remark that this ceremony was not performed till the plague of the leprosy had been healed in the leper; (Lev 14:3); and the ceremony above mentioned was for the purpose of declaring to the people that the man was healed, that he might be restored to his place in society, having been healed of a disease that the finger of God alone could remove. This David seems to have full in view; hence he requests the Lord to make the sin-offering for him, and to show to the people that he had accepted him, and cleansed him from his sin.

Clarke: Psa 51:8 - Make me to hear joy Make me to hear joy - Let me have a full testimony of my reconciliation to thee; that the soul, which is so deeply distressed by a sense of thy disp...

Make me to hear joy - Let me have a full testimony of my reconciliation to thee; that the soul, which is so deeply distressed by a sense of thy displeasure, may be healed by a sense of thy pardoning mercy.

Clarke: Psa 51:9 - Hide thy face from my sins Hide thy face from my sins - The sentiment here is nearly the same as that in Psa 51:3 : His sin was ever before his own face; and he knew that the ...

Hide thy face from my sins - The sentiment here is nearly the same as that in Psa 51:3 : His sin was ever before his own face; and he knew that the eye of God was constantly upon him, and that his purity and justice must be highly incensed on the account. He therefore, with a just horror of his transgressions, begs God to turn away his face from them, and to blot them out, so that they may never more be seen. See the note on Psa 51:1 (note).

Clarke: Psa 51:10 - Create in me a clean heart Create in me a clean heart - Mending will not avail; my heart is altogether corrupted; it must be new made, made as it was in the beginning. This is...

Create in me a clean heart - Mending will not avail; my heart is altogether corrupted; it must be new made, made as it was in the beginning. This is exactly the sentiment of St. Paul: Neither circumcision availeth any thing, nor uncircumcision, but a new creation; and the salvation given under the Gospel dispensation is called a being created anew in Christ Jesus

Clarke: Psa 51:10 - A right spirit within me A right spirit within me - רוח נכון ruach nachon , a constant, steady, determined spirit; called Psa 51:12, רוח נדיבה ruach nedibah...

A right spirit within me - רוח נכון ruach nachon , a constant, steady, determined spirit; called Psa 51:12, רוח נדיבה ruach nedibah , a noble spirit. a free, generous, princely spirit; cheerfully giving up itself to thee; no longer bound and degraded by the sinfulness of sin.

Clarke: Psa 51:11 - Cast me not away from thy presence Cast me not away from thy presence - Banish me not from thy house and ordinances

Cast me not away from thy presence - Banish me not from thy house and ordinances

Clarke: Psa 51:11 - Take not thy Holy Spirit from me Take not thy Holy Spirit from me - I know I have sufficiently grieved it to justify its departure for ever, in consequence of which I should be cons...

Take not thy Holy Spirit from me - I know I have sufficiently grieved it to justify its departure for ever, in consequence of which I should be consigned to the blackness of darkness, - either to utter despair, or to a hard heart and seared conscience; and so work iniquity with greediness, till I fell into the pit of perdition. While the Spirit stays, painfully convincing of sin, righteousness, and judgment, there is hope of salvation; when it departs, then the hope of redemption is gone. But while there his any godly sorrow, any feeling of regret for having sinned against God, any desire to seek mercy, then the case is not hopeless; for these things prove that the light of the Spirit is not withdrawn.

Clarke: Psa 51:12 - Restore unto me the joy of thy salvation Restore unto me the joy of thy salvation - This is an awful prayer. And why? Because it shows he once Had the joy of God’ s salvation; and had ...

Restore unto me the joy of thy salvation - This is an awful prayer. And why? Because it shows he once Had the joy of God’ s salvation; and had Lost it by sin

Clarke: Psa 51:12 - Uphold me with thy free spirit Uphold me with thy free spirit - Prop me up; support me with a princely spirit, one that will not stoop to a mean or base act. See on Psa 51:10 (not...

Uphold me with thy free spirit - Prop me up; support me with a princely spirit, one that will not stoop to a mean or base act. See on Psa 51:10 (note).

Clarke: Psa 51:13 - Then will I teach transgressors Then will I teach transgressors - I will show myself to be grateful; I will testify of thy loving-kindness; I will call on transgressors to consider...

Then will I teach transgressors - I will show myself to be grateful; I will testify of thy loving-kindness; I will call on transgressors to consider the error of their ways; and shall set before them so forcibly thy justice and mercy, that sinners shall be converted unto thee. With a little change I can adopt the language of Dr. Delaney on this place: "Who can confide in his own strength, when he sees David fall? Who can despair of Divine mercy when he sees him forgiven? Sad triumph of sin over all that is great or excellent in man! Glorious triumph of grace over all that is shameful and dreadful in sin!"

Clarke: Psa 51:14 - Deliver me from blood-guiltiness Deliver me from blood-guiltiness - This is one of the expressions that gives most color to the propriety of the title affixed to this Psalm. Here he...

Deliver me from blood-guiltiness - This is one of the expressions that gives most color to the propriety of the title affixed to this Psalm. Here he may have in view the death of Uriah, and consider that his blood cries for vengeance against him; and nothing but the mere mercy of God can wipe this blood from his conscience. The prayer here is earnest and energetic: O God! thou God of my salvation! deliver me! The Chaldee reads, "Deliver me ( מדין קטול middin ketol ) from the judgment of slaughter.

Clarke: Psa 51:14 - My tongue shall sing aloud My tongue shall sing aloud - My tongue shall praise thy righteousness. I shall testify to all that thou hast the highest displeasure against sin, an...

My tongue shall sing aloud - My tongue shall praise thy righteousness. I shall testify to all that thou hast the highest displeasure against sin, and wilt excuse it in no person; and that so merciful art thou, that if a sinner turn to thee with a deeply penitent and broken heart, thou wilt forgive his iniquities. None, from my case, can ever presume; none, from my case, need ever despair.

Clarke: Psa 51:15 - O Lord, open thou my lips O Lord, open thou my lips - My heart is believing unto righteousness; give me thy peace, that my tongue may make confession unto salvation. He could...

O Lord, open thou my lips - My heart is believing unto righteousness; give me thy peace, that my tongue may make confession unto salvation. He could not praise God for pardon till he felt that God had pardoned him; then his lips would be opened, and his tongue would show forth the praise of his Redeemer.

Clarke: Psa 51:16 - For thou desirest not sacrifice For thou desirest not sacrifice - This is the same sentiment which he delivers in Psa 40:6 (note), etc., where see the notes. There may be here, how...

For thou desirest not sacrifice - This is the same sentiment which he delivers in Psa 40:6 (note), etc., where see the notes. There may be here, however, a farther meaning: Crimes, like mine, are not to be expiated by any sacrifices that the law requires; nor hast thou appointed in the law any sacrifices to atone for deliberate murder and adultery: if thou hadst, I would cheerfully have given them to thee. The matter is before thee as Judge.

Clarke: Psa 51:17 - The sacrifices of God are a broken spirit The sacrifices of God are a broken spirit - As my crimes are such as admit of no legal atonement, so thou hast reserved them to be punished by exemp...

The sacrifices of God are a broken spirit - As my crimes are such as admit of no legal atonement, so thou hast reserved them to be punished by exemplary acts of justice, or to be pardoned by a sovereign act of mercy: but in order to find this mercy, thou requirest that the heart and soul should deeply feel the transgression, and turn to thee with the fullest compunction and remorse. This thou hast enabled me to do. I have the broken spirit, רוח נשברה ruach nishbarah ; and the broken and contrite heart, לב נשבר ונדכה leb nishbar venidkeh . These words are very expressive. שבר shabar signifies exactly the same as our word shiver, to break into pieces, to reduce into splinters; and דכה dakah , signifies to beat out thin, - to beat out masses of metal, etc., into laminae or thin plates. The spirit broken all to pieces, and the heart broken all to pieces, stamped and beaten out, are the sacrifices which, in such cases, thou requirest; and these "thou wilt not despise."We may now suppose that God had shone upon his soul, healed his broken spirit, and renewed and removed his broken and distracted heart; and that he had now received the answer to the preceding prayers. And here the Psalm properly ends; as, in the two following verses, there is nothing similar to what we find in the rest of this very nervous and most important composition.

Clarke: Psa 51:18 - Do good in thy good pleasure unto Zion Do good in thy good pleasure unto Zion - This and the following verse most evidently refer to the time of the captivity, when the walls of Jerusalem...

Do good in thy good pleasure unto Zion - This and the following verse most evidently refer to the time of the captivity, when the walls of Jerusalem were broken down, and the temple service entirely discontinued; and, consequently, are long posterior to the times of David. Hence it has been concluded that the Psalm was not composed by David, nor in his time and that the title must be that of some other Psalm inadvertently affixed to this. The fourth verse has also been considered as decisive against this title: but the note on that verse has considerably weakened, if not destroyed, that objection. I have been long of opinion that, whether the title be properly or improperly affixed to this Psalm, these two verses make no part of it: the subject is totally dissimilar; and there is no rule of analogy by which it can be interpreted as belonging to the Psalm, to the subject, or to the person. I think they originally made a Psalm of themselves, a kind of ejaculatory prayer for the redemption of the captives from Babylon, the rebuilding of Jerusalem, and the restoration of the temple worship. And, taken in this light, they are very proper and very expressive

The Psa 117:1-2 contains only two verses; and is an ejaculation of praise from the captives who had just then returned from Babylon. And it is a fact that this Psalm is written as a part of the cxvith in no less than thirty-two of Kennicott’ s and De Rossi’ s MSS.; and in some early editions. Again, because of its smallness, it has been absorbed by the cxviiith, of which it makes the commencement, in twenty-eight of Kennicott’ s and De Rossi’ s MSS. In a similar way I suppose the two last verses of this Psalm to have been absorbed by the preceding, which originally made a complete Psalm of themselves; and this absorption was the more easy, because, like the cxviith it has no title. I cannot allege a similar evidence relative to these two verses, as ever having made a distinct Psalm; but of the fact I can have no doubt, for the reasons assigned above. And I still think that Psalm is too dignified, too energetic, and too elegant, to have been the composition of any but David. It was not Asaph; it was not any of the sons of Korah; it was not Heman or Jeduthun: the hand and mind of a greater master are here

Calvin: Psa 51:1 - Have mercy upon me 1.Have mercy upon me David begins, as I have already remarked, by praying for pardon; and his sin having been of an aggravated description, he prays ...

1.Have mercy upon me David begins, as I have already remarked, by praying for pardon; and his sin having been of an aggravated description, he prays with unwonted earnestness. He does not satisfy himself with one petition. Having mentioned the loving-kindness of the Lord, he adds the multitude of his compassions, to intimate that mercy of an ordinary kind would not suffice for so great a sinner. Had he prayed God to be favorable, simply according to his clemency or goodness, even that would have amounted to a confession that his case was a bad one; but when he speaks of his sin as remissible, only through the countless multitude of the compassions of God, he represents it as peculiarly atrocious. There is an implied antithesis between the greatness of the mercies sought for, and the greatness of the transgression which required them. Still more emphatical is the expression which follows, multiply to wash me Some take הרבה , 258 herebeh, for a noun, but this is too great a departure from the idiom of the language. The sense, on that supposition, would indeed remain the same, That God would wash him abundantly, and with multiplied washing; but I prefer that form of expression which agrees best with the Hebrew idiom. This, at least, is certain from the expression which he employs, that he felt the stain of his sin to be deep, and to require multiplied washings. Not as if God could experience any difficulty in cleansing the worst sinner, but the more aggravated a man’s sin is, the more earnest naturally are his desires to be delivered from the terrors of conscience.

The figure itself, as all are aware, is one of frequent occurrence in Scripture. Sin resembles filth or uncleanness, as it pollutes us, and makes us loathsome in the sight of God, and the remission of it is therefore aptly compared to washing This is a truth which should both commend the grace of God to us, and fill us with detestation of sin. Insensible, indeed, must that heart be which is not affected by it!

Calvin: Psa 51:3 - For If know my sins 3.For If know my sins 259 He now discovers his reason for imploring pardon with so much vehemency, and this was the painful disquietude which his sin...

3.For If know my sins 259 He now discovers his reason for imploring pardon with so much vehemency, and this was the painful disquietude which his sins caused him, and which could only be relieved by his obtaining reconciliation with God. This proves that his prayer did not proceed from dissimulation, as many will be found commending the grace of God in high terms, although, in reality, they care little about it, having never felt the bitterness of being exposed to his displeasure. David, on the contrary, declares that he is subjected by his sin to constant anguish of mind, and that it is this which imparts such an earnestness to his supplications. From his example we may learn who they are that can alone be said to seek reconciliation with God in a proper manner. They are such as have had their consciences wounded with a sense of sin, and who can find no rest until they have obtained assurance of his mercy. We will never seriously apply to God for pardon, until we have obtained such a view of our sins as inspires us with fear. The more easily satisfied we are under our sins, the more do we provoke God to punish them with severity, and if we really desire absolution from his hand, we must do more than confess our guilt in words; we must institute a rigid and formidable scrutiny into the character of our transgressions. David does not simply say that he will confess his sins to man, but declares that he has a deep inward feeling of them, such a feeling of them as filled him with the keenest anguish. His was a very different spirit from that of the hypocrite, who displays a complete indifference upon this subject, or when it intrudes upon him, endeavors to bury the recollection of it. He speaks of his sins in the plural number. His transgression, although it sprung from one root, was complicated, including, besides adultery, treachery and cruelty; nor was it one man only whom he had betrayed, but the whole army which had been summoned to the field in defense of the Church of God. He accordingly recognises many particular sins as wrapt up in it.

Calvin: Psa 51:4 - Against thee, thee only, have I sinned 4.Against thee, thee only, have I sinned 260 It is the opinion of some that he here adverts to the circumstance of his sin, although it was committed...

4.Against thee, thee only, have I sinned 260 It is the opinion of some that he here adverts to the circumstance of his sin, although it was committed against man, being concealed from every eye but that of God. None was aware of the double wrong which he had inflicted upon Uriah, nor of the wanton manner in which he had exposed his army to danger; and his crime being thus unknown to men, might be said to have been committed exclusively against God. According to others, David here intimates, that however deeply he was conscious of having injured men, he was chiefly distressed for having violated the law of God. But I conceive his meaning to be, that though all the world should pardon him, he felt that God was the Judge with whom he had to do, that conscience hailed him to his bar, and that the voice of man could administer no relief to him, however much he might be disposed to forgive, or to excuse, or to flatter. His eyes and his whole soul were directed to God, regardless of what man might think or say concerning him. To one who is thus overwhelmed with a sense of the dreadfulness of being obnoxious to the sentence of God, there needs no other accuser. God is to him instead of a thousand. There is every reason to believe that David, in order to prevent his mind from being soothed into a false peace by the flatteries of his court, realised the judgment of God upon his offense, and felt that this was in itself an intolerable burden, even supposing that he should escape all trouble from the hands of his fellow-creatures. This will be the exercise of every true penitent. It matters little to obtain our acquittal at the bar of human judgment, or to escape punishment through the connivance of others, provided we suffer from an accusing conscience and an offended God. And there is, perhaps, no better remedy against deception in the matter of our sins than to turn our thoughts inward upon ourselves, to concentrate them upon God, and lose every self-complacent imagination in a sharp sense of his displeasure. By a violent process of interpretation, some would have us read the second clause of this verse, That thou mayest be justified when thou speakest, in connection with the first verse of the psalm, and consider that it cannot be referred to the sentence immediately preceding. 261 But not to say that this breaks in upon the order of the verses, what sense could any attach to the prayer as it would then run, have mercy upon me, that thou mayest be clear when thou judgest? etc. Any doubt upon the meaning of the words, however, is completely removed by the connection in which they are cited in Paul’s Epistle to the Romans,

“For what if some did not believe? Shall God be unjust? God forbid: yea, let God be true, but every man a liar; as it is written, That thou mayest be justified in thy sayings, and mightest overcome when thou art judged.” — Rom 3:3

Here the words before us are quoted in proof of the doctrine that God’s righteousness is apparent even in the sins of men, and his truth in their falsehood. To have a clear apprehension of their meaning, it is necessary that we reflect upon the covenant which God had made with David. The salvation of the whole world having been in a certain sense deposited with him by this covenant, the enemies of religion might take occasion to exclaim upon his fall, “Here is the pillar of the Church gone, and what is now to become of the miserable remnant whose hopes rested upon his holiness? Once nothing could be more conspicuous than the glory by which he was distinguished, but mark the depth of disgrace to which he has been reduced! Who, after so gross a fall, would look for salvation from his seed?” Aware that such attempts might be made to impugn the righteousness of God, David takes this opportunity of justifying it, and charging himself with the whole guilt of the transaction. He declares that God was justified when he spoke — not when he spoke the promises of the covenant, although some have so understood the words, but justified should he have spoken the sentence of condemnation against him for his sin, as he might have done but for his gratuitous mercy. Two forms of expression are here employed which have the same meaning, that thou mayest be justified when thou speakest, and be clear when thou judgest As Paul, in the quotation already referred to, has altered the latter clause, and may even seem to have given a new turn to the sentiment contained in the verse, I shall briefly show how the words were applicable to the purpose for which they were cited by him. He adduces them to prove that God’s faithfulness remained unaffected by the fact that the Jews had broken his covenant, and fallen from the grace which he had promised. Now, at first sight it may not appear how they contain the proof alleged. But their appositeness will at once be seen if we reflect upon the circumstance to which I have already adverted. Upon the fall of one who was so great a pillar in the Church, so illustrious both as a prophet and a king, as David, we cannot but believe that many were shaken and staggered in the faith of the promises. Many must have been disposed to conclude, considering the close connection into which God had adopted David, that he was implicated in some measure in his fall. David, however, repels an insinuation so injurious to the divine honor, and declares, that although God should cast him headlong into everlasting destruction, his mouth would be shut, or opened only to acknowledge his unimpeachable justice. The sole departure which the apostle has made from the passage in his quotation consists in his using the verb to judge in a passive sense, and reading, that thou mightest overcome, instead of, that thou mightest be clear. In this he follows the Septuagint, 262 and it is well known that the apostles do not study verbal exactness in their quotations from the Old Testament. It is enough for us to be satisfied, that the passage answers the purpose for which it was adduced by the apostle. The general doctrine which we are taught from the passage is, that whatever sins men may commit are chargeable entirely upon themselves, and never can implicate the righteousness of God. Men are ever ready to arraign his administration, when it does not correspond with the judgment of sense and human reason. But should God at any time raise persons from the depth of obscurity to the highest distinction, or, on the other hand, allow persons who occupied a most conspicuous station to be suddenly precipitated from it, we should learn from the example which is here set before us to judge of the divine procedure with sobriety, modesty, and reverence and to rest satisfied that it is holy, and that the works of God, as well as his words, are characterised by unerring rectitude. The conjunction in the verse, that-that thou mayest be justified, denotes not so much cause as consequence. It was not the fall of David, properly speaking, which caused the glory of God’s righteousness to appear. And yet, although men when they sin seem to obscure his righteousness, it emerges from the foul attempt only more bright than ever, it being the peculiar work of God to bring light out of darkness.

Calvin: Psa 51:5 - Behold, I was born in iniquity, 5.Behold, I was born in iniquity, etc He now proceeds further than the mere acknowledgement of one or of many sins, confessing that he brought nothin...

5.Behold, I was born in iniquity, etc He now proceeds further than the mere acknowledgement of one or of many sins, confessing that he brought nothing but sin with him into the world, and that his nature was entirely depraved. He is thus led by the consideration of one offense of peculiar atrocity to the conclusion that he was born in iniquity, and was absolutely destitute of all spiritual good. Indeed, every sin should convince us of the general truth of the corruption of our nature. The Hebrew word יחמתני , yechemathni, signifies literally, hath warmed herself of me, from יחם , yacham, or חמם , chamam, to warm; but interpreters have very properly rendered it hath conceived me. The expression intimates that we are cherished in sin from the first moment that we are in the womb. David, then, is here brought, by reflecting on one particular transgression, to east a retrospective glance upon his whole past life, and to discover nothing but sin in it. And let us not imagine that he speaks of the corruption of his nature, merely as hypocrites will occasionally do, to excuse their faults, saying, “I have sinned it may be, but what could I do? We are men, and prone by nature to everything which is evil.” David has recourse to no such stratagems for evading the sentence of God, and refers to original sin with the view of aggravating his guilt, acknowledging that he had not contracted this or that sin for the first time lately, but had been born into the world with the seed of every iniquity.

The passage affords a striking testimony in proof of original sin entailed by Adam upon the whole human family. It not only teaches the doctrine, but may assist us in forming a correct idea of it. The Pelagians, to avoid what they considered the absurdity of holding that all were ruined through one man’s transgression, maintained of old, that sin descended from Adam only through force of imitation. But the Bible, both in this and other places, clearly asserts that we are born in sin, and that it exists within us as a disease fixed in our nature. David does not charge it upon his parents, nor trace his crime to them, but sists himself before the Divine tribunal, confesses that he was formed in sin, and that he was a transgressor ere he saw the light of this world. It was therefore a gross error in Pelagius to deny that sin was hereditary, descending in the human family by contagion. The Papists, in our own day, grant that the nature of man has become depraved, but they extenuate original sin as much as possible, and represent it as consisting merely in an inclination to that which is evil. They restrict its seat besides to the inferior part of the soul and the gross appetites; and while nothing is more evident from experience than that corruption adheres to men through life, they deny that it remains in them subsequently to baptism. We have no adequate idea of the dominion of sin, unless we conceive of it as extending to every part of the soul, and acknowledge that both the mind and heart of man have become utterly corrupt. The language of David sounds very differently from that of the Papists, I was formed in iniquity, and in sin did my mother conceive me He says nothing of his grosser appetites, but asserts that sin cleaved by nature to every part of him without exception.

Here the question has been started, How sin is transmitted from the parents to the children? And this question has led to another regarding the transmission of the soul, many denying that corruption can be derived from the parent to the child, except on the supposition of one soul being begotten of the substance of another. Without entering upon such mysterious discussions, it is enough that we hold, that Adam, upon his fall, was despoiled of his original righteousness, his reason darkened, his will perverted, and that, being reduced to this state of corruption, he brought children into the world resembling himself in character. Should any object that generation is confined to bodies, and that souls can never derive anything in common from one another, I would reply, that Adam, when he was endued at his creation with the gifts of the Spirit, did not sustain a private character, but represented all mankind, who may be considered as having been endued with these gifts in his person; and from this view it necessarily follows that when he fell, we all forfeited along with him our original integrity. 263

Calvin: Psa 51:6 - Behold, thou hast desired truth, etc 6.Behold, thou hast desired truth, etc This verse confirms the remark which we already made, that David was far from seeking to invent an apology for...

6.Behold, thou hast desired truth, etc This verse confirms the remark which we already made, that David was far from seeking to invent an apology for his sin, when he traced it back to the period of his conception, and rather intended by this to acknowledge that from his very infancy he was an heir of eternal death. He thus represents his whole life to have been obnoxious to condemnation. So far is he from imitating those who arraign God as the author of sin, and impiously suggest that he might have given man a better nature, that in the verse now before us he opposes God’s judgment to our corruption, insinuating, that every time we appear before him, we are certain of being condemned, inasmuch as we are born in sin, while he delights in holiness and uprightness. He goes further, and asserts, that in order to meet the approval of God, it is not enough that our lives be conformed to the letter of his law, unless our heart be clean and purified from all guile. He tells us that God desires truth in the inward parts, 264 intimating to us, that secret as well as outward and gross sins excite his displeasure. In the second clause of the verse, he aggravates his offense by confessing that he could not plead the excuse of ignorance. He had been sufficiently instructed by God in his duty. Some interpret בסתום , besathum, as if he here declared that God had discovered secret mysteries to him, or things hidden from the human understanding. He seems rather to mean that wisdom had been discovered to his mind in a secret and intimate manner. 265 The one member of the verse responds to the other. He acknowledges that it was not a mere superficial acquaintance with divine truth which he had enjoyed, but that it had been closely brought home to his heart. This rendered his offense the more inexcusable. Though privileged so highly with the saving knowledge of the truth, he had plunged into the commission of brutish sin, and by various acts of iniquity had almost ruined his soul.

We have thus set before us the exercise of the Psalmist at this time. First, we have seen that he is brought to a confession of the greatness of his offense: this leads him to a sense of the complete depravity of his nature: to deepen his convictions, he then directs his thoughts to the strict judgment of God, who looks not to the outward appearance but the heart; and, lastly, he adverts to the peculiarity of his case, as one who had enjoyed no ordinary measure of the gifts of the Spirit, and deserved on that account the severer punishment. The exercise is such as we should all strive to imitate. Are we conscious of having committed any one sin, let it be the means of recalling others to our recollection, until we are brought to prostrate ourselves before God in deep self-abasement. And if it has been our privilege to enjoy the special teaching of the Spirit of God, we ought to feel that our guilt is additionally heavy, having sinned in this case against light, and having trampled under foot the precious gifts with which we were intrusted.

Calvin: Psa 51:7 - Thou shalt purge me with hyssop 7.Thou shalt purge me with hyssop He still follows out the same strain of supplication; and the repetition of his requests for pardon proves how earn...

7.Thou shalt purge me with hyssop He still follows out the same strain of supplication; and the repetition of his requests for pardon proves how earnestly he desired it. He speaks of hyssop 266 , in allusion to the ceremonies of the law; and though he was far from putting his trust in the mere outward symbol of purification, he knew that, like every other legal rite, it was instituted for an important end. The sacrifices were seals of the grace of God. In them, therefore, he was anxious to find assurance of his reconciliation; and it is highly proper that, when our faith is disposed at any time to waver, we should confirm it by improving such means of divine support. All which David here prays for is, that God would effectually accomplish, in his experience, what he had signified to his Church and people by these outward rites; and in this he has set us a good example for our imitation. It is no doubt to the blood of Christ alone that we must look for the atonement of our sins; but we are creatures of sense, who must see with our eyes, and handle with our hands; and it is only by improving the outward symbols of propitiation that we can arrive at a full and assured persuasion of it. What we have said of the hyssop applies also to the washings 267 referred to in this verse, and which were commonly practiced under the Law. They figuratively represented our being purged from all iniquity, in order to our reception into the divine favor. I need not say that it is the peculiar work of the Holy Spirit to sprinkle our consciences inwardly with the blood of Christ, and, by removing the sense of guilt, to secure our access into the presence of God.

In the two verses which follow, the Psalmist prays that God would be pacified towards him. Those put too confined a meaning upon the words who have suggested that, in praying to hear the voice of joy and gladness, he requests some prophet to be sent, who might assure him of pardon. He prays, in general, for testimonies of the divine favor. When he speaks of his bones as having been broken, he alludes to the extreme grief and overwhelming distress to which he had been reduced. The joy of the Lord would reanimate his soul; and this joy he describes as to be obtained by hearing; for it is the word of God alone which can first and effectually cheer the heart of any sinner. There is no true or solid peace to be enjoyed in the world except in the way of reposing upon the promises of God. Those who do not resort to them may succeed for a time in hushing or evading the terrors of conscience, but they must ever be strangers to true inward comfort. And, granting that they may attain to the peace of insensibility, this is not a state which could satisfy any man who has seriously felt the fear of the Lord. The joy which he desires is that which flows from hearing the word of God, in which he promises to pardon our guilt, and readmit us into his favor. It is this alone which supports the believer amidst all the fears, dangers, and distresses of his earthly pilgrimage; for the joy of the Spirit is inseparable from faith. When God is said, in the 9th verse, to hide his face from our sins, this signifies his pardoning them, as is explained in the clause immediately annexed — Blot out all my sins. This represents our justification as consisting in a voluntary act of God, by which he condescends to forget all our iniquities; and it represents our cleansing to consist in the reception of a gratuitous pardon. We repeat the remark which has been already made, that David, in thus reiterating his one request for the mercy of God, evinces the depth of that anxiety which he felt for a favor which his conduct had rendered difficult of attainment. The man who prays for pardon in a mere formal manner, is proved to be a stranger to the dreadful desert of sin. “Happy is the man,” said Solomon, “that feareth alway,” (Pro 28:14.)

But here it may be asked why David needed to pray so earnestly for the joy of remission, when he had already received assurance from the lips of Nathan that his sin was pardoned? (2Sa 12:13.) Why did he not embrace this absolution? and was he not chargeable with dishonoring God by disbelieving the word of his prophet? We cannot expect that God will send us angels in order to announce the pardon which we require. Was it not said by Christ, that whatever his disciples remitted on earth would be remitted in heaven? (Joh 20:23.) And does not the apostle declare that ministers of the gospel are ambassadors to reconcile men to God? (2Co 5:20.) From this it might appear to have argued unbelief in David, that, notwithstanding the announcement of Nathan, he should evince a remaining perplexity or uncertainty regarding his forgiveness. There is a twofold explanation which may be given of the difficulty. We may hold that Nathan did not immediately make him aware of the fact that God was willing to be reconciled to him. In Scripture, it is well known, things are not always stated according to the strict order of time in which they occurred. It is quite conceivable that, having thrown him into this situation of distress, God might keep him in it for a considerable interval, for his deeper humiliation; and that David expresses in these verses the dreadful anguish which he endured when challenged with his crime, and not yet informed of the divine determination to pardon it. Let us take the other supposition, however, and it by no means follows that a person may not be assured of the favor of God, and yet show great earnestness and importunity in praying for pardon. David might be much relieved by the announcement of the prophet, and yet be visited occasionally with fresh convictions, influencing him to have recourse to the throne of grace. However rich and liberal the offers of mercy may be which God extends to us, it is highly proper on our part that we should reflect upon the grievous dishonor which we have done to his name, and be filled with due sorrow on account of it. Then our faith is weak, and we cannot at once apprehend the full extent of the divine mercy; so that there is no reason to be surprised that David should have once and again renewed his prayers for pardon, the more to confirm his belief in it. The truth is, that we cannot properly pray for the pardon of sin until we have come to a persuasion that God will be reconciled to us. Who can venture to open his mouth in God’s presence unless he be assured of his fatherly favor? And pardon being the first thing we should pray for, it is plain that there is no inconsistency in having a persuasion of the grace of God, and yet proceeding to supplicate his forgiveness. In proof of this, I might refer to the Lord’s Prayer, in which we are taught to begin by addressing God as our Father, and yet afterwards to pray for the remission of our sins. God’s pardon is full and complete; but our faith cannot take in his overflowing goodness, and it is necessary that it should distil to us drop by drop. It is owing to this infirmity of our faith, that we are often found repeating and repeating again the same petition, not with the view surely of gradually softening the heart of God to compassion, but because we advance by slow and difficult steps to the requisite fullness of assurance. The mention which is here made of purging with hyssop, and of washing or sprinkling, teaches us, in all our prayers for the pardon of sin, to have our thoughts directed to the great sacrifice by which Christ has reconciled us to God. “Without shedding of blood,” says Paul, “is no remissions” (Heb 9:22;) and this, which was intimated by God to the ancient Church under figures, has been fully made known by the coming of Christ. The sinner, if he would find mercy, must look to the sacrifice of Christ, which expiated the sins of the world, glancing, at the same time, for the confirmation of his faith, to Baptism and the Lord’s Supper; for it were vain to imagine that God, the Judge of the world, would receive us again into his favor in any other way than through a satisfaction made to his justice.

Calvin: Psa 51:10 - Create in me a clean heart, O God! 10.Create in me a clean heart, O God! In the previous part of the psalm David has been praying for pardon. He now requests that the grace of the Spir...

10.Create in me a clean heart, O God! In the previous part of the psalm David has been praying for pardon. He now requests that the grace of the Spirit, which he had forfeited, or deserved to have forfeited, might be restored to him. The two requests are quite distinct, though sometimes confounded together, even by men of learning. He passes from the subject of the gratuitous remission of sin to that of sanctification. And to this he was naturally led with earnest anxiety, by the consciousness of his having merited the loss of all the gifts of the Spirit, and of his having actually, in a great measure, lost them. By employing the term create, he expresses his persuasion that nothing less than a miracle could effect his reformation, and emphatically declares that repentance is the gift of God. The Sophists grant the necessity of the aids of the Spirit, and allow that assisting grace must both go before and come after; but by assigning a middle place to the free will of man, they rob God of a great part of his glory. David, by the word which he here uses, describes the work of God in renewing the heart in a manner suitable to its extraordinary nature, representing it as the formation of a new creature.

As he had already been endued with the Spirit, he prays in the latter part of the verse that God would renew a right spirit within him But by the term create, which he had previously employed, he acknowledges that we are indebted entirely to the grace of God, both for our first regeneration, and, in the event of our falling, for subsequent restoration. He does not merely assert that his heart and spirit were weak, requiring divine assistance, but that they must remain destitute of all purity and rectitude till these be communicated from above. By this it appears that our nature is entirely corrupt: for were it possessed of any rectitude or purity, David would not, as in this verse, have called the one a gift of the Spirit, and the other a creation.

In the verse which follows, he presents the same petition, in language which implies the connection of pardon with the enjoyment of the leading of the Holy Spirit. If God reconcile us gratuitously to himself, it follows that he will guide us by the Spirit of adoption. It is only such as he loves, and has numbered among his own children, that he blesses with a share of his Spirit; and David shows that he was sensible of this when he prays for the continuance of the grace of adoption as indispensable to the continued possession of the Spirit. The words of this verse imply that the Spirit had not altogether been taken away from him, however much his gifts had been temporarily obscured. Indeed, it is evident that he could not be altogether divested of his former excellencies, for he seems to have discharged his duties as a king with credit, to have conscientiously observed the ordinances of religion, and to have regulated his conduct by the divine law. Upon one point he had fallen into a deadly lethargy, but he was not given over to a reprobate mind;” and it is scarcely conceivable that the rebuke of Nathan the prophet should have operated so easily and so suddenly in arousing him, had there been no latent spark of godliness still remaining in his soul. He prays, it is true, that his spirit may be renewed, but this must be understood with a limitation. The truth on which we are now insisting is an important one, as many learned men have been inconsiderately drawn into the opinion that the elect, by falling into mortal sin, may lose the Spirit altogether, and be alienated from God. The contrary is clearly declared by Peter, who tells us that the word by which we are born again is an incorruptible seed, (1Pe 1:23;) and John is equally explicit in informing us that the elect are preserved from falling away altogether, (1Jo 3:9.) However much they may appear for a time to have been cast off by God, it is afterwards seen that grace must have been alive in their breast, even during that interval when it seemed to be extinct. Nor is there any force in the objection that David speaks as if he feared that he might be deprived of the Spirit. It is natural that the saints, when they have fallen into sin, and have thus done what they could to expel the grace of God, should feel an anxiety upon this point; but it is their duty to hold fast the truth that grace is the incorruptible seed of God, which never can perish in any heart where it has been deposited. This is the spirit displayed by David. Reflecting upon his offense, he is agitated with fears, and yet rests in the persuasion that, being a child of God, he would not be deprived of what indeed he had justly forfeited.

Calvin: Psa 51:12 - Restore unto me the joy of thy salvation 12.Restore unto me the joy of thy salvation He cannot dismiss his grief of mind until he have obtained peace with God. This he declares once and agai...

12.Restore unto me the joy of thy salvation He cannot dismiss his grief of mind until he have obtained peace with God. This he declares once and again, for David had no sympathy with those who can indulge themselves in ease when they are lying under the divine displeasure. In the latter clause of the verse, he prays as in the verses preceding, that the Holy Spirit might not be taken away from him. There is a slight ambiguity in the words. Some take תסמכני , thismecheni, to be the third person of the verb, because רוח , ruach, is feminine, and translate, let the Spirit uphold me. The difference is immaterial, and does not affect the meaning of the passage. There is more difficulty in fixing the sense of the epithet נדיבה , nedibah, which I have translated free As the verb נדב , nadab, signifies to deal liberally, princes are in the Hebrew called, by way of eminence, נדיבים , nedibim, which has led several learned men to think that David speaks here of a princely or royal spirit; and the translators of the Septuagint rendered it accordingly ἡγεμονικον. The prayer, in this sense, would no doubt be a suitable one for David, who was a king, and required a heroical courage for the execution of his office. But it seems better to adopt the more extensive meaning, and to suppose that David, under a painful consciousness of the bondage to which he had been reduced by a sense of guilt, prays for a free and cheerful spirit. 269 This invaluable attainment, he was sensible, could only be recovered through divine grace.

Calvin: Psa 51:13 - I will teach transgressors thy ways 13.I will teach transgressors thy ways Here he speaks of the gratitude which he would feel should God answer his prayer, and engages to show it by ex...

13.I will teach transgressors thy ways Here he speaks of the gratitude which he would feel should God answer his prayer, and engages to show it by exerting himself in effecting the conversion of others by his example. Those who have been mercifully recovered from their falls will feel inflamed by the common law of charity to extend a helping hand to their brethren; and in general, such as are partakers of the grace of God are constrained by religious principle, and regard for the divine glory, to desire that others should be brought into the participation of it. The sanguine manner in which he expresses his expectation of converting others is not unworthy of our notice. We are too apt to conclude that our attempts at reclaiming the ungodly are vain and ineffectual, and forget that God is able to crown them with success.

Calvin: Psa 51:14 - Deliver me from bloods 14.Deliver me from bloods His recurring so often to petitions for pardon, proves how far David was from flattering himself with unfounded hopes, and ...

14.Deliver me from bloods His recurring so often to petitions for pardon, proves how far David was from flattering himself with unfounded hopes, and what a severe struggle he sustained with inward terrors. According to some, he prays in this verse to be delivered from the guilt of the blood of Uriah, and, in general, of the whole army. 270 But the term bloods in Hebrew may denote any capital crime, and, in my opinion, he is here to be considered as alluding to the sentence of death, to which he felt himself to be obnoxious, and from which he requests deliverance. By the righteousness of God, which he engages to celebrate, we are to understand his goodness; for this attribute, as usually ascribed to God in the Scriptures, does not so much denote the strictness with which he exacts vengeance, as his faithfulness in fulfilling the promises and extending help to all who seek him in the hour of need. There is much emphasis and vehemency in the mode of his address, O God! the God of my salvation, intimating at once how tremblingly he was alive to the danger of his situation, and how strongly his faith terminated upon God as the ground of his hope. Similar is the strain of the verse which follows. He prays that his lips may be opened; in other words, that God would afford him matter of praise. The meaning usually attached to the expression is, that God would so direct his tongue by the Spirit as to fit him for singing his praises. But though it is true that God must supply us with words, and that if he do not, we cannot fail to be silent in his praise, David seems rather to intimate that his mouth must be shut until God called him to the exercise of thanksgiving by extending pardon. In another place we find him declaring that a new song had been put in his mouth, (Psa 40:3,)and it seems to be in this sense that he here desires his lips to be opened. He again signifies the gratitude which he would feel, and which he would express, intimating, that he sought the mercy of God with no other view than that he might become the herald of it to others. My mouth, he says emphatically, shall show forth thy praise.

Calvin: Psa 51:16 - For thou wilt not accept a sacrifice 16.For thou wilt not accept a sacrifice By this language he expresses his confidence of obtaining pardon, although he brought nothing to God in the s...

16.For thou wilt not accept a sacrifice By this language he expresses his confidence of obtaining pardon, although he brought nothing to God in the shape of compensation, but relied entirely upon the riches of Divine mercy. He confesses that he comes to God both poor and needy; but is persuaded that this will not prevent the success of his suit, because God attaches no importance to sacrifices. In this he indirectly reproves the Jews for an error which prevailed amongst them in all ages. In proclaiming that the sacrifices made expiation for sin, the Law had designed to withdraw them from all trust in their own works to the one satisfaction of Christ; but they presumed to bring their sacrifices to the altar as a price by which they hoped to procure their own redemption. In opposition to this proud and preposterous notion, David declares that God had no delight in sacrifices, 272 and that he had nothing to present which could purchase his favor. God had enjoined the observance of sacrifice, and David was far from neglecting it. He is not to be understood as asserting that the rite might warrantably be omitted, or that God would absolutely reject the sacrifices of his own institution, which, along with the other ceremonies of the Law, proved important helps, as we have already observed, both to David and the whole Church of God. He speaks of them as observed by the proud and the ignorant, under an impression of meriting the divine favor. Diligent as he was, therefore, in the practice of sacrifice, resting his whole dependence upon the satisfaction of Christ, who atoned for the sins of the world, he could yet honestly declare that he brought nothing to God in the shape of compensation, and that he trusted entirely to a gratuitous reconciliation. The Jews, when they presented their sacrifices, could not be said to bring anything of their own to the Lord, but must rather be viewed as borrowing from Christ the necessary purchase-money of redemption. They were passive, not active, in this divine service.

Calvin: Psa 51:17 - The sacrifices of God are a broken spirit 17.The sacrifices of God are a broken spirit He had shown that sacrifices have no such efficacy in procuring the Divine favor as the Jews imagined; a...

17.The sacrifices of God are a broken spirit He had shown that sacrifices have no such efficacy in procuring the Divine favor as the Jews imagined; and now he declares that he needed to bring nothing whatever to God but a contrite and humbled heart. Nothing more is necessary, on the part of the sinner, than to prostrate himself in supplication for Divine mercy. The plural number is used in the verse to express more forcibly the truth, that the sacrifice of repentance is enough in itself without any other. Had he said no more than that this kind of sacrifice was peculiarly acceptable to God, the Jews might easily have evaded his argument by alleging that this might be true, and yet other sacrifices be equally agreeable in his sight; just as the Papists in our own day mix up the grace of God with their own works, rather than submit to receive a gratuitous pardon for their sins. In order to exclude every idea of a pretended satisfaction, David represents contrition of heart as comprehending in itself the whole sum of acceptable sacrifices. And in using the term sacrifices of God, he conveys a tacit reproof to the proud hypocrite, who sets a high value upon such sacrifices as are of his own unauthorised fancy, when he imagines that by means of them he can propitiate God. But here a difficulty may be started. “If the contrite heart,” it may be said, “hold a higher place in the estimation of God than all sacrifices, does it not follow that we acquire pardon by our penitence, and that thus it ceases to be gratuitous?” In reply to this, I might observe, that David is not speaking at this time of the meritorious condition by which pardon is procured, but, on the contrary, asserting our absolute destitution of merit by enjoining humiliation and contrition of spirit, in opposition to everything like an attempt to render a compensation to God. The man of broken spirit is one who has been emptied of all vain-glorious confidence, and brought to acknowledge that he is nothing. The contrite heart abjures the idea of merit, and has no dealings with God upon the principle of exchange. Is it objected, that faith is a more excellent sacrifice that that which is here commended by the Psalmist, and of greater efficacy in procuring the Divine favor, as it presents to the view of God that Savior who is the true and only propitiation? I would observe, that faith cannot be separated from the humility of which David speaks. This is such a humility as is altogether unknown to the wicked. They may tremble in the presence of God, and the obstinacy and rebellion of their hearts may be partially restrained, but they still retain some remainders of inward pride. Where the spirit has been broken, on the other hand, and the heart has become contrite, through a felt sense of the anger of the Lord, a man is brought to genuine fear and self-loathing, with a deep conviction that of himself he can do or deserve nothing, and must be indebted unconditionally for salvation to Divine mercy. That this should be represented by David as constituting all which God desires in the shape of sacrifice, need not excite our surprise. He does not exclude faith, he does not condescend upon any nice division of true penitence into its several parts, but asserts in general, that the only way of obtaining the favor of God is by prostrating ourselves with a wounded heart at the feet of his Divine mercy, and supplicating his grace with ingenuous confessions of our own helplessness.

Calvin: Psa 51:18 - Do good to Zion in thy good pleasure: build thou the walls of Jerusalem 18.Do good to Zion in thy good pleasure: build thou the walls of Jerusalem 273 From prayer in his own behalf he now proceeds to offer up supplication...

18.Do good to Zion in thy good pleasure: build thou the walls of Jerusalem 273 From prayer in his own behalf he now proceeds to offer up supplications for the collective Church of God, a duty which he may have felt to be the more incumbent upon him from the circumstance of his having done what he could by his fall to ruin it, Raised to the throne, and originally anointed to be king for the very purpose of fostering the Church of God, he had by his disgraceful conduct nearly accomplished its destruction. Although chargeable with this guilt, he now prays that God would restore it in the exercise of his free mercy. He makes no mention of the righteousness of others, but rests his plea entirely upon the good pleasure of God, intimating that the Church, when at any period it has been brought low, must be indebted for its restoration solely to Divine grace. Jerusalem was already built, but David prays that God would build it still farther for he knew that it fell far short of being complete, so long as it wanted the temple, where he had promised to establish the Ark of his Covenant, and also the royal palace. We learn from the passage, that it is God’s own work to build the Church. “His foundation,” says the Psalmist elsewhere, “is in the holy mountains,” (Psa 87:1.) We are not to imagine that David refers simply to the Church as a material structure, but must consider him as having his eye fixed upon the spiritual temple, which cannot be raised by human skill or industry. It is true, indeed, that men will not make progress even in the building of material walls, unless their labor be blessed from above; but the Church is in a peculiar sense the erection of God, who has founded it upon the earth in the exercise of his mighty power, and who will exalt it higher than the heavens. In this prayer David does not contemplate the welfare of the Church for a short period merely, but prays that God would preserve and advance it till the coming of Christ. And here, may it not justly excite our surprise, to find one who, in the preceding part of the psalm, had employed the language of distress and almost of despair, now inspired with the confidence necessary for commending the whole Church to the care of God? How comes it about, may we not ask, that one who so narrowly escaped destruction himself, should now appear as a guide to conduct others to salvation? In this we have a striking proof, that, provided we obtain reconciliation with God, we may not only expect to be inspired with confidence in praying for our own salvation, but may hope to be admitted as intercessors in behalf of others, and even to be advanced to the higher honor still, of commending into the hands of God the glory of the Redeemer’s kingdom.

Calvin: Psa 51:19 - Then shalt thou accept sacrifices of righteousness 19.Then shalt thou accept sacrifices of righteousness In these words there is an apparent, but only an apparent, inconsistency with others which he h...

19.Then shalt thou accept sacrifices of righteousness In these words there is an apparent, but only an apparent, inconsistency with others which he had used in the preceding context. He had declared sacrifices to be of no value when considered in themselves, but now he acknowledges them to be acceptable to God when viewed as expressions or symbols of faith, penitence, and thanksgiving. He calls them distinctly sacrifices of righteousness, right, warrantable, and such as are offered in strict accordance with the commandment of God. The expression is the same employed in Psa 4:5, where David uses it with a tacit condemnation of those who gloried in the mere outward form of ceremonies. We find him again exciting himself and others by his example to the exercise of gratitude, and to the expression of it openly in the solemn assembly. Besides sacrifices in general, two particular kinds of sacrifice are specified. Although some consider כליל , calil, and עולה , olah, to be both of one signification, others maintain with more correctness, that the first is to be understood as meaning the priest’s sacrifice, because in it the offering was consumed or burnt with fire. 274 In the enumeration which he makes, David designs to teach us that none of all the legal rites can find acceptance with God, unless they be used with a reference to the proper end of their institution. The whole of this verse has been figuratively applied by some to the kingdom of Christ, but the interpretation is unnatural and too refined. Thanksgivings are indeed called by Hosea “the calves of the lips,” (Hos 14:2;) but it seems evident that in the passage before us there are conjoined along with the frame or disposition of the heart those solemn ceremonies which constituted part of the ancient worship.

Defender: Psa 51:1 - Have mercy upon me Psalm 51 tells of David's repentance, confession and plea for cleansing following Nathan's rebuke after his sin with respect to Bathsheba and Uriah (2...

Psalm 51 tells of David's repentance, confession and plea for cleansing following Nathan's rebuke after his sin with respect to Bathsheba and Uriah (2Sa 12:1-15). Psa 32:1-11 tells of his joy after God forgave him (Psa 51:12)."

Defender: Psa 51:4 - have I sinned There is no sin that only injures the sinner and/or those he has wronged, for all sin is against God's holy purpose for one's life. David had certainl...

There is no sin that only injures the sinner and/or those he has wronged, for all sin is against God's holy purpose for one's life. David had certainly sinned against both Bathsheba and Uriah but it was an even greater sin against God. This sin had "given great occasion to the enemies of the Lord to blaspheme" (2Sa 12:14)."

Defender: Psa 51:5 - conceive There is no sin in the act of conception itself when carried out in the bond of marriage (Heb 13:4). This testimony refers rather to "original sin" wh...

There is no sin in the act of conception itself when carried out in the bond of marriage (Heb 13:4). This testimony refers rather to "original sin" which is the sin-nature inherited from Adam and Eve."

Defender: Psa 51:7 - hyssop Hyssop was a small shrub used to sprinkle blood and water over the cleansed leper symbolizing his purification and cleansing (Lev 14:4-7)."

Hyssop was a small shrub used to sprinkle blood and water over the cleansed leper symbolizing his purification and cleansing (Lev 14:4-7)."

TSK: Psa 51:1 - after // O God // multitude // tender // blot after : 2Sam. 11:2-27 O God : Psa 25:6, Psa 25:7, Psa 109:21, Psa 119:124; Exo 34:6, Exo 34:7; Num 14:18, Num 14:19; Dan 9:9, Dan 9:18; Mic 7:18, Mic ...

TSK: Psa 51:2 - Wash // cleanse Wash : Psa 51:7; Eze 36:25; Zec 13:1; 1Co 6:11; Heb 9:13, Heb 9:14, Heb 10:21, Heb 10:22; 1Jo 1:7-9; Rev 1:5, Rev 7:14 cleanse : Psa 51:7, Psa 19:12

TSK: Psa 51:3 - For I // my sin For I : Psa 32:5, Psa 38:18; Lev 26:40, Lev 26:41; Neh 9:2; Job 33:27; Pro 28:13; Luk 15:18-21 my sin : Psa 40:12; Isa 59:12; Jer 3:25

TSK: Psa 51:4 - Against // evil // that thou // when Against : Gen 9:6, Gen 20:6, Gen 39:9; Lev 5:19, Lev 6:2-7; 2Sa 12:9, 2Sa 12:10, 2Sa 12:13, 2Sa 12:14; Jam 2:9, Jam 2:11 evil : Gen 38:7; 2Ki 17:17, 2...

TSK: Psa 51:5 - shapen // conceive shapen : Psa 58:3; Gen 5:3, Gen 8:21; Job 14:4, Job 15:14-16; Joh 3:6; Rom 5:12; Eph 2:3 conceive : Heb. warm

shapen : Psa 58:3; Gen 5:3, Gen 8:21; Job 14:4, Job 15:14-16; Joh 3:6; Rom 5:12; Eph 2:3

conceive : Heb. warm

TSK: Psa 51:6 - Behold // inward // in the hidden Behold : Psa 26:2, Psa 125:4; Gen 20:5, Gen 20:6; 2Ki 20:3; 1Ch 29:17; 2Ch 31:20, 2Ch 31:21; Pro 2:21; Jer 5:3; Joh 4:23, Joh 4:24; 2Co 1:12; Jam 4:8 ...

TSK: Psa 51:7 - Purge // and // whiter Purge : Lev 14:4-7, Lev 14:49-52; Num 19:18-20; Heb 9:19 and : Heb 9:13, Heb 9:14; 1Jo 1:7; Rev 1:5 whiter : Isa 1:18; Eph 5:26, Eph 5:27; Rev 7:13, R...

TSK: Psa 51:8 - Make // bones Make : Psa 13:5, Psa 30:11, Psa 119:81, Psa 119:82, Psa 126:5, Psa 126:6; Mat 5:4 bones : Psa 6:2, Psa 6:3, Psa 38:3; Job 5:17, Job 5:18; Isa 57:15-18...

TSK: Psa 51:9 - Hide // blot Hide : Isa 38:17; Jer 16:17; Mic 7:18, Mic 7:19 blot : Psa 51:1; Col 2:14

TSK: Psa 51:10 - Create // clean // renew // right Create : 2Co 5:17; Eph 2:10 clean : Psa 73:1; Pro 20:9; Jer 13:27, Jer 32:39; Eze 11:19, Eze 18:31, Eze 36:25-27, Eze 36:37; Mat 5:8; Act 15:9; 1Pe 1:...

TSK: Psa 51:11 - Cast // take // holy Cast : Psa 43:2, Psa 71:9, Psa 71:18; Gen 4:14; 2Ki 13:23, 2Ki 17:18-23, 2Ki 23:27; 2Th 1:9 take : Gen 6:3; Jdg 13:25, Jdg 15:14, Jdg 16:20; 1Sa 10:10...

TSK: Psa 51:12 - Restore // joy // uphold // free Restore : Psa 85:6-8; Job 29:2, Job 29:3; Isa 57:17, Isa 57:18; Jer 31:9-14 joy : Psa 13:5, Psa 21:1, Psa 35:9; Isa 49:13, Isa 61:10; Luk 1:47; Rom 5:...

TSK: Psa 51:13 - Then // ways // converted Then : Psa 32:5, Psa 32:8-10; Zec 3:1-8; Luk 22:32; Joh 21:15-17; Act 2:38-41, Act 9:19-22; 2Co 5:8-20 ways : Psa 25:4, Psa 25:8; Isa 2:3; Act 13:10 c...

TSK: Psa 51:14 - Deliver // bloodguiltiness // thou God // tongue // righteousness Deliver : Psa 26:9, Psa 55:23; Gen 9:6, Gen 42:22; 2Sa 3:28, 2Sa 11:15-17, 2Sa 12:9, 2Sa 21:1 bloodguiltiness : Heb. bloods, Eze 33:8; Hos 4:2; Act 18...

TSK: Psa 51:15 - O Lord // open // mouth O Lord : Gen 44:16; 1Sa 2:9; Eze 16:63; Mat 22:12; Rom 3:19 open : Exo 4:11; Eze 3:27, Eze 29:21; Mar 7:34 mouth : Psa 63:3-5, Psa 119:13; Heb 13:15

TSK: Psa 51:16 - desirest // else would I // delightest desirest : Psa 51:6; Exo 21:14; Num 15:27, Num 15:30, Num 15:31, Num 35:31; Deu 22:22; Hos 6:6 else would I : or, that I should delightest : Psa 40:6,...

TSK: Psa 51:17 - sacrifices // a broken spirit // thou sacrifices : Psa 107:22; Mar 12:33; Rom 12:1; Phi 4:18; Heb 13:16; 1Pe 2:5 a broken spirit : Psa 34:18, Psa 147:3; 2Ki 22:19; Isa 57:15, Isa 61:1-3, I...

TSK: Psa 51:18 - Do // thy // build Do : Psa 25:22, Psa 102:16, Psa 122:6-9, Psa 137:5, Psa 137:6; Isa 62:1, Isa 62:6, Isa 62:7; Jer 51:50; 2Co 11:28, 2Co 11:29 thy : Luk 12:32; Eph 1:5,...

TSK: Psa 51:19 - pleased // sacrifices pleased : Psa 66:13-15, Psa 118:27; Eph 5:2 sacrifices : Psa 4:5; Mal 3:3; Rom 12:1

pleased : Psa 66:13-15, Psa 118:27; Eph 5:2

sacrifices : Psa 4:5; Mal 3:3; Rom 12:1

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Poole: Psa 51:1 - Have mercy upon me // According to thy loving-kindness // Blot out To the chief musician ; to be sung by him and other sacred musicians publicly in the temple through all ages; that his repentance might be as manifes...

To the chief musician ; to be sung by him and other sacred musicians publicly in the temple through all ages; that his repentance might be as manifest and public as his crime and scandal was. When Nathan the prophet came unto him : after his conscience was awakened by Nathan’ s words, 2Sa 12 , and Nathan was gone, David falls very seriously upon the practice of sincere repentance, and digested his meditations into this Psalm.

David prayeth to God for the remission of his original and actual sins, Psa 51:1,2 , whereof he maketh a deep confession, Psa 51:3-5 ; and for the renovation of his Holy Spirit, to support himself and instruct others, Psa 51:6-14 ; promising him also unfeigned and sincere thankfulness, Psa 51:15-17 ; with a prayer for the good of the whole church, Psa 51:18,19 .

Have mercy upon me pity, and help, and answer me, in the desires I am now spreading before thee.

According to thy loving-kindness: I pretend to no merit, but humbly implore thy free grace and mercy. Thy mercies are infinite, and therefore sufficient for my relief, and such indeed do I need.

Blot out either,

1. Out of my conscience and soul, where it hath left a stain and filthy character. Or,

2. Out of thy book of remembrance and accounts, in which all men’ s sins are written, and out of Which all men shall be judged hereafter, Rev 20:12 ; which is spoken of God after the manner of men. See Poole "Isa 43:25" ; See Poole "Isa 44:22" .

Poole: Psa 51:2 - Wash me throughly Wash me throughly Heb. multiply to wash me ; by which phrase he implies the greatness of his guilt, and the insufficiency of all legal washings, and...

Wash me throughly Heb. multiply to wash me ; by which phrase he implies the greatness of his guilt, and the insufficiency of all legal washings, and the absolute necessity of some other and better thing to wash him, even of God’ s grace, and the blood of Christ; which as Abraham saw by faith, Joh 8:56 , so did David, as is sufficiently evident (allowing for the darkness of the dispensation and expressions of the Old Testament) from divers passages of the Psalms, of which I have spoken in their proper places; and his earnest and passionate desire of pardon, which he desires above all other things; wherein he showeth himself to be a true penitent, because his chief care and desire was to obtain God’ s favour, and the forgiveness of his sins, and not the prevention of those external sore judgments which God by Nathan threatened to bring upon him and his house, 2Sa 12:10,11 , about which here is not one word in this Psalm; whereas the cares and desires of hypocrites chiefly are bent towards worldly things, as we see in Cain, Gen 4:13,16,17 , and Saul, 1Sa 15:30 , and others, Hos 7:14 .

Poole: Psa 51:3 - I acknowledge // My transgressions // My sin is ever before me I acknowledge with grief and shame, and abhorrency of myself and of my sins; which hitherto I have dissembled and covered. And being thus truly penit...

I acknowledge with grief and shame, and abhorrency of myself and of my sins; which hitherto I have dissembled and covered. And being thus truly penitent, I hope and beg that I may find mercy with thee.

My transgressions for it was not a single, but a complicated wickedness, adultery, murder, injustice, perfidiousness; and frequent repetition of and long and stupid continuance in abominable filthiness, and that with public scandal.

My sin is ever before me that which I had cast behind my back is now constantly in my view, and fixed in my thoughts and memory.

Poole: Psa 51:4 - Against thee, thee only // In thy sight // That thou mightest be justified // When thou speakest // When thou judgest Against thee, thee only which is not to be understood simply and absolutely, because he had unquestionably sinned against Bathsheba and Uriah and man...

Against thee, thee only which is not to be understood simply and absolutely, because he had unquestionably sinned against Bathsheba and Uriah and many others, who were either injured by it, or scandalized at it; but comparatively. So the sense is this, Though I have sinned against my own body and conscience, and against others; yet nothing is more grievous and terrible to me, than to consider that I have sinned against thee; partly upon a general account, because this is the chief malignity and sinfulness of sin, that it offends and injures the glorious and blessed God; and partly upon particular reasons, because I set thee at defiance, and having used all wicked arts to conceal my sins from men, and being free from fear of punishment from them, I went on boldly in sin, casting off all reverence to thy holy and omniscient Majesty, and all dread of thy judgments, and because I sinned against thee, to whom I had such numerous and peculiar and eminent obligations, as thy prophet Nathan truly suggested to me, 2Sa 12:7,8 .

In thy sight with gross contempt of God, whom I well knew to be a spectator of my most secret actions.

That thou mightest be justified the particle that is not taken causally or intentionally, as if this was David’ s design, but eventually, as it is Exo 11:9 Psa 30:12 Hos 8:4 . This will be the fruit or consequent of my sin, that whatsoever severities thou shalt use towards me and mine, it will be no blemish to thy benignity, or righteousness, or fidelity, but the blame of all will rest upon my head as I desire it may, and thy justice will be glorified by all men.

When thou speakest Heb. in thy words , i.e. in all thy threatenings denounced against me by Nathan, and in any further sentence which thou shalt see fit to pass upon me.

When thou judgest when thou dost plead or contend with me, or execute thy sentence or judgment upon me. Or, when thou art judged, as it is rendered Rom 3:4 , for the word may be taken passively as well as actively; when any man shall presume to censure time, as not keeping thy covenant and mercy promised to David.

Poole: Psa 51:5 - Conceive me This verse is both by Jewish and Christian, by ancient and later, interpreters, generally and most truly understood of original sin; which he here m...

This verse is both by Jewish and Christian, by ancient and later, interpreters, generally and most truly understood of original sin; which he here mentions as an aggravation of his crime: and the sense of the place is this, Nor is this the only sin which I have reason to acknowledge and bewail before thee; for this filthy stream leads me to a corrupt fountain; and upon a serious review of my heart and life I find that I am guilty of innumerable other sins, and that this heinous crime, though drawn forth by external temptations, yet was indeed the proper fruit of my own filthy and vile nature, which, without the restraints of thy providence or grace, ever was, and still is like to be, inclinable and ready to commit these and ten thousand other sins, as occasion offers itself; for which contrariety of my very nature to thine, thou mayst justly loathe and condemn me; and for which I humbly beg thy pardon and grace.

Conceive me Heb. warm or cherish me in the womb, before I was

shapen or formed there.

Poole: Psa 51:6 - Thou desirest // In the hidden part // Thou shalt make me to know Thou desirest or, delightest in ; or, requirest ; Heb. willest. Truth either, 1. Sincerity in confessing my sins; which therefore I have now ack...

Thou desirest or, delightest in ; or, requirest ; Heb. willest. Truth either,

1. Sincerity in confessing my sins; which therefore I have now acknowledged, though hitherto I have practised much falsehood and dissimulation in endeavouring to conceal them from men. Or rather,

2. Integrity or uprightness of heart; which seem to be here opposed to that iniquity mentioned in the last verse, in which he was, and all men are, framed and born. And this may seem to be added, partly as a proof or aggravation of the sinfulness of original corruption, because it is contrary to the holy nature and will of God, which requireth not only unblamableness in men’ s actions, but also universal innocency and rectitude of their minds and hearts; and partly as an aggravation of his actual sin, wherein he had used such gross deceit and treachery.

In the hidden part i.e. in the heart, called the hidden man of the heart , 1Pe 3:4 , and the secret part , Rom 2:16 , which in the former branch he called the reins or inward parts.

Thou shalt make me to know: so he declares his hope that God would pardon and cure his folly, which he had discovered, and make him wiser for the future. But this seems not to suit well with the context, which runs wholly in another strain. The word therefore is and may be rendered otherwise, thou hast made me to know . So this is another aggravation of his sin, that it was committed against that wisdom and knowledge, which God had not only revealed to him outwardly in his word, but also inwardly by his Spirit, writing it in his heart, according to his promise, Jer 31:33 . Or thus, do thou make me to know ; the future verb being here taken imperatively, and as a prayer; as the following futures are here translated, Psa 51:7,8 . Having now said, for the aggravation of his sin, that God did desire or require truth in the inward parts , he takes that occasion to break forth into prayer, which also he continues in the following verses. Only as he prays there for justification or pardon of sin, so here he prays for renovation or sanctification. So his meaning is this, therefore (as the particle and is oft used, as hath been showed) in the hidden part do thou make me to know wisdom . Or thus, thou wouldest have me know ; for futures are oft taken potentially, as Psa 118:6 Mat 12:25 , compared with Mar 3:24 , and elsewhere. And verbs which signify making or causing are sometimes understood only of the will or command; as Jeroboam is said to make Israel to sin , 1Ki 14:16 , because he commanded them to do so, Hos 5:11 . This I propose with submission; but if this sense be admitted, the last clause of the verse answers very well to the former, as it doth in the foregoing and following verses, and every where in these books: for this, thou wouldest have me know , answers to that, thou willest or desirest ; and in the hidden part , answers to that in the inward parts ; and wisdom is the same thing for substance with truth, only called by another name. Wisdom , i.e. true piety and integrity, which is called wisdom, Job 28:28 Psa 111:10 , and in many other texts, as sin on the contrary is commonly called, as it really is, folly . And to know wisdom is here meant of knowing it practically and experimentally, so as to approve, and love, and practise it; as words of knowledge are most frequently taken in Scripture, and in other authors.

Poole: Psa 51:7 - With hyssop With hyssop or, as with hyssop ; the note of similitude being frequently understood. As lepers and other unclean persons are by thy appointment puri...

With hyssop or, as with hyssop ; the note of similitude being frequently understood. As lepers and other unclean persons are by thy appointment purified by the use of hyssop and other things, Lev 14:6 Num 19:6 ; so do thou cleanse me, a most leprous and polluted creature, by thy grace, and by the virtue of that blood of Christ, which is signified by those ceremonial usages.

Poole: Psa 51:8 - -- Send me glad tidings of thy reconciliation to me, and by thy Spirit seal the pardon of my sins to my conscience, which will fill me with joy, that m...

Send me glad tidings of thy reconciliation to me, and by thy Spirit seal the pardon of my sins to my conscience, which will fill me with joy, that mine heart, which hath been sorely wounded and terrified by thy dreadful message sent by Nathan, and by the dismal sentence of thy law denounced against such sinners as I am, now by this occasion brought home to my conscience, may be revived and comforted by the manifestation of thy favour to my soul.

Poole: Psa 51:9 - -- Do not look upon them with an eye of indignation and revenge, but forget and forgive them. See Psa 51:1 .

Do not look upon them with an eye of indignation and revenge, but forget and forgive them. See Psa 51:1 .

Poole: Psa 51:10 - Create in me a clean heart // Renew // Right // Spirit // Within me Create in me a clean heart seeing I have not only defiled myself by these actual sins, but also have a most filthy heart, corrupted even from my birt...

Create in me a clean heart seeing I have not only defiled myself by these actual sins, but also have a most filthy heart, corrupted even from my birth, Psa 51:5 , which nothing but God’ s almighty and creating power can purify, do thou effectually work in me a holy frame of heart, whereby both my inward filth may be purged away, and I may be prevented from falling into such actual and scandalous sins.

Renew that good temper which before this apostacy I had in some measure, be pleased graciously to restore it to me with advantage.

Right Heb. firm , or constant , or steadfast , that I may not be so easily shaken and cast down by temptation, as I have been, but that my resolution may be more fixed and unmovable.

Spirit temper or disposition of soul or spirit; as the word spirit is very frequently used in Scripture.

Within me Heb. in my inward parts . He wisely strikes at the root and cause of all sinful actions.

Poole: Psa 51:11 - From thy presence // Thy Holy Spirit From thy presence i.e. from thy favour, and care, and gracious communion with thee. Thy Holy Spirit thy sanctifying Spirit, by which alone I can ha...

From thy presence i.e. from thy favour, and care, and gracious communion with thee.

Thy Holy Spirit thy sanctifying Spirit, by which alone I can have acquaintance and fellowship with thee.

Poole: Psa 51:12 - The joy of thy salvation // Free The joy of thy salvation the comfortable sense of thy saving grace and help, promised and vouchsafed to me, both for my present and everlasting salva...

The joy of thy salvation the comfortable sense of thy saving grace and help, promised and vouchsafed to me, both for my present and everlasting salvation. Uphold me ; a weak and frail creature, never able to stand against corruption and temptation without thy powerful and gracious succours.

Free or, ingenuous , or liberal , or princely ; which he seems to oppose to his own base, and illiberal; and disingenuous, and servile spirit, which he had discovered in his wicked and unworthy practices; and desires a better spirit of God, which may free him from the bondage of sin, and enable and incline him freely, and cheerfully, and constantly to run the way of God’ s precepts. See Exo 35:21 Psa 110:3 Rom 8:15,16 2Co 3:17 .

Poole: Psa 51:13 - Thy ways // Sinners shall be converted unto thee Thy ways either, 1. Thy will and their duty, and the way to their eternal happiness; or rather, 2. The manner of thy dealing with sinners; whom tho...

Thy ways either,

1. Thy will and their duty, and the way to their eternal happiness; or rather,

2. The manner of thy dealing with sinners; whom thou dost so severely chastise for their sins, and yet so graciously receive to mercy upon their repentance; both which I will show them in my own example, which I will declare unto them, although I shall therewith publish my own shame; which I shall most willingly bear, that I may in some measure repair the injury which I have done to thee and others by my public and scandalous crimes.

Sinners shall be converted unto thee and I persuade myself that my endeavours shall not want success; and that either thy justice or severity, or thy goodness and clemency, will bring them to repentance.

Poole: Psa 51:14 - From blood-guiltiness // Thy righteousness From blood-guiltiness Heb. from bloods , because he had been the cause of the death, not only of Uriah, but of others of the Lord’ s people wit...

From blood-guiltiness Heb. from bloods , because he had been the cause of the death, not only of Uriah, but of others of the Lord’ s people with him, 2Sa 11:17 .

Thy righteousness either,

1. Thy faithfulness in making good thy promises; or rather,

2. Thy clemency and goodness, as that word is frequently used.

Poole: Psa 51:15 - Open thou my lips Open thou my lips which are shut with shame, and grief, and horror. Restore unto me the opportunity, and ability, and liberty which formerly I had of...

Open thou my lips which are shut with shame, and grief, and horror. Restore unto me the opportunity, and ability, and liberty which formerly I had of speaking to thee with freedom, and boldness, and familiarity, as this phrase signifies, Eze 3:27 24:27 Eph 6:19,20.

Poole: Psa 51:16 - Thou desirest not sacrifice // Else would I give it Thou desirest not sacrifice which is not to be understood absolutely, and universally, as appears from Psa 51:19 , but comparatively, of which See P...

Thou desirest not sacrifice which is not to be understood absolutely, and universally, as appears from Psa 51:19 , but comparatively, of which See Poole "Psa 40:6" , and with particular respect to David’ s crimes of murder and adultery, which were not to be expiated by any sacrifice, but by the law of God were to be punished with death. Thou requirest more and better sacrifices, which here follow.

Else would I give it else I should have spared no cost in that kind.

Poole: Psa 51:17 - The sacrifices // Of God // A broken and a contrite heart // Thou wilt not despise The sacrifices: this is instead of or of more value than many sacrifices. Of God which God in such cases as mine requires, and will accept; in whic...

The sacrifices: this is instead of or of more value than many sacrifices.

Of God which God in such cases as mine requires, and will accept; in which sense we read of the work of God , Joh 6:28 .

A broken and a contrite heart i.e. a heart deeply afflicted and grieved for sin, humbled under the sense of God’ s displeasure, and earnestly seeking and willing to accept of reconciliation with God upon any terms. See Isa 57:15 61:1 66:2 Mat 11:28 . This is opposed to that hard or stony heart , of which we read so oft, which signifies a heart insensible of the burden of sin, stubborn and rebellious against God, imminent and incorrigible.

Thou wilt not despise i.e. thou dost highly approve; as such negative phrases oft signify, as hath been formerly proved.

Poole: Psa 51:18 - In thy good pleasure // Build thou the walls of Jerusalem In thy good pleasure or, for or according to (for the Hebrew prefix beth is frequently used both those ways) thy good grace , or favour , or ...

In thy good pleasure or, for or according to (for the Hebrew prefix beth is frequently used both those ways) thy good grace , or favour , or pleasure , i.e. thy free and rich mercy, and thy gracious purpose and promise made to and concerning Zion, of which see Psa 132:14 , and do not repent of it, nor retract it, as I have given thee cause to do. Unto Zion; synecdochically put for Jerusalem, as the next clause explains it, and both put for the whole people of Israel and church of God; whom I have highly scandalized and injured already, and exposed to the danger of utter destruction, which thou mightest inflict upon them for the sins of their king, as thou usest to do in like cases.

Build thou the walls of Jerusalem perfect the walls and buildings of that city, and especially let the temple be built and established in this city, notwithstanding its pollution by my sins, which I pray thee to purge away.

Poole: Psa 51:19 - Then // The sacrifices // Of righteousness // Then shall they offer // Bullocks Then when thou hast granted my humble requests expressed in the former verses, when thou hast renewed, and pardoned, and comforted me, and restored t...

Then when thou hast granted my humble requests expressed in the former verses, when thou hast renewed, and pardoned, and comforted me, and restored thy favour unto thy people and this city.

The sacrifices which now for our sins thou mayst justly reject and abhor.

Of righteousness which I and my people, being justified and reconciled to thee, shall offer with sincere and penitent hearts. These are opposed to the sacrifices of the wicked, which God abhors, Pro 15:8 Isa 1:11 , &c.

Then shall they offer i.e. they who by thy appointment are to do that work, the priests in the name and on the behalf of thy people.

Bullocks the best and costliest sacrifices, and that in great numbers, in testimony of their gratitude to God, for thy great favour in pardoning mine and their sins, and preventing that total ruin which we had reason to expect and fear upon that account.

PBC: Psa 51:5 - -- Many suggest that David {Ps 51:5} accused his mother of conceiving him in a sinful affair with someone other than Jesse. I offer that such a thought d...

Many suggest that David {Ps 51:5} accused his mother of conceiving him in a sinful affair with someone other than Jesse. I offer that such a thought did not remotely enter his mind! In De 23:2 Moses taught that an illegitimate child could not " Enter into the congregation to the tenth generation." Ancient Jewish interpretation applies this verse to positions of leadership, such as king or priest. The Old Testament furnishes a vivid example of this principle in Ge 38:1-30. Judah fathered a son, Pharez, by his dead son’s widow. Remember that God ordained that Israel’s kings would come from the tribe of Judah, just as the priests would come from the tribe of Levi. Although scripture said that the sceptre should not depart from Judah until Shiloh, Christ the king, came, Judah’s first king was long delayed because of this sin. How many generations passed before Judah had her king? Look at the closing verses of Ruth. Ten generations passed from Judah with no king. Is this coincidence? Who appeared in the kingly line of Judah after the tenth generation? Jesse’s son, David, represented the tenth generation, demonstrating that the curse was satisfied. {Ru 4:18-22}

 " I was shapen in iniquity; and in sin did my mother conceive me."  

What do these words mean? I was shapen in iniquity; and in sin did my mother conceive me. They declare that every man and woman begin their existence in sin! They do not enter the world in innocence, but with inherent sin. Does this mean that a newborn child possesses all the active sin of an adult wicked sinner? Certainly not, but it means that the nature which is prone to sin resides in the child from its beginning. David’s sinful nature did not begin with an arbitrary " Age of accountability," or with his first act of sin. It began with his beginning. It began the same way with us and with every other member of the human family, Jesus Christ representing the single exception.

PBC: Psa 51:6 - -- Ps 51:6 SEE OLB REFERENCES

Ps 51:6

SEE OLB REFERENCES

PBC: Psa 51:8 - -- See PB: Ps 30:7

See PB: Ps 30:7

PBC: Psa 51:10 - -- A desire for pardon which does not unfold into such longing for deliverance from the misery of the old self is not the offspring of genuine penitence,...

A desire for pardon which does not unfold into such longing for deliverance from the misery of the old self is not the offspring of genuine penitence, but only of base fear. Expositors Bible Commentary

See PB: Ps 32:3 

PBC: Psa 51:12 - -- See WebbSr: THE JOY OF SALVATION See PB: Ps 30:7 SEE PB: Ps 32:3

See WebbSr: THE JOY OF SALVATION

See PB: Ps 30:7

SEE PB: Ps 32:3

PBC: Psa 51:13 - -- See WebbSr: THE JOY OF SALVATION

See WebbSr: THE JOY OF SALVATION

PBC: Psa 51:14 - -- See PB: Ps 30:7 

See PB: Ps 30:7 

Haydock: Psa 51:1 - -- David condemneth the wickedness of Doeg, and foretelleth his destruction.

David condemneth the wickedness of Doeg, and foretelleth his destruction.

Haydock: Psa 51:2-3 - Achimelech // Iniquity Achimelech. Sixtus V, Septuagint, &c., read Abimelech. But the former is the true name. See 1 Kings xxii. 9, 20. (Calmet) --- The word unders...

Achimelech. Sixtus V, Septuagint, &c., read Abimelech. But the former is the true name. See 1 Kings xxii. 9, 20. (Calmet) ---

The word understanding implies, that we ought to reflect on the misery of detraction, and bear our crosses with submission. (Berthier) ---

Doeg was but half a Jew, and persecuted the faithful. (Worthington) ---

Iniquity. Hebrew chesed, means also mercy, and some translate, "the mercy of God! or, the great mercy." Noble exploit! (Calmet) ---

But our version seems more natural. El may be a preposition, as Symmachus has Greek: Kath. (Berthier) ---

If Doeg, who was the most powerful of the shepherds of Saul, (1 Kings xxi. 7.) thought it his duty to give his master information of what had passed, he ought to have stated the matter fairly, instead of insinuating, that the high-priest was ill-affected. (Haydock) ---

Nothing could be more false, as he supposed he was acting agreeably to the interests of Saul, and of the state. (Calmet)

Haydock: Psa 51:6 - Ruin Ruin. Septuagint Greek: katapontismou, "drowning," or to make the innocent suffer "shipwreck."

Ruin. Septuagint Greek: katapontismou, "drowning," or to make the innocent suffer "shipwreck."

Haydock: Psa 51:7 - Thy // Living Thy, is not found in Hebrew. Doeg would not dare to enter the tabernacle, after he had slain the priests. (Calmet) --- Houbigant properly suppli...

Thy, is not found in Hebrew. Doeg would not dare to enter the tabernacle, after he had slain the priests. (Calmet) ---

Houbigant properly supplies thy. (Berthier) ---

Living. The Jews inform us, that Doeg slew himself with his master at Gelboe, and that David punished his offspring with death. (Calmet)

Haydock: Psa 51:8 - Laugh Laugh, at the last day, when they will have nothing to fear, nor the wicked to hope. In this life, the just are full of compassion; but they cannot ...

Laugh, at the last day, when they will have nothing to fear, nor the wicked to hope. In this life, the just are full of compassion; but they cannot but approve of God's judgments. (Calmet)

Haydock: Psa 51:9 - The man The man. Hebrew hageber, "the hero."

The man. Hebrew hageber, "the hero."

Haydock: Psa 51:10 - Fruitful Fruitful. David foretells his own prosperity on the throne, (Worthington) when this wretch shall be no more. (Haydock) --- He was at this time in ...

Fruitful. David foretells his own prosperity on the throne, (Worthington) when this wretch shall be no more. (Haydock) ---

He was at this time in great perplexity, (Calmet) in banishment from the house of God. (Menochius)

Haydock: Psa 51:11 - It // Good It punished the wicked, and asserted thy just providence. (Haydock) --- Good. Thy saints find the greatest comfort in thee. (Calmet)

It punished the wicked, and asserted thy just providence. (Haydock) ---

Good. Thy saints find the greatest comfort in thee. (Calmet)

Gill: Psa 51:1 - Have mercy upon me, O God // according to thy lovingkindness // according unto the multitude of thy tender mercies blot out my transgressions Have mercy upon me, O God,.... David, under a sense of sin, does not run away from God, but applies unto him, and casts himself at his feet, and upon ...

Have mercy upon me, O God,.... David, under a sense of sin, does not run away from God, but applies unto him, and casts himself at his feet, and upon his mercy; which shows the view he had of his miserable condition, and that he saw there was mercy in God, which gave him hope; and upon his bended knees, and in the exercise of faith, he asks for it;

according to thy lovingkindness; not according to his merits, nor according to the general mercy of God, which carnal men rely upon; but according to his everlasting and unchangeable love in Christ; from which as the source, and through whom as the medium, special mercy comes to the children of men. The acts of special mercy are according to the sovereign will of God: he is not moved to mercy neither by the merits nor misery of men, but by his free grace and favour; it is love that sets mercy to work: this is a most glaring gleam of Gospel light, which none of the inspired writers besides, except the Apostle Paul, saw, Eph 2:4;

according unto the multitude of thy tender mercies blot out my transgressions; for his sin was complicated, attended with many others; and, besides, upon a view of this, he was led to observe all his other sins; and particularly the corruption of his nature, his original sin, which he mentions, Psa 51:5. These he desires might be "blotted out"; out of the book of account, out of God's debt book; that they might not stand against him, being debts he was not able to pay or make satisfaction for; and out of the table of his own heart and conscience, where they were ever before him, and seemed to be engraven; that they might be caused to pass from him, and he might have no more conscience of them; or that they might be blotted out, as a cloud by the clear shining of the sun of righteousness, with the healing of pardoning grace in his wings; or that they might be wiped away, as any faith is wiped from any person or thing: and all this "according to the multitude of his tender mercies". The mercy of God is plenteous and abundant; he is rich in it, and various are the instances of it; and it is exceeding tender, like that of a father to his children, or like that of a mother to the son of her womb; and from this abundant and tender mercy springs the forgiveness of sin, Luk 1:77. The psalmist makes mention of the multitude of the mercies of God, because of the multitude of his sins, which required a multitude of mercy to forgive, and to encourage his hope of it.

Gill: Psa 51:2 - Wash me thoroughly from mine iniquity // and cleanse me from my sin Wash me thoroughly from mine iniquity,.... Which supposes defilement by sin, and that very great, and such as none can remove but the Lord himself; wh...

Wash me thoroughly from mine iniquity,.... Which supposes defilement by sin, and that very great, and such as none can remove but the Lord himself; who, when he takes it in hand, does it effectually and thoroughly; see Eze 36:25. David's sin had long lain upon him, the faith of it had as it were eaten into him, and spread itself over him, and therefore he needed much washing: "wash me much", all over, and thoroughly:

and cleanse me from my sin: which only the blood of Christ can do, 1Jo 1:7. The psalmist makes use of three words to express his sin by, in this verse Psa 51:1; פשע, which signifies "rebellion", as all sin has in it rebellion against God the lawgiver, and a contempt of his commandments; עון, "perverseness", "crookedness", sin being a going out of the plain way of God's righteous law; and חטאת, "a missing the mark"; going besides it or not coming up to it: and these he makes rise of to set forth the malignity of sin, and the deep sense he had of the exceeding sinfulness of it; and these are the three words used by the Lord in Exo 34:7; when he declares himself to be a sin forgiving God; so that David's sin came within the reach of pardoning mercy.

Gill: Psa 51:3 - For I acknowledge my transgressions // and my sin is ever before me For I acknowledge my transgressions,.... Before God and man. Acknowledgment of sin is what the Lord requires, and promises forgiveness upon, and there...

For I acknowledge my transgressions,.... Before God and man. Acknowledgment of sin is what the Lord requires, and promises forgiveness upon, and therefore is used here as a plea for it; and moreover the psalmist had done so before, and had succeeded in this way, which must encourage him to take the same course again; see Psa 32:5;

and my sin is ever before me; staring him in the face; gnawing upon his conscience, and filling him with remorse and distress; so that his life was a burden to him: for though God had put away sin out of his own sight, so that he would not condemn him for it, and he should not die; notwithstanding as yet it was not caused to pass from David, or the guilt of it removed from his conscience.

Gill: Psa 51:4 - Against thee, thee only, have I sinned // and done this evil in thy sight // that thou mightest be justified when thou speakest, and be clear when thou judgest Against thee, thee only, have I sinned,.... All sin, though committed against a fellow creature, being a transgression of the law, is against the lawg...

Against thee, thee only, have I sinned,.... All sin, though committed against a fellow creature, being a transgression of the law, is against the lawgiver; and, indeed, begins at the neglect or contempt of his commandment, as David's sin did, 2Sa 12:9; and being committed against God, that had bestowed so many favours upon him, was a cutting consideration to him, which made his sorrow appear to be of a godly sort; wherefore he makes his humble and hearty confession to the Lord, and who only could forgive his sin;

and done this evil in thy sight; for with respect to men it was secretly done; and was only known to God, with whom the darkness and the light are both alike;

that thou mightest be justified when thou speakest, and be clear when thou judgest; not that David committed this sin that God might be just, and pure, and holy; but this was the event and consequence of it: God, by taking notice of it, resenting it, and reproving for it, appeared to be a righteous Being, and of purer eyes than to behold sin with pleasure; see Exo 9:27. Or these words may be connected with his acknowledgment and confession of sin; which were done to this end and purpose, to justify God in his charge of it upon him, and in threatening him with evils on account of it, by the mouth of Nathan the prophet: or with his petitions for pardoning grace and mercy; that so he might appear to be just to his promise, of forgiving iniquity, transgression and sin, to humble penitents; and particularly that he might appear to be just and faithful to his Son, in forgiving sin for his sake; whom he had set forth, in his purposes and promises, to be the propitiation for sin, to declare his righteousness, Rom 3:25; see Rom 3:4.

Gill: Psa 51:5 - Behold, I was shapen in iniquity // and in sin did my mother conceive me Behold, I was shapen in iniquity,.... This cannot be understood of any personal iniquity of his immediate parents; since this respects his wonderful f...

Behold, I was shapen in iniquity,.... This cannot be understood of any personal iniquity of his immediate parents; since this respects his wonderful formation in the womb, in which both he and they were wholly passive, as the word here used is of that form; and is the amazing work of God himself, so much admired by the psalmist, Psa 139:13; and cannot design any sinfulness then infused into him by his Maker, seeing God cannot be the author of sin; but of original sin and corruption, derived to him by natural generation: and the sense is, that as soon as ever the mass of human nature was shaped and quickened, or as soon as soul and body were united together, sin was in him, and he was in sin, or became a sinful creature;

and in sin did my mother conceive me; by whom cannot be meant Eve; for though she is the mother of all living, and so of David, yet could not, with any propriety, be said to conceive him: this only could be said of his immediate parent, not even of his next grandmother, much less of Eve, at the distance of almost three thousand years. Nor does the sin in which he was conceived intend any sin of his parents, in begetting and conceiving him, being in lawful wedlock; which acts cannot be sinful, since the propagation of the human species by natural generation is a principle of nature implanted by God himself; and is agreeably to the first law of nature, given to man in a state of innocence, "increase and multiply", Gen 1:28. Marriage is the institution of God in paradise; and in all ages has been accounted "honourable in all, when the bed is undefiled", Heb 13:4. Nor does it design his being conceived when his mother was in "profluviis", of which there is no proof, and is a mere imagination, and can answer no purpose; much less that he was conceived in adultery, as the contenders for the purity of human nature broadly intimate; which shows how much they are convicted by this text, to give into such an interpretation of it, at the expense of the character of an innocent person, of whom there is not the least suggestion of this kind in the Holy Scriptures; but on the contrary, she is represented as a religious woman, and David valued himself upon his relation to her as such, Psa 86:16. Besides, had this been the case, as David would have been a bastard, he would not have been suffered to enter into the congregation of the Lord, according to the law in Deu 23:2; whereas he often did with great delight, Psa 42:4. Moreover, it is beside his scope and design to expose the sins of others, much less his own parents, while he is confessing and lamenting his own iniquities: and to what purpose should he mention theirs, especially if he himself was not affected by them, and did not derive a corrupt nature from them? Nor is the sin he speaks of any actual sin of his own, and therefore he does not call it, as before, "my" iniquity and "my" sin; though it was so, he having sinned in Adam, and this being in his nature; but "iniquity" and "sin", it being common to him with all mankind. Hence we learn the earliness of the corruption of nature; it is as soon as man is conceived and shapen; and that it is propagated from one to another by natural generation; and that it is the case of all men: for if this was the case of David, who was born of religious parents, was famous for his early piety, and from whose seed the Messiah sprung, it may well be concluded to be the case of all. And this corruption of nature is the fountain, source, and spring of all sin, secret and open, private and public; and is mentioned here not as an extenuation of David's actual transgressions, but as an aggravation of them; he having been, from his conception and formation, nothing else but a mass of sin, a lump of iniquity; and, in his evangelical repentance for them, he is led to take notice of and mourn over the corruption of his nature, from whence they arose. The Heathens themselves affirm, that no man is born without sin c.

Gill: Psa 51:6 - Behold, thou desirest truth in the inward parts // and in the hidden part thou shall make me to know wisdom Behold, thou desirest truth in the inward parts,.... With delight and pleasure, as the word d signifies: meaning either Christ, the truth and the life...

Behold, thou desirest truth in the inward parts,.... With delight and pleasure, as the word d signifies: meaning either Christ, the truth and the life, formed and dwelling in the hearts of his people; or the Gospel, the word of truth, which has a place there; and particularly that branch of it which proclaims pardon to sensible sinners, and is the ground of hope within them: or else a true and hearty confession of sin, which David now made; or rather internal holiness and purity of heart, in opposition to the corruption of nature before acknowledged: this is what is agreeable to the nature of God, is required by his holy law, and is wrought in the hearts of his people in regeneration; and this is "truth", real, and not imaginary, genuine and unfeigned; where it is there is a true sense of sin, a right sight of Christ, unfeigned faith in him, sincere love to him, hope in him without hypocrisy, and a reverential fear of God upon the heart; the inward parts are the seat of all this, and in the exercise of it the Lord takes great delight and pleasure;

and in the hidden part thou shall make me to know wisdom; either Christ, the wisdom of God; or the Gospel, and particularly that part of it which concerns the pardon of sin; or a true knowledge of sin, and of the way of life and salvation by Christ, which is the truest and highest wisdom: and the phrase "hidden" or "secret" may either denote the nature of the wisdom made known, which is hidden wisdom, the wisdom of God in a mystery; or the manner in which it is made known; it is in a hidden way, privately, and secretly, and indiscernibly like the wind, by the Spirit and grace of God; or the seat and subject of it, "the hidden part", as we supply it; the hidden man of the heart. David begins to rise in the exercise of his faith in the grace of God, "thou shall make me to know", &c. unless the words should be rendered as a prayer, as they are by some, "make me to know" e, &c. and as are the following.

Gill: Psa 51:7 - Purge me with hyssop // and I shall be clean // wash me // and I shall be whiter than snow Purge me with hyssop,.... Or "thou shalt purge me with hyssop" f; or "expiate me"; which was used in sprinkling the blood of the paschal lamb on the d...

Purge me with hyssop,.... Or "thou shalt purge me with hyssop" f; or "expiate me"; which was used in sprinkling the blood of the paschal lamb on the door posts of the Israelites in Egypt, that the destroying angel might pass over them, Exo 12:22; and in the cleansing of the leper, Lev 14:4; and in the purification of one that was unclean by the touch of a dead body, &c. Num 19:6; which the Targum on the text has respect to; and this petition of the psalmist shows that he saw himself a guilty creature, and in danger of the destroying angel, and a filthy creature like the leper, and deserving to be excluded from the society of the saints, and the house of God; and that he had respect not hereby to ceremonial sprinklings and purifications, for them he would have applied to a priest; but to the sprinkling of the blood of Christ, typified thereby; and therefore he applies to God to purge his conscience with it; and, as Suidas g from Theodoret observes, hyssop did not procure remission of sins, but has a mystical signification, and refers to what was meant by the sprinkling of the blood of the passover; and then he says,

and I shall be clean; thoroughly clean; for the blood sprinkled on the heart by the spirit clears it from an evil conscience, purges the conscience from dead works, and cleanses from all sin;

wash me; or "thou shall wash me" h; alluding to the washing at the cleansing of a leper, and the purification of an unclean person, Lev 14:8; but had in view the fountain of Christ's blood, in which believers are washed from all their sins, Zec 13:1;

and I shall be whiter than snow; who was black with original corruption, and actual transgressions; but the blood of Christ makes not only the conversation garments white that are washed in it; but even crimson and scarlet sins as white as wool, as white as snow, and the persons of the saints without spot or blemish, Rev 7:14, Eph 5:25; "whiter than the snow" is a phrase used by Homer i, and others, to describe what is exceeding white.

Gill: Psa 51:8 - Make me to hear joy and gladness // that the bones which thou hast broken may rejoice Make me to hear joy and gladness,.... Which he had not heard for some time; sin had sadly broke in upon and interrupted his spiritual peace and joy; f...

Make me to hear joy and gladness,.... Which he had not heard for some time; sin had sadly broke in upon and interrupted his spiritual peace and joy; for though the love and favour of God cannot be lost, yet his sensible presence, which puts joy and gladness into the heart, may; and though an interest in Christ ever continues, and union to him is always the same; yet a view of interest in him, which fills with joy unspeakable and full of glory, and communion with him, may not be had for a time: and though justification by his righteousness, from whence flows much peace, is an invariable blessing; yet the comfortable perception of it may be taken away: and though salvation by Christ is a certain thing, yet the joy of it may be lost for a season; which was now the case of the psalmist: and when he desires that God would cause him to hear joy and gladness, his meaning is, that he might have that made known unto him; namely, the forgiveness of his sins, which would give him joy: not by an articulate voice from heaven, which he did not expect; nor by an angel from thence, which was not usual; but by the prophet, who as yet might not have declared to him that God had put away his sin; or, if he had, he might desire to have it repeated, for his fuller assurance, and greater joy; or by his Spirit, in an impulse on his mind, saying to him, thy sins are forgiven thee; which would give him great joy, fulness of it, even what is inconceivable and inexpressible, signified by these two words, "joy" and "gladness";

that the bones which thou hast broken may rejoice: a backsliding believer is not only like a bone out of joint, Gal 6:1; but his falls are sometimes both to the bruising of him, and to the breaking of his bones; of which when he is sensible, the quick sense of his sin is as the pain of a broken bone; see Psa 38:3; and here the breaking of them is ascribed to God; not that he is the cause or occasion of falling into sin, which breaks the bones, Jam 1:13; but of afflictions, corrections, and chastisements for sin, which are sometimes expressed by this phrase, Isa 38:13; and which David was threatened with, and gave him great uneasiness; and of the menaces and threatenings of the law, which being let into his conscience, worked wrath and terror there; and also of that true contrition of heart, and brokenness of spirit, which the Lord produces, and can only cure, by the discoveries of pardoning grace; which affects the whole frame of nature, the report of which makes the bones fat, and all of them to say, who is a God like unto thee? Pro 15:30.

Gill: Psa 51:9 - Hide thy face from my sins // and blot out all mine iniquities Hide thy face from my sins,.... In whose sight they were committed, being now ashamed of them himself, and ashamed that any should see them, and espec...

Hide thy face from my sins,.... In whose sight they were committed, being now ashamed of them himself, and ashamed that any should see them, and especially his God; and being filthy and nauseous, he knew they must be abominable to him, who is of purer eyes than to behold iniquity; and being breaches of his law, must be offensive to him, and provoke the eyes of his glory; and were such that he knew would not bear the examination of justice; and that if God was strict to mark them, he could not stand before him: moreover, in this petition the psalmist deprecates a severe chastisement of them, which is sometimes expressed by setting sins before him, Psa 90:8; and entreats the pardon of them, or oblivion and non-remembrance of them, that they might be cast behind his back, and into the depths of the sea;

and blot out all mine iniquities; as in Psa 51:1; here repeated, to show his deep sense of them, and his great importunity for the forgiveness of them; and adds the word all, including all his other sins, with those he had lately committed; for he knew that, if anyone, was left unpardoned, he could never answer for it.

Gill: Psa 51:10 - Create in me a clean heart, O God // and renew a right spirit within me Create in me a clean heart, O God,.... Which was now defiled with sin, and of which being convinced, he was led more and more to see the impurity of h...

Create in me a clean heart, O God,.... Which was now defiled with sin, and of which being convinced, he was led more and more to see the impurity of his heart and nature, from which all his evil actions flowed; and being sensible that he could not make his heart clean himself, and that this was the work of God, and a work which required creating power, he entreats it of him: for as the first work of conversion is no other than a creation, or a production of something new, which was not before; so the restoring of a backslider, as it goes by the same name, it requires the same power; and as the implantation of grace at first, and particularly of faith, is a work of almighty power; so the same power must be put forth to bring it into exercise, after falls into sin; that it may afresh deal with the heart purifying blood of Christ, which only can make it clean, and is what is here meant;

and renew a right spirit within me; by which is designed, not the Holy Spirit of God k; for he is the renewer; nor the spirit or soul of man as to its essence; but with respect to the qualities of it; and here it signifies a renewing of the inward man, or an increase of grace, and causing it to abound in act and exercise; and intends a spirit of uprightness and integrity, in opposition to dissimulation and hypocrisy; a spirit "prepared and ready" l to every good work, Mat 26:41; "one firm" m and unmoved from obedience to the Lord, by sin, temptations, and snares; a heart fixed, trusting in the Lord, and comfortably assured of an interest in pardoning grace and mercy.

Gill: Psa 51:11 - Cast me not away from thy presence // and take not thy Holy Spirit from me Cast me not away from thy presence,.... As abominable; as a vessel in which he had no pleasure; with indignation and wrath; as one that is angry with ...

Cast me not away from thy presence,.... As abominable; as a vessel in which he had no pleasure; with indignation and wrath; as one that is angry with another, cannot bear him in his sight, but bids him be gone from him. Nothing is more desirable to a child of God than the presence of God; and nothing gives him more sensible pain than his absence; and even to be deprived of or denied the means of enjoying his presence the word and ordinances, makes them very uneasy: to be utterly, and for ever deprived of it, is the case of the damned in hell, and is the punishment of loss they sustain; and, on the other hand, the happiness of the saints in heaven is to enjoy it without interruption. The people of God are never cast away from his favour, or out of his heart's love; but they may for a while be without his gracious presence, or not see his face, nor have the light of his countenance, nor sensible communion with him, which is here deprecated. David might call to mind the case of Cain, Gen 4:14; or rather the more recent one of Saul, whom the Lord rejected, and from whom he departed upon his sinning, and which he might fear would be his case, 1Sa 28:15;

and take not thy Holy Spirit from me; or "the Spirit of thine holiness"; the third Person in the Trinity; so called, not because this epithet of "holy" is peculiar to him; for it is used also of the Father, and of the Son, Joh 17:11; but because he is equally holy with them, and is the author of holiness in his people, which is therefore called the sanctification of the Spirit, 1Pe 1:2; and without whom David knew that purity and holiness of heart and spirit he had desired could not be renewed and increased in him; and therefore deprecates the taking of him away; which shows that he was not as yet removed from him, not with standing he had fallen into great sins; and his sense of sin, and confession of it, and his fervent application for pardoning grace, and purity of heart, abundantly prove it. The Spirit of God is a gift of his, which is without repentance, and where he once is as a spirit of regeneration and sanctification, he ever abides: his external gifts may be taken away; but internal grace is an incorruptible seed, and always continues. By sin the Spirit of God may be grieved, so as to withdraw his gracious influences, and his powerful operations may not be felt; and this is what is here deprecated. The Targum interprets this of the spirit of prophecy which David had, by which he composed psalms and songs prophetic of Christ, and of Gospel times, and which was not taken away from him; see 2Sa 23:1.

Gill: Psa 51:12 - Restore unto me the joy of thy salvation // and uphold me with thy free Spirit Restore unto me the joy of thy salvation,.... Not temporal, but spiritual and eternal; and designs either Christ himself, who is God's salvation, of h...

Restore unto me the joy of thy salvation,.... Not temporal, but spiritual and eternal; and designs either Christ himself, who is God's salvation, of his appointing and providing, in the view of whom, as such, David had much spiritual joy; or the salvation he was to work out, which God the Father had contrived the scheme of in him, had covenanted with him to do, and had appointed his people to: salvation itself is a sure thing, and can never fail, being founded upon the purpose and counsel of God, which shall ever stand; and is secured in the covenant of grace, which can never be removed; and is now completely wrought out by Christ, and is applied by his Spirit to the heirs of it, who shall certainly and fully enjoy it; otherwise the glory of all the three Persons in it would be lost: but the joy of it may be interrupted and discontinued for a while, through falls into sin, as this case of David, and the case of Peter, show; and therefore a restoration of it is desired, by showing a fresh interest in this salvation; and particularly by an application of pardoning grace and mercy; see Psa 35:3;

and uphold me with thy free Spirit: or "let thy free Spirit uphold me" n; the same with the Holy Spirit of God; called "free", because he is a most free and munificent giver: he gives his grace, and bestows his gifts severally, as he pleases, and liberally, and upbraids not; and because he is freely given of God; his graces are freely given, as faith, hope, love, &c. and because he frees them to whom he is given from the bondage of sin and corruption, and makes them Christ's free men, and delivers them into the liberty of the children of God; and so is a spirit of adoption, in opposition to a spirit of bondage, by which they have freedom and boldness to call God their Father; and by whom also they have liberty of soul at the throne of grace, and can freely make known their requests, and spread their cases before God; see Rom 8:15; also he may be so called, because he makes the saints ready and willing to obey the will of God, and to run with cheerfulness the way of his commandments; and is moreover "a princely spirit" o, or beneficent, as some choose to render the words; and which becomes such who are set among princes, and are made kings and priests unto God: and with this spirit the psalmist desires to be "upheld", to be strengthened by it, to do the will and work of God, that so he might not stumble and fall into sin as he had done; that he might be stayed, supported, and comforted with it, as the Holy Spirit of promise; that so he might not faint and sink under his present sense of sin, and the guilt of it; and that he would be not only a guide unto him in the ways of God, but that he would hold up his goings in them, that so he might walk both at liberty and in safety. The Targum interprets this also of the spirit of prophecy.

Gill: Psa 51:13 - Then will I teach transgressors thy ways // and sinners shall be converted unto thee Then will I teach transgressors thy ways,.... David was a prophet as well as a king; see Act 2:30; and taught men the fear of the Lord, Psa 34:11, an...

Then will I teach transgressors thy ways,.... David was a prophet as well as a king; see Act 2:30; and taught men the fear of the Lord, Psa 34:11, and instructed them in his ways, as he here promises he would; by which are meant, either the ways which God prescribes and directs men to walk in, as the paths of faith, holiness, and truth, and the ways of his commandments; or which he himself has walked in; meaning not the ways of his providence, which are sometimes past finding out; but the ways of his grace, the steps and methods he has taken in the salvation of men, by forming the scheme of it, by choosing unto it, by making a covenant with his Son, and appointing him to effect it; and particularly his ways and methods in receiving and pardoning backsliders, when returned by repentance to him; and who may be meant by "transgressors" here: and then the sense is, that David, upon his being received and pardoned, would teach others like himself how graciously God had dealt with him; how plenteous he is in mercy; how ready to forgive, and how faithful to his promises; and so encourage them to go to him, and acknowledge their transgressions, and seek pardoning grace at his hands, who does abundantly pardon, and whose ways are not as theirs; see Isa 55:7;

and sinners shall be converted unto thee: or "that sinners may be converted unto thee" p; this being the end of teaching by the word, and the means of the conversion of profane and unregenerate sinners, through the power of divine grace; though rather this seems to be understood of the conversion of God's own people after backslidings, and not of first conversion; see Luk 22:32.

Gill: Psa 51:14 - Deliver me from blood guiltiness // O God, thou God of my salvation // and my tongue shall sing aloud of thy righteousness Deliver me from blood guiltiness,.... Or "from bloods" q; meaning not the corruption of nature; see Eze 16:6; though to be rid of that, and to be free...

Deliver me from blood guiltiness,.... Or "from bloods" q; meaning not the corruption of nature; see Eze 16:6; though to be rid of that, and to be free from the guilt and condemnation of it, is very desirable, Rom 7:24; but either from capital punishment in his family, the effusion of blood and slaughter in it, threatened him on account of his sin, 2Sa 12:10. So the Targum is,

"deliver me from the judgment of slaying or killing;''

or rather from the guilt of the blood of Uriah, and other servants of his, he had been the occasion of shedding, and was chargeable with, being accessary thereunto, 2Sa 11:15; which lay heavy upon his conscience, pressed him on every side, as if he was in prison, and brought upon him a spirit of bondage to fear; and therefore he prays to be delivered from it, by the application of pardoning grace, which would be like proclaiming liberty to the captive;

O God, thou God of my salvation; who has contrived it for his people, chosen them to it, secured it for them in covenant, and provided his Son to be the author of it, and sends his Spirit to apply it. The psalmist knew, that being God he could pardon his sin, remove his guilt, and free him from obligation to punishment, which none else could; and being the "God of his salvation", and his covenant God, he had reason to hope and believe he would;

and my tongue shall sing aloud of thy righteousness; goodness, grace, and mercy, in forgiving sin; for "righteousness" sometimes designs clemency, goodness, and mercy; see Psa 31:1; and faithfulness in making good the divine promise to forgive such who are sensible of sin, and repent of it, acknowledge it, and ask for mercy; or the righteousness of Christ, well known to David, Rom 4:6; which justifies from all sin, removes the guilt of it, and fills the soul with joy and gladness, Isa 61:10.

Gill: Psa 51:15 - O Lord, open thou my lips // and my mouth shall show forth thy praise O Lord, open thou my lips,.... The Targum adds, "in the late"; which were shut with a sense of sin, with shame of it, and sorrow for it; and though th...

O Lord, open thou my lips,.... The Targum adds, "in the late"; which were shut with a sense of sin, with shame of it, and sorrow for it; and though they were in some measure opened in prayer to God for the forgiveness of it, as appears by various petitions in this psalm, yet he still wanted a free spirit and boldness at the throne of grace, which the believer has when his heart is sprinkled from an evil conscience by the blood of Christ; and especially his lips were shut as to praise and thanksgiving; the guilt of sin had sealed up his lips, that he could not sing the praises of God as he had formerly done; and only a discovery of pardoning grace could open them, and for this he prays:

and my mouth shall show forth thy praise: the praise of his mercy, grace, goodness, truth, and faithfulness, in psalms, hymns, and spiritual songs; see Psa 103:1.

Gill: Psa 51:16 - For thou desirest not sacrifice // else would I give it // thou delightest not in burnt offering For thou desirest not sacrifice,.... Legal sacrifice; for there was no sacrifice appointed under the law for murder and adultery; else would I give...

For thou desirest not sacrifice,.... Legal sacrifice; for there was no sacrifice appointed under the law for murder and adultery;

else would I give it; he would gladly have offered it up;

thou delightest not in burnt offering; at least such kind of sacrifices, though they were of divine appointment, and at that time in full force and use; yet they were not the only and principal sacrifices God desired and delighted in; nor were they at all acceptable to him without faith in Christ, and an humble sense of sin; and when offered in the best manner, yet spiritual obedience, acts of mercy, and sacrifices of praise and thanksgiving, were more pleasing to him, 1Sa 15:15; wherefore the psalmist proposed to offer praise in Psa 51:15, and adds what follows.

Gill: Psa 51:17 - The sacrifices of God are a broken spirit // a broken and a contrite heart, O God, thou wilt not despise The sacrifices of God are a broken spirit,.... That is humbled under a sense of sin; has true repentance for it; is smitten, wounded, and broken with...

The sacrifices of God are a broken spirit,.... That is humbled under a sense of sin; has true repentance for it; is smitten, wounded, and broken with it, by the word of God in the hand of the Spirit, which is a hammer to break the rock in pieces; and that not merely in a legal, but in an evangelical way; grieving for sin as committed against a God of love; broken and melted down under a sense of it, in a view of pardoning grace; and mourning for it, while beholding a pierced and wounded Saviour: the sacrifices of such a broken heart and contrite spirit are the sacrifices God desires, approves, accepts of, and delights in;

a broken and a contrite heart, O God, thou wilt not despise; but regard, and receive with pleasure; see Psa 102:17; the Lord binds up and heals such broken hearts and spirits, Psa 147:3; he is nigh to such persons, looks upon them, has respect unto them, and comes and dwells among them, Psa 34:18.

Gill: Psa 51:18 - Do good in thy good pleasure unto Zion // build thou the walls of Jerusalem Do good in thy good pleasure unto Zion,.... This verse, and Psa 51:19, are thought, by a Spanish Rabbi mentioned by Aben Ezra, to have been added by o...

Do good in thy good pleasure unto Zion,.... This verse, and Psa 51:19, are thought, by a Spanish Rabbi mentioned by Aben Ezra, to have been added by one of the holy men that lived in the time of the Babylonish captivity; though rather it is thought, by the latter, to be written by David, under a spirit of prophecy, concerning, times to come; and so Kimchi thinks they are prophetic of future things; of the destruction of the first and second temple, and of the acceptableness of sacrifices in the times of the Messiah: and by Zion is meant the church, under the Gospel dispensation, Heb 12:22; and the "good" prayed for includes all the good and glorious things spoken of the church of Christ in the latter day; such as an increase of its numbers, the bringing in the fulness of the Gentiles, the conversion of the Jews, and the kingdoms of this world becoming the kingdoms of our Lord and of his Christ; the spread of the Gospel all over the world, the purity of Gospel doctrine, worship, and ordinances, the spirituality of religion, the power of godliness, and an abounding of brotherly love, and the like. The "good pleasure" of God, in which this is desired to be done, may denote either עת רצון, "the acceptable time"; or "time of good pleasure"; the Gospel dispensation, so called Isa 49:8, in which it has been foretold, and may be expected these things shall be done; or else the cause, source, and spring of them, which is the sovereign good will and pleasure of God, from whence flow all the blessings of grace and goodness;

build thou the walls of Jerusalem; not literally taken; for these do not appear to have stood in need of being repaired or rebuilt in David's time; but the church of God, which is a spiritual house, built up of lively stones, true believers; which may be said to be more and more built up by an addition of such unto it: it is as a city compact together, whose walls are salvation, and its gates praise, Isa 26:1; of the wall of the new Jerusalem, see Rev 21:12.

Gill: Psa 51:19 - Then shall thou be pleased with the sacrifices of righteousness // with burnt offering, and whole burnt offering // then shall they offer bullocks upon thine altar Then shall thou be pleased with the sacrifices of righteousness,.... Which must be different from the legal ones he desired not, and did not delight i...

Then shall thou be pleased with the sacrifices of righteousness,.... Which must be different from the legal ones he desired not, and did not delight in, Psa 51:16; but design sacrifices under the Gospel dispensation, as the word "then" shows, which connects this verse with Psa 51:18, and in the first place intend the sacrifice of Christ, which is of a sweet smelling savour to God; and his righteousness, with which he is well pleased, because the law is magnified and made honourable by it; and next the saints themselves, who present their bodies to him a holy, living, and acceptable sacrifice, they being accepted with him in Christ the beloved; as also their good works, particularly acts of charity and beneficence, with which sacrifices God is well pleased; and especially the spiritual sacrifices of praise and thanksgiving, which are acceptable to him through Jesus Christ; as all are that are offered in faith through him, and from love, and with a view to the glory of God; see Eph 5:2, Rom 12:1;

with burnt offering, and whole burnt offering; the difference between these two, according to Aben Ezra and Kimchi, was, that the עולה, "olah", or "burnt offering", was the daily sacrifice; and the additional ones, which were of beasts and birds, Lev 1:1, and the כליל, "calil", was the meat offering of the priests, which was wholly consumed, Lev 6:22; though this also is sometimes used of beasts, 1Sa 7:9; and both may signify love to God, and to our neighbour; or a man's devoting himself to the Lord in the flames of love, as a whole burnt offering to him, and which is better than all burnt offerings, Mar 12:33;

then shall they offer bullocks upon thine altar; or "calves" r; meaning the calves of the lips, Hos 14:2; interpreted the fruit of the lips, even giving thanks to the name of God, Heb 13:16; which sacrifices of praise being offered up on the altar Christ, come with acceptance before God, Heb 13:10.

buka semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki

NET Notes: Psa 51:1 Traditionally “blot out my transgressions.” Because of the reference to washing and cleansing in the following verse, it is likely that th...

NET Notes: Psa 51:2 In vv. 1b-2 the psalmist uses three different words to emphasize the multifaceted character and degree of his sin. Whatever one wants to call it (R...

NET Notes: Psa 51:3 Heb “and my sin [is] in front of me continually.”

NET Notes: Psa 51:4 Heb “when you judge.”

NET Notes: Psa 51:5 Heb “Look, in wrongdoing I was brought forth, and in sin my mother conceived me.” The prefixed verbal form in the second line is probably ...

NET Notes: Psa 51:6 You want me to possess wisdom. Here “wisdom” does not mean “intelligence” or “learning,” but refers to moral insig...

NET Notes: Psa 51:7 I will be whiter than snow. Whiteness here symbolizes the moral purity resulting from forgiveness (see Isa 1:18).

NET Notes: Psa 51:8 In this context of petitionary prayer, the prefixed verbal form is understood as a jussive, expressing the psalmist’s wish or request.

NET Notes: Psa 51:9 See the note on the similar expression “wipe away my rebellious acts” in v. 1.

NET Notes: Psa 51:10 Heb “and a reliable spirit renew in my inner being.”

NET Notes: Psa 51:11 Do not take…away. The psalmist expresses his fear that, due to his sin, God will take away the Holy Spirit from him. NT believers enjoy the perm...

NET Notes: Psa 51:12 Heb “and [with] a willing spirit sustain me.” The psalmist asks that God make him the kind of person who willingly obeys the divine comman...

NET Notes: Psa 51:13 Or “return,” i.e., in repentance.

NET Notes: Psa 51:14 Heb “my tongue will shout for joy your deliverance.” Another option is to take the prefixed verbal form as a jussive, “may my tongue...

NET Notes: Psa 51:15 Heb “and my mouth will declare your praise.”

NET Notes: Psa 51:16 You do not desire a burnt sacrifice. The terminology used in v. 16 does not refer to expiatory sacrifices, but to dedication and communion offerings. ...

NET Notes: Psa 51:17 Or “despise.”

NET Notes: Psa 51:18 For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

NET Notes: Psa 51:19 Verses 18-19 appear to reflect the exilic period, when the city’s walls lay in ruins and the sacrificial system had been disrupted.

Geneva Bible: Psa 51:1 "To the chief Musician, A Psalm of David, when Nathan the prophet ( a ) came unto him, after he had gone in to Bathsheba." Have mercy upon me, O God, ...

Geneva Bible: Psa 51:2 Wash me ( c ) throughly from mine iniquity, and cleanse me from my sin. ( c ) My sins strike so fast in me, that I have need of some singular kind of...

Geneva Bible: Psa 51:3 For I ( d ) acknowledge my transgressions: and my sin [is] ever before me. ( d ) My conscience accuses me so, that I can have no rest till I am recon...

Geneva Bible: Psa 51:4 Against thee, thee only, have I sinned, and done [this] evil in thy sight: that thou mightest be justified when thou ( e ) speakest, [and] be clear wh...

Geneva Bible: Psa 51:6 Behold, thou ( f ) desirest truth in the inward parts: and in the hidden [part] thou shalt make me to know wisdom. ( f ) He confesses that God who lo...

Geneva Bible: Psa 51:8 Make me to hear ( g ) joy and gladness; [that] the ( h ) bones [which] thou hast broken may rejoice. ( g ) He means God's comfortable mercies toward ...

Geneva Bible: Psa 51:10 ( i ) Create in me a clean heart, O God; and renew a right spirit within me. ( i ) He confesses that when God's Spirit is cold in us, to have it agai...

Geneva Bible: Psa 51:12 Restore unto me the joy of thy salvation; and uphold me [with thy] ( k ) free spirit. ( k ) Which may assure me that I am drawn out of the slavery of...

Geneva Bible: Psa 51:13 [Then] will I teach transgressors thy ( l ) ways; and sinners shall be converted unto thee. ( l ) He promises to endeavour that others by his example...

Geneva Bible: Psa 51:14 Deliver me from ( m ) bloodguiltiness, O God, thou God of my salvation: [and] my tongue shall sing aloud of thy righteousness. ( m ) From the murder ...

Geneva Bible: Psa 51:15 O Lord, ( n ) open thou my lips; and my mouth shall shew forth thy praise. ( n ) By giving me opportunity to praise you, when you will forgive my sin...

Geneva Bible: Psa 51:17 The sacrifices of God [are] a ( o ) broken spirit: a broken and a contrite heart, O God, thou wilt not despise. ( o ) Which is a wounding of the hear...

Geneva Bible: Psa 51:18 Do good in thy good pleasure unto ( p ) Zion: build thou the walls of Jerusalem. ( p ) He prays for the whole Church, because through his sin it was ...

Geneva Bible: Psa 51:19 Then shalt thou be pleased with the sacrifices of ( q ) righteousness, with burnt offering and whole burnt offering: then shall they offer bullocks up...

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Rentang Ayat

Maclaren: Psa 51:1 - A Libation To Jehovah David's Cry For Pardon Blot out my transgressions. 2. Wash me throughly from mine iniquity, and cleanse me from my sin.'--Psalm 51:1-2. A WHOLE year ...

Maclaren: Psa 51:8-10 - A Libation To Jehovah David's Cry For Purity Renew a right spirit within me. 11 And take not Thy Holy Spirit from me. 12 And uphold me with Thy free Spirit.--Psalm 51:10-1...

MHCC: Psa 51:1-6 - --David, being convinced of his sin, poured out his soul to God in prayer for mercy and grace. Whither should backsliding children return, but to the Lo...

MHCC: Psa 51:7-15 - --Purge me with hyssop, with the blood of Christ applied to my soul by a lively faith, as the water of purification was sprinkled with a bunch of hyssop...

MHCC: Psa 51:16-19 - --Those who are thoroughly convinced of their misery and danger by sin, would spare no cost to obtain the remission of it. But as they cannot make satis...

Matthew Henry: Psa 51:1-6 - -- The title has reference to a very sad story, that of David's fall. But, though he fell, he was not utterly cast down, for God graciously upheld him ...

Matthew Henry: Psa 51:7-13 - -- I. See here what David prays for. Many excellent petitions he here puts up, to which if we do but add, "for Christ's sake,"they are as evangelical a...

Matthew Henry: Psa 51:14-19 - -- I. David prays against the guilt of sin, and prays for the grace of God, enforcing both petitions from a plea taken from the glory of God, which he ...

Keil-Delitzsch: Psa 51:1-2 - -- Prayer for the remission of sin. Concerning the interchangeable names for sin, vid., on Psa 32:1. Although the primary occasion of the Psalm is the ...

Keil-Delitzsch: Psa 51:3-4 - -- Substantiation of the prayer by the consideration, that his sense of sin is more than superficial, and that he is ready to make a penitential confes...

Keil-Delitzsch: Psa 51:5-6 - -- David here confesses his hereditary sin as the root of his actual sin. The declaration moves backwards from his birth to conception, it consequently...

Keil-Delitzsch: Psa 51:7-9 - -- The possession of all possessions, however, most needed by him, the foundation of all other possessions, is the assurance of the forgiveness of his ...

Keil-Delitzsch: Psa 51:10-11 - -- In the second part, the prayer for justification is followed by the prayer for renewing. A clean heart that is not beclouded by sin and a consciousn...

Keil-Delitzsch: Psa 51:12-13 - -- In connection with רוּח נדיבה , the old expositors thought of נדיב , a noble, a prince, and נדיבה , nobility, high rank, Job 30:...

Keil-Delitzsch: Psa 51:14-17 - -- The third part now begins with a doubly urgent prayer. The invocation of God by the name Elohim is here made more urgent by the addition of אל...

Keil-Delitzsch: Psa 51:18-19 - -- From this spiritual sacrifice, well-pleasing to God, the Psalm now, in vv. 20f., comes back to the material sacrifices that are offered in a right s...

Constable: Psa 42:1--72:20 - --II. Book 2: chs. 42--72 In Book 1 we saw that all the psalms except 1, 2, 10, and 33 claimed David as their writ...

Constable: Psa 51:1-19 - --Psalm 51 In this psalm David confessed the sins he committed against Bathsheba and Uriah. It is a model ...

Constable: Psa 51:1 - --1. Prayer for gracious cleansing 51:1-2 51:1 David appealed to the Lord to cleanse him because of His loyal love and compassion. He knew he did not de...

Constable: Psa 51:1-4 - --2. Confession of gross sin 51:3-6 51:3 About a year had passed between David's sin of adultery and the time when he acknowledged his guilt. We know th...

Constable: Psa 51:5-10 - --3. Petition for renewed forgiveness 51:7-12 51:7 Again David pleaded for purification and cleansing (vv. 1-2). In Israel the priest sprinkled animal b...

Constable: Psa 51:11-15 - --4. Promise of grateful service 51:13-17 51:13 The promises David made in this section of verses gave God reasons to grant forgiveness so they were ind...

Constable: Psa 51:16-17 - --5. Request for Israel's prosperity 51:18-19 51:18 David extended his request for personal blessing to the nation under his authority. God had promised...

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Lainnya

Evidence: Psa 51:1-4 When a sinner is ready for salvation, he exhibits personal responsibility for his sins. In these four verses David uses the words me, my, and I ten ti...

Evidence: Psa 51:6 Civil law can search your house. It can search your car and even your person, but it cannot search the heart. Civil law cannot see human thoughts. God...

Evidence: Psa 51:7 " Direct my thoughts, words, and work. Wash away my sins in the immaculate Blood of the Lamb, and purge my heart by Thy Holy Spirit...Daily frame me m...

Evidence: Psa 51:10 Those who confess and forsake their sins are given a clean heart in Christ, and the fruit ofgenuine salvation is a concern for the lost. (See Psa 51:...

Evidence: Psa 51:13-17 " Transgressors" are those who have transgressed the Moral Law. It is the " schoolmaster" ( Gal 3:24 ) that teaches them that they are sinners in th...

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Pendahuluan / Garis Besar

JFB: Psalms (Pendahuluan Kitab) The Hebrew title of this book is Tehilim ("praises" or "hymns"), for a leading feature in its contents is praise, though the word occurs in the title ...

JFB: Psalms (Garis Besar) ALEPH. (Psa 119:1-8). This celebrated Psalm has several peculiarities. It is divided into twenty-two parts or stanzas, denoted by the twenty-two let...

TSK: Psalms (Pendahuluan Kitab) The Psalms have been the general song of the universal Church; and in their praise, all the Fathers have been unanimously eloquent. Men of all nation...

TSK: Psalms 51 (Pendahuluan Pasal) Overview Psa 51:1, David prays for remission of sins, whereof he makes a deep confession; Psa 51:6, He prays for sanctification; Psa 51:16, God de...

Poole: Psalms (Pendahuluan Kitab) OF PSALMS THE ARGUMENT The divine authority of this Book of PSALMS is so certain and evident, that it was never questioned in the church; which b...

MHCC: Psalms (Pendahuluan Kitab) David was the penman of most of the psalms, but some evidently were composed by other writers, and the writers of some are doubtful. But all were writ...

MHCC: Psalms 51 (Pendahuluan Pasal) (Psa 51:1-6) The psalmist prays for mercy, humbly confessing and lamenting his sins. (Psa 51:7-15) He pleads for pardon, that he may promote the glor...

Matthew Henry: Psalms (Pendahuluan Kitab) An Exposition, with Practical Observations, of The Book of Psalms We have now before us one of the choicest and most excellent parts of all the Old Te...

Matthew Henry: Psalms 51 (Pendahuluan Pasal) Though David penned this psalm upon a very particular occasion, yet, it is of as general use as any of David's psalms; it is the most eminent of th...

Constable: Psalms (Pendahuluan Kitab) Introduction Title The title of this book in the Hebrew Bible is Tehillim, which means...

Constable: Psalms (Garis Besar) Outline I. Book 1: chs. 1-41 II. Book 2: chs. 42-72 III. Book 3: chs. 73...

Constable: Psalms Psalms Bibliography Allen, Ronald B. "Evidence from Psalm 89." In A Case for Premillennialism: A New Consensus,...

Haydock: Psalms (Pendahuluan Kitab) THE BOOK OF PSALMS. INTRODUCTION. The Psalms are called by the Hebrew, Tehillim; that is, hymns of praise. The author, of a great part of ...

Gill: Psalms (Pendahuluan Kitab) INTRODUCTION TO PSALMS The title of this book may be rendered "the Book of Praises", or "Hymns"; the psalm which our Lord sung at the passover is c...

Gill: Psalms 51 (Pendahuluan Pasal) INTRODUCTION TO PSALM 51 To the chief Musician, A Psalm of David, when Nathan the prophet came unto him, after he had gone in to Bathsheba. The occ...

Advanced Commentary (Kamus, Lagu-Lagu Himne, Gambar, Ilustrasi Khotbah, Pertanyaan-Pertanyaan, dll)


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