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Teks -- Psalms 40:1-17 (NET)

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Konteks
Psalm 40
40:1 For the music director; By David, a psalm. I relied completely on the Lord, and he turned toward me and heard my cry for help. 40:2 He lifted me out of the watery pit, out of the slimy mud. He placed my feet on a rock and gave me secure footing. 40:3 He gave me reason to sing a new song, praising our God. May many see what God has done, so that they might swear allegiance to him and trust in the Lord! 40:4 How blessed is the one who trusts in the Lord and does not seek help from the proud or from liars! 40:5 O Lord, my God, you have accomplished many things; you have done amazing things and carried out your purposes for us. No one can thwart you! I want to declare them and talk about them, but they are too numerous to recount! 40:6 Receiving sacrifices and offerings are not your primary concern. You make that quite clear to me! You do not ask for burnt sacrifices and sin offerings. 40:7 Then I say, “Look! I come! What is written in the scroll pertains to me. 40:8 I want to do what pleases you, my God. Your law dominates my thoughts.” 40:9 I have told the great assembly about your justice. Look! I spare no words! O Lord, you know this is true. 40:10 I have not failed to tell about your justice; I spoke about your reliability and deliverance; I have not neglected to tell the great assembly about your loyal love and faithfulness. 40:11 O Lord, you do not withhold your compassion from me. May your loyal love and faithfulness continually protect me! 40:12 For innumerable dangers surround me. My sins overtake me so I am unable to see; they outnumber the hairs of my head so my strength fails me. 40:13 Please be willing, O Lord, to rescue me! O Lord, hurry and help me! 40:14 May those who are trying to snatch away my life be totally embarrassed and ashamed! May those who want to harm me be turned back and ashamed! 40:15 May those who say to me, “Aha! Aha!” be humiliated and disgraced! 40:16 May all those who seek you be happy and rejoice in you! May those who love to experience your deliverance say continually, “May the Lord be praised!” 40:17 I am oppressed and needy! May the Lord pay attention to me! You are my helper and my deliverer! O my God, do not delay!
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · David a son of Jesse of Judah; king of Israel,son of Jesse of Judah; king of Israel


Topik/Tema Kamus: Praise | PSALMS, BOOK OF | David | Jesus, The Christ | Seekers | Testimony | Prayer | Zeal | Offerings | Humiliation of Christ | Quotations and Allusions | Faith | MEDIATION; MEDIATOR | SACRIFICE, IN THE OLD TESTAMENT, 3 | Poetry | Desire | Atonement | Thankfulness | God | Word of God | selebihnya
Daftar Isi

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Wesley , JFB , Clarke , Calvin , Defender , TSK

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Poole , Haydock , Gill

Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki
NET Notes , Geneva Bible

Catatan Rentang Ayat
Maclaren , MHCC , Matthew Henry , Keil-Delitzsch , Constable

Lainnya
Evidence

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per frasa)

Wesley: Psa 40:2 - Pit Desperate dangers and calamities.

Desperate dangers and calamities.

Wesley: Psa 40:2 - Rock A place of strength and safety.

A place of strength and safety.

Wesley: Psa 40:2 - Established Kept me from falling into mischief.

Kept me from falling into mischief.

Wesley: Psa 40:3 - And fear Shall stand in awe of that God, whom they see to have so great power, either to save or to destroy.

Shall stand in awe of that God, whom they see to have so great power, either to save or to destroy.

Wesley: Psa 40:4 - The proud Or, the mighty, the great and proud potentates of the world, to whom most men are apt to look and trust.

Or, the mighty, the great and proud potentates of the world, to whom most men are apt to look and trust.

Wesley: Psa 40:4 - Turn From God, in whom alone they ought to trust.

From God, in whom alone they ought to trust.

Wesley: Psa 40:4 - To lies To lying vanities, such as worldly power and wisdom, and riches, and all other earthly things, or persons, in which men are prone to trust: which are ...

To lying vanities, such as worldly power and wisdom, and riches, and all other earthly things, or persons, in which men are prone to trust: which are called lies, because they promise more than they perform.

Wesley: Psa 40:5 - Many This verse seems to be interposed as a wall of partition, between that which David speaks in his own person, and that which he speaks in the person of...

This verse seems to be interposed as a wall of partition, between that which David speaks in his own person, and that which he speaks in the person of the Messiah, in the following verses.

Wesley: Psa 40:6 - Sacrifice These and the following words, may in an improper sense belong to the time of David; when God might be said, not to desire or require legal sacrifices...

These and the following words, may in an improper sense belong to the time of David; when God might be said, not to desire or require legal sacrifices comparatively. Thou didst desire obedience rather than sacrifices, but in a proper sense, they belong only to the person and times of the Messiah, and so the sense is, God did not desire or require them, for the satisfaction of his own justice, and the expiation of mens sins, which could not possibly be done by the blood of bulls or goats, but only by the blood of Christ, which was typified by them, and which Christ came into the world to shed, in pursuance of his father's will, as it here follows, Psa 40:7-8. So here is a prediction concerning the cessation of the legal sacrifice, and the substitution of a better instead of them.

Wesley: Psa 40:6 - Opened Heb. bored. I have devoted myself to thy perpetual service, and thou hast accepted of me as such, and signified so much by the boring of mine ears, ac...

Heb. bored. I have devoted myself to thy perpetual service, and thou hast accepted of me as such, and signified so much by the boring of mine ears, according to the law and custom in that case, Exo 21:5-6. The seventy Jewish interpreters, whom the apostle follows, Heb 10:5, translate these words, a body hast thou prepared me.

Wesley: Psa 40:7 - Them These words literally and truly belong to Christ, and the sense is this; seeing thou requirest a better sacrifice than those of the law, lo, I offer m...

These words literally and truly belong to Christ, and the sense is this; seeing thou requirest a better sacrifice than those of the law, lo, I offer myself to come, and I will in due time come, into the world, as this phrase is explained in divers places of scripture, and particularly Heb 10:5, where this place is expressly applied to Christ.

Wesley: Psa 40:7 - Volume These two words, volume and book are used of any writing, and both express the same thing. Now this volume of the book is the law of Moses, which is c...

These two words, volume and book are used of any writing, and both express the same thing. Now this volume of the book is the law of Moses, which is commonly and emphatically called the book, and was made up in the form of a roll or volume, as the Hebrew books generally were. And so this place manifestly points to Christ, concerning whom much is said in the books of Moses.

Wesley: Psa 40:8 - I delight This is eminently true, of Christ, and is here observed as an act of heroic obedience, that he not only resolved to do, but delighted in doing the wil...

This is eminently true, of Christ, and is here observed as an act of heroic obedience, that he not only resolved to do, but delighted in doing the will of God, or what God had commanded him, which was to die, and that a most shameful, and painful, and cursed death.

Wesley: Psa 40:8 - My heart I do not only understand it, but receive it with heartiest love, delighting both to meditate of it, and to yield obedience to it.

I do not only understand it, but receive it with heartiest love, delighting both to meditate of it, and to yield obedience to it.

Wesley: Psa 40:9 - Righteousness Thy faithfulness.

Thy faithfulness.

Wesley: Psa 40:9 - Great congregation In the most public and solemn assemblies: not only to the Jews, but also to all nations; to whom Christ preached by his apostles, as is observed Eph 2...

In the most public and solemn assemblies: not only to the Jews, but also to all nations; to whom Christ preached by his apostles, as is observed Eph 2:17.

Wesley: Psa 40:9 - Not refrained From preaching it, even to the face of mine enemies.

From preaching it, even to the face of mine enemies.

Wesley: Psa 40:11 - With hold not - David, having been transported by the spirit of God to the commemoration of the great mystery of the Messiah, he now seems to be led back b...

hold not - David, having been transported by the spirit of God to the commemoration of the great mystery of the Messiah, he now seems to be led back by the same spirit, to the consideration of his own case.

Wesley: Psa 40:12 - Taken hold Mens sins are figuratively said to take hold of them, as an officer takes hold of a man whom he arrests.

Mens sins are figuratively said to take hold of them, as an officer takes hold of a man whom he arrests.

Wesley: Psa 40:12 - To look Unto God or men, with any comfort: I am ashamed and confounded.

Unto God or men, with any comfort: I am ashamed and confounded.

Wesley: Psa 40:15 - Shame Their sinful and shameful actions.

Their sinful and shameful actions.

JFB: Psa 40:1-3 - -- In this Psalm a celebration of God's deliverance is followed by a profession of devotion to His service. Then follows a prayer for relief from imminen...

In this Psalm a celebration of God's deliverance is followed by a profession of devotion to His service. Then follows a prayer for relief from imminent dangers, involving the overthrow of enemies and the rejoicing of sympathizing friends. In Heb 10:5, &c., Paul quotes Psa 40:6-8 as the words of Christ, offering Himself as a better sacrifice. Some suppose Paul thus accommodated David's words to express Christ's sentiments. But the value of his quotation would be thus destroyed, as it would have no force in his argument, unless regarded by his readers as the original sense of the passage in the Old Testament. Others suppose the Psalm describes David's feelings in suffering and joy; but the language quoted by Paul, in the sense given by him, could not apply to David in any of his relations, for as a type the language is not adapted to describe any event or condition of David's career, and as an individual representing the pious generally, neither he nor they could properly use it (see on Psa 40:7, below). The Psalm must be taken then, as the sixteenth, to express the feelings of Christ's human nature. The difficulties pertinent to this view will be considered as they occur. (Psa. 40:1-17)

The figures for deep distress are illustrated in Jeremiah's history (Jer 38:6-12). Patience and trust manifested in distress, deliverance in answer to prayer, and the blessed effect of it in eliciting praise from God's true worshippers, teach us that Christ's suffering is our example, and His deliverance our encouragement (Heb 5:7-8; Heb 12:3; 1Pe 4:12-16).

JFB: Psa 40:1-3 - inclined (the ear, Psa 17:6), as if to catch the faintest sigh.

(the ear, Psa 17:6), as if to catch the faintest sigh.

JFB: Psa 40:3 - a new song (See on Psa 33:3).

(See on Psa 33:3).

JFB: Psa 40:3 - fear, and . . . trust Revere with love and faith.

Revere with love and faith.

JFB: Psa 40:4 - Blessed (Psa 1:1; Psa 2:12).

JFB: Psa 40:4 - respecteth Literally, "turns towards," as an object of confidence.

Literally, "turns towards," as an object of confidence.

JFB: Psa 40:4 - turn aside From true God and His law to falsehood in worship and conduct.

From true God and His law to falsehood in worship and conduct.

JFB: Psa 40:5 - be reckoned up in order (compare Psa 5:3; Psa 33:14; Isa 44:7), too many to be set forth regularly. This is but one instance of many. The use of the plural accords with the u...

(compare Psa 5:3; Psa 33:14; Isa 44:7), too many to be set forth regularly. This is but one instance of many. The use of the plural accords with the union of Christ and His people. In suffering and triumph, they are one with Him.

JFB: Psa 40:6-8 - -- In Paul's view this passage has more meaning than the mere expression of grateful devotion to God's service. He represents Christ as declaring that th...

In Paul's view this passage has more meaning than the mere expression of grateful devotion to God's service. He represents Christ as declaring that the sacrifices, whether vegetable or animal, general or special expiatory offerings, would not avail to meet the demands of God's law, and that He had come to render the required satisfaction, which he states was effected by "the offering of the body of Christ" [Heb 10:10], for that is the "will of God" which Christ came to fulfil or do, in order to effect man's redemption. We thus see that the contrast to the unsatisfactory character assigned the Old Testament offerings in Psa 40:6 is found in the compliance with God's law (compare Psa 40:7-8). Of course, as Paul and other New Testament writers explain Christ's work, it consisted in more than being made under the law or obeying its precepts. It required an "obedience unto death" [Phi 2:8], and that is the compliance here chiefly intended, and which makes the contrast with Psa 40:6 clear.

JFB: Psa 40:6-8 - mine ears hast thou opened Whether allusion is made to the custom of boring a servant's ear, in token of voluntary and perpetual enslavement (Exo 21:6), or that the opening of t...

Whether allusion is made to the custom of boring a servant's ear, in token of voluntary and perpetual enslavement (Exo 21:6), or that the opening of the ear, as in Isa 48:8; Isa 50:5 (though by a different word in Hebrew) denotes obedience by the common figure of hearing for obeying, it is evident that the clause is designed to express a devotion to God's will as avowed more fully in Psa 40:8, and already explained. Paul, however, uses the words, "a body hast thou prepared me" [Heb 10:5], which are found in the Septuagint in the place of the words, "mine ears hast thou opened." He does not lay any stress on this clause, and his argument is complete without it. It is, perhaps, to be regarded rather as an interpretation or free translation by the Septuagint, than either an addition or attempt at verbal translation. The Septuagint translators may have had reference to Christ's vicarious sufferings as taught in other Scriptures, as in Isa 53:4-11; at all events, the sense is substantially the same, as a body was essential to the required obedience (compare Rom 7:4; 1Pe 2:24).

JFB: Psa 40:7 - Then In such case, without necessarily referring to order of time.

In such case, without necessarily referring to order of time.

JFB: Psa 40:7 - Lo, I come I am prepared to do, &c.

I am prepared to do, &c.

JFB: Psa 40:7 - in the volume of the book Roll of the book. Such rolls, resembling maps, are still used in the synagogues.

Roll of the book. Such rolls, resembling maps, are still used in the synagogues.

JFB: Psa 40:7 - written of me Or on me, prescribed to me (2Ki 22:13). The first is the sense adopted by Paul. In either case, the Pentateuch, or law of Moses, is meant, and while i...

Or on me, prescribed to me (2Ki 22:13). The first is the sense adopted by Paul. In either case, the Pentateuch, or law of Moses, is meant, and while it contains much respecting Christ directly, as Gen 3:15; Gen 49:10; Deu 18:15, and, indirectly, in the Levitical ritual, there is nowhere any allusion to David.

JFB: Psa 40:9-10 - I have preached Literally, "announced good tidings." Christ's prophetical office is taught. He "preached" the great truths of God's government of sinners.

Literally, "announced good tidings." Christ's prophetical office is taught. He "preached" the great truths of God's government of sinners.

JFB: Psa 40:11 - -- May be rendered as an assertion, that God will not withhold (Psa 16:1).

May be rendered as an assertion, that God will not withhold (Psa 16:1).

JFB: Psa 40:12 - evils Inflicted by others.

Inflicted by others.

JFB: Psa 40:12 - iniquities Or penal afflictions, and sometimes calamities in the wide sense. This meaning of the word is very common (Psa 31:11; Psa 38:4; compare Gen 4:13, Cain...

Or penal afflictions, and sometimes calamities in the wide sense. This meaning of the word is very common (Psa 31:11; Psa 38:4; compare Gen 4:13, Cain's punishment; Gen 19:15, that of Sodom; 1Sa 28:10, of the witch of En-dor; also 2Sa 16:12; Job 19:29; Isa 5:18; Isa 53:11). This meaning of the word is also favored by the clause, "taken hold of me," which follows, which can be said appropriately of sufferings, but not of sins (compare Job 27:20; Psa 69:24). Thus, the difficulties in referring this Psalm to Christ, arising from the usual reading of this verse, are removed. Of the terrible afflictions, or sufferings, alluded to and endured for us, compare Luk 22:39-44, and the narrative of the scenes of Calvary.

JFB: Psa 40:12 - my heart faileth me (Mat 26:38), "My soul is exceeding sorrowful, even unto death."

(Mat 26:38), "My soul is exceeding sorrowful, even unto death."

JFB: Psa 40:12 - cannot look up Literally, "I cannot see," not denoting the depression of conscious guilt, as Luk 18:13, but exhaustion from suffering, as dimness of eyes (compare Ps...

Literally, "I cannot see," not denoting the depression of conscious guilt, as Luk 18:13, but exhaustion from suffering, as dimness of eyes (compare Psa 6:7; Psa 13:3; Psa 38:10). The whole context thus sustains the sense assigned to iniquities.

JFB: Psa 40:13 - -- (Compare Psa 22:19).

(Compare Psa 22:19).

JFB: Psa 40:14-15 - -- The language is not necessarily imprecatory, but rather a confident expectation (Psa 5:11), though the former sense is not inconsistent with Christ's ...

The language is not necessarily imprecatory, but rather a confident expectation (Psa 5:11), though the former sense is not inconsistent with Christ's prayer for the forgiveness of His murderers, inasmuch as their confusion and shame might be the very means to prepare them for humbly seeking forgiveness (compare Act 2:37).

JFB: Psa 40:15 - for a reward Literally, "in consequence of."

Literally, "in consequence of."

JFB: Psa 40:15 - Aha (Compare Psa 35:21, Psa 35:25).

(Compare Psa 35:21, Psa 35:25).

JFB: Psa 40:16 - -- (Compare Psa 35:27).

(Compare Psa 35:27).

JFB: Psa 40:16 - love thy salvation Delight in its bestowal on others as well as themselves.

Delight in its bestowal on others as well as themselves.

JFB: Psa 40:17 - -- A summary of his condition and hopes.

A summary of his condition and hopes.

JFB: Psa 40:17 - thinketh upon Or provides for me. "He was heard," "when he had offered up prayers and supplications with strong crying and tears, unto Him that was able to save him...

Or provides for me. "He was heard," "when he had offered up prayers and supplications with strong crying and tears, unto Him that was able to save him from death" [Heb 5:7].

Clarke: Psa 40:1 - I waited patiently for the Lord I waited patiently for the Lord - The two preceding Psalms are proofs of the patience and resignation with which David waited for the mercy of God. ...

I waited patiently for the Lord - The two preceding Psalms are proofs of the patience and resignation with which David waited for the mercy of God. The reader is requested to consult the notes on them

Clarke: Psa 40:1 - And heard my cry And heard my cry - The two preceding Psalms show how he prayed and waited; this shows how he succeeded.

And heard my cry - The two preceding Psalms show how he prayed and waited; this shows how he succeeded.

Clarke: Psa 40:2 - A horrible pit A horrible pit - Literally, the sounding pit; where nothing was heard except the howlings of wild beasts, or the hollow sounds of winds reverberated...

A horrible pit - Literally, the sounding pit; where nothing was heard except the howlings of wild beasts, or the hollow sounds of winds reverberated and broken from the craggy sides and roof

Clarke: Psa 40:2 - The miry clay The miry clay - Where the longer I stayed the deeper I sank, and was utterly unable to save myself. The Syriac and Arabic translate "The pit of perd...

The miry clay - Where the longer I stayed the deeper I sank, and was utterly unable to save myself. The Syriac and Arabic translate "The pit of perdition, and the mud of corruption."These are figurative expressions to point out the dreary, dismal, ruinous state of sin and guilt, and the utter inability of a condemned sinner to save himself either from the guilt of his conscience, or the corruption of his heart

Clarke: Psa 40:2 - Set my feet upon a rock Set my feet upon a rock - Thou hast changed my state from guilt to pardon; from corruption to holiness; in consequence of which my goings are establ...

Set my feet upon a rock - Thou hast changed my state from guilt to pardon; from corruption to holiness; in consequence of which my goings are established. I have now power over all sin, and can walk steadily in the way that leads to God’ s kingdom.

Clarke: Psa 40:3 - A new song A new song - Cheerfulness and joy had long been strangers to him. He seemed to live to utter the most doleful complaints, and be a prey to suffering...

A new song - Cheerfulness and joy had long been strangers to him. He seemed to live to utter the most doleful complaints, and be a prey to suffering and wretchedness. Praise for a sense of God’ s favor was a new song to him. The word is often used to signify excellence: I will sing a most excellent and eminent song

Clarke: Psa 40:3 - Many shalt see it Many shalt see it - I will publish it abroad and fear-to sin against the Lord, knowing by my example what a grievous and bitter thing it is

Many shalt see it - I will publish it abroad and fear-to sin against the Lord, knowing by my example what a grievous and bitter thing it is

Clarke: Psa 40:3 - And shall trust in the Lord And shall trust in the Lord - Even the worst of sinners shall not despair of mercy, being penitent, when they see that I have found favor in his sig...

And shall trust in the Lord - Even the worst of sinners shall not despair of mercy, being penitent, when they see that I have found favor in his sight.

Clarke: Psa 40:4 - Blessed is that man Blessed is that man - The man must be blessed and happy who casts his soul with all its burden of sin and wretchedness, at the footstool of God̵...

Blessed is that man - The man must be blessed and happy who casts his soul with all its burden of sin and wretchedness, at the footstool of God’ s mercy; for he will save all who come to him through the Son of his love.

Clarke: Psa 40:5 - Many - are thy wonderful works Many - are thy wonderful works - The psalmist seems here astonished and confounded at the counsels, loving-kindnesses, and marvellous works of the L...

Many - are thy wonderful works - The psalmist seems here astonished and confounded at the counsels, loving-kindnesses, and marvellous works of the Lord, not in nature, but in grace; for it was the mercy of God towards himself that he had now particularly in view.

Clarke: Psa 40:6 - Sacrifice and offering Sacrifice and offering - The apostle, Heb 10:5, etc., quoting this and the two following verses, says, When he (the Messiah) cometh into the world -...

Sacrifice and offering - The apostle, Heb 10:5, etc., quoting this and the two following verses, says, When he (the Messiah) cometh into the world - was about to be incarnated, He saith - to God the Father, Sacrifice and offering thou wouldst not - it was never thy will and design that the sacrifices under thy own law should be considered as making atonement for sin; they were only designed to point out my incarnation and consequent sacrificial death: and therefore a body hast thou prepared me, by a miraculous conception in the womb of a virgin; according to thy word, The seed of the woman shall bruise the head of the serpent

Clarke: Psa 40:6 - A body hast thou prepared me A body hast thou prepared me - The quotation of this and the two following verses by the apostle, Heb 10:5, etc., is taken from the Septuagint, with...

A body hast thou prepared me - The quotation of this and the two following verses by the apostle, Heb 10:5, etc., is taken from the Septuagint, with scarcely any variety of reading: but, although the general meaning is the same, they are widely different in verbal expression in the Hebrew. David’ s words are אזנים כרית לי oznayim caritha lli , which we translate, My ears hast thou opened; but they might be more properly rendered, My ears hast thou bored; that is, Thou hast made me thy servant for ever, to dwell in thine own house: for the allusion is evidently to the custom mentioned Exo 21:2, etc.: "If thou buy a Hebrew servant, six years he shall serve, and in the seventh he shall go out free: but if the servant shall positively say, I love my master, etc., I will not go out free; then his master shall bring him to the doorpost, and shall bore his ear through with an awl, and he shall serve him for ever.

But how is it possible that the Septuagint and the apostle should take a meaning so totally different from the sense of the Hebrew? Dr. Kennicott has a very ingenious conjecture here: he supposes that the Septuagint and apostle express the meaning of the words as they stood in the copy from which the Greek translation was made; and that the present Hebrew text is corrupted in the word אזנים oznayim , ears, which has been written through carelessness for אז גוה az gevah , Then, a Body The first syllable, אז az , Then, is the same in both; and the latter, Myn, which, joined to אז makes אזנים oznayim , might have been easily mistaken for גוה gevah , Body; נ nun being very like ג gimel ; י yod like ו vau ; and h he like final ם mem ; especially if the line on which the letters were written in the MS. happened to be blacker than ordinary, which has often been a cause of mistake, it might then have been easily taken for the under-stroke of the mem, and thus give rise to a corrupt reading; add to this, the root כרה carah signifies as well to prepare, as to open, bore, etc. On this supposition the ancient copy translated by the Septuagint, and followed by the apostle, must have read the text thus: אז גוה כרית לי az gevah charitha lli ; Σωμα δε κατηρτισω μοι· Then a body thou hast prepared me: thus the Hebrew text, the version of the Septuagint, and the apostle, will agree in what is known to be an indisputable fact in Christianity; namely, that Christ was incarnated for the sin of the world

The Ethiopic has nearly the same reading: the Arabic has both, "A body hast thou prepared me, and mine ears thou hast opened."But the Syriac, the Chaldee, and the Vulgate, agree with the present Hebrew text; and none of the MSS. collated by Kennicott and De Rossi have any various reading on the disputed words

It is remarkable, that all the offerings and sacrifices which were considered to be of an atoning or cleansing nature, offered under the law, are here enumerated by the psalmist and the apostle, to show that none of them, nor all of them, could take away sin; and that the grand sacrifice of Christ was that alone which could do it

Four kinds are here specified, both by the psalmist and the apostle: viz. Sacrifice, זבח zebach , θυσια ; Offering, מנחה minchah , προσφορα ; Burnt-Offering, עולה olah , ὁλοκαυτωμα ; Sin-Offering, חטאה chataah , περι ἁμαρτιας . Of all these we may say, with the apostle, it was impossible that the blood of bulls and goats, etc. should take away sin

Clarke: Psa 40:6 - Thou hast had no pleasure Thou hast had no pleasure - Thou couldst never be pleased with the victims under the law; thou couldst never consider them as atonements for sin, as...

Thou hast had no pleasure - Thou couldst never be pleased with the victims under the law; thou couldst never consider them as atonements for sin, as they could never satisfy thy justice, nor make thy law honorable.

Clarke: Psa 40:7 - In the volume of the book In the volume of the book - במגלת ספר bimegillath sepher , "in the roll of the book."Anciently, books were written on skins, and rolled up....

In the volume of the book - במגלת ספר bimegillath sepher , "in the roll of the book."Anciently, books were written on skins, and rolled up. Among the Romans, these were called volumina, from volvo, I roll; and the Pentateuch in the Jewish synagogues is still written in this way. There are two wooden rollers; on one they roll on, on the other they roll off, as they proceed in reading. One now lying before me, written on vellum, is two feet two inches in breadth and one hundred and two feet long. To roll and unroll such a MS. was no easy task, and to be managed must lie flat on a table. This contains the Pentateuch only, and is without points, or any other Masoretic distinction. The book mentioned here must be the Pentateuch, or five books of Moses; for, in David’ s time no other part of Divine revelation had been committed to writing. This whole book speaks about Christ, and his accomplishing the will of God, not only in "the seed of the woman shall bruise the head of the serpent,"and "in thy seed shall all the nations of the earth be blessed;"but in all the sacrifices and sacrificial rites mentioned in the law.

Clarke: Psa 40:8 - To do thy will To do thy will - God willed not the sacrifices under the law, but he willed that a human victim of infinite merit should be offered for the redempti...

To do thy will - God willed not the sacrifices under the law, but he willed that a human victim of infinite merit should be offered for the redemption of mankind. That there might be such a victim, a body was prepared for the eternal Logos, and in that body he came to do the will of God; that is, to suffer and die for the sins of the world

1.    Hence we see that the sovereign Will of God is that Jesus should be incarnated; that he should suffer and die; or, in the apostle’ s words, taste death for every man; that all should believe on him, and be saved from their sins; for this is the Will of God, our sanctification

2.    And as the apostle grounds this on the words of the Psalm, we see that it is the Will of God that that system shall end; for as the essence of it is contained in its sacrifices, and God says he will not have these, and has appointed the Messiah to do his will, i.e., to die for men, hence it necessarily follows, from the psalmist himself, that the introduction of the Messiah into the world is the abolition of the law; and that his sacrifice is that which shall last for ever.

Clarke: Psa 40:9 - I have preached righteousness I have preached righteousness - I think it best to refer these words to Christ and his apostles. In consequence of his having become a sacrifice for...

I have preached righteousness - I think it best to refer these words to Christ and his apostles. In consequence of his having become a sacrifice for sin, the Jewish sacrificial system being ended, the middle wall of partition was broken down, and the door of faith, the doctrine of justification by faith, opened to the Gentiles. Hence the Gospel was preached in all the world, and the mercy of God made known to the Gentiles; and thus righteousness - justification by faith, was preached in the great congregation - to Jews and Gentiles, throughout the Roman empire

The great congregation, both in this and the following verse, I think, means the Gentiles, contradistinguished from the Jews

Clarke: Psa 40:9 - The word righteousness means the plan or method of salvation by Jesus Christ The word righteousness means the plan or method of salvation by Jesus Christ - God’ s method of justifying sinners by faith, without the deeds ...

The word righteousness means the plan or method of salvation by Jesus Christ - God’ s method of justifying sinners by faith, without the deeds of the law. See Rom 3:25-26 (note), and the notes there.

Clarke: Psa 40:10 - Thy faithfulness Thy faithfulness - This means the exact fulfillment of the promises made by the prophets relative to the incarnation of Christ, and the opening of t...

Thy faithfulness - This means the exact fulfillment of the promises made by the prophets relative to the incarnation of Christ, and the opening of the door of faith to the Gentiles

Clarke: Psa 40:10 - Loving-kindness Loving-kindness - Shows the gift itself of Jesus Christ, the highest proof that God could give to a lost world of his mercy, kindness, and loving-ki...

Loving-kindness - Shows the gift itself of Jesus Christ, the highest proof that God could give to a lost world of his mercy, kindness, and loving-kindness.

Clarke: Psa 40:11 - Thy tender mercies Thy tender mercies - רחמיך rachameycha , such propensities and feelings as a mother bears to her child; or animals in general to their young

Thy tender mercies - רחמיך rachameycha , such propensities and feelings as a mother bears to her child; or animals in general to their young

Clarke: Psa 40:11 - Let thy loving-kindness Let thy loving-kindness - חסדך chasdecha , thy overflowing and superabundant mercy

Let thy loving-kindness - חסדך chasdecha , thy overflowing and superabundant mercy

Clarke: Psa 40:11 - And thy truth And thy truth - What is revealed in thy word: continually preserve me. Mercy to help me, truth to direct me; and, by the operation of both, I shall ...

And thy truth - What is revealed in thy word: continually preserve me. Mercy to help me, truth to direct me; and, by the operation of both, I shall be continually preserved from sin and evil.

Clarke: Psa 40:12 - Innumerable evils have compassed me about Innumerable evils have compassed me about - This part does not comport with the preceding; and either argues a former experience, or must be conside...

Innumerable evils have compassed me about - This part does not comport with the preceding; and either argues a former experience, or must be considered a part of another Psalm, written at a different time, and on another occasion, and, were we to prefix the two first verses of the seventieth Psalm to it we should find it to be a Psalm as complete in itself as that is

Clarke: Psa 40:12 - They are more than the hairs of mine head They are more than the hairs of mine head - This could not be said by any person who was exulting in the pardoning mercy of God, as David was at the...

They are more than the hairs of mine head - This could not be said by any person who was exulting in the pardoning mercy of God, as David was at the time he penned the commencement of this Psalm.

Clarke: Psa 40:15 - That say unto me, Aha, aha That say unto me, Aha, aha - האח האח . See on Psa 35:21 (note).

That say unto me, Aha, aha - האח האח . See on Psa 35:21 (note).

Clarke: Psa 40:16 - Let all those that seek thee - be glad Let all those that seek thee - be glad - In making prayer and supplication to thee, let them ever find thee, that they may magnify thee for the bles...

Let all those that seek thee - be glad - In making prayer and supplication to thee, let them ever find thee, that they may magnify thee for the blessings they receive

Clarke: Psa 40:16 - Love thy salvation Love thy salvation - Who earnestly desire to be saved from sin: saved in thy own way, and on thy own terms

Love thy salvation - Who earnestly desire to be saved from sin: saved in thy own way, and on thy own terms

Clarke: Psa 40:16 - The Lord be magnified The Lord be magnified - Let God be praised continually for the continual blessings he pours down.

The Lord be magnified - Let God be praised continually for the continual blessings he pours down.

Clarke: Psa 40:17 - But I am poor But I am poor - עני ani , afflicted, greatly depressed

But I am poor - עני ani , afflicted, greatly depressed

Clarke: Psa 40:17 - And needy And needy - אביון ebyon , a beggar. One utterly destitute, and seeking help

And needy - אביון ebyon , a beggar. One utterly destitute, and seeking help

Clarke: Psa 40:17 - The Lord thinketh upon me The Lord thinketh upon me - The words are very emphatic; אדני Adonai , my prop, my support, thinketh, יחשב yachshab , meditateth, upon me....

The Lord thinketh upon me - The words are very emphatic; אדני Adonai , my prop, my support, thinketh, יחשב yachshab , meditateth, upon me. On which he concludes: "Thou art my help and deliverer."Seeing that my miserable state occupies thy heart, it will soon employ thy hand. Thou, who meditatest upon me, wilt deliver me

Clarke: Psa 40:17 - Make no tarrying Make no tarrying - Seeing thou art disposed to help, and I am in such great necessity, delay not, but come speedily to my assistance. The old Psalte...

Make no tarrying - Seeing thou art disposed to help, and I am in such great necessity, delay not, but come speedily to my assistance. The old Psalter speaks to this effect: "Let us not be so long under distress and misery that we lose our patience, or our love to thee.

Calvin: Psa 40:1 - In waiting I waited 1.In waiting I waited The beginning of this psalm is an expression of thanksgiving, in which David relates that he had been delivered, not only from ...

1.In waiting I waited The beginning of this psalm is an expression of thanksgiving, in which David relates that he had been delivered, not only from danger, but also from present death. Some are of opinion, but without good reason, that it ought to be understood of sickness. It is rather to be supposed that David here comprehends a multitude of dangers from which he had escaped. He had certainly been more than once exposed to the greatest danger, even of death, so that, with good reason, he might be said to have been swallowed up in the gulf of death, and sunk in the miry clay It, nevertheless, appears that his faith had still continued firm, for he ceased not to trust in God, although the long continuance of the calamity had well nigh exhausted his patience. He tells us, not merely that he had waited, but by the repetition of the same expression, he shows that he had been a long time in anxious suspense. In proportion then as his trial was prolonged, the evidence and proof of his faith in enduring the delay with calmness and equanimity of mind was so much the more apparent. The meaning in short is, that although God delayed his help, yet the heart of David did not faint, or grow weary from delay; but that after he had given, as it were, sufficient proof of his patience, he was at length heard. In his example there is set before us this very useful doctrine, that although God may not forthwith appear for our help, but rather of design keep us in suspense and perplexity, yet we must not lose courage, inasmuch as faith is not thoroughly tried, except by long endurance. The result, too, of which he speaks in terms of praise, ought to inspire us with increased fortitude. God may succor us more slowly than we desire, but, when he seems to take no notice of our condition, or, if we might so speak, when he seems to be inactive or to sleep, this is totally different from deceit: for if we are enabled by the invincible strength and power of faith to endure, the fitting season of our deliverance will at length arrive.

Calvin: Psa 40:2 - And he drew me out of the roaring pit 2.And he drew me out of the roaring pit Some translate, from the pit of desolation, 80 because the verb שאה , shaah, from which the noun שא...

2.And he drew me out of the roaring pit Some translate, from the pit of desolation, 80 because the verb שאה , shaah, from which the noun שאום , shaon, is derived, signifies to destroy or to waste, as well as to resound or echo. But it is more appropriate to consider that there is here an allusion to the deep gulfs, where the waters gush with a tumultuous force. 81 By this similitude he shows that he was placed in as imminent peril of death as if he had been cast into a deep pit, roaring with the impetuous rage of waters. To the same purpose also is the similitude of the miry clay, by which he intimates that he had been so nearly overwhelmed by the weight of his calamities, that it was no easy matter to extricate him from them. Next, there follows a sudden and incredible change, by which he makes manifest to all the greatness of the grace which had been bestowed upon him. He declares that his feet were set upon a rock, whereas formerly he had been overwhelmed with water; and that his steps were established or upheld, whereas before they were not only unsteady and slippery, but were also stuck fast in the mire.

Calvin: Psa 40:3 - And he hath put into my mouth a new song // Many shall see it 3.And he hath put into my mouth a new song In the first clause of the verse he concludes the description of what God had done for him. By God’s put...

3.And he hath put into my mouth a new song In the first clause of the verse he concludes the description of what God had done for him. By God’s putting a new song into his mouth he denotes the consummation of his deliverance. In whatever way God is pleased to succor us, he asks nothing else from us in return but that we should be thankful for and remember it. As often, therefore, as he bestows benefits upon us, so often does he open our mouths to praise his name. Since God, by acting liberally towards us, encourages us to sing his praises, David with good reason reckons, that having been so wonderfully delivered, the matter of a new song had been furnished to him. He uses the word new in the sense of exquisite and not ordinary, even as the manner of his deliverance was singular and worthy of everlasting remembrance. It is true, that there is no benefit of God so small that it ought not to call forth our highest praises; but the more mightily he stretches forth his hand to help us, the more does it become us to stir up ourselves to fervent zeal in this holy exercise, so that our songs may correspond to the greatness of the favor which has been conferred upon us.

Many shall see it Here the Psalmist extends still farther the fruit of the aid which he had experienced, telling us, that it will prove the means of instruction common to all. And certainly it is the will of God that the benefits which he bestows upon any individual of the faithful should be proofs of the goodness which he constantly exercises towards all of them, so that the one, instructed by the example of the other, should not doubt that the same grace will be manifested towards himself. The terms fear, and hope, or trust, do not seem at first view to harmonise; but David has not improperly joined them together; for no man will ever entertain the hope of the favor of God but he whose mind is first imbued with the fear of God. I understand fear in general to mean the feeling of piety which is produced in us by the knowledge of the power, equity, and mercy of God. The judgment which God executed against the enemies of David served, it is true, to inspire all men with fear; but, in my opinion, David rather means, that by the deliverance which he had obtained, many would be induced to yield themselves to the service of God, and to submit with all reverence to his authority, because they would know him to be the Judge of the world. Now, whoever submits cordially to the will of God will of necessity join hope with fear; especially when there is presented to his view the evidence of the grace by which God commonly allures all men to himself; for I have already said that God is presented to our view as merciful and kind to others, that we may assure ourselves that he will be the same towards us. As to the word see, of which David makes use, we are to understand it as referring not only to the eyes, but chiefly to the perception of the mind. All without distinction saw what had happened, but to many of them it never occurred to recognize the deliverance of David as the work of God. Since, then, so many are blind regarding the works of God, let us learn, that those only are considered to see clearly to whom the Spirit of understanding has been given, that they may not occupy their minds in dwelling upon the mere events which take place, but may discern in them by faith the secret hand of God.

Calvin: Psa 40:4 - Blessed is the man who hath set Jehovah for his confidence 4.Blessed is the man who hath set Jehovah for his confidence David here relates what ground for good hope his deliverance would give to all the faith...

4.Blessed is the man who hath set Jehovah for his confidence David here relates what ground for good hope his deliverance would give to all the faithful; inasmuch as, setting aside all the allurements of the world, they would thereby be encouraged to commit themselves with confidence to the protection of God; persuaded not only that they are happy who trust in him alone, but that all other expectations at variance with this are deceitful and cursed. This assurance is not natural to us, but is derived partly from the word of God, and partly from his works; although, as I have said before, the contemplation alone of the works of God would not kindle this light within us, unless God, illuminating us by his word, should show us his benevolence. After having promised to be gracious to us, in manifesting also his goodness by indubitable proofs, he confirms with his own hand what he had previously uttered with his lips. David, therefore, from the fact of his having been restored to life from the abyss of death, justly declares that the faithful are taught from this proof — what men are naturally so reluctant to believe — that they are happy who trust in God alone.

As the instability of our nature commonly tends to draw us downward, and as all of us, from our proneness to yield to delusions, are tempted by many wicked examples, David immediately adds, that he is blessed who regardeth not the proud Some, indeed, render רהבים , rehabim, the rich, or the great of this world, but improperly, in my opinion; because pride, and turning aside to lies, are two things which David here joins together. To regard the great of the earth, therefore, does not signify, as they suppose, to rely upon their power and riches, as if a man’s welfare depended thereupon, but it rather means to be carried away by their examples, to imitate their conduct. When we are everywhere constantly seeing men puffed up with pride, who despise God, and place their highest felicity in ambition, in fraud, in extortion, in guile, a perverse desire of imitating them steals upon us by degrees; and, especially when every thing turns out according to their wishes, a vain and delusive expectation solicits us to try the same course. David, therefore, wisely, and not without good reason, warns us, that in order to have our mind constantly fixed in simple reliance upon God alone, we must guard against those evil examples which ever seek to allure us on all sides to apostatise from him. Moreover, when he says that the proud turn aside to lying, or vanity, 84 in this way he describes briefly the foolish confidence of the flesh. What else is the pride of those who put their own fancies in the place of God but a vain illusion? Certainly the man who, puffed up by the breath of fond conceit, arrogates any thing in the least degree to himself, flatters himself to his own destruction. In short, pride and vanity are opposed to the holy confidence which relies upon God alone; for there is nothing more difficult to the flesh than to trust in God alone, and the world is always full of proud and haughty men, who, soothing themselves with vain allurements, would soon corrupt the minds of the godly, if this arrest were not laid upon them, to restrain, as with a bridle, their erroneous and extravagant opinions.

Calvin: Psa 40:5 - Many are thy wonderful works which thou hast done, O Jehovah! 5.Many are thy wonderful works which thou hast done, O Jehovah! Interpreters are not entirely agreed as to these words; but it is generally admitted ...

5.Many are thy wonderful works which thou hast done, O Jehovah! Interpreters are not entirely agreed as to these words; but it is generally admitted that David here contemplates with admiration the providence of God in the government of mankind. And first of all, he exclaims that the wonders of God’s works are great or many; 85 meaning by this, that God in his inscrutable wisdom so governs human affairs, that his works, which come to be little thought of by men, from their constant familiarity with them, far surpass the comprehension of the human understanding. Thus we find, that from one particular species he ascends to the whole class; as if he had said, God has proved not only by this particular act the paternal care which he exercises towards men, but that, in general, his wonderful providence shines forth in the several parts of creation. Then he adds, that the counsels of God concerning us are so high and so hidden, that it is impossible to reckon them up in order distinctly and agreeably to their nature. Some think that the word אלינו , elenu, towards us, is employed by way of comparison, in this sense, The counsels of God are far beyond the reach of our understanding, (but David rather commends the care which God vouchsafes to take of us;) and as, in this way, the connection of the words is broken, they are constrained to render the word ערוד , aroch, which I have rendered to count in order, differently, namely, that none is equal to God, or can be compared with him. 86 But that I may not enter upon any lengthened refutation, the intelligent reader will agree with me in considering that the true meaning is this: That God, by his incomprehensible wisdom, governs the world in such a manner that we cannot reckon up his works in their proper order, seeing our minds, through their very dulness, fail us before we can reach to so great a height. It follows, to thee, for although we should in so far reflect how wonderfully the Lord can make provision for our wants, yet this consideration is limited by the imperfection of our understanding: and hence it falls far short of the infinite glory of God. Those who give this explanation, that the counsels of God are not referred to him, because the greatest part of men imagine that every thing is subject to chance and fortune, as if David meant in passing to censure the ingratitude of those who defraud God of his praise, are no doubt mistaken as to the meaning. In stating, as David does, immediately after, that however much he might set himself to rehearse the works of God, he yet would fail ere he could declare the half of them; — in stating this he shows with sufficient plainness that the godly and devout meditation, in which the children of God are often engaged, gives them only, as it were, a slight taste of them and nothing more. We have now arrived then at the Psalmist’s meaning. Having spoken before of the deliverance which God had vouchsafed to him, he takes occasion from it to set forth the general providence of God in nourishing and sustaining men. It is also his design in this to exhort the faithful to a consideration of God’s providence, that they may not hesitate to cast all their cares upon it. Whilst some are in constant pain by reason of their own anxiety and discontent, or quake at the slightest breeze that blows, and others labor hard to fortify and preserve their life by means of earthly succours, — all this proceeds from ignorance of the doctrine, that God governs the affairs of this world according to his own good pleasure. And as the great majority of men, measuring the providence of God by their own understanding, wickedly obscure or degrade it, David, placing it on its proper footing, wisely removes this impediment. The meaning of the sentence, therefore, amounts to this, that in the works of God men should reverently admire what they cannot comprehend by their reason; and whenever the flesh moves them to contradiction or murmuring, they should raise themselves above the world. If God cease to work, he seems to be asleep, because, binding up his hands to the use of outward means, we do not consider that he works by means which are secret. We may therefore learn from this place, that although the reason of his works may be hidden or unknown to us, he is nevertheless wonderful in his counsels.

This verse is closely connected with the preceding. No man places, as he ought, entire trust in God, but he who, shutting his eyes upon external circumstances, suffers himself to be governed by him according to his good pleasure. Moreover, having spoken hitherto in the third person, David now suddenly addresses his discourse, not, however, unadvisedly, to God, that he might lead us the more effectually to this sobriety and discretion. When, however, he affirms that the works of God cannot be distinctly known by us, it is not for the purpose of deterring us from seeking the knowledge of them, or from the examination of them, but only to lay a restraint upon our rashness, which would otherwise go beyond the proper boundaries in this respect. To this end, the words to thee, or before thee, are expressly employed, by which we are admonished that however diligently a man may set himself to meditate upon the works of God, he can only attain to the extremities or borders of them. Although then so great a height be far above our reach, we must, notwithstanding, endeavor, as much as in us lies, to approach it more and more by continual advances; as we see also the hand of God stretched forth to disclose to us, so far as it is expedient, those wonders, which we are unable of ourselves to discover. There is nothing so preposterous as to affect, of one’s own accord, a gross ignorance of the providence of God, because as yet we cannot comprehend it perfectly, but only discern it in part; even as at this day we find some who employ all their endeavors to bury it in oblivion, for no other pretense than that it surpasses our understanding, as if it were unreasonable to allow to God anything more than what appears right and proper, according to our carnal reason. David acts very differently regarding it. Feeling all his senses absorbed by an inconceivable majesty and brightness, which he could not bear to look upon, 87 he confesses frankly that these are wonderful things of which he could not comprehend the reason; but still he does not abstain wholly and everywhere from making mention of them, but, according to the measure of his capacity, sets himself devoutly to meditate upon them. From this we learn how foolish and vain a thing it is to say, by way of caution, that none should speak of the counsels or purposes of God, because they are high and incomprehensible. David, on the contrary, though he was ready to sink under the weight, ceased not to contemplate them, and abstained not from speaking of them, because he felt unequal to the task of rehearsing them, but was content, after having declared his faith on this subject, to finish his discourse in admiration.

Calvin: Psa 40:6 - In sacrifice and oblation thou hast not taken pleasure // Thou hast bored my ears 6.In sacrifice and oblation thou hast not taken pleasure Here David offers not only the sacrifice of praise, or, as the prophet Hosea calls it, (Hos ...

6.In sacrifice and oblation thou hast not taken pleasure Here David offers not only the sacrifice of praise, or, as the prophet Hosea calls it, (Hos 14:2,) “the calves of the lips,” but, in token of his gratitude, offers and consecrates himself entirely to God; as if he had said, I am now wholly devoted to God, because, having been delivered by his wonderful power, I am doubly indebted to him for my life. At the same time, treating of the true worship of God, he shows that it consists not in outward ceremonies, but rather that it is spiritual. Accordingly, the meaning is, that he came into the presence of God not only in the outward pomp or ceremony and figures of the law, but that he brought with him the true devotion of the heart. We know, indeed, that all men have some sense of religion impressed upon their hearts, so that no one dares to withdraw openly and wholly from his service, and yet the greater part of men turn aside into winding and crooked paths; and hence it happens, that in serving God in a perfunctory manner, their worship is scarcely anything else than a mockery of him. We see then the reason why David, on the present occasion, shows in what the true worship of God consists; it is, that he may distinguish between himself and hypocrites, who draw near to God with their lips only, or at least seek to pacify him with cold and unmeaning ceremonies.

We now come to the exposition of the words. I have no doubt that David, under the four different kinds of sacrifices which he here enumerates, comprehends all the sacrifices of the law. His meaning, to express it in a few words, is, that God requires not mere ceremonies of those who serve him, but that he is satisfied only with sincerity of heart, with faith and holiness of life: and that he takes no pleasure merely in the visible sanctuary, the altar, the burning of incense, the killing of beasts, the lights, the costly apparel, and outward washings. From this he concludes, that he ought to be guided by another principle, and to observe another rule in the service of God, than a mere attention to these — that he should yield himself wholly to God.

Thou hast bored my ears Some think that in using this form of expression, David has a reference to the ordinance under the Law of which we read in Exo 21:6. If any bond-servant, when the time of his being discharged from servitude had arrived, made no account of his freedom, he was brought to the public place of judgment, and having there declared that he wished to continue in servitude, his master pierced his ear with an awl, as a mark of perpetual bondage. But this mode of interpretation appears to be too forced and refined. 88 Others more simply consider that it is of the same meaning as to render fit, or qualify for service, for David mentions not one ear only, but both. Men, we know, are naturally deaf, because they are so dull, that their ears are stopped until God pierce them. By this expression, therefore, is denoted the docility to which we are brought and moulded by the grace of the Holy Spirit. I, however, apply this manner of expression more closely to the scope of the passage before us, and explain it in this sense, That David was not slow and dull of hearing, as men usually are, so that he could discern nothing but what was earthly in the sacrifices, but that his ears had been cleansed, so that he was a better interpreter of the Law, and able to refer all the outward ceremonies to the spiritual service of God. He encloses the sentence, Thou hast bored my ears, as it were, in parenthesis, whilst he is treating professedly of sacrifices, so that the sentence might be explained in this way: Lord, thou hast opened my ears, that I may distinctly understand whatever thou hast commanded concerning the sacrifices, namely, that of themselves they afford thee no pleasure: for thou, who art a Spirit, takest no delight in these earthly elements, and hast no need of flesh or blood; and, therefore, thou requirest something of a higher and more excellent nature. If, however, it is objected that sacrifices were offered by the express commandment of God, I have just said that David here distinguishes between the spiritual service of God, and that which consisted in outward types and shadows. And in making this comparison, it is no great wonder to find him saying that the sacrifices are of no value, since they were only helps designed to lead men to true piety, and tended to a far higher end than that which was at first apparent. Seeing, then, God made use of these elements, only to lead his people to the exercises of faith and repentance, we conclude that he had no delight in being worshipped by sacrifices. We must always bear in mind, that whatever is not pleasing to God for its own sake, but only in so far as it leads to some other end, if it be put in the place of his true worship and service is rejected and cast away by him.

Calvin: Psa 40:7 - Then said I, Lo! I come // In the roll of the book 7.Then said I, Lo! I come By the adverb then he intimates, that he had not been a good scholar, and capable of profiting by instruction, until God ...

7.Then said I, Lo! I come By the adverb then he intimates, that he had not been a good scholar, and capable of profiting by instruction, until God had opened his ears; but as soon as he had been instructed by the secret inspirations of the Spirit, he tells us, that then his heart was ready to yield a willing and cheerful obedience. Here true obedience is very properly distinguished from a constrained and slavish subjection. Whatever service, therefore, men may offer to God, it is vain and offensive in his sight, unless at the same time they offer themselves; and, moreover, this offering of one’s self is of no value unless it be done willingly. These words, Lo! I come, ought to be observed, and likewise the words, I have delighted to do thy will; for the Hebrew word חפצתי , chaphatsti, means, I was well pleased, or, I willingly condescended. Here David indicates his readiness to yield obedience, as well as the cordial affection of his heart and persevering resolution. His language implies, that he cordially preferred the service of God to every other desire and care, and had not only yielded a willing subjection, but also embraced the rule of a pious and holy life, with a fixed and steady purpose of adhering to it. This he confirms still further in the third clause of the verse, in which he says, that the Law of God was deeply fixed in the midst of his bowels 89 It follows from this, first, that however beautiful and splendid the works of men may appear, yet unless they spring from the living root of the heart, they are nothing better than a mere pretense; and, secondly, that it is to no purpose that the feet, and hands, and eyes, are framed for keeping the Law, unless obedience begin at the heart. Moreover, it appears from other places of Scripture, that it is the peculiar office of the Holy Spirit to engrave the Law of God on our hearts. God, it is true, does not perform his work in us as if we were stones or stocks, drawing us to himself without the feeling or inward moving of our hearts towards him. But as there is in us naturally a will, which, however, is depraved by the corruption of our nature, so that it always inclines us to sin, God changes it for the better, and thus leads us cordially to seek after righteousness, to which our hearts were previously altogether averse. Hence arises that true freedom which we obtain when God frames our hearts, which before were in thraldom to sin, unto obedience to himself.

In the roll of the book As the Septuagint has made use of the word head instead of roll, 90 some have been inclined to philosophise upon this clause with so much refinement of speculation, that they have exposed themselves to ridicule by their foolish and silly inventions. But the etymology of the word במגלת , bemegilath, is the same as the Latin word volumen, 91 which we call a roll It is necessary to ascertain in what sense David claims peculiarly to himself what is common or alike to all men. Since the Law prescribes to all men the rule of a holy and upright life, it does not appear, it may be said, that what is here stated pertains to any one man or any set of men. I answer, that although the literal doctrine of the Law belongs to all men in common, yet as of itself it is dead, and only beats the air, God teaches his own people after another manner; and that, as the inward and effectual teaching of the Spirit is a treasure which belongs peculiarly to them, it is written of them only in the secret book of God, that they should fulfill his will. The voice of God, indeed, resounds throughout the whole world, so that all who do not obey it are rendered inexcusable; but it penetrates into the hearts of the godly alone, for whose salvation it is ordained. As a general, therefore, enrols the names of his soldiers, that he may know their exact number, and as a schoolmaster writes the names of his scholars in a scroll, so has God written the names of his children in the book of life, that he may retain them under the yoke of his own discipline.

There still remains another difficulty connected with this passage. The Apostle, in Heb 10:5, seems to wrest this place, when he restricts what is spoken of all the elect to Christ alone, and expressly contends that the sacrifices of the Law, which David says are not agreeable to God in comparison of the obedience of the heart, are abrogated; and when quoting rather the words of the Septuagint, 92 than those of the prophet, he infers from them more than David intended to teach. As to his restricting this passage to the person of Christ, the solution is easy. David did not speak in his own name only, but has shown in general what belongs to all the children of God. But when bringing into view the whole body of the Church, it was necessary that he should refer us to the head itself. It is no objection that David soon after imputes to his own sins the miseries which he endures; for it is by no means an uncommon thing to find our errors, by a mode of expression not strictly correct, transferred to Christ. As to the abrogation of the sacrifices that were under the Law, I answer thus: That their abrogation may be fairly inferred from the language of the prophets; for this is not like many other places in which God condemns and rejects the sacrifices which were offered by hypocrites, and which were deservedly offensive to him on account of their uncleanness: for in these God condemns the outward ceremony, on account of the abuse and corruption of it, which rendered it nothing but a vain mockery; whereas here, when the Prophet speaks of himself as one who worshipped God sincerely, and yet denies that God had pleasure in these sacrifices, it may easily be inferred, that the rudiments which God had enjoined upon his ancient people for a time had some other end in view, and were only like infantile instructions designed to prepare them for some higher state. But if their truth and substance are contained in Christ, it is certain that they have been abolished by his coming. They were indeed still in use in the time of David: and yet he admonishes us that the true service of God, even when performed without sacrifices, was perfect and complete in all its parts, and every where; and that the ceremonies are things which might be regarded as non-essential, and, as we speak, adventitious. This is worthy of being noticed, that we may know that God, even after he has removed the figures which he had commanded for a time, does not cease always to resemble himself; for in these outward services he had respect solely to men. As to this, that the Apostle, following the Septuagint, has made subservient to his own use the word body, which is not used here by David, in such an allusion there is no inconsistency; for he does not undertake expressly to unfold and explain in every point the Psalmist’s meaning: but as he had said, that by the one sacrifice of Christ all the others had been abolished, he adds at the same time that a body had been prepared for Christ, that by the offering up of it he might fulfill the will of God.

Calvin: Psa 40:9 - I have proclaimed thy righteousness in the great assembly 9.I have proclaimed thy righteousness in the great assembly Here David again brings forward his own thankfulness, and for no other reason but to indu...

9.I have proclaimed thy righteousness in the great assembly Here David again brings forward his own thankfulness, and for no other reason but to induce God to continue his goodness towards him. God, whenever he manifests his liberality towards us, encourages us to render thanks to him; and he continues to act in a similar manner towards us when he sees that we are thankful and mindful of what he has done for us. In the first place, David makes use simply of the word righteousness; but it must be understood of the righteousness of God, which he expressly mentions soon after. Nor does he say, that it was only in the secret affection of the heart, or in private, that he offered praise to God, but that he had openly proclaimed it in the solemn assembly, even as the faithful in those days were wont to testify their devotion by presenting peace-offerings to God when they had been delivered from any great danger. The great assembly of which he speaks is not to be understood of the concourse of people that assemble at courts of law, or at the public market-places, but it denotes the true and lawfully constituted Church of God, which we know assembled in the place of his sanctuary. Accordingly, he declares that he had not concealed in his heart the righteousness of God, which it becomes us publicly to make known for the edification of one another. Those who keep it hid in their hearts are surely seeking as much as in them lies that the memory of God may be buried in oblivion. He calls upon God as a witness of this, not only to distinguish between himself and hypocrites, who often proclaim loudly, and with all their might, the praises of God, and yet do so without the least spark of affection; but also to make it the more abundantly obvious that he had sincerely and heartily uttered the praises of God, and was careful not to defraud him of any part of them. This affirmation teaches us that the subject which is here treated of is one of no small importance; for although God stands in no need of our praises, yet it is his will that this exercise for many reasons should prevail amongst us.

Calvin: Psa 40:10 - I have not hidden thy righteousness within my heart 10.I have not hidden thy righteousness within my heart Here it is necessary to observe the accumulation of terms which are employed to denote the sam...

10.I have not hidden thy righteousness within my heart Here it is necessary to observe the accumulation of terms which are employed to denote the same thing. To the righteousness of God the Psalmist adds his truth, his salvation, and his mercy. And what is the design of this, but to magnify and set forth the goodness of God by many terms or expressions of praise? We must, however, notice in what respects these terms differ; for in this way we may be able to ascertain in what respects they apply to the deliverance of which David here discourses. If these four things should be taken in their proper order, mercy will hold the first place, as it is that by which alone God is induced to vouchsafe, to regard us. His righteousness is the protection by which he constantly defends his own people, and the goodness by which, as we have already said elsewhere, he preserves them. And, lest any should doubt that it will flow in a constant and uninterrupted course, David adds in the third place truth; by which we are taught that God continues always the same, and is never wearied of helping us, nor at any time withdraws his hand. There is, at the same time, implied in this an exhibition of the promises; for no man will ever rightly take hold of the righteousness of God but he who embraces it as it is offered and held forth in the Word. Salvation is the effect of righteousness, for God continues to manifest his free favor to his people, daily affording them aid and assistance, until he has completely saved them.

Calvin: Psa 40:11 - O thou Jehovah! withhold not thy tender mercies from me 11.O thou Jehovah! withhold not thy tender mercies from me We now see more clearly, what I have just adverted to, that David speaks of his own thankf...

11.O thou Jehovah! withhold not thy tender mercies from me We now see more clearly, what I have just adverted to, that David speaks of his own thankfulness, that he might secure a continuance of God’s favor towards him; and that he opened his mouth in the praises of God, that he might continue to acquire new favors, against which our perverse and ungrateful silence very often closes the gate. We ought, therefore, carefully to observe the relation which the clause, in which David affirms that he closed not his lips, bears to what follows, namely, that God on his part would not contract or stop up the course of his tender mercies; for by this we are taught that God would always be ready to relieve us by his goodness, or rather that it would flow down upon us as from a never-failing fountain, if our own ingratitude did not prevent or cut off its course. The tender mercies of God, which he expresses by the word רחמיד , rachamecha, and of which he here speaks, differ little from his goodness. It was not, however, without cause that David chose to make this distinction. It could only be, first, because he was unable otherwise to satisfy himself in extolling the grace of God; and, secondly, because it was requisite to show that the source from which the mercy and goodness of God proceed, when he is moved in compassion for our miseries to aid and succor us. Then he places his confidence of salvation in the goodness and faithfulness of God, for we must of necessity begin (as I have said a little before) at the free favor of God, that his bounty may extend even to us. But as we are unable to discern that God is gracious to us until he grant us some assurance of his love, his constancy is, with much propriety, placed in connection with his truth in keeping his promises.

Calvin: Psa 40:12 - For innumerable evils have compassed me on all sides 12.For innumerable evils have compassed me on all sides This phrase, in the original, denotes more than can be expressed in an English translation; f...

12.For innumerable evils have compassed me on all sides This phrase, in the original, denotes more than can be expressed in an English translation; for he says, עלי alay, upon me, meaning by this, that he was not only beset on all sides, but that also an accumulation of evils pressed upon his head. He, however, does not now complain of being punished unjustly, or above his desert, but rather confesses plainly that it is the just recompense of his sins which is rendered to him. For although the word עון , avon, which we have rendered iniquity, signifies also the punishment of iniquity, (as we have elsewhere seen more than once;) yet we must take into consideration the derivation of the word. 95 Accordingly, since David calls the afflictions which he endures the fruit or effect of his transgressions, there is implied in this a humble confession, from which we may ascertain with what reverence and meekness he submitted to the judgments of God, seeing that, when overwhelmed with an accumulation of miseries, he sets forth his sins in all their magnitude and aggravation, lest he should suspect God of undue severity. When we see David treated so severely, let us also learn, when we are oppressed with extreme afflictions, and are groaning under them, humbly to implore the grace and mercy of our Judge. Nor is it his design to show that he had been stupid or hardened, when he says that his heart failed or forsook him. His language means, that he was not only broken-hearted, but that he lay as if he had been dead. We must, however, understand this fainting or failing of the heart as referring to the sense of the flesh; for his perseverance in prayer is a certain proof that his faith was never altogether extinguished. But since he was, in so far as man was concerned, destitute of counsel, and was altogether without strength, it is not without cause that he says that his heart failed him.

Calvin: Psa 40:13 - Be thou pleased, O Jehovah! to deliver me 13.Be thou pleased, O Jehovah! to deliver me The verb which David here makes use of, signifies to desire a thing from pure kindness and good-will. 96...

13.Be thou pleased, O Jehovah! to deliver me The verb which David here makes use of, signifies to desire a thing from pure kindness and good-will. 96 He desires, therefore, to be delivered by the free mercy of God. As to his desire, that God would make haste, we have elsewhere spoken of it. Even when God delays to help us, it is our duty to contend against a feeling of weariness; but such is his goodness, that he permits us to use this form of prayer, That he would make haste according to our desires. Then, according to his usual practice, citing his enemies to the judgment-seat of God, he feels confident, that, on account of their cruelty, and unjust and wicked hatred, he shall obtain what he asks. We must maintain it as a fixed principle, that the more unjustly our enemies afflict us, and the more cruelly they wrong us, God is so much the more disposed to give us help. And it is no slight consolation that the mercy of God strives against their wickedness, so that the more fiercely our enemies pursue us to effect our hurt, the more ready is he to bring us help. We have already frequently spoken of the feelings with which David uttered these imprecations, and it is necessary here again to refresh our memories on the subject, lest any man, when giving loose reins to his passions, should allege the example of David in palliation or excuse. This wicked and counterfeit imitation on the part of those who follow the powerful impulse of the flesh, instead of being guided by the zeal of the Spirit, is always to be held up to condemnation.

Calvin: Psa 40:15 - NO PHRASE When the Psalmist prays (verse 15) that his enemies may be destroyed for a reward of their shame, the meaning is this: As their sole desire has bee...

When the Psalmist prays (verse 15) that his enemies may be destroyed for a reward of their shame, the meaning is this: As their sole desire has been to overwhelm me with shame, in order that, while thus dismayed and confounded, they might make me the object of their derision; so let a similar confusion fall upon their own heads. In the second clause of the verse he describes the nature of this confusion by relating the terms of their wicked triumphing, by which they poured contempt upon him while he was so oppressed with misery and affliction. We are here taught that, when our enemies shall have persecuted us to the uttermost, a recompense is also prepared for them; and that God will turn back, and cause to fall upon their own heads, all the evil which they had devised against us; and this doctrine ought to act as a restraint upon us, that we may behave ourselves compassionately and kindly towards our neighbors.

Calvin: Psa 40:16 - Let all those that seek thee be glad and rejoice in thee 16.Let all those that seek thee be glad and rejoice in thee David here uses another argument — one which he often adduces elsewhere — in order to...

16.Let all those that seek thee be glad and rejoice in thee David here uses another argument — one which he often adduces elsewhere — in order to obtain deliverance; not that it is necessary to allege reasons to persuade God, but because it is profitable to confirm our faith by such supports. As, then, it is the will of God that he should be known in his gracious character, not only of one or two, but generality of all men, whenever he vouchsafes deliverance to any of his children, it is a common benefit which all the faithful ought to apply to themselves when they see in the person of one man in what manner God, who is never inconsistent with himself, will act towards all his people. David, therefore, shows that he asks nothing for himself individually but what pertains to the whole Church. He prays that God would gladden the hearts of all the saints, or afford them all common cause of rejoicing: so that, assured of his readiness to help them, they may have recourse to him with greater alacrity. Hence we conclude, that, in the case of every individual, God gives a proof of his goodness towards us. What is added, those that love thy salvation, is also worthy of being observed by us. We may infer from this, that our faith is only proved to be genuine when we neither expect nor desire preservation otherwise than from God alone. Those who devise various ways and means of preservation for themselves in this world, despise and reject the salvation which God has taught us to expect from him alone. What had been said before, those who seek thee, is to the same purpose. If any individual would depend wholly upon God, and desire to be saved by his grace, he must renounce every vain hope, and employ all his thoughts towards the reception of his strength. Here, again, we must observe that two things are contrasted with each other. Formerly David had said that the wicked sought his life; now he ascribes to the faithful quite a contrary feeling, namely, that they seek God. In like manner he had related the reproaches and derision of the ungodly, while they said, Aha, aha! and now he introduces the godly speaking very differently, saying, The Lord be magnified!

Calvin: Psa 40:17 - But I am poor and needy 17.But I am poor and needy In this concluding clause he mingles prayer with thanksgiving, although it may be that he records a request which he had m...

17.But I am poor and needy In this concluding clause he mingles prayer with thanksgiving, although it may be that he records a request which he had made when he was placed in extreme danger. The first clause of the verse might be rendered thus: Although I was miserable and poor, God did think upon me. As according to the extent in which any one is afflicted, so is he despised by the world, we imagine that he is disregarded by God, we must, therefore, steadfastly maintain that our miseries in no respect produce on the part of God a feeling of weariness towards us, so that it should become troublesome to him to aid us. In this way, however, let us rather read the clause: When I was miserable and poor, the Lord looked upon my necessity: So that by this circumstance he enhances the grace of God. If God anticipate us with his goodness, and do not wait till adversity presses upon us, then his favor towards us is not so apparent. This comparison, therefore, illustrates very clearly the glory of God in the deliverance of David, inasmuch as he vouchsafed to stretch forth his hand to a man who was despised and rejected of all men, nay, who was destitute of all help and hope. Now, if it was necessary that David should have been reduced to this extremity, it is no wonder if persons in a more private station are often humbled after this manner, that they may feel and acknowledge in good earnest that they have been delivered out of despair by the hand of God. The simple and natural meaning of the prayer is this, Lord, thou art my help and my deliverer, therefore delay not to come to my aid. As it is a foolish thing to approach God with a doubtful and wavering mind, the Psalmist takes courage, as he was wont to do from his own experience, and persuades himself that the help of God, by which he had been hitherto preserved, would not fail him.

Defender: Psa 40:6 - mine ears The "opened ear" refers to the boring of a hole in the ear of a bond servant who after becoming eligible for freedom, chooses to remain forever in the...

The "opened ear" refers to the boring of a hole in the ear of a bond servant who after becoming eligible for freedom, chooses to remain forever in the service of his master (Exo 21:6). This ritual symbolized the dedication of the servant to hear and obey his master's orders."

Defender: Psa 40:7 - Lo, I come That this psalm is a Messianic psalm is certain because of its application in Heb 10:5-10. It is prophetic of the thoughts in the heart of Christ, pos...

That this psalm is a Messianic psalm is certain because of its application in Heb 10:5-10. It is prophetic of the thoughts in the heart of Christ, possibly as He hung on the cross, remembering how and why He had come into the world."

Defender: Psa 40:8 - to do thy will Just as the servant with the "opened ear", Christ had come solely to do the will of the One who sent Him. It is significant that in quoting the psalm ...

Just as the servant with the "opened ear", Christ had come solely to do the will of the One who sent Him. It is significant that in quoting the psalm the author of Hebrews translated "mine ears hast thou opened" by "a body hast thou prepared me" (Heb 10:5). Not just the ear but the whole body was to be made an offering for sins forever (Heb 10:10-12)."

TSK: Psa 40:1 - I waited // inclined am 2970, bc 1034 (Title), This psalm is supposed to have been composed by David about the same time, and on the same occasion, as the two preceding; w...

am 2970, bc 1034 (Title), This psalm is supposed to have been composed by David about the same time, and on the same occasion, as the two preceding; with this difference, that here he magnifies God for have obtained the mercy which he sought there. It also contains a remarkable prophecy of the incarnation and sacrifice of Jesus Christ.

I waited : Heb. In waiting I waited, Psa 27:13, Psa 27:14, Psa 37:7; Jam 5:7-11

inclined : Psa 116:2, Psa 130:2; Dan 9:18

TSK: Psa 40:2 - brought // horrible pit // the miry // set // established brought : Psa 18:16, Psa 18:17, Psa 71:20, Psa 86:13, Psa 116:3, Psa 142:6, Psa 142:7, Psa 143:3; Isa 24:22; Jon 2:5, Jon 2:6; Zec 9:11; Act 2:24, Act...

TSK: Psa 40:3 - And he // praise // many And he : Psa 33:3, Psa 144:9; Rev 5:9, Rev 5:10, Rev 14:3 praise : Psa 103:1-5; Isa 12:1-4 many : Psa 34:1-6, Psa 35:27, Psa 52:6, Psa 64:9, Psa 64:10...

TSK: Psa 40:4 - Blessed // respecteth // as turn Blessed : Psa 2:12, Psa 34:8, Psa 84:11, Psa 84:12, Psa 118:8, Psa 118:9; Jer 17:7, Jer 17:8; Rom 15:12, Rom 15:13 respecteth : Psa 15:4, Psa 101:3-7,...

TSK: Psa 40:5 - Many // thoughts // they cannot Many : Psa 136:4; Exo 11:8, Exo 15:11; Job 5:9, Job 9:10, Job 26:14 thoughts : Psa 71:15, Psa 92:5, Psa 139:6, Psa 139:17, Psa 139:18; Isa 55:8, Isa 5...

Many : Psa 136:4; Exo 11:8, Exo 15:11; Job 5:9, Job 9:10, Job 26:14

thoughts : Psa 71:15, Psa 92:5, Psa 139:6, Psa 139:17, Psa 139:18; Isa 55:8, Isa 55:9; Jer 29:11

they cannot : etc. or, none can order them unto thee, Job 37:19, Job 37:20

TSK: Psa 40:6 - Sacrifice // mine ears // opened Sacrifice : Psa 50:8, Psa 51:16; 1Sa 15:22; Isa 1:11, Isa 66:3; Jer 7:21-23; Hos 6:6; Mat 9:13; Mat 12:7; Heb 10:5-12 mine ears : Exo 21:6; Job 33:16;...

TSK: Psa 40:7 - Lo // in the Lo : Heb 10:7-9 in the : Gen 3:15; Luk 24:27, Luk 24:44; Joh 5:39; Act 10:43; 1Co 15:3, 1Co 15:4; 1Pe 1:10, 1Pe 1:11; Rev 19:10

TSK: Psa 40:8 - I delight // yea // within my heart I delight : Psa 112:1, Psa 119:16, Psa 119:24, Psa 119:47, Psa 119:92; Job 23:12; Jer 15:16; Joh 4:34; Rom 7:22; Rom 8:29 yea : Psa 37:30, Psa 37:31; ...

I delight : Psa 112:1, Psa 119:16, Psa 119:24, Psa 119:47, Psa 119:92; Job 23:12; Jer 15:16; Joh 4:34; Rom 7:22; Rom 8:29

yea : Psa 37:30, Psa 37:31; Pro 3:1; Jer 31:33; 2Co 3:3

within my heart : Heb. in the midst of my bowels

TSK: Psa 40:9 - preached // not // thou knowest preached : Psa 22:22, Psa 22:25, Psa 35:18, Psa 71:15-18; Mar 16:15, Mar 16:16; Luk 4:16-22; Heb 2:12 not : Psa 119:13, Psa 119:171, Psa 119:172 thou ...

TSK: Psa 40:10 - not hid // righteousness // faithfulness // salvation // lovingkindness not hid : Eze 2:7, Eze 3:17, Eze 3:18; Act 20:20, Act 20:21, Act 20:26, Act 20:27; Rom 10:9, Rom 10:10; 1Th 1:8; Rev 22:17 righteousness : Rom 1:16, R...

TSK: Psa 40:11 - Withhold // let thy Withhold : From this verse to the end, we have quite a new subject; for the former contains a thanksgiving, and this contains a supplication. It is n...

Withhold : From this verse to the end, we have quite a new subject; for the former contains a thanksgiving, and this contains a supplication. It is nearly the same as the seventieth, and probably formed a distinct Psalm. Psa 69:13, Psa 69:16

let thy : Psa 23:6, Psa 43:3, Psa 57:3, Psa 61:7, Psa 85:10; Heb 5:7

TSK: Psa 40:12 - innumerable // mine // they are // heart // faileth innumerable : Psa 22:11-19; Heb 4:15 mine : Psa 38:4; Isa 53:6; Luk 18:13, Luk 18:14; 1Pe 3:18 they are : Psa 19:12, Psa 69:4 heart : Psa 73:26; Gen 4...

innumerable : Psa 22:11-19; Heb 4:15

mine : Psa 38:4; Isa 53:6; Luk 18:13, Luk 18:14; 1Pe 3:18

they are : Psa 19:12, Psa 69:4

heart : Psa 73:26; Gen 42:28; Luk 21:26

faileth : Heb. forsaketh

TSK: Psa 40:13 - Be // make Be : Psa 25:17, Psa 25:18; Mat 26:36-44 make : Psa 38:22, Psa 70:1-5

TSK: Psa 40:14 - Let them be ashamed // that // driven Let them be ashamed : The verbs in the preceding verse, in which the psalmist simply prays for deliverance, are in the imperative; but here, and in th...

Let them be ashamed : The verbs in the preceding verse, in which the psalmist simply prays for deliverance, are in the imperative; but here, and in the following verses, they are in the future tense, and naturally express the language of lively faith and hope, rather than that of wishing the destruction foreseen and predicted. Psa 31:17, Psa 31:18, Psa 35:4, Psa 35:26, Psa 70:2, Psa 70:3, Psa 71:13; Isa 41:11, Isa 45:24

that : Mat 21:38-41

driven : Psa 9:3; Joh 18:6; Act 9:4-6, Act 12:23, Act 12:24

TSK: Psa 40:15 - desolate // say desolate : Psa 69:24, Psa 69:25, Psa 70:3, Psa 73:19, Psa 109:6-20; Luk 19:43, Luk 19:44, Luk 21:23, Luk 21:24 say : Psa 35:21, Psa 35:25, Psa 70:3, P...

TSK: Psa 40:16 - all // love // say all : Psa 22:26, Psa 35:27, Psa 68:3, Psa 105:3; Isa 65:13, Isa 65:14 love : Psa 119:81, Psa 119:111, Psa 119:123, Psa 119:166, Psa 119:167; Mat 13:45...

TSK: Psa 40:17 - I am poor // the Lord // help // make I am poor : Psa 40:5, Psa 34:6, Psa 69:33, Psa 70:5; Isa 41:17; Mat 8:20; 2Co 8:9; Jam 2:5 the Lord : 1Pe 2:23, 1Pe 5:7 help : Psa 54:4; Isa 50:7-9; H...

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Poole: Psa 40:2 - I waited patiently // Out of an horrible pit // Out of the miry clay // Upon a rock // My goings I waited patiently Heb. in waiting I waited ; which doubling of the word notes that he waited diligently and earnestly, patiently and perseveringly,...

I waited patiently Heb. in waiting I waited ; which doubling of the word notes that he waited diligently and earnestly, patiently and perseveringly, until God should please to help him. He inclined , or, bowed , to wit, himself , as this very word is rendered, Jud 16:30 ; or, his ear , as it is more fully expressed, Psa 17:6 31:2 . Such ellipses or defects are frequent in Scripture, as Psa 3:6 10:1 Ecc 6:3 7:15 .

Out of an horrible pit or, out of a sounding pit so called either from the clamours of men or beasts falling into it; or from the many waters which fall down into it, not without a great noise. I was not only upon the brink, but in the very bottom of the pit, i.e. in desperate dangers and calamities, as this phrase signifies, Psa 18:16 69:1,2 .

Out of the miry clay in which my feet stuck fast.

Upon a rock a place of strength and safety.

My goings or, my steps , i.e. kept me from stumbling or falling into mischief.

Poole: Psa 40:3 - He hath put a new song in my mouth // Shall see it // And fear He hath put a new song in my mouth partly by giving me new matter or occasion for a song; and partly by inspiring me with the very words of it. Shal...

He hath put a new song in my mouth partly by giving me new matter or occasion for a song; and partly by inspiring me with the very words of it.

Shall see it i.e. shall observe God’ s wonderful mercies vouchsafed to me.

And fear i.e. shall stand in awe of that God, who by this instance they see to have so great power, either to save or to destroy, and tremble at his judgments, and give him that reverence, and worship, and obedience which he requires. Yet their fear shall not drive them from God, or bring them into despair, but shall draw them to God, and be attended with trusting in God.

Poole: Psa 40:4 - His trust // Respecteth not // The proud // Such as turn aside // To lies His trust i.e. his only trust or refuge, as appears from the following words: q.d. I said, many shall trust in the Lord ; and they shall not be lose...

His trust i.e. his only trust or refuge, as appears from the following words: q.d. I said, many shall trust in the Lord ; and they shall not be losers by it, nor disappointed of their hope, but they are and shall be blessed.

Respecteth not Heb. looketh not towards , to wit, with love and delight, and desire to imitate them; or with confidence and expectation of relief from thence, as this phrase is oft used, as Psa 25:15 69:3 121:1 141:8 , and as the opposition of this clause to the foregoing seems to imply.

The proud or, the mighty , i.e. the great and proud potentates of the world, to whom most men are apt to look and trust, and in whom the psalmist forbids us to put our trust, Psa 146:3 .

Such as turn aside to wit, from God, in whom alone they ought to trust.

To lies i.e. to lying vanities, such as worldly power, and wisdom, and riches, and all other earthly things or persons in which men are prone to trust; which are called lies here, and Psa 4:2 62:9 Mic 1:14 , and elsewhere, because they promise more than they can perform. See also Psa 7:14 119:18 Hos 10:13 12:1 .

Poole: Psa 40:5 - Thy wonderful works // Thy thoughts // To us-ward // If I would declare // They are more than can be numbered Thy wonderful works for which I and the rest of thy people, included in the pronoun plural us, have abundant cause to praise thee, and to trust in th...

Thy wonderful works for which I and the rest of thy people, included in the pronoun plural us, have abundant cause to praise thee, and to trust in thee, as was said, Psa 40:3 ; and by which it will appear that he that trusteth in thee is in a most blessed and safe condition, as he said, Psa 40:4 . And this verse, wherein he passeth from the singular number to the plural, may seem to be interposed as a wall of partition, between that which David speaks in his own person, and that which he speaks in the person of the Messias, in the following verses.

Thy thoughts i.e. thy gracious counsels or contrivances.

To us-ward i.e. to me and to the rest of thy people, with whom David oft joins himself in this book. But these words may be, and are by some, joined to the following words, and the place thus rendered: It is not with us , or in our power , i.e. it passeth our skill, (and reach,) to order or to reckon them up in order unto thee, because indeed they are innumerable, and therefore cannot be digested into any order.

If I would declare so the particle if or when is wanting, and to be supplied here, as it is Psa 39:11 , and in many other places. Heb. yet I will declare and speak , to wit, some part of them; which accordingly he doth in the following verses.

They are more than can be numbered although I am not able to express or reckon them all.

Poole: Psa 40:6 - Mine ears hast thou opened These words may in an improper sense belong to the person and time of David; when God might be said not to desire or require legal sacrifices comp...

These words may in an improper sense belong to the person and time of David; when God might be said not to desire or require legal sacrifices comparatively, as negative expressions are frequently understood, as Mat 9:13 1Co 1:17 , and in this very case of sacrifices, as Psa 51:16 Jer 7:22,23 Ho 6:6 . So the sense is, Thou didst desire obedience more or rather than sacrifices, as was said, 1Sa 15:22 . But in a proper and literal and full sense they belong only to the person and times of the Messias, in whose name David uttereth these words. And so the sense of the place is, God did not desire or require them for the satisfaction of his own justice, and the expiation of men’ s sins, which could not possibly be done by the blood of bulls or goats, as is said, Heb 10:4-6 ; but only by the blood of Christ, which was typified by them, and which Christ came into the world to shed, in pursuance of his Father’ s will, as it here follows, Psa 40:7,8 . So here is a prediction concerning the cessation and abolition of the legal sacrifices, and the substitution of a better instead of them.

Mine ears hast thou opened Heb. bored . The sense is either,

1. Whereas many men have no ears to hear, as is implied, Rev 2:7,11,17 , or stop their ears, as Psa 58:4 Zec 7:11 , thou hast given me open ears to hear and obey thy precepts, as this phrase is used, Isa 1:5 , although indeed there is another verb in that text, which much alters the case. Or,

2. I have wholly devoted myself to thy perpetual service, and thou hast accepted of me as such, and signified so much by the boring of mine ears , according to the law and custom in that case, Exo 21:5,6 De 15:17 . And whereas only one ear was then bored, and here it is ears , this may be either an ensilage of the plural number for the singular, whereof divers instances have been given; or else it may be so expressed emphatically, to intimate that Christ was more strictly obliged to a more universal obedience, not only active, to which the legal servants were bound, but passive also, to be obedient even unto the death, to which they were not obliged. The seventy Jewish interpreters, whom the apostle follows, Heb 10:5 , translate these words, a body hast thou prepared me ; wherein though the words differ, the sense is the same; for the ears suppose a body to whom they belong, and the preparing of a body implies the preparing Or disposing of the ears, and the obligation of the person for whom a body was prepared to serve him who prepared it; which the boring of the ear signifies.

Poole: Psa 40:7 - Then // Said I // Lo, I come Then when I understood and considered thy mind and will therein, expressed Psa 40:6 . Said I either within myself, by a firm purpose; or unto thee ...

Then when I understood and considered thy mind and will therein, expressed Psa 40:6 .

Said I either within myself, by a firm purpose; or unto thee by way of promise or engagement.

Lo, I come He may seem to speak like a servant, answering to the call of his master, and signifying his readiness to obey him; in which sense it may be accommodated to David. But the servant’ s answer is usually expressed in Scripture by another phrase, Here am I , and never to my remembrance in these words. Besides, this phrase in that sense seems not to be proper in this place, but rather, Lo, I hear , which best suits with the foregoing words, mine ears hast thou opened . But these words do most literally and truly belong to Christ, and the sense is this: Seeing thou requirest a better sacrifice than those of the law, lo, I do offer myself to come ; and I will in due time come , to wit, from heaven , or in the flesh , or into the world , as this phrase is more fully expressed and explained in divers places of Scripture, and particularly Heb 10:5 , where this place is explained and applied to Christ.

The two words volume and book are indifferently used

of any writing, and both words seem here to express the same thing, as may appear by comparing Jer 36 , where we have the very same words; and what is called the roll or volume of a book , Jer 36:2,4 , is called simply a roll or volume , Jer 36:6,20,21 , and the book , Jer 36:10,13 ; it being usual with the Hebrews to join two words together in like manner, of which we have an instance here above, Psa 40:2 , miry clay , Heb. clay of mire . Now this volume of the book, is meant , either,

1. Of the book of predestination, in which Christ was written, as being foreordained before the foundation of the world, 1Pe 1:20 . But that is a secret book, not to be read by any man living, and therefore not fitly alleged as an evidence in this matter. Or,

2. Of a legal instrument, wherein the contract was drawn between God and him, wherein he did oblige himself to serve God, and to execute his will in all things; it being the manner of the Hebrews to write their contracts in a little volume or book . But,

1. We read of no such usage among the Hebrew in the contracts between master and servant, but only of the boring of the servant’ s ear, Exo 21:6 . So the foundation of this allusion is destroyed.

2. At least there was no such contract written between God and him. And if it be said that he only speaks thus by way of allusion, that is but a supposition without ground. And when the words may be properly understood as they sound, of a thing really done, why should we forsake the plain sense without necessity?

3. The phrase here used doth not agree to this sense; for then he should have said, I am written in the volume of the book , i.e. in the catalogue of thy servants; for in that case the persons or their names are constantly said to be written , as Exo 32:32,33 Ps 69:28 Dan 12:1 Luk 10:20 Heb 12:23 Rev 13:8 20:15 21:27 , and not any thing to be written of them, as it is here. Or,

3. Of the Holy Scriptures; in which something indeed was written concerning David; namely, that he was a man after God’ s own heart , 1Sa 13:14 . But it must be remembered that those books were not written till after David’ s death, in whose time here was no other book of Scripture extant but the five books of Moses, unless you will except the book of Job. And therefore this is meant of the law of Moses, which is commonly and emphatically called the book , and was made up in the form of a roll or volume, as the Hebrew books generally were. See Eze 3:1-3 Zec 5:1,2 Lu 4:17,20 . And so this place manifestly points to Christ, and must necessarily be understood of him, and of him only, concerning whom much is said in the books of Moses, as is evident from Luk 24:27,44 Joh 5:46 Act 3:22 26:22 28:23 . And this sense being plain, and natural, and unforced, and exactly agreeing both with the words and with the truth of the thing, and with the belief of all Christians, I see no reason why I may not acquiesce in it.

Poole: Psa 40:8 - I delight to do thy will // Thy law is within my heart I delight to do thy will This, though in a general sense it may be true of David and of all God’ s people, yet if it be compared with the forego...

I delight to do thy will This, though in a general sense it may be true of David and of all God’ s people, yet if it be compared with the foregoing verse, and with the explication thereof in the New Testament, (in which those mysteries which were darkly and doubtfully expressed in the Old Testament are fully and clearly revealed,) must be appropriated to Christ, of whom it is eminently true, and is here observed as an act of heroical obedience, that he not only resolved to do, but delighted in doing, the will of God, or what God had commanded him and he had promised to do, which was to die, and that a most shameful, and painful, and cursed death. See Luk 12:50 Joh 10:18 Heb 10:9,10 .

Thy law is within my heart i.e. I do not only hear and understand it, but I receive it with heartiest love and affection, delighting both to meditate of it, and to yield obedience to it.

Poole: Psa 40:9 - Righteousness // I have not refrained my lips // Thou knowest Righteousness to wit, thy righteousness , as it is expressed in the next verse, i.e. thy faithfulness, as it is there explained; or righteousness pr...

Righteousness to wit, thy righteousness , as it is expressed in the next verse, i.e. thy faithfulness, as it is there explained; or righteousness properly so called; for both were fully declared and demonstrated in Christ, the former in sending him into the world according to his promise, Act 13:23 , and the latter in inflicting death upon him for man’ s sin, Rom 3:25,26 . In the great congregation ; in the most public and solemn assemblies; not only to the Jews, but also to all other nations; to whom Christ preached by his apostles, as is observed, Eph 2:17.

I have not refrained my lips to wit, from preaching it, out of sloth, or fear, or self love, but have preached it publicly, and even to the face of mine enemies, though I knew my preaching would cost me my life.

Thou knowest I call thee to witness the truth of what I say.

Poole: Psa 40:10 - I have not hid thy righteousness within my heart I have not hid thy righteousness within my heart I had it there, Psa 40:8 , but I did not smother or shut it up there, but spread it abroad for thy g...

I have not hid thy righteousness within my heart I had it there, Psa 40:8 , but I did not smother or shut it up there, but spread it abroad for thy glory, and the good of the world; which thou hast wrought both for me and by me.

Poole: Psa 40:11 - -- This prayer is uttered by David, either, 1. In the person of Christ; to whom it may agree. Or, 2. In his own person. Having been transported and c...

This prayer is uttered by David, either,

1. In the person of Christ; to whom it may agree. Or,

2. In his own person. Having been transported and carried forth by the Spirit of God to the contemplation and commemoration of the great mystery of the Messias, of whom he was an illustrious type, now he seems to be led back by the same Spirit to the consideration of himself and his own particular case.

Poole: Psa 40:12 - Mine iniquities // Have taken hold upon me // To look up Mine iniquities either, 1. The punishment of mine iniquities, as Gen 4:13 1Sa 28:10 Psa 31:10 . Or, 2. The iniquities themselves. This phrase canno...

Mine iniquities either,

1. The punishment of mine iniquities, as Gen 4:13 1Sa 28:10 Psa 31:10 . Or,

2. The iniquities themselves. This phrase cannot be understood of Christ. For although our sins are said to be laid upon Christ , Isa 53 , and upon that account he is said to be made sin for us, 2Co 5:21 ; yet the Scripture every where represents him as one that never knew nor did any sin, as in that place, and 1Pe 2:22 , and elsewhere; and even when his punishment is described, yet it is expressly noted, that he did not suffer for himself, or for his own sins, but only for us, and for our sins, as Isa 53:4,5 Da 9:26 1Pe 2:24 . And therefore it is not probable that the Holy Ghost would use such an expression concerning the sinless Christ of God, as is never used in Scripture, but either of a man’ s own sins, or of the punishment deserved by his own sins.

Have taken hold upon me: men’ s sins are figuratively said to follow them, 1Ti 5:24 , and to find them out, Num 32:23 , and here to take hold of them , as a serjeant takes hold of a man whom he arrests.

To look up unto God or men, with any comfort and confidence; I am ashamed and confounded, by reason of my numberless sins. Or, so that I was not able to see ; either because he was as it were drowned or overwhelmed with his sins; or because his eyes did fail or were consumed through grief, as he complains, Psa 6:7 38:10 . Or he means that he could not foresee them; the simple verb being put for the compound, as it is frequently among the Hebrews. They came upon him unawares, and therefore were the more grievous to him. They , to wit, mine iniquities here mentioned, properly so called; for God’ s people are more apt to aggravate their sins than the punishments of them. See Ezr 9:13,14 .

Poole: Psa 40:13 - Deliver me from my sins Deliver me from my sins and the punishments due to them.

Deliver me from my sins and the punishments due to them.

Poole: Psa 40:14 - Let them be ashamed // My soul Let them be ashamed for the disappointment of their hopes and designs. My soul i.e. my life, as Exo 4:9 1Sa 20:1 .

Let them be ashamed for the disappointment of their hopes and designs.

My soul i.e. my life, as Exo 4:9 1Sa 20:1 .

Poole: Psa 40:15 - Desolate // Their shame Desolate or amazed , or dismayed , or overthrown : of such imprecations I have spoken before. Their shame i.e. their sinful and shameful actions...

Desolate or amazed , or dismayed , or overthrown : of such imprecations I have spoken before.

Their shame i.e. their sinful and shameful actions, as shame is put for a shameful idol, Hos 9:10 , and as fear is oft put for the evil feared.

Poole: Psa 40:16 - Such as love thy salvation Such as love thy salvation either, 1. Such as desire and rejoice in the salvation and deliverance which thou givest to me and to others of thy peopl...

Such as love thy salvation either,

1. Such as desire and rejoice in the salvation and deliverance which thou givest to me and to others of thy people, which was a great eye-sore and grief to the wicked. Or,

2. Such as expect and seek for their salvation and happiness not from idols, nor from their wicked courses, nor from any creatures, as other men do, but from thee only, and gladly accept and embrace that salvation which thou hast promised, together with the conditions required to it, to wit, faith and repentance. Or,

3. Such as love thy Messias, upon whom both David’ s and other holy prophets’ and saints’ thoughts and affections were much fixed, as is evident from many places of Scripture, as Joh 8:58 Act 2:30,31 1Pe 1:10,11 ; who is called the desire of all nations , Hag 2:7 , and the glory and consolation of Israel , Luk 2:25,32 , yea, and by the very title here used, God’ s salvation , Isa 62:11 Luk 2:30 ; whose appearance or coming the godly of all ages did love and long for; and of whom David had so lately and clearly spoken, Psa 40:6,7 , &c.; all which considered, this cannot seem a forced or very far-fetched interpretation. The Lord be magnified : let them have continual occasion to magnify God for his mercies vouchsafed to them.

Haydock: Psa 40:1 - -- The happiness of him that shall believe in Christ; notwithstanding the humility and poverty in which he shall come: the malice of his enemies, especia...

The happiness of him that shall believe in Christ; notwithstanding the humility and poverty in which he shall come: the malice of his enemies, especially the traitor Judas.

Haydock: Psa 40:1 - Himself Himself; implying, that David composed this psalm, though the word is not expressed in Hebrew or Greek. (Berthier; T. iii.) --- The same articles, ...

Himself; implying, that David composed this psalm, though the word is not expressed in Hebrew or Greek. (Berthier; T. iii.) ---

The same articles, however, occur, which have been thus rendered before. (Haydock) ---

Some explain this psalm of the sickness of Ezechias, (Ven. Bede) or of that of David, a little before the revolt of Absalom. (Rab. Muis; Bossuet) ---

This may be described as a figure of our Saviour's sufferings. (Calmet) ---

For it would be rash not to acknowledge, that He is here the principal object in view, (Theodoret) since he has applied (ver. 10.) to the traitor's conduct, (Calmet) and all the rest may properly allude to the same events. The psalmist speaks of the Messias in the six first verses, and introduces him, in the remainder, uttering his own sentiments, (Berthier) respecting his passion and resurrection. (Worthington) (Isaias liii. 4.) (Menochius)

Haydock: Psa 40:2-3 - Understandeth // And the poor // Day // Preserve Understandeth. Believing with eagerness, (Haydock) or reflecting seriously on Jesus Christ, (Berthier) who was pleased to be poor for our sakes. (H...

Understandeth. Believing with eagerness, (Haydock) or reflecting seriously on Jesus Christ, (Berthier) who was pleased to be poor for our sakes. (Haydock) ---

And the poor, is not in the ancient Septuagint, (Eusebius) nor Hebrew, &c. But it only expresses the same idea as the word needy, (Berthier) being added to show the extreme misery to which our Saviour was reduced. (Haydock) ---

The Fathers explain the passage in this sense, though some would suppose, that David speaks of his own conduct, (Calmet) or of those who adhered to him in his distress, while most followed Absalom. (Flaminius) ---

Day of death or judgment. Happy the man, who makes the life of Christ his constant meditation, (Berthier) and endeavours to imitate his example, and divine charity! (Haydock) ---

The Church recites this psalm for the sick. Those who assist them may hope for similar treatment. But such as are not scandalized at Christ, on account of his poverty and afflictions, may be pronounced blessed, (Luke vii.23.) as He will deliver them from distress, if they place their confidence in Him. (Worthington) ---

The sick are relieved, when they think on Christ's sufferings. (Menochius) ---

Preserve. Hebrew, "will preserve....and thou wilt not deliver him unto the will of his enemies." (Protestants) ---

But St. Jerome has, "and he will not," &c. (Haydock) ---

Sixtus V reads, "into the hands of his enemy," after St. Augustine, &c. Others add, "he will purify his soul from, or on the earth." (Calmet) ---

Our Lord will give to such servants more grace in this life, and glory in the next, nor will he suffer them to yield to temptation. (Worthington) ---

He will defend them and heal them, when sick. (Calmet)

Haydock: Psa 40:4 - His bed // Thou hast His bed. Literally, "on the bed of his sorrow." His, seems to have been formerly in Hebrew, (Houbigant) though it be now omitted, (Berthier) as i...

His bed. Literally, "on the bed of his sorrow." His, seems to have been formerly in Hebrew, (Houbigant) though it be now omitted, (Berthier) as it was in the time of Symmachus, "the bed of misery," (St. Jerome) of infirmity. ---

Thou hast. Hebrew, "thou wilt make." Protestants, "turn," (marginal note; Haydock) "change, or take away." In the east, the bed was removed entirely, (John v. 8.) and this expression may denote, (Calmet) that the sick man should be cured, and no longer be confined to his bed, (St. Chrysostom) or that God would take him by the hand, to support him, and turn his bed, like a tender mother, to make it more comfortable. (Genebrard) (Calmet) ---

When the just are sick unto death, Christ will give them greater consolation. (Worthington) ---

He will withdraw their affections from all terrestrial things, and remove whatever has been dangerous to them. (St. Gregory, Mor. xxiii. 15.) The ineffable name has been thrice repeated in these verses, to insinuate, that all good is wrought by the blessed Trinity. (Berthier)

Haydock: Psa 40:5 - Thee Thee. Christ prays for his members, acknowledging their sins, (Worthington) which he had undertaken to expiate. The Fathers explain this of his pra...

Thee. Christ prays for his members, acknowledging their sins, (Worthington) which he had undertaken to expiate. The Fathers explain this of his prayer in the garden. (Calmet) ---

Have we ever reflected on sin, which reduced the Lord of all, to such poverty and distress? (Berthier)

Haydock: Psa 40:6 - Perish? Perish? When shall we have a change, and see Absalom ont he throne? When shall we get rid of this man, who reproves our conduct? So were the Jews ...

Perish? When shall we have a change, and see Absalom ont he throne? When shall we get rid of this man, who reproves our conduct? So were the Jews animated to destroy Christ. (Theodoret) ---

The rest of the psalm more visibly relates to him. (Calmet) ---

His enemies were greatly disappointed. (Haydock) ---

For after they had put him to death, he rose again, and his name and kingdom became more glorious. (Worthington)

Haydock: Psa 40:7 - If he If he, any one among my enemies. (Haydock) --- The Scriptures often pass from the plural to the singular, (Berthier) to comprise every one distin...

If he, any one among my enemies. (Haydock) ---

The Scriptures often pass from the plural to the singular, (Berthier) to comprise every one distinctly. (Haydock) ---

Yet St. Augustine, &c., read "they came," &c., omitting if, as some of the Septuagint editions do likewise: though inaccurately, according to St. Jerome and Sun. (Calmet) ---

It occurs in the Roman copy, and Grabe inserts it in a smaller type. The sense is not altered. (Haydock) ---

The conspirators affected to shew David some marks of civility, to obtain their ends. The Jews often strove to entangle Jesus, by their questions, (Matthew xix. 3., and xxii. 17, 24., and John viii. 3.) while Judas continued in his company, to gratify his own avarice, and to betray him. (Calmet) ---

Such were their vain projects. (Haydock) ---

Those who came maliciously to hear Christ, blamed him as an enemy to the law, or as one who cast out devils by Beelzebub. (Worthington)

Haydock: Psa 40:8 - To me To me, seems useless, though it be added conformably to the Hebrew, (Berthier) or rather it intimates, that the enemies made no secret of thier plots...

To me, seems useless, though it be added conformably to the Hebrew, (Berthier) or rather it intimates, that the enemies made no secret of thier plots. (Haydock)

Haydock: Psa 40:9 - Word // No more? Word of affecting the regal power, &c. (St. Ambrose) --- No more? Jesus Christ speaks. They have unjustly condemned me: But can I not rise again...

Word of affecting the regal power, &c. (St. Ambrose) ---

No more? Jesus Christ speaks. They have unjustly condemned me: But can I not rise again? or the words may be put in the mouth of his enemies. Shall we have any thing to fear from the dead? If we were to confine him only, he might perhaps escape. (Calmet) ---

Hebrew, "an evil disease, say they, cleaveth fast unto him: and now that he lieth, he shall rise up no more." (Protestants) ---

"The word of the devil they poured out against themselves; he who hath slept, shall rise no more." (St. Jerome) ---

Yet lo may be explained, an non, "shall not he," &c. Septuagint have seen this insulting interrogation of the Jews who ridiculed what Christ had said of his future resurrection. (Berthier) ---

They determined to put him to death; but they could not prevent his glorious (Worthington) appearance again on the third day. (Haydock) ---

Those who explain this of David, say, that the sleep denotes a mortal illness, or a geievous fault, for which it was expected, that the king would die. (Kimchi; Munster, &c.)

Haydock: Psa 40:10 - Bread // Supplanted me Bread. This characterizes the traitor, who had recieved the holy Communion, and had been intrusted with the purse by our Saviour, yet betrayed him w...

Bread. This characterizes the traitor, who had recieved the holy Communion, and had been intrusted with the purse by our Saviour, yet betrayed him with the sign of peace. (Calmet) ---

To violate the laws of hospitality was greatly resented by the very pagans. (Plutarch, Symp. vii. 4.) ---

Supplanted me, or kicked like a wild colt, as Plato complained that Aristotle had done, when he set up another school. (Haydock) Greek: Emas apelaktise. (Laertius, Elian iv. 9.) ---

David might allude to Absalom, though the Holy Ghost speaks of Judas. (Calmet) ---

Our Saviour himself says, (Worthington) that the Scriptures may be fulfilled, he that eateth bread with me, shall lift up his heel against me: Qui manducat mecum panem levabit contra me calcaneum suum: Greek: eperen ep eme ten pternan autou, "has lifted up," &c., as the Hebrew expresses it here. Judas had attempted to betray Christ already, and would do it more effectually hereafter; so that both the present and future might agree with him. We also find the psalm translated qui edebat panes meos, &c. But the difference is very small. (Haydock) ---

To lift up the heel, is the posture of one who attempts to supplant his adversary. (Menochius)

Haydock: Psa 40:11 - Them Them. No one is ignorant of the destruction of Jerusalem, and of the miserable condition of the Jews (Menochius) throughout the world. (Calmet) ---...

Them. No one is ignorant of the destruction of Jerusalem, and of the miserable condition of the Jews (Menochius) throughout the world. (Calmet) ---

Christ will render every one according to his deserts. (Worthington)

Haydock: Psa 40:12 - Over me Over me. Thus the divinity of Christ was proved, since he rose victorious, in spite of his enemies. (Calmet)

Over me. Thus the divinity of Christ was proved, since he rose victorious, in spite of his enemies. (Calmet)

Haydock: Psa 40:13 - Innocence Innocence. Jesus was the spotless lamb incapable of sin. He effaced it by his blood, and is therefore crowned with glory, Hebrews ii. 9., and Phili...

Innocence. Jesus was the spotless lamb incapable of sin. He effaced it by his blood, and is therefore crowned with glory, Hebrews ii. 9., and Philippians ii. 9. (Calmet) ---

This innocence made him a fit victim for sin. (Worthington)

Haydock: Psa 40:14 - So be it So be it. Chaldean, "Amen." This word, at the beginning of a discourse, implies an affirmative oath; (Matthew vi. 13.) and at the end, it is a mark...

So be it. Chaldean, "Amen." This word, at the beginning of a discourse, implies an affirmative oath; (Matthew vi. 13.) and at the end, it is a mark of approbation, Numbers v. 22. ---

Here the Jews terminate the first book of the psalms, which they divide into five. (Calmet) ---

St. Jerome rejects this division, as our Saviour mentions only the psalms, and the last psalm has no such conclusion. (Worthington) ---

It has Alleluia. All the rest have Amen. See Psalms lxxii., lxxxix., and cvi. (Hebrew) (Berthier) ---

The observations which have been made in this first part, will serve to explain many other passages, on which we shall therefore be shorter, as well as in specifying the variations from the original, which are for the most part only apparent, as the intelligent reader may be convinced, by the preceding remarks. (Haydock)

Gill: Psa 40:1 - I waited patiently for the Lord // and he inclined unto me, and heard my cry I waited patiently for the Lord,.... Or "waiting I waited" i; which denotes continuance, constancy, and patience; and which Christ exercised in the ga...

I waited patiently for the Lord,.... Or "waiting I waited" i; which denotes continuance, constancy, and patience; and which Christ exercised in the garden, when he submitted himself entirely to the will of God; and on the cross, when he continued in sure hope and firm expectation of his help and assistance, though he was for a while forsaken by him; see Isa 50:7;

and he inclined unto me, and heard my cry; both in the garden, by delivering him from fear of death; and on the cross, by upholding, helping, and assisting him, by carrying him through his sufferings and death, and raising him from the dead; see Isa 49:8.

Gill: Psa 40:2 - He brought me up also out of an horrible pit // out of the miry clay // and set my feet upon a rock // and established my goings He brought me up also out of an horrible pit,.... Which, with the following phrase, out of the miry clay, expresses the state and condition Christ ...

He brought me up also out of an horrible pit,.... Which, with the following phrase,

out of the miry clay, expresses the state and condition Christ was in at the time of his bloody sweat, his crucifixion, and his lying in "sheol", the pit or grave, sometimes rendered hell, which these figurative phrases fitly signify; when it is observed, that he was made sin, and had the sins of all his people on him; and, as the type of Joshua, was clothed with their filthy garments; he might be truly said to be in the miry clay; and also that he was made a curse for them, and bore the wrath of God in their room and stead; and was forsaken by his God and Father, and so endured both the punishment of loss and sense, and what was tantamount to the sufferings of the damned in hell; see Psa 69:1; to which may be added the noisy insults of malignant men, and the infernal fiends, who surrounded him on the cross; when he was in an horrible, or "noisy pit", as the words may be rendered k, the allusion being to subterraneous caverns or pits, in which the falls of water make so horrible a noise as is intolerable; or to deep pits, into which anything cast makes a great sound: and the issue of all this was, that he was laid in the pit of the grave, and held under the power and with the cords of death; from all which he was delivered when he was raised from the dead, justified in the Spirit, and glorified in the human nature by his God and Father;

and set my feet upon a rock; on Mount Zion in heaven, whither he was carried up after his resurrection; where he will remain until his second coming, being set down at the right hand of God, in a most stable, firm, and unalterable state, as well as an honourable one; for he will die no more, and death shall no more have dominion over him;

and established my goings; in treading the path of life, which was shown him at his resurrection; in passing through the air, the territory of Satan, at his ascension; and in his entrance into his glory, and making his way to his Father's right hand and throne.

Gill: Psa 40:3 - And he hath put a new song in my mouth, even praise to our God // many shall see it, and fear, and shall trust in the Lord And he hath put a new song in my mouth, even praise to our God,.... Sung by him in the midst of the great congregation of angels and saints, upon his...

And he hath put a new song in my mouth, even praise to our God,.... Sung by him in the midst of the great congregation of angels and saints, upon his resurrection, ascension, and session at the right hand of God; see Psa 22:22; when he went to his God and ours, to his Father and ours; and in which song he is joined by all his people above and below, Rev 5:9;

many shall see it, and fear, and shall trust in the Lord; even all the elect of God, as many as are ordained to eternal life; the many whose sins Christ bore, for whom he became a ransom, whom he justifies and brings to glory: these all "see" him in the horrible pit and miry clay, in his state of humiliation, as bearing their sins, and the punishment due unto them; as wounded, bruised, and crucified; as rising again for their justification; and as on Mount Zion crowned with glory and honour; and a multitude of harpers with him, singing the new song; these see the salvation he has wrought out, the glory, fulness, and suitableness of it, and their interest in it; and they "fear" not with a fear of hell and damnation, which is inconsistent with the trust after mentioned; but with a godly and filial fear, which arises from and is encouraged by the grace and goodness of God, their faith in the sufferings, death, and resurrection of Christ Jesus, and which render him a proper object of trust and confidence; for he is so both as suffering, crucified, and slain, and as risen again, and exalted at the Father's right hand, Gal 2:20.

Gill: Psa 40:4 - Blessed is the man that maketh the Lord his trust // and respecteth not the proud // nor such as turn aside to lies Blessed is the man that maketh the Lord his trust,.... For such are safe and secure in him, are possessed of all blessings of grace through him, have ...

Blessed is the man that maketh the Lord his trust,.... For such are safe and secure in him, are possessed of all blessings of grace through him, have peace in their own souls now, and shall enjoy eternal happiness with him hereafter;

and respecteth not the proud; such as the Pharisees, and all self-righteous persons, who trust in themselves and their own righteousness, submit not to the righteousness of Christ, and despise others; to these such who trust in Christ have no respect; they neither esteem them, nor imitate them;

nor such as turn aside to lies; to idols, the lying vanities of the Gentiles; or to any doctrines injurious to the person, office, blood, righteousness, sacrifice, and grace of Christ; which are no other than lies, and which those who believe in Christ have no respect to, but abhor both them and the abettors of them.

Gill: Psa 40:5 - Many, O Lord my God, are thy wonderful works which thou hast done // and thy thoughts which are to us-ward // they cannot be reckoned up in order to thee // if I could declare and speak of them, they are more than can be numbered Many, O Lord my God, are thy wonderful works which thou hast done,.... This is the "new song", as Aben Ezra rightly observes, which is said in Psa 4...

Many, O Lord my God, are thy wonderful works which thou hast done,.... This is the "new song", as Aben Ezra rightly observes, which is said in Psa 40:3, to be put in the mouth of the Messiah; who sometimes speaks in the plural number, being the representative of his people, and sometimes in the singular; for it is the same person that speaks here who is continued speaking in Psa 40:6, and following; and which are applied to Christ, Heb 10:5; the "works" here said to be done, and to be "many" and "wonderful", are not the creation of the world, the dividing of the sea, and feeding the people of Israel forty years in the wilderness, as Jarchi interprets them; but the incarnation of Christ, redemption by him, the resurrection of him from the dead; regeneration and conversion, and the preservation of the saints from the evil of the world, safe to the kingdom and glory of God; all which, as they are many and various, and display the manifold wisdom and grace of God, so they are marvellous, and will be the subject of the wonder of saints to all eternity;

and thy thoughts which are to us-ward; that is, the decrees of God, as Aben Ezra truly explains them; the purposes, counsels, and intentions of God; which, though mentioned last, are before his works, and are the spring of them: these were in the mind of God from everlasting, were unknown till revealed, were thoughts of peace, and not of evil, and are unfrustrable, and ever fulfilled, and are manifold, precious, and amazing, Psa 139:17; and these were concerning all the elect of God as considered in Christ, and members of his; and therefore he says to us-ward; and all the works before mentioned were done to them, or for them, and on their account; and so Jarchi and Aben Ezra interpret the phrase, "because of us", or "for our sakes"; even the incarnation, sufferings, death, and resurrection of Christ, and the thoughts of them, were for them;

they cannot be reckoned up in order to thee; or "there is none can order them unto thee" l; there is no power in man to do it, as Aben Ezra observes; or "there is none like unto thee", as Jarchi and the Oriental versions; see Exo 15:11; though this sense seems to break in upon the account of the wonderful works and thoughts of God, which are still designed in the following clause;

if I could declare and speak of them, they are more than can be numbered; that is, by men: from this general account of, the many and wonderful works and thoughts of God, the Messiah passes on to take notice of one particular design and work of the Lord, the redemption of his people by the sacrifice of himself.

Gill: Psa 40:6 - Sacrifice and offering thou didst not desire // mine ears hast thou opened // burnt offering and sin offering hast thou not required Sacrifice and offering thou didst not desire,.... These were desired, willed, and appointed by God, and that very early, even from the times of our fi...

Sacrifice and offering thou didst not desire,.... These were desired, willed, and appointed by God, and that very early, even from the times of our first parents; and, when performed aright, were acceptable to God, quite down to the times of the Messiah: indeed, when offered without faith in Christ, and with a wicked mind, to merit any thing at the hand of God, they were always abominable to him; and he likewise ever preferred love to himself, and of the neighbour, obedience to the commands of the moral law, and works of mercy to men, before all the sacrifices of the ceremonial law, 1Sa 15:22; nor were these ever in such esteem with him as the sacrifices of a broken and contrite heart, or of praise and thanksgiving, Psa 51:16; nor were they ever regarded by him but as they respected Christ; nor were they ever designed to cleanse from sin, and take it away, but to lead to the propitiatory sacrifice of Christ: but none of these senses have place here: the meaning of the words is, that it was not the will of God, at the time this passage refers to, that legal sacrifices should continue any longer; and that they should not be offered up, even by good men, in the best manner, and to the best ends and purposes; the time being come that a better sacrifice should be offered, which was the sum and substance of them, and was prefigured by them;

mine ears hast thou opened; or "dug", or "bored" m; in allusion, as is thought by many, to Exo 21:6; though the phrase rather signifies the formation and excavation of the ear; or the preparing and fitting it for its use; that is, to hearken to the will of his heavenly Father, to become man, offer himself a sacrifice, and suffer and die in the room of his people; to which he became obedient, taking upon him the form of a servant, when found in fashion as a man; and was obedient unto death, even the death of the cross; see Isa 50:4; in Heb 10:5, the words are rendered as by the Septuagint, "but a body hast thou prepared me"; and with it the Arabic and Ethiopic versions agree; and so Apollinarius,

"flesh of mortal generation;''

a part of the body being put for the whole; and which, indeed, is supposed: for unless a body had been prepared for him, his ears could not have been opened; and it was in the body, in human nature, that he was the obedient servant; and this is to be understood, not only of a preparation of this body, in the purposes, counsel, and covenant of God; but chiefly of the formation of it in the womb of the virgin, where it was curiously wrought and prepared by the Holy, Ghost, that he might have something to offer, and in it become, as he did, an offering and a sacrifice to God, of a sweet smelling savour;

burnt offering and sin offering hast thou not required; any longer; this body being prepared for the Messiah to be offered up in.

Gill: Psa 40:7 - Then said I // Lo, I come // in the volume of the book it is written of me Then said I,.... As in the council and covenant of peace, when and where he declared his willingness to come into the world, and make satisfaction for...

Then said I,.... As in the council and covenant of peace, when and where he declared his willingness to come into the world, and make satisfaction for the sins of his people; so when the fulness of time was come for his appearance in human nature he repeated the same; for of the time of his coming into the world are these words interpreted, Heb 10:5; when sacrifice and offering God would not have any longer continued, and when a body was prepared him, then he said,

Lo, I come; O Father; as Apollinarius, in his metaphrase, adds; that is, freely, and without compulsion; immediately, at once, without any delay; and he himself, and not another; and this not by change of place, but by assumption of nature; taking the body, or human nature, prepared for him, and uniting it to himself; to which the word "lo" is prefixed as a note of attention and admiration; the incarnation of Christ being a wonderful affair, and of the utmost moment and importance;

in the volume of the book it is written of me; either in the book of divine predestination, in the purposes and decrees of God, Psa 139:16; or in the book of the Scriptures; either in general, Joh 5:39, Luk 24:27; or particularly in the book of the Psalms, Psa 1:1; or rather in the book of the law, the five books of Moses, since these were the only books or volumes that were composed at the writing of this psalm; and it has respect not to Deu 18:15; nor Deu 17:18; nor Exo 21:6; but rather Gen 3:15; and seeing the coming of Christ into the world was not only appointed of God, agreed unto by Christ, but was prophesied of, and penned down in the sacred writings; therefore at the appointed time he came, freely and willingly. This book is called a volume, or roll, alluding to the manner of writing formerly; when what was written was finished, it was rolled about a stick in the manner of a cylinder; and in this form is the book of the law with the Jews to this day; See Gill on Luk 4:17.

Gill: Psa 40:8 - I delight to do thy will, O my God // yea, thy law is within my heart I delight to do thy will, O my God,.... This he came down from heaven to do, and this he did do, by preaching the Gospel, and working miracles; and ab...

I delight to do thy will, O my God,.... This he came down from heaven to do, and this he did do, by preaching the Gospel, and working miracles; and above all by obtaining eternal redemption for his people, which he effected by fulfilling the law, becoming a sacrifice, and suffering and dying in their room; all which were the will of God, and grateful to him, and in doing which Christ took the utmost delight and pleasure, Joh 4:34;

yea, thy law is within my heart; either the whole moral law, under which he was, as man, and the surety of his people; and which was written upon his heart, and which he perfectly obeyed; or that particular law, injunction, and command laid upon him by his Father, to offer himself a sacrifice, and lay down his life for men; which he agreed to, had it in his mind, his heart was set upon it, and he cheerfully complied with it, Joh 10:18.

Gill: Psa 40:9 - I have preached righteousness in the great congregation // lo, I have not refrained my lips, O Lord, thou knowest I have preached righteousness in the great congregation,.... Not the righteousness which the law requires men to do; but the righteousness which Chris...

I have preached righteousness in the great congregation,.... Not the righteousness which the law requires men to do; but the righteousness which Christ himself wrought out, for the justification of them that believe; this he was a preacher, as well as the author of, and is part of the glad tidings he was anointed to preach, Isa 61:1; and the word n here used signifies, for the most part, the publishing of good tidings; and this our Lord did publicly, before all the people, in the synagogues of the Jews, and in the temple, whither the people in great numbers resorted; especially at the three great festivals in the year; the feasts of passover, pentecost, and tabernacles, when all the males were obliged to appear, and made up a great congregation indeed; see Joh 2:23;

lo, I have not refrained my lips, O Lord, thou knowest; Christ appeals to his divine Father, the searcher of hearts, and trier of reins, for the truth of this; that he had not laid any restraint upon his lips, nor kept back anything in his ministry that was profitable; but had taught the way of God in great integrity and sincerity; had opened his mouth, and spoke freely and fully, and used great plainness of speech.

Gill: Psa 40:10 - I have not not hid thy righteousness within my heart // I have declared thy faithfulness and thy salvation // I have not concealed thy lovingkindness and thy truth from the great congregation I have not not hid thy righteousness within my heart,.... Meaning not the essential righteousness of God, though that was abundantly declared in the w...

I have not not hid thy righteousness within my heart,.... Meaning not the essential righteousness of God, though that was abundantly declared in the wounds, sufferings, and death of Christ; and which was the end indeed of his being a propitiation for sin, Rom 3:25; but his own righteousness, as before, which he wrought out, and brought in; and which is called the righteousness of God his Father, because it is approved of by him, and accepted with him, and which he imputes to all his people;

I have declared thy faithfulness and thy salvation: trial is, the "faithfulness" of God in executing all his purposes, counsels, and decrees, which are said to be faithfulness and truth; and in fulfilling his covenant and promises, relating to the redemption and salvation of men by Christ; and in the mission of Christ into this world on that account; and in the accomplishment of all the prophecies of the Old Testament concerning him; and in making good all the particular promises of support, help, and strength, made to the Messiah himself: and by his "salvation" is meant, that which is of God the Father's appointing, continuing, and settling, in the council and covenant of grace; which he sent his Son to be the author of, and which he has obtained; and is the great doctrine of the Gospel preached by himself, and his faithful ministers, Luk 19:9;

I have not concealed thy lovingkindness and thy truth from the great congregation; or "in the great congregation", as the Targum. By the "lovingkindness" of God is designed both his love to Christ, which was before the foundation of the world, and continued in his lowest state of humiliation, and which our Lord was far from concealing, but gave openly instances of it, Joh 17:24; and this love to his people; and which he declared to be the same with that which he is loved with, and instances in the gift of himself to them by his Father, as the great evidence of it, Joh 17:23; and by "truth" is intended the Gospel in general, which came by Christ, was preached by him, which he bore witness to, to do which was one end of his coming into the world; and this was not concealed by him, who is truth itself; but was fully and plainly declared by him, as it had not been before, Joh 1:17.

Gill: Psa 40:11 - Withhold not thou thy tender mercies from me, O Lord // let thy lovingkindness and thy truth continually preserve me Withhold not thou thy tender mercies from me, O Lord,.... this is a petition of Christ to his Father, when in the midst of his sorrows and sufferings,...

Withhold not thou thy tender mercies from me, O Lord,.... this is a petition of Christ to his Father, when in the midst of his sorrows and sufferings, before related; and particularly when he hid his face from him, and withheld the discoveries of his tender and affectionate love;

let thy lovingkindness and thy truth continually preserve me; as he had promised; of which promise some notice is given, Isa 49:8, in the fulfilment of which the lovingkindness, truth, and faithfulness of God, would appear. Some read these words as expressive of faith in these things, "thou wilt not withhold", &c. "thy lovingkindness and thy truth shall continually preserve me" o.

Gill: Psa 40:12 - For innumerable evils have compassed me about // mine iniquities have taken hold upon me // so that I am not able to look up // they are more than the hairs of mine head // therefore my heart faileth me For innumerable evils have compassed me about,.... Like floods of water all around him; see Psa 18:4; these are the evils of punishment inflicted on h...

For innumerable evils have compassed me about,.... Like floods of water all around him; see Psa 18:4; these are the evils of punishment inflicted on him, as the surety and Saviour of his people; such as the sorrows and griefs he bore all his days; the cruel mockings and scourges he endured; his being buffeted and spit upon; his head crowned with thorns, and his hands and feet pierced with nails; insulted by men and devils; crucified between two thieves, and so died the shameful and painful death of the cross;

mine iniquities have taken hold upon me; not any committed by him; he was conceived, born, and lived without sin, knew none, nor did he any; but the sins of his people, which were imputed to him, laid upon him, and which he voluntarily took and bore; and which he reckoned as his own and was responsible for them; these, when he hung upon the cross, came upon him from all quarters, and he bore them in his own body upon the tree;

so that I am not able to look up; or "cannot see" p; either the end of these iniquities, they being so numerous, as is after related; or he could not bear to look upon them, they were so filthy and nauseous, and he so pure and holy; or he could not behold his Father's countenance, which these sins that were upon him separated him from, and caused to be hid from him; or, like one pressed down with the guilt of sin, as the poor publican was, could not so much as lift up his eyes to heaven, Luk 18:13;

they are more than the hairs of mine head; as they must needs be, since they were the iniquities of all the elect of God, of the whole general assembly ad church of the firstborn, written in heaven, Isa 53:6;

therefore my heart faileth me; as man; see Psa 22:14; though being supported by his divine nature, and by his divine Father and eternal Spirit, he failed not, nor was he discouraged, Isa 42:4; this is said to show the truth of the human nature, the greatness of men's sins, the strictness of divine justice, and what strength was necessary to accomplish man's salvation.

Gill: Psa 40:13 - Be pleased, O Lord, to deliver me // O Lord, make haste to help me Be pleased, O Lord, to deliver me,.... From the innumerable evils which compassed him about; from sinful men, and from devils, signified by the sword,...

Be pleased, O Lord, to deliver me,.... From the innumerable evils which compassed him about; from sinful men, and from devils, signified by the sword, dog, and lion, Psa 22:20; and from the power and dominion of death and the grave; all which was done when he was raised from the dead, and as the fruit and effect of God's well pleasedness in him, and with what he did and suffered; see Psa 22:8;

O Lord, make haste to help me; See Gill on Psa 22:19.

Gill: Psa 40:14 - Let them be ashamed and confounded together // that seek after my soul to destroy it // let them be driven backward // and put to shame that wish me evil Let them be ashamed and confounded together,.... As they will be at the last day, when they shall see him whom they have pierced come in the clouds of...

Let them be ashamed and confounded together,.... As they will be at the last day, when they shall see him whom they have pierced come in the clouds of heaven, in his own and his Father's glory, and in the glory of the holy angels;

that seek after my soul to destroy it; that is, his life, as did Herod in his infancy, and the Scribes and Pharisees, chief priests and elders of the people of the Jews, frequently, and at last accomplished what they sought after;

let them be driven backward; as those were who came with Judas into the garden to apprehend him, Joh 18:6;

and put to shame that wish me evil: as did the Jews, who sought all opportunities to ensnare him, and that they might have to accuse him to the Roman governor; and who earnestly desired his crucifixion, and vehemently wished his death; see Psa 41:5.

Gill: Psa 40:15 - Let them be desolate for a reward of their shame // that say unto me, Aha, aha Let them be desolate for a reward of their shame,.... Of their shameful wishes, words, and actions, as they were: their habitations in Jerusalem were ...

Let them be desolate for a reward of their shame,.... Of their shameful wishes, words, and actions, as they were: their habitations in Jerusalem were desolate, and so was their house or temple there, and their whole land, and they themselves were stripped of everything, when Jerusalem was taken and destroyed; see Mat 23:38, Act 1:20;

that say unto me, Aha, aha; words expressive of joy, Psa 35:21, exulting at his miseries and sufferings on the cross, Mat 27:39; so the Targum,

"we have rejoiced at his destruction, with joy at his affliction.''

Gill: Psa 40:16 - Let all those that seek thee // rejoice and be glad in thee // let such as love thy salvation // say continually, the Lord be magnified Let all those that seek thee,.... In the first place, with their whole hearts, earnestly and diligently, in Christ, and under the influences of his Sp...

Let all those that seek thee,.... In the first place, with their whole hearts, earnestly and diligently, in Christ, and under the influences of his Spirit, for pardon, righteousness, communion, larger measures of grace, and for honour, glory, immortality, and eternal life;

rejoice and be glad in thee: as their covenant God, the Father of their mercies, the God of all comfort and salvation, who pardons their sins, clothes them with the robes of righteousness and garments of salvation, and accepts their persons in Christ; all which is matter of joy and gladness: Christ is concerned for the joy of his people, Joh 15:11; the Targum is, "they shall", or "let them rejoice, and be glad in thy word": in himself, the essential Word, in whom there is always ground and reason of joy and gladness; because of his person, blood, righteousness, and sacrifice;

let such as love thy salvation; either Christ, who is God's salvation, Gen 49:18; and who is loved by his people, universally, superlatively, and sincerely; or the salvation of him, his deliverance from the grave, resurrection from the dead, and exaltation; the benefits of which believers share in, and so have reason to love it: or the salvation he is the author of, which is loved by those that know it; partly because agreeable to the divine perfections, the glory of God is great in it; and partly because it is so full and complete in itself, and so suitable to them;

say continually, the Lord be magnified; let this be their constant employment in this world, as it will be for ever in the next, to ascribe greatness to God; or greatly to praise him, because of the great salvation wrought out for them.

Gill: Psa 40:17 - But I am poor and needy // yet the Lord thinketh upon me // thou art my help and my deliverer // make no tarrying, O my God But I am poor and needy,.... As Christ was literally, 2Co 8:9; and in a spiritual sense, when deserted by his Father, forsaken by his disciples, and ...

But I am poor and needy,.... As Christ was literally, 2Co 8:9; and in a spiritual sense, when deserted by his Father, forsaken by his disciples, and surrounded by his enemies; and had the sins of his people, the curse of the law, and the wrath of God upon him;

yet the Lord thinketh upon me; thinketh good for me, as the Targum; or thinks highly of me; has me in great esteem though despised of men, and in such a suffering state;

thou art my help and my deliverer; he believed he should have what he prayed for, Psa 40:13; see Isa 50:7;

make no tarrying, O my God; which is a repetition of the request in Psa 40:13.

buka semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki

NET Notes: Psa 40:1 Heb “relying, I relied.” The infinitive absolute precedes the finite verbal form to emphasize the verbal idea. The emphasis is reflected i...

NET Notes: Psa 40:2 Heb “he established my footsteps.”

NET Notes: Psa 40:3 Heb “may many see and fear and trust in the Lord.” The translation assumes that the initial prefixed verbal form is a jussive (“may ...

NET Notes: Psa 40:4 Heb “those falling away toward a lie.”

NET Notes: Psa 40:5 Heb “I will declare and I will speak, they are too numerous to recount.” The present translation assumes that the cohortatives are used in...

NET Notes: Psa 40:6 Heb “ears you hollowed out for me.” The meaning of this odd expression is debated (this is the only collocation of “hollowed outR...

NET Notes: Psa 40:7 Heb “in the roll of the scroll it is written concerning me.” Apparently the psalmist refers to the law of God (see v. 8), which contains t...

NET Notes: Psa 40:8 Heb “your law [is] in the midst of my inner parts.” The “inner parts” are viewed here as the seat of the psalmist’s thou...

NET Notes: Psa 40:9 Heb “Look! My lips I do not restrain.”

NET Notes: Psa 40:10 Heb “I have not hidden your loyal love and reliability.”

NET Notes: Psa 40:11 In this line the psalmist makes the transition from confidence to petition (see v. 13). Since the prefixed verbal form in the preceding line is imperf...

NET Notes: Psa 40:12 Heb “and my heart abandons me.” The “heart” is here viewed as the seat of emotional strength and courage. For a similar idea s...

NET Notes: Psa 40:13 Heb “hurry to my help.” See Pss 22:19; 38:22.

NET Notes: Psa 40:14 See Ps 35:4 for a similar prayer.

NET Notes: Psa 40:15 Heb “May they be humiliated according to their shame, those who say to me, ‘Aha! Aha!’”

NET Notes: Psa 40:16 The prefixed verbal form is taken as a jussive, “may the Lord be magnified [in praise].” Another option is to take the verb as an imperfec...

NET Notes: Psa 40:17 The prefixed verbal form may be taken as a jussive of prayer (as in the present translation; cf. NIV) or as an imperfect, “The Lord will pay att...

Geneva Bible: Psa 40:1 "To the chief Musician, A Psalm of David." I waited ( a ) patiently for the LORD; and he inclined unto me, and heard my cry. ( a ) Though God deferre...

Geneva Bible: Psa 40:2 He brought me up also out of an ( b ) horrible pit, out of the miry clay, and set my feet upon a rock, [and] established my goings. ( b ) He has deli...

Geneva Bible: Psa 40:3 And he hath put ( c ) a new song in my mouth, [even] praise unto our God: many shall see [it], and fear, and shall trust in the LORD. ( c ) That is, ...

Geneva Bible: Psa 40:4 Blessed [is] that man that maketh the LORD his trust, and respecteth ( d ) not the proud, nor such as turn aside to lies. ( d ) To follow their examp...

Geneva Bible: Psa 40:5 Many, ( e ) O LORD my God, [are] thy wonderful works [which] thou hast done, and thy thoughts [which are] to us-ward: they cannot be reckoned up in or...

Geneva Bible: Psa 40:6 Sacrifice and offering thou didst not desire; ( f ) mine ears hast thou opened: burnt offering and sin offering hast thou not required. ( f ) You hav...

Geneva Bible: Psa 40:7 ( g ) Then said I, Lo, I come: in the volume of the book [it is] written of me, ( g ) When you had opened my ears and heart, I was ready to obey you,...

Geneva Bible: Psa 40:9 I have preached righteousness in the ( h ) great congregation: lo, I have not refrained my lips, O LORD, thou knowest. ( h ) In the Church assembled ...

Geneva Bible: Psa 40:10 I have not hid thy righteousness within my heart; I have declared thy ( i ) faithfulness and thy salvation: I have not concealed thy lovingkindness an...

Geneva Bible: Psa 40:12 For innumerable evils have compassed me about: mine iniquities have taken hold upon me, so that I am not able to look up; they are more than the hairs...

Geneva Bible: Psa 40:14 Let them be ( l ) ashamed and confounded together that seek after my soul to destroy it; let them be driven backward and put to shame that wish me evi...

Geneva Bible: Psa 40:15 Let them be ( m ) desolate for a reward of their shame that say unto me, Aha, aha. ( m ) Let the same shame and confusion come on them, which they in...

Geneva Bible: Psa 40:16 Let all those that seek thee rejoice and be glad in thee: let such as love thy salvation say continually, ( n ) The LORD be magnified. ( n ) As the f...

buka semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Rentang Ayat

Maclaren: Psa 40:4-11 - A Libation To Jehovah Two Innumerable Series Many, O Lord my God, are Thy wonderful works which Thou hast done, and Thy thoughts which are to us-ward: they cannot be recko...

MHCC: Psa 40:1-5 - --Doubts and fears about the eternal state, are a horrible pit and miry clay, and have been so to many a dear child of God. There is power enough in God...

MHCC: Psa 40:6-10 - --The psalmist foretells that work of wonder, redemption by our Lord Jesus Christ. The Substance must come, which is Christ, who must bring that glory t...

MHCC: Psa 40:11-17 - --The best saints see themselves undone, unless continually preserved by the grace of God. But see the frightful view the psalmist had of sin. This made...

Matthew Henry: Psa 40:1-5 - -- In these verses we have, I. The great distress and trouble that the psalmist had been in. He had been plunged into a horrible pit and into miry clay...

Matthew Henry: Psa 40:6-10 - -- The psalmist, being struck with amazement at the wonderful works that God had done for his people, is strangely carried out here to foretel that wor...

Matthew Henry: Psa 40:11-17 - -- The psalmist, having meditated upon the work of redemption, and spoken of it in the person of the Messiah, now comes to make improvement of the doct...

Keil-Delitzsch: Psa 40:1-4 - -- David, who, though not without some hesitation, we regard as the author, now finds himself in a situation in which, on the one hand, he has just bee...

Keil-Delitzsch: Psa 40:5-6 - -- He esteems him happy who puts his trust ( מבטחו , with a latent Dagesh , as, according to Kimchi, also in Psa 71:5; Job 31:24; Jer 17:7) in Ja...

Keil-Delitzsch: Psa 40:7-9 - -- The connection of the thoughts is clear: great and manifold are the proofs of Thy loving-kindness, how am I to render thanks to Thee for them? To th...

Keil-Delitzsch: Psa 40:10-11 - -- The self-presentation before Jahve, introduced by אז אמרתּי , extends from הנה to מעי ; consequently בּשּׂרתּי yltn joins on ...

Keil-Delitzsch: Psa 40:12-13 - -- Now, in accordance with the true art of prayer, petition developes itself out of thanksgiving. The two כּלא , Psa 40:10 and here, stand in a rec...

Keil-Delitzsch: Psa 40:14-16 - -- In the midst of such sufferings, which, the longer they last, discover him all the more to himself as a sinner, he prays for speedy help. The cry fo...

Keil-Delitzsch: Psa 40:17 - -- On Psa 40:17 compare Psa 35:27. David wishes, as he does in that passage, that the pious may most heartily rejoice in God, the goal of their longing...

Constable: Psa 40:1-17 - --Psalm 40 In this psalm David offered himself as a sacrifice to God because the Lord had delivered him. H...

Constable: Psa 40:1-9 - --1. Thanksgiving for salvation 40:1-10 40:1-3 The psalmist testified to his people that the Lord had answered his prayer for deliverance after a long w...

Constable: Psa 40:10-16 - --2. Petition for salvation 40:11-17 40:11-12 The upbeat spirit of this psalm changes dramatically at verse 11. David appealed to the Lord for continuin...

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Lainnya

Evidence: Psa 40:7-9 This is a direct reference to the Messiah (see Heb 10:7 ). Jesus preached righteousness because God’s Law was within His heart. When God’s Law is...

Evidence: Psa 40:17 King David had great wealth and had his every need met, so he is speaking here in a spiritual sense. Describing himself as " poor and needy" shows he...

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Pendahuluan / Garis Besar

JFB: Psalms (Pendahuluan Kitab) The Hebrew title of this book is Tehilim ("praises" or "hymns"), for a leading feature in its contents is praise, though the word occurs in the title ...

JFB: Psalms (Garis Besar) ALEPH. (Psa 119:1-8). This celebrated Psalm has several peculiarities. It is divided into twenty-two parts or stanzas, denoted by the twenty-two let...

TSK: Psalms (Pendahuluan Kitab) The Psalms have been the general song of the universal Church; and in their praise, all the Fathers have been unanimously eloquent. Men of all nation...

TSK: Psalms 40 (Pendahuluan Pasal) Overview Psa 40:1, The benefit of confidence in God; Psa 40:6, Obedience is the best sacrifice; Psa 40:11, The sense of David’s evils inflames h...

Poole: Psalms (Pendahuluan Kitab) OF PSALMS THE ARGUMENT The divine authority of this Book of PSALMS is so certain and evident, that it was never questioned in the church; which b...

Poole: Psalms 40 (Pendahuluan Pasal) THE ARGUMENT This Psalm is a celebration of God’ s great goodness and mercy vouchsafed unto him and all his people. It is certain and evident ...

MHCC: Psalms (Pendahuluan Kitab) David was the penman of most of the psalms, but some evidently were composed by other writers, and the writers of some are doubtful. But all were writ...

MHCC: Psalms 40 (Pendahuluan Pasal) (Psa 40:1-5) Confidence for deliverance. (Psa 40:6-10) Christ's work of redemption. (Psa 40:11-17) Prayer for mercy and grace.

Matthew Henry: Psalms (Pendahuluan Kitab) An Exposition, with Practical Observations, of The Book of Psalms We have now before us one of the choicest and most excellent parts of all the Old Te...

Matthew Henry: Psalms 40 (Pendahuluan Pasal) It should seem David penned this psalm upon occasion of his deliverance, by the power and goodness of God, from some great and pressing trouble, by...

Constable: Psalms (Pendahuluan Kitab) Introduction Title The title of this book in the Hebrew Bible is Tehillim, which means...

Constable: Psalms (Garis Besar) Outline I. Book 1: chs. 1-41 II. Book 2: chs. 42-72 III. Book 3: chs. 73...

Constable: Psalms Psalms Bibliography Allen, Ronald B. "Evidence from Psalm 89." In A Case for Premillennialism: A New Consensus,...

Haydock: Psalms (Pendahuluan Kitab) THE BOOK OF PSALMS. INTRODUCTION. The Psalms are called by the Hebrew, Tehillim; that is, hymns of praise. The author, of a great part of ...

Gill: Psalms (Pendahuluan Kitab) INTRODUCTION TO PSALMS The title of this book may be rendered "the Book of Praises", or "Hymns"; the psalm which our Lord sung at the passover is c...

Gill: Psalms 40 (Pendahuluan Pasal) INTRODUCTION TO PSALM 40 To the chief Musician, a Psalm of David. Jarchi interprets this psalm of the Israelites, and of their deliverance and song...

Advanced Commentary (Kamus, Lagu-Lagu Himne, Gambar, Ilustrasi Khotbah, Pertanyaan-Pertanyaan, dll)


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