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Teks -- Joshua 9:1-27 (NET)

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Konteks
The Gibeonites Deceive Israel
9:1 When the news reached all the kings on the west side of the Jordan– in the hill country, the lowlands, and all along the Mediterranean coast as far as Lebanon (including the Hittites, Amorites, Canaanites, Perizzites, Hivites, and Jebusites)– 9:2 they formed an alliance to fight against Joshua and Israel. 9:3 When the residents of Gibeon heard what Joshua did to Jericho and Ai, 9:4 they did something clever. They collected some provisions and put worn-out sacks on their donkeys, along with worn-out wineskins that were ripped and patched. 9:5 They had worn-out, patched sandals on their feet and dressed in worn-out clothes. All their bread was dry and hard. 9:6 They came to Joshua at the camp in Gilgal and said to him and the men of Israel, “We have come from a distant land. Make a treaty with us.” 9:7 The men of Israel said to the Hivites, “Perhaps you live near us. So how can we make a treaty with you?” 9:8 But they said to Joshua, “We are willing to be your subjects.” So Joshua said to them, “Who are you and where do you come from?” 9:9 They told him, “Your subjects have come from a very distant land because of the reputation of the Lord your God, for we have heard the news about all he did in Egypt 9:10 and all he did to the two Amorite kings on the other side of the Jordan– King Sihon of Heshbon and King Og of Bashan in Ashtaroth. 9:11 Our leaders and all who live in our land told us, ‘Take provisions for your journey and go meet them. Tell them, “We are willing to be your subjects. Make a treaty with us.”’ 9:12 This bread of ours was warm when we packed it in our homes the day we started out to meet you, but now it is dry and hard. 9:13 These wineskins we filled were brand new, but look how they have ripped. Our clothes and sandals have worn out because it has been a very long journey.” 9:14 The men examined some of their provisions, but they failed to ask the Lord’s advice. 9:15 Joshua made a peace treaty with them and agreed to let them live. The leaders of the community sealed it with an oath. 9:16 Three days after they made the treaty with them, the Israelites found out they were from the local area and lived nearby. 9:17 So the Israelites set out and on the third day arrived at their cities– Gibeon, Kephirah, Beeroth, and Kiriath Jearim. 9:18 The Israelites did not attack them because the leaders of the community had sworn an oath to them in the name of the Lord God of Israel. The whole community criticized the leaders, 9:19 but all the leaders told the whole community, “We swore an oath to them in the name of the Lord God of Israel. So now we can’t hurt them! 9:20 We must let them live so we can escape the curse attached to the oath we swore to them.” 9:21 The leaders then added, “Let them live.” So they became woodcutters and water carriers for the whole community, as the leaders had decided. 9:22 Joshua summoned the Gibeonites and said to them, “Why did you trick us by saying, ‘We live far away from you,’ when you really live nearby? 9:23 Now you are condemned to perpetual servitude as woodcutters and water carriers for the house of my God.” 9:24 They said to Joshua, “It was carefully reported to your subjects how the Lord your God commanded Moses his servant to assign you the whole land and to destroy all who live in the land from before you. Because of you we were terrified we would lose our lives, so we did this thing. 9:25 So now we are in your power. Do to us what you think is good and appropriate. 9:26 Joshua did as they said; he kept the Israelites from killing them 9:27 and that day made them woodcutters and water carriers for the community and for the altar of the Lord at the divinely chosen site. (They continue in that capacity to this very day.)
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Ai a town of Canaanites in Benjamin
 · Amorites members of a pre-Israel Semitic tribe from Mesopotamia
 · Ashtaroth pagan god images of the Canaanite goddess Ashtoreth,a town of Manasseh about 35 km east of the sea of Chinnereth
 · Bashan a region east of Lake Galilee between Mt. Hermon and Wadi Yarmuk
 · Beeroth a resident(s) of the town of Beeroth
 · Canaanite residents of the region of Canaan
 · Chephirah a town of the Gibeonites in Benjamin
 · Egypt descendants of Mizraim
 · Gibeon a town of Benjamin pioneered by Jeiel of Benjamin
 · Gilgal a place where Israel encamped between Jericho and the Jordan,a town between Dor and Tirza in the territory of Ephraim (YC),a town just north of Joppa, originally a military base (YC),a place 12 miles south of Shechem now called Jiljiliah (YC)
 · Great Sea the Mediterranean Sea
 · Heshbon a town of south-eastern Judah
 · Hittite a person/people living in the land of Syro-Palestine
 · Hivite a person/people descended from Canaan son of Ham son of Noah
 · Israel a citizen of Israel.,a member of the nation of Israel
 · Jebusite resident(s) of the town of Jebus (Jerusalem)
 · Jericho a town five miles west of the Jordan and 15 miles northeast of Jerusalem,a town of Benjamin 11 km NW of the mouth of the Jordan River
 · Jordan the river that flows from Lake Galilee to the Dead Sea,a river that begins at Mt. Hermon, flows south through Lake Galilee and on to its end at the Dead Sea 175 km away (by air)
 · Joshua a son of Eliezer; the father of Er; an ancestor of Jesus,the son of Nun and successor of Moses,son of Nun of Ephraim; successor to Moses,a man: owner of the field where the ark stopped,governor of Jerusalem under King Josiah,son of Jehozadak; high priest in the time of Zerubbabel
 · Lebanon a mountain range and the adjoining regions (IBD)
 · Moses a son of Amram; the Levite who led Israel out of Egypt and gave them The Law of Moses,a Levite who led Israel out of Egypt and gave them the law
 · Og king of Bashan whom Israel defeated.
 · Perizzite a people of ancient Canaan in the later territory of Ephraim
 · Sihon the king of the Amorites in Moses time


Topik/Tema Kamus: Gibeon | Alliances | Lies and Deceits | Joshua | Canaan | God | Israel | Kirjath-jearim | Alliance | Magnanimity | Slave | Contracts | Treaty | Oath | Servant | Diplomacy | Confidence | Deception | Craftiness | TEARS | selebihnya
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MHCC , Matthew Henry , Keil-Delitzsch , Constable , Guzik

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per frasa)

Wesley: Jos 9:2 - Together They entered into a league to do this. Tho' they were many kings of different nations, and doubtless of different interests, often at variance with ea...

They entered into a league to do this. Tho' they were many kings of different nations, and doubtless of different interests, often at variance with each other, yet they are all determined to unite against Israel. O that Israel would learn this of Canaanites, to sacrifice private interests to the public good, and to lay aside all animosities among themselves, that they may cordially unite against the common enemy.

Wesley: Jos 9:3 - Gibeon A great and royal city of the Hivites.

A great and royal city of the Hivites.

Wesley: Jos 9:4 - Been ambassadors Sent from a far country.

Sent from a far country.

Wesley: Jos 9:6 - The camp at Gilgal The place of their head - quarters.

The place of their head - quarters.

Wesley: Jos 9:6 - Men of Israel To those who used to meet in council with Joshua, to whom it belonged to make leagues, even the princes of the congregation.

To those who used to meet in council with Joshua, to whom it belonged to make leagues, even the princes of the congregation.

Wesley: Jos 9:6 - Now therefore Because we are not of this people, whom, as we are informed, you are obliged utterly to destroy.

Because we are not of this people, whom, as we are informed, you are obliged utterly to destroy.

Wesley: Jos 9:7 - The Hivites That is, the Gibeonites who were Hivites, Jos 11:19.

That is, the Gibeonites who were Hivites, Jos 11:19.

Wesley: Jos 9:7 - Among us That is, in this land, and so are of that people with whom we are forbidden to make any league or covenant.

That is, in this land, and so are of that people with whom we are forbidden to make any league or covenant.

Wesley: Jos 9:8 - Thy servants We desire a league with you upon your own terms; we are ready to accept of any conditions.

We desire a league with you upon your own terms; we are ready to accept of any conditions.

Wesley: Jos 9:8 - From whence came ye For this free and general concession gave Joshua cause to suspect that they were Canaanites.

For this free and general concession gave Joshua cause to suspect that they were Canaanites.

Wesley: Jos 9:9 - Name of the Lord Being moved thereunto by the report of his great and glorious nature and works; so they gave them hopes that they would embrace their religion.

Being moved thereunto by the report of his great and glorious nature and works; so they gave them hopes that they would embrace their religion.

Wesley: Jos 9:9 - In Egypt They cunningly mention those things only which were done some time ago, and say nothing of dividing Jordan, or the destruction of Jericho and Ai, as i...

They cunningly mention those things only which were done some time ago, and say nothing of dividing Jordan, or the destruction of Jericho and Ai, as if they lived so far off that the fame of those things had not yet reached them.

Wesley: Jos 9:13 - The bottles Leathern bottles.

Leathern bottles.

Wesley: Jos 9:14 - The men That is, the princes.

That is, the princes.

Wesley: Jos 9:14 - Their victuals That they might examine the truth of what they said.

That they might examine the truth of what they said.

Wesley: Jos 9:14 - The mouth of the Lord As they ought to have done upon all such weighty occasions. So they are accused of rashness and neglect of their duty. For though it is probable, if G...

As they ought to have done upon all such weighty occasions. So they are accused of rashness and neglect of their duty. For though it is probable, if God had been consulted, he would have consented to the sparing of the Gibeonites; yet it should have been done with more caution, and an obligation upon them to embrace the true religion. In every business of importance, we should stay to take God along with us, and by the word and prayer consult him. Many a time our affairs miscarry, because we asked not counsel at the mouth of the Lord. Did we acknowledge him in all our ways, they would be more safe, easy and successful.

Wesley: Jos 9:15 - To let them live That is, they should not destroy them. That this league was lawful and obliging, appears, Because Joshua and all the princes, upon the review conclude...

That is, they should not destroy them. That this league was lawful and obliging, appears, Because Joshua and all the princes, upon the review concluded it so to be, and spared them accordingly. Because God punished the violation of it long after, 2Sa 21:1. Because God is said to have hardened the hearts of all other cities, not to seek peace with Israel, that so he might utterly destroy them, Jos 11:19-20, which seems to imply that their utter destruction did not necessarily come upon them by virtue of any peremptory command of God, but by their own obstinate hardness, whereby they refused to make peace with the Israelites.

Wesley: Jos 9:16 - Three days That is, at the last of them, or upon the third day, as it is said, Jos 9:17.

That is, at the last of them, or upon the third day, as it is said, Jos 9:17.

Wesley: Jos 9:17 - And Kirjath jearim - Which cities were subject to Gibeon, the royal city,Jos 10:2.

jearim - Which cities were subject to Gibeon, the royal city,Jos 10:2.

Wesley: Jos 9:18 - Against the princes Both from that proneness which is in people to censure the actions of their rulers; and from their desire of the spoil of these cities.

Both from that proneness which is in people to censure the actions of their rulers; and from their desire of the spoil of these cities.

Wesley: Jos 9:21 - Unto all the congregation That is, Let them be public servants, and employed in the meanest offices, (one kind being put for all the rest) for the use of the congregation; to d...

That is, Let them be public servants, and employed in the meanest offices, (one kind being put for all the rest) for the use of the congregation; to do this partly for the sacrifices and services of the house of God, which otherwise the Israelites themselves must have done; partly for the service of the camp or body of the people; and sometimes, even to particular Israelites.

Wesley: Jos 9:22 - Called for them Probably not only the messengers, but the elders of Gibeon were now present.

Probably not only the messengers, but the elders of Gibeon were now present.

Wesley: Jos 9:23 - Ye are cursed You shall not escape the curse of God which by divine sentence belongs to all the Canaanites; but only change the quality of it, you shall feel that c...

You shall not escape the curse of God which by divine sentence belongs to all the Canaanites; but only change the quality of it, you shall feel that curse of bondage, which is proper to your race by virtue of that ancient decree, Gen 9:25.

Wesley: Jos 9:23 - Bondmen The slavery, which is upon you shall be entailed on your posterity.

The slavery, which is upon you shall be entailed on your posterity.

Wesley: Jos 9:23 - The house of my God This only service they mention here, because it was their durable servitude, being first in the tabernacle, and then in the temple, whence they were c...

This only service they mention here, because it was their durable servitude, being first in the tabernacle, and then in the temple, whence they were called Nethinim, 1Ch 9:2; Ezr 2:43, whereas their servitude to the whole congregation in a great measure ceased when the Israelites were dispersed to their several habitations.

Wesley: Jos 9:25 - In thine hand That is, in thy power to use us as thou wilt.

That is, in thy power to use us as thou wilt.

Wesley: Jos 9:25 - Unto thee We refer ourselves to thee and thy own piety, and probity, and faithfulness to thy word and oath; if thou wilt destroy thy humble suppliants, we submi...

We refer ourselves to thee and thy own piety, and probity, and faithfulness to thy word and oath; if thou wilt destroy thy humble suppliants, we submit. Let us in like manner submit to our Lord Jesus, and refer ourselves to him; saying, We are in thy hand; do unto us as seemeth right unto thee. Only save our souls: give us our lives for a prey; and let us serve thee, just as thou wilt!

Wesley: Jos 9:27 - The altar of the Lord By which appears, that they were not only to do this service in God's house, but upon all other occasions, as the congregation needed their help.

By which appears, that they were not only to do this service in God's house, but upon all other occasions, as the congregation needed their help.

JFB: Jos 9:1 - all the kings which were on this side That is, the western side of Jordan.

That is, the western side of Jordan.

JFB: Jos 9:1 - in the hills, and in ther valleys, and in all the coasts of the great sea This threefold distinction marks out very clearly a large portion of Canaan. The first designates the hill country, which belonged afterwards to the t...

This threefold distinction marks out very clearly a large portion of Canaan. The first designates the hill country, which belonged afterwards to the tribes of Judah and Ephraim: the second, all the low country from Carmel to Gaza; and the third, the shores of the Mediterranean, from the Isthmus of Tyre to the plain of Joppa. (As for the tribes mentioned, see on Num 13:29).

JFB: Jos 9:1 - heard thereof That is, of the sacking of Jericho and Ai, as well as the rapid advance of the Israelites into the interior of the country.

That is, of the sacking of Jericho and Ai, as well as the rapid advance of the Israelites into the interior of the country.

JFB: Jos 9:2 - they gathered themselves together, to fight with Joshua and with Israel, with one accord Although divided by separate interests and often at war with each other, a sense of common danger prompted them to suspend their mutual animosities, t...

Although divided by separate interests and often at war with each other, a sense of common danger prompted them to suspend their mutual animosities, that by their united forces they might prevent the land from falling into the hands of foreign masters.|| 06041||1||13||0||@@THE GIBEONITES OBTAIN A LEAGUE BY CRAFT.==== (Jos 9:3-15)

JFB: Jos 9:2 - when the inhabitants of Gibeon heard This town, as its name imports, was situated on a rocky eminence, about six miles northwest from Jerusalem, where the modern village of El Jib now sta...

This town, as its name imports, was situated on a rocky eminence, about six miles northwest from Jerusalem, where the modern village of El Jib now stands. It was the capital of the Hivites, and a large important city (Jos 10:2). It seems to have formed, in union with a few other towns in the neighborhood, a free independent state (Jos 9:17) and to have enjoyed a republican government (Jos 9:11).

JFB: Jos 9:4 - They did work wilily They acted with dexterous policy, seeking the means of self-preservation, not by force, which they were convinced would be unavailing, but by artful d...

They acted with dexterous policy, seeking the means of self-preservation, not by force, which they were convinced would be unavailing, but by artful diplomacy.

JFB: Jos 9:4 - took old sacks upon their asses Travellers in the East transport their luggage on beasts of burden; the poorer sort stow all their necessaries, food, clothes, utensils together, in a...

Travellers in the East transport their luggage on beasts of burden; the poorer sort stow all their necessaries, food, clothes, utensils together, in a woollen or hair-cloth sack, laid across the shoulders of the beast they ride upon.

JFB: Jos 9:4 - wine bottles, old, and rent, and bound up Goat-skins, which are better adapted for carrying liquor of any kind fresh and good, than either earthenware, which is porous, or metallic vessels, wh...

Goat-skins, which are better adapted for carrying liquor of any kind fresh and good, than either earthenware, which is porous, or metallic vessels, which are soon heated by the sun. These skin bottles are liable to be rent when old and much used; and there are various ways of mending them--by inserting a new piece of leather, or by gathering together the edges of the rent and sewing them in the form of a purse, or by putting a round flat splinter of wood into the hole.

JFB: Jos 9:5 - old shoes and clouted Those who have but one ass or mule for themselves and baggage frequently dismount and walk--a circumstance which may account for the worn shoes of the...

Those who have but one ass or mule for themselves and baggage frequently dismount and walk--a circumstance which may account for the worn shoes of the pretended travellers.

JFB: Jos 9:5 - bread . . . dry and mouldy This must have been that commonly used by travellers--a sort of biscuit made in the form of large rings, about an inch thick, and four or five inches ...

This must have been that commonly used by travellers--a sort of biscuit made in the form of large rings, about an inch thick, and four or five inches in diameter. Not being so well baked as our biscuits, it becomes hard and mouldy from the moisture left in the dough. It is usually soaked in water previous to being used.

JFB: Jos 9:6-14 - they went to Joshua unto the camp at Gilgal Arrived at the Israelitish headquarters, the strangers obtained an interview with Joshua and the elders, to whom they opened their business.

Arrived at the Israelitish headquarters, the strangers obtained an interview with Joshua and the elders, to whom they opened their business.

JFB: Jos 9:7 - the men of Israel said unto the Hivites, Peradventure ye dwell among us The answer of the Israelites implied that they had no discretion, that their orders were imperative, and that if the strangers belonged to any of the ...

The answer of the Israelites implied that they had no discretion, that their orders were imperative, and that if the strangers belonged to any of the native tribes, the idea of an alliance with them was unlawful since God had forbidden it (Exo 23:32; Exo 34:12; Deu 7:2).

JFB: Jos 9:9 - From a very far country thy servants are come because of the name of the Lord thy God They pretended to be actuated by religious motives in seeking to be allied with His people. But their studied address is worthy of notice in appealing...

They pretended to be actuated by religious motives in seeking to be allied with His people. But their studied address is worthy of notice in appealing to instances of God's miraculous doings at a distance, while they pass by those done in Canaan, as if the report of these had not yet reached their ears.

JFB: Jos 9:14-15 - the men took of their victuals and asked not counsel at the mouth of the Lord The mouldy appearance of their bread was, after examination, accepted as guaranteeing the truth of the story. In this precipitate conclusion the Israe...

The mouldy appearance of their bread was, after examination, accepted as guaranteeing the truth of the story. In this precipitate conclusion the Israelites were guilty of excessive credulity and culpable negligence, in not asking by the high priest's Urim and Thummim the mind of God, before entering into the alliance. It is not clear, however, that had they applied for divine direction they would have been forbidden to spare and connect themselves with any of the Canaanite tribes who renounced idolatry and embraced and worshipped the true God. At least, no fault was found with them for making a covenant with the Gibeonites; while, on the other hand, the violation of it was severely punished (2Sa 21:1; and Jos 11:19-20).

JFB: Jos 9:16-17 - at the end of three days . . . they heard that they were their neighbours, and that they dwelt among them This information was obtained in their further progress through the country; for as Jos 9:17 should be rendered, "when the children of Israel journeye...

This information was obtained in their further progress through the country; for as Jos 9:17 should be rendered, "when the children of Israel journeyed, they came to their cities." Gibeon was about eighteen or twenty miles from Gilgal.

JFB: Jos 9:17 - Chephirah (Jos 18:26; Ezr 2:25; Neh 7:29).

JFB: Jos 9:17 - Beeroth (2Sa 4:2), now El Berich, about twenty minutes' distance from El Jib (Gibeon).

(2Sa 4:2), now El Berich, about twenty minutes' distance from El Jib (Gibeon).

JFB: Jos 9:17 - Kirjath-jearim "the city of forests," now Kuryet-el-Enab [ROBINSON].|| 06056||1||10||0||@the children of Israel smote them not==--The moral character of the Gibeonit...

"the city of forests," now Kuryet-el-Enab [ROBINSON].|| 06056||1||10||0||@the children of Israel smote them not==--The moral character of the Gibeonites' stratagem was bad. The princes of the congregation did not vindicate either the expediency or the lawfulness of the connection they had formed; but they felt the solemn obligations of their oath; and, although the popular clamor was loud against them, caused either by disappointment at losing the spoils of Gibeon, or by displeasure at the apparent breach of the divine commandment, they determined to adhere to their pledge, "because they had sworn by the Lord God of Israel." The Israelitish princes acted conscientiously; they felt themselves bound by their solemn promise; but to prevent the disastrous consequences of their imprudent haste, they resolved to degrade the Gibeonites to a servile condition as a means of preventing their people from being ensnared into idolatry, and thus acted up, as they thought, to the true spirit and end of the law.

JFB: Jos 9:27 - hewers of wood and drawers of water The menials who performed the lowest offices and drudgery in the sanctuary; whence they were called Nethinims (1Ch 9:2; Ezr 2:43; Ezr 8:20); that is, ...

The menials who performed the lowest offices and drudgery in the sanctuary; whence they were called Nethinims (1Ch 9:2; Ezr 2:43; Ezr 8:20); that is, given, appropriated. Their chastisement thus brought them into the possession of great religious privileges (Psa 84:10).

Clarke: Jos 9:1 - And it came to pass, when all the kings - heard thereof And it came to pass, when all the kings - heard thereof - From this account it appears that the capture and destruction of Jericho and Ai had been h...

And it came to pass, when all the kings - heard thereof - From this account it appears that the capture and destruction of Jericho and Ai had been heard of to the remotest parts of the land, that a general fear of the Israelitish arms prevailed, and that the different dynasties or petty governments into which the land was divided, felt all their interests at stake, and determined to make the defense of their country a common cause. This was the most prudent step they could take in their circumstances, and therefore they entered into a confederation in order to arrest the progress of the Israelites. The Great Sea mentioned here is the Mediterranean Sea, the coasts of which were inhabited by the Phoenicians, Syrians, Sidonians, and Philistines. It is very likely that all these united with the Canaanites for their common safety.

Clarke: Jos 9:3 - The inhabitants of Gibeon heard The inhabitants of Gibeon heard - These alone did not join the confederation. Gibeon is supposed to have been the capital of the Hivites. In the div...

The inhabitants of Gibeon heard - These alone did not join the confederation. Gibeon is supposed to have been the capital of the Hivites. In the division of the land it fell to the lot of Benjamin, Jos 18:25, and was afterwards given to the priests, Jos 21:17. See the note on Jos 10:2.

Clarke: Jos 9:4 - They did work wilily They did work wilily - Finesse of this kind is allowed by the conduct of all nations; and stratagems in war are all considered as legal. Nine tenths...

They did work wilily - Finesse of this kind is allowed by the conduct of all nations; and stratagems in war are all considered as legal. Nine tenths of the victories gained are attributable to stratagem; all sides practice them, and therefore none can condemn them. Much time and labor have been lost in the inquiry, "Did not the Gibeonites tell lies?"Certainly they did, and what is that to us? Does the word of God commend them for it? It does not. Are they held up to us as examples! Surely no. They did what any other nation would have done in their circumstances, and we have nothing to do with their example. Had they come to the Israelites, and simply submitted themselves without opposition and without fraud, they had certainly fared much better. Lying and hypocrisy always defeat their own purpose, and at best can succeed only for a short season. Truth and honesty never wear out

Clarke: Jos 9:4 - Old sacks - and wine bottles, old, etc. Old sacks - and wine bottles, old, etc. - They pretended to have come from a very distant country, and that their sacks and the goat-skins that serv...

Old sacks - and wine bottles, old, etc. - They pretended to have come from a very distant country, and that their sacks and the goat-skins that served them for carrying their wine and water in, were worn out by the length of the journey.

Clarke: Jos 9:5 - Old shoes and clouted Old shoes and clouted - Their sandals, they pretended had been worn out by long and difficult travelling, and they had been obliged to have them fre...

Old shoes and clouted - Their sandals, they pretended had been worn out by long and difficult travelling, and they had been obliged to have them frequently patched during the way; their garments also were worn thin; and what remained of their bread was mouldy - spotted with age, or, as our old version has it, bored - pierced with many holes by the vermin which had bred in it, through the length of the time it had been in their sacks; and this is the most literal meaning of the original נקדים nikkudim , which means spotted or pierced with many holes. The old and clouted shoes have been a subject of some controversy: the Hebrew word בלות baloth signifies worn out, from בלה balah , to wear away; and מטלאות metullaoth , from טלא tala , to spot or patch, i.e., spotted with patches. Our word clouted, in the Anglo-Saxon signifies seamed up, patched; from clout, rag, or small piece of cloth, used for piecing or patching. But some suppose the word here comes from clouet, the diminutive of clou, a small nail, with which the Gibeonites had fortified the soles of their shoes, to prevent them from wearing out in so long a journey; but this seems very unlikely; and our old English term clouted - seamed or patched - expresses the spirit of the Hebrew word.

Clarke: Jos 9:6 - Make ye a league with us Make ye a league with us - כרתו לנו ברית kirethu lanu berith , cut, or divide, the covenant sacrifice with us. From this it appears that...

Make ye a league with us - כרתו לנו ברית kirethu lanu berith , cut, or divide, the covenant sacrifice with us. From this it appears that heathenism at this time had its sacrifices, and covenants were ratified by sacrificing to and invoking the objects of their adoration.

Clarke: Jos 9:7 - Peradventure ye dwell among us Peradventure ye dwell among us - It is strange they should have had such a suspicion, as the Gibeonites had acted so artfully; and it is as strange ...

Peradventure ye dwell among us - It is strange they should have had such a suspicion, as the Gibeonites had acted so artfully; and it is as strange that, having such a suspicion, they acted with so little caution.

Clarke: Jos 9:8 - We are thy servants We are thy servants - This appears to have been the only answer they gave to the question of the Israelitish elders, and this they gave to Joshua, n...

We are thy servants - This appears to have been the only answer they gave to the question of the Israelitish elders, and this they gave to Joshua, not to them, as they saw that Joshua was commander-in-chief of the host

Clarke: Jos 9:8 - Who are ye? and from whence come ye? Who are ye? and from whence come ye? - To these questions, from such an authority, they felt themselves obliged to give an explicit answer; and they...

Who are ye? and from whence come ye? - To these questions, from such an authority, they felt themselves obliged to give an explicit answer; and they do it very artfully by a mixture of truth, falsehood, and hypocrisy.

Clarke: Jos 9:9 - Because of the name of the Lord thy God Because of the name of the Lord thy God - They pretend that they had undertaken this journey on a religious account; and seem to intimate that they ...

Because of the name of the Lord thy God - They pretend that they had undertaken this journey on a religious account; and seem to intimate that they had the highest respect for Jehovah, the object of the Israelites’ worship; this was hypocrisy

Clarke: Jos 9:9 - We have heard the fame of him We have heard the fame of him - This was true: the wonders which God did in Egypt, and the discomfiture of Sihon and Og, had reached the whole land ...

We have heard the fame of him - This was true: the wonders which God did in Egypt, and the discomfiture of Sihon and Og, had reached the whole land of Canaan, and it was on this account that the inhabitants of it were panic-struck. The Gibeonites, knowing that they could not stand where such mighty forces had fallen, wished to make the Israelites their friends. This part of their relation was strictly true.

Clarke: Jos 9:11 - Wherefore our elders, etc. Wherefore our elders, etc. - All this, and what follows to the end of Jos 9:13, was false, contrived merely for the purpose of deceiving the Israeli...

Wherefore our elders, etc. - All this, and what follows to the end of Jos 9:13, was false, contrived merely for the purpose of deceiving the Israelites, and this they did to save their own lives; as they expected all the inhabitants of Canaan to be put to the sword.

Clarke: Jos 9:14 - The men took of their victuals The men took of their victuals - This was done in all probability in the way of friendship; for, from time immemorial to the present day, eating tog...

The men took of their victuals - This was done in all probability in the way of friendship; for, from time immemorial to the present day, eating together, in the Asiatic countries, is considered a token of unalterable friendship; and those who eat even salt together, feel themselves bound thereby in a perpetual covenant. But the marginal reading of this clause should not be hastily rejected

Clarke: Jos 9:14 - And asked not counsel at the mouth of the Lord And asked not counsel at the mouth of the Lord - They made the covenant with the Gibeonites without consulting God by Urim and Thummim, which was hi...

And asked not counsel at the mouth of the Lord - They made the covenant with the Gibeonites without consulting God by Urim and Thummim, which was highly reprehensible in them, as it was a state transaction in which the interests and honor of God their king were intimately concerned.

Clarke: Jos 9:15 - Joshua made peace with them Joshua made peace with them - Joshua agreed to receive them into a friendly connection with the Israelites, and to respect their lives and propertie...

Joshua made peace with them - Joshua agreed to receive them into a friendly connection with the Israelites, and to respect their lives and properties; and the elders of Israel bound themselves to the observance of it, and confirmed it with an oath. As the same words are used here as in Jos 9:6, we may suppose that the covenant was made in the ordinary way, a sacrifice being offered on the occasion, and its blood poured out before the Lord. See on Gen 15:10 (note), etc.

Clarke: Jos 9:16 - At the end of three days At the end of three days - Gibeon is reputed to be only about eight leagues distant from Gilgal, and on this account the fraud might be easily disco...

At the end of three days - Gibeon is reputed to be only about eight leagues distant from Gilgal, and on this account the fraud might be easily discovered in the time mentioned above.

Clarke: Jos 9:17 - The children of Israel - came unto their cities The children of Israel - came unto their cities - Probably when the fraud was discovered, Joshua sent out a detachment to examine their country, and...

The children of Israel - came unto their cities - Probably when the fraud was discovered, Joshua sent out a detachment to examine their country, and to see what use could be made of it in the prosecution of their war with the Canaanites. Some of the cities mentioned here were afterwards in great repute among the Israelites: and God chose to make one of them, Kirjath-jearim, the residence of the ark of the covenant for twenty years, in the reigns of Saul and David. There is no evidence that the preservation of the Gibeonites was displeasing to Jehovah.

Clarke: Jos 9:18 - All the congregation murmured All the congregation murmured - Merely because they were deprived of the spoils of the Gibeonites. They had now got under the full influence of a pr...

All the congregation murmured - Merely because they were deprived of the spoils of the Gibeonites. They had now got under the full influence of a predatory spirit; God saw their proneness to this, and therefore, at particular times, totally interdicted the spoils of conquered cities, as in the case of Jericho.

Clarke: Jos 9:19 - We have sworn unto them We have sworn unto them - Although the Israelites were deceived in this business, and the covenant was made on a certain supposition which was after...

We have sworn unto them - Although the Israelites were deceived in this business, and the covenant was made on a certain supposition which was afterwards proved to have had no foundation in truth, and consequently the whole engagement on the part of the deceived was hereby vitiated and rendered null and void; yet, because the elders had eaten with them, offered a covenant sacrifice, and sworn by Jehovah, they did not consider themselves at liberty to break the terms of the agreement, as far as the lives of the Gibeonites were concerned. That their conduct in this respect was highly pleasing to God is evident from this, that Joshua is nowhere reprehended for making this covenant, and sparing the Gibeonites; and that Saul, who four hundred years after this thought himself and the Israelites loosed from this obligation, and in consequence oppressed and destroyed the Gibeonites, was punished for the breach of this treaty, being considered as the violator of a most solemn oath and covenant engagement. See 2Sa 21:2-9, and Eze 17:18, Eze 17:19. All these circumstances laid together, prove that the command to destroy the Canaanites was not so absolute as is generally supposed: and should be understood as rather referring to the destruction of the political existence of the Canaanitish nations, than to the destruction of their lives. See the notes on Deu 20:10, Deu 20:17.

Clarke: Jos 9:21 - Hewers of wood and drawers of water Hewers of wood and drawers of water - Perhaps this is a sort of proverbial expression, signifying the lowest state of servitude, though it may also ...

Hewers of wood and drawers of water - Perhaps this is a sort of proverbial expression, signifying the lowest state of servitude, though it may also be understood literally. See below.

Clarke: Jos 9:23 - Now therefore ye are cursed Now therefore ye are cursed - Does not this refer to what was pronounced by Noah, Gen 9:26, against Ham and his posterity? Did not the curse of Ham ...

Now therefore ye are cursed - Does not this refer to what was pronounced by Noah, Gen 9:26, against Ham and his posterity? Did not the curse of Ham imply slavery, and nothing else? Cursed be Canaan, a servant of servants shall he be; and does it not sufficiently appear that nothing else than perpetual slavery is implied in the curse of the Gibeonites? They were brought, no doubt, under tribute; performed the meanest offices for the Israelites, being in the same circumstances with the servile class of Hindoos called the Chetrees; had their national importance annihilated, and yet were never permitted to incorporate themselves with the Israelites. And we may reasonably suppose that this was the purpose of God relative to all the Canaanitish nations: those who would not renounce their idolatry, etc., were to be extirpated; those who did were to be preserved alive, on condition of becoming tributary, and serving as slaves. See the note on Deu 20:17

Clarke: Jos 9:23 - Hewers of wood and drawers of water Hewers of wood and drawers of water - The disgrace of this state lay not in the laboriousness of it, but in its being the common employment of the f...

Hewers of wood and drawers of water - The disgrace of this state lay not in the laboriousness of it, but in its being the common employment of the females; if the ancient customs among the same people were such as prevail now. The most intelligent travelers in those countries represent collecting wood for fuel, and carrying water, as the peculiar employment of the females. The Arab women of Barbary do so, according to Dr. Shaw. The daughters of the Turcomans in Palestine are employed, according to D’ Arvieux, in fetching wood and water for the accommodation of their respective families. From these circumstances Mr. Harmer reasons thus: "The bitterness of the doom of the Gibeonites does not seem to have consisted in the laboriousness of the service enjoined them, for it was usual for women and children to perform what was required of them; but its degrading them from the characteristic employment of men, that of bearing arms; and condemning them and their posterity for ever to the employment of females. The not receiving them as allies was bitter; the disarming them who had been warriors, and condemning them to the employment of females, was worse; but the extending this degradation to their posterity, was bitterest of all. It is no wonder that in these circumstances they are said to have been cursed."- Obs., vol. iv., p. 297.

Clarke: Jos 9:24 - We were sore afraid of our lives We were sore afraid of our lives - Self-preservation, which is the most powerful law of nature, dictated to them those measures which they adopted; ...

We were sore afraid of our lives - Self-preservation, which is the most powerful law of nature, dictated to them those measures which they adopted; and they plead this as the motive of their conduct.

Clarke: Jos 9:25 - We are in thine hand We are in thine hand - Entirely in thy power

We are in thine hand - Entirely in thy power

Clarke: Jos 9:25 - As it seemeth good and right unto thee - do As it seemeth good and right unto thee - do - Whatever justice and mercy dictate to thee to do to us, that perform. They expect justice, because the...

As it seemeth good and right unto thee - do - Whatever justice and mercy dictate to thee to do to us, that perform. They expect justice, because they deceived the Israelites; but they expect mercy also, because they were driven to use this expedient for fear of losing their lives. The appeal to Joshua is full of delicacy and cogent argument.

Clarke: Jos 9:26 - And so did he unto them And so did he unto them - That is, he acted according to justice and mercy: he delivered them out of the hands of the people, so that they slew them...

And so did he unto them - That is, he acted according to justice and mercy: he delivered them out of the hands of the people, so that they slew them not - here was mercy; and he made them hewers of wood and drawers of water for the congregation, and to the altar of God - here was justice. Thus Joshua did nothing but what was good and right, not only in his own eyes, but also in the eyes of the Lord. How long the Gibeonites were preserved as a distinct people after this, we know not. That they existed in the time of David, is evident from the circumstance mentioned on Jos 9:19. They are not mentioned after the captivity; and it is probable that they were nearly annihilated by the persecution raised up against them by Saul. Some suppose that the Gibeonites existed under the appellation of Nethinim; but of this there is no decisive proof; the Nethinim were probably slaves of a different race

On what we meet with in this chapter, we may make the following observations

1.    The Gibeonites told lies, in order to save their lives. No expediency can justify this, nor are we called to attempt it. The Gibeonites were heathens, and we can expect nothing better from them. See note at the end of Jos 2:24 (note)

2.    They did not profit by their falsity: had they come in fairly, sought peace, and renounced their idolatry, they would have had life on honorable terms. As it was, they barely escaped with their lives, and were utterly deprived of their political liberty. Even the good that is sought by unlawful means has God’ s curse on it

3.    We need not be solicitous for the character of the Gibeonites here; they are neither our models, nor believers in the true God, and therefore pure religion is not concerned in their prevarication and falsity

4.    We see here of what solemn importance an oath was considered among the people of God; they swore to their own hurt, and changed not. When once they had bound themselves to their Maker, they did not believe that any changing circumstances could justify a departure from so awful an obligation. Thus, reader, shouldst thou fear a lie, and tremble at an oath.

Calvin: Jos 9:1 - And it came to pass when all the kings, 1.And it came to pass when all the kings, etc. As the arrival of the people was well known to these kings from the very first, it is certain that the...

1.And it came to pass when all the kings, etc. As the arrival of the people was well known to these kings from the very first, it is certain that their minds were intoxicated from above with security or lethargy, so that they did not forthwith league together to oppose them. It implied excessive stupor not to provide for themselves till they were violently roused to exertion by the overthrow of two cities. 80 For as the war was common, it was a kind of voluntary surrender to send no aid to their neighbors, nay, to have no army ready, which might make a powerful impression for their defense. But in this way God spared the weakness of his people, to whom the combined forces of so many nations would have caused no small fear.

It is certain, then, that by the sloth and torpor of their enemies, the Israelites were rendered more expeditious. For an interval was, in the meanwhile, given them to compose themselves, and thus those whom the mere name of enemies might have alarmed, prepare leisurely to encounter them. 81 In the same way, although the reprobate are desirous, by every possible device, to destroy the Church, God, to take away their power of hurting her, scatters and confounds their counsels, nay, destroys their spirit. 82 On the other hand, these nations display their frantic audacity. Instead of being overcome by manifest miracle, they continue to rage like wild beasts against the unassailable power of God. A report of the taking of Jericho had reached them. Had it been overthrown by the counsel, or the acting, or the prowess, or the engines of men? Nay, the walls had fallen of their own accord. With what confidence then can they league to take up arms against heaven?

Calvin: Jos 9:3 - And when the inhabitants of Gibeon heard, etc 3.And when the inhabitants of Gibeon heard, etc The inhabitants of Gibeon alone rejecting the proposal to make war have recourse to fraud, and endeav...

3.And when the inhabitants of Gibeon heard, etc The inhabitants of Gibeon alone rejecting the proposal to make war have recourse to fraud, and endeavor to obtain peace by pretending to live at a great distance. To make such an attempt, was very odious to their neighbors, because it was, in a manner, to make a schism among them, to open a door to the Israelites, and weaken the strength of their allies. And though blame is justly due to the foolish credulity of Joshua and the rulers, who were under no obligation to bargain rashly in regard to a matter not properly investigated, yet the Lord, who is wont to bring light out of darkness, turned it to the advantage of his people; for it procured them an interval of relaxation, while they halted in a tranquil district.

The Gibeonites, indeed, judged rightly and prudently, when they resolved to bear anything sooner than provoke God more against them, by a vain resistance. But the employment of fraud and illicit arts, to circumvent those whose favor and protection they desired to enjoy, was no less absurd and ridiculous than at variance with reason and equity. For what could be the stability of a league which was founded in nothing but gross fraud? They pretend that they are foreigners who had come from a far distant country. Joshua, therefore, is bargaining with mere masks, and contracts no obligation except in accordance with their words. Hence the craft by which they insinuated themselves ought not to have availed them. Still, as a great degree of integrity yet existed among men, they deemed it enough to obtain an oath even extorted by fraud, feeling fully persuaded, that the people of Israel would not violate it.

The expression, that they too acted cunningly, is erroneously supposed by some to contain an allusion to the stratagem which Joshua had employed in deceiving the citizens of Ai no less inaccurately do others make it refer to the time of Jacob, whose sons, Simeon and Levi, 83 had treacherously destroyed the Sichemites. (Gen 34:0) The antithesis is merely between the hostile preparations of the kings and the secret wiles with which the Gibeonites accosted Joshua. Accordingly, after it is stated, that some had leagued with the intention of trying the result of open war, the trick of the Gibeonites is subjoined, and hence the meaning is, that Joshua had to do not only with professed enemies, who had gathered themselves together to battle, but with the crafty dissimulation of one nation.

It is asked, however, why the Gibeonites labored so anxiously in a matter which was not at all necessary? For we shall see elsewhere that the Israelites were ordered to offer peace to all, that they might thereafter have a just and legitimate cause for declaring war. But as it was everywhere rumored, that they were seeking a permanent settlement in the land of Canaan, (which they could not obtain except by expelling the inhabitants,) the Gibeonites conclude that there is no means of binding them to mercy except by imposing upon them in some way or other; as they would never have spontaneously and knowingly allowed the land which they had invaded to be occupied by others. Nay, as it was known that they had been commanded to destroy all, they had no alternative left but to have recourse to fraud, as all hope of obtaining safety was otherwise taken away. And for this reason they shortly after ask pardon for a fraud wrung from them by necessity.

Here, however, a question arises; as the Israelites object that they are not at liberty to make any paction with the nations of Canaan, but are bound to exterminate them utterly. There is certainly a discrepancy between the two things — to exhort to submission, and at the same time refuse to admit suppliants and volunteers. But although God required that the laws of war should be observed according to use and wont, and that, therefore, peace should be offered on condition of submitting, he merely wished to try the minds of those nations, that they might bring destruction upon themselves by their own obstinacy. At the same time, it was intimated to the Israelitish people, that they must destroy them; and hence the conclusion necessarily followed, that those who dwelt in the land of Canaan could not be tolerated, and that it was unlawful to make a covenant with them.

We shall afterwards find both things distinctly expressed, viz., that all persisted in carrying on war, because it had been the divine intention that their hearts should be hardened, and that they should perish. It was, therefore, a legitimate inference that those who were doomed to death could not be preserved. If any one object that the Gibeonites, who voluntarily applied for peace, were therefore exceptions, I answer, that the Israelites were not at present considering that formal custom which produced no result, but are merely attending to the promise and the command of God. Hence it is, that they allow no hope to remain, because they had been simply and precisely commanded to purge the land by putting every individual to death, and to succeed to the place of those they had slain.

Calvin: Jos 9:6 - And they went to Joshua, 6.And they went to Joshua, etc. I have said that in strict law, a covenant of this description was null and void. For when they obtain their prayer, ...

6.And they went to Joshua, etc. I have said that in strict law, a covenant of this description was null and void. For when they obtain their prayer, what is stipulated but just that they should be kept safe, provided they come from a distant and remote region of the globe? And the oftener they reiterate the same falsehood, the more do they annul a compact elicited by fraud, since its true meaning only amounts to this, that the Israelites will offer no molestation to a foreign people, living at a remote distance. This is shown to be more especially the meaning, from the fact, that the Israelites expressly exclude all the inhabitants of the land of Canaan. They could not, therefore, gain anything by the fraud. Nor are they more assisted by making a fallacious pretext of the name of God, and thus throwing a kind of mist over the mind of Joshua. They pretend that they had come in the name of God; as if they were professing to give glory to God, even the God of Israel; inasmuch as there is a tacit rejection of the superstitions to which they had been accustomed. For if it is true, that they had come, moved by the faith of the miracles which had been performed in Egypt, they concede supreme power to the God of Israel, though to them a God unknown.

Calvin: Jos 9:14 - And the men took of their victuals, etc 14.And the men took of their victuals, etc Some commentators here have recourse to the insipid fictions that they ate the bread, to ascertain from th...

14.And the men took of their victuals, etc Some commentators here have recourse to the insipid fictions that they ate the bread, to ascertain from the taste whether it were stale from age, or that they confirmed the covenant by a feast. The words rather, in my opinion, are an indirect censure of their excessive credulity in having, on slight grounds acquiesced in a fabulous narrative, and in having attended merely to the bread, without considering that the fiction was devoid of color. And, certainly, had not their senses been blunted, many things would have instantly occurred to refute the Gibeonites. 84 But as it sometimes happens, that the most piercing eyes are dazzled by an empty spectacle, they are more severely condemned for not having ascertained the pleasure of God. The remedy was at hand, had they attempted nothing without consulting the oracle. It was a matter deserving of careful inquiry, and it was therefore a sign of gross carelessness, when a priest was ready to seek an answer from God, by means of Urim and Thummim, to decide rashly in an obscure case, as if they had no means of obtaining advice. Their rashness was the less excusable, from being combined with such supine neglect of the grace of God.

Calvin: Jos 9:16 - And it came to pass, 16.And it came to pass, etc. The chastisement of their levity by the discovery of the fraud, three days after, must, by the swiftness of the punishme...

16.And it came to pass, etc. The chastisement of their levity by the discovery of the fraud, three days after, must, by the swiftness of the punishment, have made them more sensible of the shame and disgrace. For it was thus known, that through sloth and lethargy, they had very stupidly fallen into error from not having taken the trouble to inquire into a matter almost placed before their eyes. Their marching quietly through that region, entering cities without trouble, and finding free means of sustenance, was owing to the paternal indulgence of God, who not only pardons their fault, but causes that which might justly have been injurious to turn out to their good. Here it is related that the children of Israel did not act in a hostile manner in that region, because the Gibeonites had received a promise of safety confirmed by an oath.

Now two questions arise — first, Whether the children of Israel, who had no intention whatever to pledge their faith to impostors, had contracted any obligation? and, secondly, Whether it was not in the option of the people to rescind a promise which their leaders had foolishly and erroneously made? In regard to the general position, the obligation of an oath ought to be held in the greatest sacredness, so that we may not, under the pretext of error, resile from pactions, even from those in which we have been deceived, since the sacred name of God is more precious than the wealth of a whole world. 85 Hence though a man may have sworn with little consideration, no loss or expense will free him from performance. I have no doubt, that in this sense David says, (Psa 15:4,) that the true worshippers of God, if they have sworn to their hurt, change not, because they will bear loss sooner than expose the name of God to contempt, by retracting their promises.

I conclude, therefore, that if a private interest only is to be affected, everything which we may have promised by oath must be performed. And it is apparent from the words, that the Israelites were afraid lest they should expose the name of their God to disgrace among the nations of Canaan. For I think there is an emphasis in the expression — because they had sworn by the God of Israel. But a special reason left the Israelites at liberty to recede from the deceitful compact; for they had not only given up their own right, but improperly departed from the command of God, with which it was not lawful to interfere in the smallest iota. It was not in their power either to spare the vanquished or enact laws of surrender, whereas they now transact as if the business had been committed to them. We see, accordingly, that they twice profaned the name of God, while, under pretence of the oath, they persevered in defending what they had foolishly promised.

In the deference which the common people pay to their leaders, by abstaining from all violence to the Gibeonites, we behold the integrity of the age. Elsewhere it would have readily occurred to elude the promise by asserting that a whole people were not bound by the agreement of a few individuals, as the Romans did, in repudiating the Caudine peace, to which only the consuls, legates, and tribunes had sworn without the orders of the senate and people. The more praise, therefore, is due to that rude simplicity in which the religious obligation prevailed more than the too subtle arguments which the greater part of men in the present day approve and applaud. The people are indeed indignant that their leaders had taken more upon them than they were entitled to do, but their moderation does not allow them to proceed beyond murmur and noise. 86

Calvin: Jos 9:20 - This we will do to them, 20.This we will do to them, etc. Although, according to agreement, they give the Gibeonites their lives, they ratify the whole covenant only in par...

20.This we will do to them, etc. Although, according to agreement, they give the Gibeonites their lives, they ratify the whole covenant only in part. For while the Gibeonites were entitled to be made perfectly secure, they are deprived of liberty, which is dearer than life. From this we infer that Joshua and the others had, as in a case of doubt and perplexity, devised a kind of middle course, so as not to make the oath altogether void. The principal object of this device was to appease the multitude: at the same time, while they were indignant at having been imposed upon by the Gibeonites, they punished the fraud, and did not allow impunity to increase their derision. It was a harsh condition, in this arrangement, that the Gibeonites were not only doomed to servile labors but withdrawn from their homes, to lead a vagrant and wandering life. The office of scullions imposed on them was no less mean than laborious, but the worst, of all was to hew wood and draw water, wherever God should be pleased to station the ark.

Calvin: Jos 9:22 - And Joshua called for them, etc 22.And Joshua called for them, etc As he was to deliver a sad and severe sentence, he premises that the resolution involves no injustice, because not...

22.And Joshua called for them, etc As he was to deliver a sad and severe sentence, he premises that the resolution involves no injustice, because nothing would be more unbecoming than to allow tricks and wiles to be profitable to those who employ them. He therefore first expostulates with them for having warded off danger by falsehood, and then immediately pronounces them cursed. By this I understand that he throws the blame of their servitude upon themselves, because they bear nothing worse than they have deserved by their guile or perfidy; as if he had said that the ground of the condemnation which he pronounces is in themselves. It is hard, indeed, that no end is assigned to the labors to which they are doomed, for this is implied in the words, Slaves shall never cease from among you: but he declares that no injustice is done them, as they were cursed of their own accord, or by their own fault. They, indeed, extenuate the offense, by alleging the necessity which compelled them, and yet they decline not the punishment, which they acknowledge to be justly inflicted. It may indeed be, that overcome with fear, they refused nothing, nay, calmly and flatteringly 87 acquiesced in the terms imposed on them. For what could they gain by disputing? I have no doubt, however, that as they were conscious of having done wrong, and had no means of completely exculpating themselves, they considered themselves very humanely dealt with, so long as their lives were saved, 88

Defender: Jos 9:3 - Gibeon Gibeon, a city of the Hivites, was a city between Bethel and Jerusalem. The inhabitants of Gibeon knew they were also under God's condemnation, like t...

Gibeon, a city of the Hivites, was a city between Bethel and Jerusalem. The inhabitants of Gibeon knew they were also under God's condemnation, like the inhabitants of Jericho and Ai, and thus were in imminent danger of destruction. Hence their stratagem of pretending they were from a distant land not under God's judgment."

TSK: Jos 9:1 - all the kings // on this // of the great // Lebanon // Hittite all the kings : Jos 10:2-5, Jos 10:23, Jos 10:28-39, Jos 11:1-5, Jos 11:10, Jos 11:11, 12:7-24 on this : Jos 1:15, Jos 3:17, Jos 5:1, Jos 22:4, Jos 22...

TSK: Jos 9:2 - gathered // accord gathered : 2Chr. 20:1-30; Psa 2:1, Psa 2:2, Psa 83:2-8; Pro 11:21; Isa 8:9, Isa 8:10, Isa 8:12, Isa 54:15; Joe 3:9-13; Act 4:26-28; Rev 16:14, Rev 20:...

TSK: Jos 9:3 - Gibeon // Jericho Gibeon : Jos 9:17, Jos 10:2; 2Sa 21:1, 2Sa 21:2 Jericho : Josh. 6:1-27, 8:1-35

Gibeon : Jos 9:17, Jos 10:2; 2Sa 21:1, 2Sa 21:2

Jericho : Josh. 6:1-27, 8:1-35

TSK: Jos 9:4 - work wilily // ambassadors // wine bottles work wilily : Gen 34:13; 1Ki 20:31-33; Mat 10:16; Luk 16:8 ambassadors : The word tzir , an ambassador, properly denotes a hinge; because an ambassa...

work wilily : Gen 34:13; 1Ki 20:31-33; Mat 10:16; Luk 16:8

ambassadors : The word tzir , an ambassador, properly denotes a hinge; because an ambassador is a person upon whom the business turns as upon a hinge. So the Latin Cardinalis , from cardo , a hinge, was the title of the prime minister of the emperor Theodosius, though now applied only to the Pope’ s electors and counsellors.

wine bottles : These bottles being made of skin, were consequently liable to be rent, and capable of being mended; which is done, according to Chardin, by putting in a piece, or by gathering up the wounded piece in the manner of a purse; and sometimes by inserting a flat piece of wood. Psa 119:83; Mat 9:17; Mar 2:22; Luk 5:37, Luk 5:38

TSK: Jos 9:5 - old shoes // clouted old shoes : Jos 9:13; Deu 29:5, Deu 33:25; Luk 15:22 clouted : The word clouted signifies here patched, from the Anglo-Saxon clut , a clout or rag; ...

old shoes : Jos 9:13; Deu 29:5, Deu 33:25; Luk 15:22

clouted : The word clouted signifies here patched, from the Anglo-Saxon clut , a clout or rag; and not nailed from the French clou , a nail.

TSK: Jos 9:6 - the camp // We be // make ye the camp : Jos 5:10, Jos 10:43 We be : Jos 9:9; Deu 20:11-15; 1Ki 8:41; 2Ki 20:14 make ye : Kirthoo lanoo berith , ""cut or divide with us a coven...

the camp : Jos 5:10, Jos 10:43

We be : Jos 9:9; Deu 20:11-15; 1Ki 8:41; 2Ki 20:14

make ye : Kirthoo lanoo berith , ""cut or divide with us a covenant,""or rather the covenant sacrifice offered on these occasions. (See note on Deu 29:12.)

TSK: Jos 9:7 - Hivites // how shall Hivites : Jos 11:19; Gen 10:17, Gen 34:2; Exo 3:8 how shall : Exo 23:31-33, Exo 34:12; Num 33:52; Deu 7:2, Deu 7:3, Deu 20:16; Jdg 2:2

TSK: Jos 9:8 - -- Jos 9:11, Jos 9:23, Jos 9:25, Jos 9:27; Gen 9:25, Gen 9:26; Deu 20:11; 1Ki 9:20, 1Ki 9:21; 2Ki 10:5

TSK: Jos 9:9 - From a // because // we have From a : Deu 20:15 because : 1Ki 8:41; 2Ch 6:32, 2Ch 6:33; Neh 9:5; Psa 72:19, Psa 83:18, Psa 148:13; Isa 55:5; Act 8:7 we have : Jos 9:24, Jos 2:9, J...

TSK: Jos 9:10 - two kings // Ashtaroth two kings : Num 21:24-35; Deu 2:30-37, Deu 3:1-7 Ashtaroth : Jos 12:4; Deu 1:4; 1Ch 6:71

TSK: Jos 9:11 - our elders // Take // with you // We are your our elders : Est 8:17 Take : Jos 1:11; Mat 10:9, Mat 10:10; Luk 9:3 with you : Heb. in your hand, Gen 43:12 We are your : Jos 9:8; Est 8:17

our elders : Est 8:17

Take : Jos 1:11; Mat 10:9, Mat 10:10; Luk 9:3

with you : Heb. in your hand, Gen 43:12

We are your : Jos 9:8; Est 8:17

TSK: Jos 9:12 - our bread our bread : Jos 9:4, Jos 9:5

our bread : Jos 9:4, Jos 9:5

TSK: Jos 9:14 - the men took of their victuals // asked not the men took of their victuals : or, they received the men by reason of their victuals asked not : Exo 28:30; Num 27:21; Jdg 1:1, Jdg 20:18, Jdg 20:28...

the men took of their victuals : or, they received the men by reason of their victuals

asked not : Exo 28:30; Num 27:21; Jdg 1:1, Jdg 20:18, Jdg 20:28; 1Sa 14:18, 1Sa 14:19, 1Sa 22:10, 1Sa 23:9-12; 1Sa 30:7, 1Sa 30:8; 2Sa 2:1, 2Sa 5:19; 1Ch 10:13, 1Ch 10:14; Ezr 8:21; Pro 3:5, Pro 3:6; Isa 30:1, Isa 30:2; Jam 1:5

TSK: Jos 9:15 - made peace // and the made peace : Jos 2:12-19, Jos 6:22-25, Jos 11:19; Deu 20:10, Deu 20:11; 2Sa 21:2; Jer 18:7, Jer 18:8 and the : 2Sa 21:2

TSK: Jos 9:16 - that they heard that they heard : Pro 12:19

that they heard : Pro 12:19

TSK: Jos 9:17 - Gibeon // Kirjathjearim Gibeon : Jos 10:2, Jos 18:25-28; 1Ch 21:29; 2Ch 1:3; Ezr 2:25; Neh 7:29 Kirjathjearim : Jos 15:9, Jos 15:60, Jos 18:14; 1Sa 7:1; 1Ch 13:5, 1Ch 13:6; 2...

TSK: Jos 9:18 - had sworn had sworn : 2Sa 21:7; Psa 15:4; Ecc 5:2, Ecc 5:6, Ecc 9:2

TSK: Jos 9:19 - We have We have : Jos 9:20; Ecc 8:2, Ecc 9:2; Jer 4:2

TSK: Jos 9:20 - lest wrath lest wrath : 2Sa 21:1-6; 2Ch 36:13; Pro 20:25; Eze 17:12-21; Zec 5:3, Zec 5:4; Mal 3:5; Rom 1:31; 1Ti 1:10

TSK: Jos 9:21 - let them // as the princes let them : Jos 9:23, Jos 9:27; Deu 29:11; 2Ch 2:17, 2Ch 2:18 as the princes : Jos 9:15

let them : Jos 9:23, Jos 9:27; Deu 29:11; 2Ch 2:17, 2Ch 2:18

as the princes : Jos 9:15

TSK: Jos 9:22 - Wherefore // We are // ye dwell Wherefore : Gen 3:13, Gen 3:14, Gen 27:35, Gen 27:36, Gen 27:41-45, Gen 29:25; 2Co 11:3 We are : Jos 9:6, Jos 9:9, Jos 9:10 ye dwell : Jos 9:16

TSK: Jos 9:23 - cursed // none of you be freed // hewers Gen 9:25, Gen 9:26; Lev 27:28, Lev 27:29 cursed : This may refer to the original curse pronounced against the descendants of Canaancaps1 . bcaps0 oth...

Gen 9:25, Gen 9:26; Lev 27:28, Lev 27:29

cursed : This may refer to the original curse pronounced against the descendants of Canaancaps1 . bcaps0 oth of them seem to have implied nothing else than perpetual slavery. The Gibeonites were brought, no doubt, under tribute; performed the meanest offices for the Israelites; being in the same condition as the servile class of Hindoos, called the Chetrees ; had their national importance annihilated, and yet were never permitted to incorporate themselves with the Israelites.

none of you be freed : Heb. not be cut off from you

hewers : In the East, collecting wood for fuel, and carrying water, are the peculiar employment of females. The Arab women of Barbary, and the daughters of the Turcomans, are thus employed. Hence Mr. Harmer concludes, that the bitterness of the doom of the Gibeonites does not seem to have consisted in the labouriousness of the service enjoined them, but its disgracing them from the characteristic employment of men, that of bearing arms, and condemning them and their posterity for ever to the employment of females. Jos 9:21, Jos 9:27

TSK: Jos 9:24 - the Lord // we were sore the Lord : Exo 23:31-33; Num 33:51, Num 33:52, Num 33:55, Num 33:56; Deu 7:1, Deu 7:2, Deu 7:23, Deu 7:24, Deu 20:15-17 we were sore : Exo 15:14-16; J...

TSK: Jos 9:25 - we are // as it seemeth we are : Gen 16:6; Jdg 8:15; 2Sa 24:14; Isa 47:6; Jer 26:14, Jer 38:5 as it seemeth : Jdg 10:15; 1Sa 3:18; Mat 11:26

TSK: Jos 9:27 - made them // in the place made them : Heb. gave, or delivered to be, Jos 9:21, Jos 9:23; 1Ch 9:2; Ezr 2:43, Ezr 8:20; Neh 7:60, Neh 11:3, Nethinim in the place : Jos 18:1; Deu ...

made them : Heb. gave, or delivered to be, Jos 9:21, Jos 9:23; 1Ch 9:2; Ezr 2:43, Ezr 8:20; Neh 7:60, Neh 11:3, Nethinim

in the place : Jos 18:1; Deu 12:5, Deu 16:2, Deu 16:6, Deu 16:16; 2Ch 6:6; Psa 78:68, Psa 132:13, Psa 132:14; Isa 14:32

kecilkan semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per Ayat)

Poole: Jos 9:2 - They gathered themselves together They gathered themselves together not actually, as the following history shows; but they entered into a league or confederation to do this.

They gathered themselves together not actually, as the following history shows; but they entered into a league or confederation to do this.

Poole: Jos 9:3 - Gibeon Or, but when the inhabitants ; for he shows that these took another and a wiser course. Gibeon a great and royal city of the Hivites, Jos 10:2 11...

Or, but when the inhabitants ; for he shows that these took another and a wiser course.

Gibeon a great and royal city of the Hivites, Jos 10:2 11:19 .

Poole: Jos 9:4 - Ambassadors Ambassadors sent from a far country, as they say, Jos 9:6 .

Ambassadors sent from a far country, as they say, Jos 9:6 .

Poole: Jos 9:6 - Gilgal // Now therefore Gilgal the place of their head-quarters. To the men of Israel, to wit, those who used to meet in council with Joshua, to whom it belonged to make lea...

Gilgal the place of their head-quarters. To the men of Israel, to wit, those who used to meet in council with Joshua, to whom it belonged to make leagues, as it here follows, even the princes of the congregation; not the common people, as appears both from Jos 9:15,18,19,21 , and from common usage of all ambassadors, who generally deliver their message to and treat with princes, not people. And the Hebrew word iseh , here used, sometimes notes men of eminency and dignity.

Now therefore because we are not of this people, whom, as we are informed, you are obliged utterly to destroy; that which appeared sufficiently, by the Israelites’ practice in destroying the Amorites beyond Jordan, and the people of Jericho and At, without any allowance for sex or age; and by common rumour, and the report of the Israelites and other persons who dwelt among them, or had converse with them, as Rahab and all her kindred; and by the nature of the thing, because they were to possess that whole land, and were not to mix themselves with the people of it.

Poole: Jos 9:7 - The Hivites // Among us The Hivites i.e. the Gibeonites, who were Hivites, Jos 11:19 . Among us i.e. in this land, and so are of that people with whom we are forbidden to ...

The Hivites i.e. the Gibeonites, who were Hivites, Jos 11:19 .

Among us i.e. in this land, and so are of that people with whom we are forbidden to make any league or covenant, Exo 23:32,33 De 7:2 20:15,16 .

Poole: Jos 9:8 - We are thy servants // Who are ye? and from whence come ye? We are thy servants we desire a league with you upon your own terms; we are ready to accept of any conditions. Who are ye? and from whence come ye? ...

We are thy servants we desire a league with you upon your own terms; we are ready to accept of any conditions.

Who are ye? and from whence come ye? for this free and general concession of theirs gave Joshua just cause to suspect that they were of the cursed Canaanites.

Poole: Jos 9:9 - Because of the name of the Lord // All that he did in Egypt Because of the name of the Lord being moved thereunto by the report of his great and glorious nature and works; so they gave them hopes that they wou...

Because of the name of the Lord being moved thereunto by the report of his great and glorious nature and works; so they gave them hopes that they would embrace their religion.

All that he did in Egypt: they cunningly mention those things only which were done some time since, and say nothing of the dividing of Jordan, nor of the destruction of Jericho and Ai, as if they lived so far off that the fame of those things had not yet reached them.

Poole: Jos 9:14 - The men // Took of their victuals // Asked not counsel at the mouth of the Lord The men i.e. the princes, as before, Jos 9:6 . Took of their victuals not from their want or any desire they could have to such unpleasant and unwh...

The men i.e. the princes, as before, Jos 9:6 .

Took of their victuals not from their want or any desire they could have to such unpleasant and unwholesome food; nor in a ceremony usual in making leagues, for that was not now done, but in the next verse; but that they might examine the truth of what they said.

Asked not counsel at the mouth of the Lord as they ought to have done upon all such weighty and doubtful occasions. So they are accused of rashness, and neglect of their duty. For though it is probable, if God had been consulted, he would have consented to the sparing of the Gibeonites; yet it should have been done with more caution, and an obligation left upon them to embrace the true religion, which here was omitted.

Poole: Jos 9:15 - To let them live // Object // Answ To let them live i.e. that they would not destroy them. Some question whether this league was lawful and obliging, because it is contrary to a positi...

To let them live i.e. that they would not destroy them. Some question whether this league was lawful and obliging, because it is contrary to a positive and precedent law of God, by which they were enjoined to make no peace with them, but utterly to destroy them, Exo 23:32 Ex 34 &c. But this law seems to admit of some exception and favourable interpretation, and that taken from the reason and soul of that law; which was this, that the Israelites might not be tainted with their idolatry and other abominations by cohabitation with them; and therefore when that reason ceased, i.e. if they were willing to relinquish their possessions and idolatry, and other wickedness, and to embrace the true religion, they might be spared. And though this law was delivered in general terms, because God foresaw that the Israelites would be most prone to err on that hand, by sparing those whom they should destroy; yet that it was to be understood with an exception of penitents and true converts might easily be gathered, both from the example of Rahab, and from the tenor of Divine threatenings, which, though absolutely delivered, allow of this exception; as appears from Jer 18:7,8 Jon 3 Jon 4 , and from the great kindness and favour which God hath manifested unto all true penitents, in delivering them from evils threatened to them, and inflicted upon others; which kindness of God we also are obliged to imitate by virtue of that natural and moral law of God implanted in us, and revealed to us, to which such positive commands as this of killing the Canaanites must give place. And that this league was lawful and obliging, may seem probable,

1. Because Joshua and all the princes upon the review concluded it so to be, and spared them accordingly, Jos 9:19,20,22,23 .

2. Because God punished the violation of it long after, 2Sa 21:1 .

3. Because God is said to have hardened the hearts of all other cities not to seek peace with Israel, that so he might utterly destroy them, Jos 11:19,20 , which seems to imply that their utter destruction did not necessarily come upon them by virtue of any absolute and peremptory command of God to destroy them, but by their own obstinate hardness, whereby they neglected and refused to make peace with the Israelites.

Object. This league was grounded upon a deceit and error of the persons, which also they had entered a caution against, Jos 9:7 .

Answ Their supposition that they were Canaanites was indeed a part of the foregoing discourse, Jos 9:7 , and the Israelites rested satisfied with their answer, and believed they were not, and so entered into the league; but that league was absolute, not suspended upon that or any other condition; and the error was not about the persons, but about the country and people to which they belonged, which was not material to this contract, no more than it is to a contract of marriage, that the one person believed the other to be of another country or family than indeed they were.

Poole: Jos 9:16 - At the end of three days At the end of three days i.e. at the last of them, or upon the third day, as it is said Jos 9:17 ; so this phrase is elsewhere used, as Deu 14:28 31:...

At the end of three days i.e. at the last of them, or upon the third day, as it is said Jos 9:17 ; so this phrase is elsewhere used, as Deu 14:28 31:10 . Or it may be properly understood, that after three days they heard this; and on the day after they heard this, they came to their cities, as is said, Jos 9:17 .

Poole: Jos 9:17 - -- Cities which were subject to Gibeon, which was the royal city, Jos 10:2 .

Cities which were subject to Gibeon, which was the royal city, Jos 10:2 .

Poole: Jos 9:18 - -- Partly, from that proneness which is in people to censure the actions of their rulers; partly, because they might think the princes by their rashnes...

Partly, from that proneness which is in people to censure the actions of their rulers; partly, because they might think the princes by their rashness had brought them into a snare, that they could neither kill them for fear of the oath, nor spare them for fear of God’ s command to the contrary; and partly, for their desire of the possession and spoil of these cities, of which they thought themselves hereby deprived.

Poole: Jos 9:19 - We may not touch them They plead not the lawfulness or the prudence of the action, but only the obligation of an oath; of which, though it was procured by fraud, they per...

They plead not the lawfulness or the prudence of the action, but only the obligation of an oath; of which, though it was procured by fraud, they perceived the people sufficiently sensible.

We may not touch them i.e. not hurt them, as that word is oft used, as Gen 26:11 Psa 105:15 Psa 144:5 ; or not smite them, as is said, Jos 9:18 .

Poole: Jos 9:21 - As the princes had promised them // let them live i.e. Let them be public servants, and employed in the meanest offices and drudgeries, (such as this was, this one kind being put for all the rest, a...

i.e. Let them be public servants, and employed in the meanest offices and drudgeries, (such as this was, this one kind being put for all the rest, as it is Deu 29:11 ) for the use and benefit of the congregation; to do this partly for the sacrifices and services of the house of God , as it is expressed, Jos 9:23 , which otherwise the Israelites themselves must have done, partly for the service of the camp or body of the people, and sometimes upon occasion even to particular Israelites; whence they are made bondmen , which is mentioned as a filing distinct from their service in the house of God , Jos 9:23 . And so they are in effect stripped of all their possessions, whereby the main ground of the people’ s quarrel was taken away.

As the princes had promised them or, because or seeing that (as the Hebrew word sometimes signifies) the princes (i.e. we ourselves; they speak of themselves in the third person, which is very frequent in the Hebrew language) had promised it to them, to wit, that they should live, and confirmed their promise by an oath. So the princes speaking here to the people allege the promise or oath of the princes when they met among themselves, and apart from the people. And this change of persons may possibly arise from hence, because some of the princes who were present in the assembly of the princes might now be absent upon some occasion. And this clause relates not to the next words, which are fitly enclosed within a parenthesis, but to the foregoing clause,

let them live because the princes have promised them their lives.

Poole: Jos 9:23 - Ye are cursed // There shall none of you be freed from being bond-men // Hewers of wood and drawers of water for the house of my God Ye are cursed you shall not escape the curse of God, which by Divine sentence belongs to all the Canaanites, who are a people devoted by God to ruin,...

Ye are cursed you shall not escape the curse of God, which by Divine sentence belongs to all the Canaanites, who are a people devoted by God to ruin, but only change the quality of it; you shall feel that curse of bondage and servitude, which is proper to your race by virtue of that ancient decree, Gen 9:25 ; you shall live indeed, but in a poor, vile, and miserable condition.

There shall none of you be freed from being bond-men the slavery which is upon you shall be entailed to your posterity.

Hewers of wood and drawers of water for the house of my God: this only service they mention here, because it was their principal and most durable servitude, being first in the tabernacle, and then in the temple, whence they were called Nethinims , 1Ch 9:2 Ezr 2:43 ; whereas their servitude to the whole congregation would in a great measure cease when the Israelites were dispersed to their several habitations.

Poole: Jos 9:25 - We are in thine hand We are in thine hand i.e. in thy power to use as thou wilt. We refer ourselves to thee and thy own piety and probity, and faithfulness to thy word an...

We are in thine hand i.e. in thy power to use as thou wilt. We refer ourselves to thee and thy own piety and probity, and faithfulness to thy word and oath; if thou wilt destroy thy humble suppliants, we submit.

Poole: Jos 9:26 - -- So as was said Jos 9:23 , and so as here follows.

So as was said Jos 9:23 , and so as here follows.

Poole: Jos 9:27 - -- By which it appears that they were not only to do this service in God’ s house, but upon all other occasions, as the congregation needed or req...

By which it appears that they were not only to do this service in God’ s house, but upon all other occasions, as the congregation needed or required their help.

Haydock: Jos 9:1 - These things // Beyond // Mountains // Sea // Libanus These things. The solemn covenant by which the Israelites took possession of Chanaan, (Haydock) and the destruction of two cities of Jericho and Hai...

These things. The solemn covenant by which the Israelites took possession of Chanaan, (Haydock) and the destruction of two cities of Jericho and Hai. (Calmet) ---

The kings on that side of the Jordan, and in all the neighbourhood, perceiving that, if the Israelites were suffered to attack them singly, in this manner, they would all presently lose their dominions and their lives. They resolved, therefore, to form a general league, offensive and defensive. (Haydock) ---

Beyond. Hebrew, "on the side of." ---

Mountains, on the south of Judea. ---

Sea. All the nations of Phoenicia, and the country of the Philistines, (Calmet) who had seized a part of the country, which belonged to the Israelites. Josue divided their territory among the people, though he did not live to make the conquest of it. (Haydock) ---

Libanus. Hebrew, "and in all the coasts of the great sea, over-against Libanus," as if the Phœnicians were alone meant. (Calmet)

Haydock: Jos 9:4 - Provisions // Again Provisions. By the alteration of a single letter, Hebrew means, "they feigned themselves to be ambassadors." But the Chaldean, Syriac, and Septuagin...

Provisions. By the alteration of a single letter, Hebrew means, "they feigned themselves to be ambassadors." But the Chaldean, Syriac, and Septuagint agree with the Vulgate. (Calmet) ---

The Gabaonites were Hevites, though they are called by the more general name of Amhorrites, 2 Kings xxi. 2. St. Jerome says that their city stood in the tribe of Benjamin; according to Josephus, 40 or 50 stadia north of Jerusalem. (Menochius) ---

They alone had the prudence to submit, (Calmet) being terrified and converted by the miracles of God. (Haydock) ---

Again. In the East, goat skins with the hair inwards, are used to carry wine.

Haydock: Jos 9:5 - Patches // Pieces Patches. Hebrew, "spotted," or of different colours, like shoes worn out and spoiled with dirt. --- Pieces. Hebrew, is translated, "dry, burnt, e...

Patches. Hebrew, "spotted," or of different colours, like shoes worn out and spoiled with dirt. ---

Pieces. Hebrew, is translated, "dry, burnt, eaten, mouldy," &c. But it means fine thin bread, or wafers, (3 Kings xiv. 3,) full of holes. The Israelites partook of this bread, which they would hardly have done if it had been mouldy. (Calmet)

Haydock: Jos 9:7 - You You. The Gabaonites addressed themselves to the first whom they met in the camp; and these made this remark to them before they were brought into th...

You. The Gabaonites addressed themselves to the first whom they met in the camp; and these made this remark to them before they were brought into the presence of Josue. The Israelites could make no league with the Chanaanites, as with equals, but only on condition that the latter should embrace the true religion, and acknowledge the dominion of the former. (Grotius) (Exodus xxiii. 32., and Deuteronomy vii. 2.)

Haydock: Jos 9:8 - Servants Servants. They did not mean to submit to servitude, but to make a league; otherwise they would not have needed to have recourse to such artifices. ...

Servants. They did not mean to submit to servitude, but to make a league; otherwise they would not have needed to have recourse to such artifices. (Calmet) ---

But finding that no other terms could be procured, they were willing, at any rate, to save their lives. (Haydock)

Haydock: Jos 9:9 - God God. So the queen Saba came to Solomon, 3 Kings x. The people of Gabaon being convinced that the God of Israel was the only true God, came to join ...

God. So the queen Saba came to Solomon, 3 Kings x. The people of Gabaon being convinced that the God of Israel was the only true God, came to join themselves to his people, and to worship him. (Serarius)

Haydock: Jos 9:10 - Astaroth Astaroth. They take care not to mention what had happened so recently at Jericho, lest they might be detected. (Calmet)

Astaroth. They take care not to mention what had happened so recently at Jericho, lest they might be detected. (Calmet)

Haydock: Jos 9:13 - And almost And almost. This is added by way of farther explanation of the Hebrew, "are become old." (Haydock)

And almost. This is added by way of farther explanation of the Hebrew, "are become old." (Haydock)

Haydock: Jos 9:14 - Victuals // Lord Victuals, to examine whether they were as old as they pretended; or they eat of them in sign of friendship. (Menochius) --- Thus we find a feast ge...

Victuals, to examine whether they were as old as they pretended; or they eat of them in sign of friendship. (Menochius) ---

Thus we find a feast generally accompanied the making of a league, Genesis xxvi. 30., and xxxi. 54. To betray a guest was deemed a heinous injury, Psalm liv. 15. (Euripides) ---

Lord. By the high priest, clothed with the Urim and Thummim. (Calmet) ---

This remark shews that the Israelites had been guilty of some negligence. (Haydock) ---

Hence they were so easily deceived, being perhaps overjoyed that their friendship should be courted by so distant a nation. (Menochius) ---

The high priest was ordered to consult the Lord for Josue, at the door of the tabernacle, Exodus xxix. 42., and Numbers xxvii. 21. (Worthington)

Ver 15. Them. Were they bound to keep this promise? Some maintain the negative, as it was obtained by fraud, and therefore the Gabaonites leave themselves to the mercy of Josue, (ver. 25,) who condemns them to perpetual servitude in the house of the Lord. He could not, however, have taken away their lives after what had passed. The error was not essential, but the people might have obtained the same conditions, if they had frankly told the truth. If we make a contract with a person who pretends to be of a nation to which he does not belong, the contract will hold good. The deceit of the Gabaonites was punished as it deserved. But God required that the conditions which were granted to them, should be diligently observed; and the family of Saul was severely punished, because he had slain some of them, 3 Kings xxi. If the rest of the Chanaanites had changed their religion, and submitted to the Israelites, they might have been preserved, as Rahab, and so many others were, with whom the pious kings scrupled not to form alliances, chap. xi. 19., and Deuteronomy xx. 10, &c. (Masius; Bonfrere; Calmet) ---

They were, however, obliged to yield possession of the land to the Israelites, and to renounce idolatry. The Gabaonites were willing to accede to these conditions, and therefore Josue might justly make a peace with them. (Menochius)

Haydock: Jos 9:16 - Now Now. The five kings coming to attack the Gabaonites, these were forced to confess the truth, and to implore the assistance of the Israelites; (Calme...

Now. The five kings coming to attack the Gabaonites, these were forced to confess the truth, and to implore the assistance of the Israelites; (Calmet) or perhaps Rahab had given information who they really were. (Menochius) ---

Josue flew to their assistance in the night, and arrived the day following, chap. x. 9.

Haydock: Jos 9:18 - Israel Israel. This is one reason why their lives were spared. But we have seen that they could not, with justice, have treated them as enemies, on their ...

Israel. This is one reason why their lives were spared. But we have seen that they could not, with justice, have treated them as enemies, on their submitting to the conditions required, even if they had not engaged themselves by oath. The Gabaonites knew with what respect oaths were then kept by the Hebrews, even when they might have some specious pretext for dispensing themselves from their obligation. "People had not yet begun to neglect God, as they do in the present age; nor did they allow themselves the liberty of interpreting an oath, and accommodating the laws to their own humour, but they rather regulated their morals by their prescription." Nondum hæc quæ nunc tenet sæculum, negligentia Dei venerat, &c. (Livy iii.)

Haydock: Jos 9:21 - Multitude Multitude. The common people, only considering their own private advantage, murmured at the conduct of their leaders, as they supposed that they wer...

Multitude. The common people, only considering their own private advantage, murmured at the conduct of their leaders, as they supposed that they were thus deprived of the plunder (Calmet) of many cities, and engaged in a dangerous war, with the five confederate kings. But this war was in no degree detrimental to them, as they knew they had to subdue the whole country; and as for the Gabaonites, they eased the people of Israel of a great burden, by doing the drudgery of the tabernacle, which otherwise must have fallen upon them. (Haydock) ---

These people were dispersed through the country, particularly in the cities of the priests and Levites, whose servants they were forced to be. Gabaon was allotted to the priests. In latter ages, many of these poor people being slain by Saul, &c., David was obliged to select some others, called Nathineans, or "people given," to supply their place, (Calmet) unless these were all the remnants of the Gabaonites. (Menochius) ---

Josephus (Jewish Wars ii. 17,) speaks of the feast of Xylophoria, or "wood carrying," for the uses of the temple; and we read, (2 Esdras x. 34,) that lots were cast among the priests and the Levites, and the people, for the offering of wood, &c., which seems to insinuate that the ancient institution was then altered. Many authors speak of a fountain which furnished the temple with water, after the captivity, so that the service of the Gabaonites was not much wanted. We find no mention of them after that time.

Haydock: Jos 9:23 - Curse // Water Curse. Hebrew, "you are cursed, and there shall be none of you freed from being bondmen;" (Haydock) you are a part of those nations which are under ...

Curse. Hebrew, "you are cursed, and there shall be none of you freed from being bondmen;" (Haydock) you are a part of those nations which are under an anathema, and you deserve to be severely punished. (Calmet) ---

But we shall fulfil our engagements with you, only in punishment for your craftiness: (Haydock) you must submit to change your religion, (Calmet) which will be your greatest blessing, (Haydock) and to perform the meanest offices, which may be considered as a sort of curse. It is thought that some recompense was allowed the Gabaonites for their labour. (Serarius, q. 17.) ---

This sentence was probably pronounced at Galgal, (Calmet) though we might as well conclude that Josue would wait till he came to Gabaon, before he arraigned the people, as no doubt they would make the best of their way out of the camp, as soon as they had obtained their request. (Haydock) ---

Water. Slaves of the meanest condition were employed in these offices, Deuteronomy xxix. 11. (Atheneus x. 22.)

Haydock: Jos 9:24 - Thereof Thereof. It seems they know not that any conditions would be admitted; and many interpreters have supposed, that none could be offered by the Israel...

Thereof. It seems they know not that any conditions would be admitted; and many interpreters have supposed, that none could be offered by the Israelites. See Deuteronomy xx. 15.

Haydock: Jos 9:25 - Thee Thee. They acknowledge not only that Josue is too strong for them, but also that he has a right to punish them for their deceit. They accept, there...

Thee. They acknowledge not only that Josue is too strong for them, but also that he has a right to punish them for their deceit. They accept, therefore, of whatever terms he is pleased to allow them. (Calmet)

Haydock: Jos 9:27 - Chosen Chosen in the tabernacle and temple. (Menochius) --- In these Gabaonites, of the race of Chanaan, the prediction of Noe, that he should serve Sem...

Chosen in the tabernacle and temple. (Menochius) ---

In these Gabaonites, of the race of Chanaan, the prediction of Noe, that he should serve Sem, was fulfilled, Genesis ix. (Worthington)

Gill: Jos 9:1 - And it came to pass, when all the kings which were on this side Jordan // in the hills, and in the valleys // and in all the coasts of the great sea, over against Lebanon // the Hittite, and the Amorite, the Canaanite, the Perizzite, the Hivite, and the Jebusite, heard thereof And it came to pass, when all the kings which were on this side Jordan,.... On the side Israel now were, and was that in which the land of Canaan lay...

And it came to pass, when all the kings which were on this side Jordan,.... On the side Israel now were, and was that in which the land of Canaan lay, and was now governed by many kings, and all that were now remaining, even all but the kings of Jericho and Ai, who were slain: both those

in the hills, and in the valleys; that dwelt in the mountainous part of the country, and in the plains of it:

and in all the coasts of the great sea, over against Lebanon; who inhabited and governed in that part of the country which lay on the coast of the Mediterranean sea, the country of Phoenicia, in which were Tyre, Sidon, and other cities, and were over against Mount Lebanon, which was on the northern part of the country; according to the Latin version, they dwelt near Lebanon; and according to the Septuagint, near Antilibanus. It seems best, with Noldius g, to render the words, "even unto Lebanon", for it designs all the sea coasts reaching to it; for all the maritime coasts did not lie over against it:

the Hittite, and the Amorite, the Canaanite, the Perizzite, the Hivite, and the Jebusite, heard thereof; what they heard is not said, but to be understood; particularly they heard what had been done by Joshua, and the people of Israel, to Jericho and Ai: and their kings, Jos 9:3. Some think, as Abarbinel, that they had heard of the altar Joshua had made, and of the stones he had set up, and of his reading the law to the people, by which they were to be governed; all which they understood as taking possession of the country, and looking upon it as conquered, and obliging his people to swear fealty to him. All the nations of Canaan are mentioned but the Gergasites; which, according to the Jewish writers, are omitted, because they were but few; the Septuagint version has them in some copies.

Gill: Jos 9:2 - That they gathered themselves together to fight with Joshua // and with Israel // with one accord That they gathered themselves together to fight with Joshua, and with Israel,.... Not at this time, but they met together to consult what was prope...

That they gathered themselves together to fight with Joshua,

and with Israel,.... Not at this time, but they met together to consult what was proper to be done in order to secure themselves, and their people, and put a stop to the successes of the arms of Israel; and for this purpose entered into alliances with each other to assist one another, or at a convenient time and place to join their forces together, and attack Israel, as afterwards they did, Jos 11:1; and this they did

with one accord; were unanimous in their councils and resolutions; they all confederated together, and agreed as one man to make a common cause of it, and oppose Israel with their united forces.

Gill: Jos 9:3 - And when the inhabitants of Gibeon // heard what Joshua had done to Jericho and Ai And when the inhabitants of Gibeon,.... A large and royal city, a metropolitan one, which had three others belonging to it, and under it, mentioned Jo...

And when the inhabitants of Gibeon,.... A large and royal city, a metropolitan one, which had three others belonging to it, and under it, mentioned Jos 9:17; see Jos 10:2; no mention is made of any king over them, perhaps they were governed by elders, Jos 9:11. Though an Arabic writer h says, the king of Gibeon wrote to Joshua, and desired security, and sent him large gifts, whom having preserved in safety, Joshua placed on his throne: when these

heard what Joshua had done to Jericho and Ai; had taken the one in a miraculous way, and the other by a stratagem, and had burnt them both, destroyed the inhabitants, plundered their substance, and slew both their kings, all which struck them with terror.

Gill: Jos 9:4 - And they did work wilily // and went and made as if they had been ambassadors // and took old sacks upon their asses // and wine bottles, old, and rent, and bound up And they did work wilily,.... Acted craftily, dealt in much cunning and subtlety; our version leaves out a very emphatic word, "also"; they also, as w...

And they did work wilily,.... Acted craftily, dealt in much cunning and subtlety; our version leaves out a very emphatic word, "also"; they also, as well as other nations, acted a cunning part, but in a different way; they did not enter into consultations and alliances with others, how to defend themselves, but made use of a stratagem to make peace, and enter into a league with Israel; or also as the Israelites had done, either as Simeon and Levi had dealt craftily with the Shechemites, who were Hivites, Gen 34:2; so now the Gibeonites, who also were Hivites, Jos 9:7; wrought in a wily and crafty manner with them, so Jarchi; or as the Israelites had lately done in the affair of Ai:

and went and made as if they had been ambassadors: from some states in a foreign country, sent on an embassy to the people of Israel, to compliment them on their successes, and to enter into alliance with them, which they thought would be pleasing and acceptable to them; the Targum is,"they prepared food,''which they took with them for their journey; and so the Septuagint, Vulgate Latin, Syriac, and Arabic versions:

and took old sacks upon their asses: in which they put, their provisions:

and wine bottles, old, and rent, and bound up: not made of glass, as ours usually are, but of the skins of beasts, as the bottles in the eastern countries commonly were; which in time grew old, and were rent and burst, and they were obliged to mend them, and bind them up, that they might hold together, and retain the liquor put into them, see Mat 9:17.

Gill: Jos 9:5 - And old shoes and clouted upon their feet // and old garments upon them // and the bread of their provision was dry and mouldy And old shoes and clouted upon their feet,.... Which being worn out, were patched with various pieces of leather: and old garments upon them; full ...

And old shoes and clouted upon their feet,.... Which being worn out, were patched with various pieces of leather:

and old garments upon them; full of holes and rents, ragged and patched:

and the bread of their provision was dry and mouldy; having been kept a long time, and unfit for use; or like cakes over baked and burnt, as the Targum and Jarchi: the word for "mouldy" signifies pricked, pointed, spotted, as mouldy bread has in it spots of different colours, as white, red, green, and black, as Kimchi and Ben Melech interpret it; or it signifies bread so dry, as Ben Gersom notes, that it crumbles into pieces easily, with which the Vulgate Latin version agrees; or rather through being long kept, it was become dry and hard like crusts, so Noldius i; or very hard, like bread twice baked, as Castell k.

Gill: Jos 9:6 - And they went to Joshua, unto the camp at Gilgal // and said unto him, and to the men of Israel // we be come from a far country // now therefore make yea league with us And they went to Joshua, unto the camp at Gilgal,.... From whence it appears, that after Jericho and Ai were destroyed, the army of Israel returned to...

And they went to Joshua, unto the camp at Gilgal,.... From whence it appears, that after Jericho and Ai were destroyed, the army of Israel returned to their encampment at Gilgal, Jos 5:10; and here they were when the Gibeonites applied to them:

and said unto him, and to the men of Israel; not to the whole body of the people, but either to the seventy elders, the great council, who were with Joshua, or the princes of the congregation, after mentioned, who are said to swear to them; and so some render the words, "to the chief men of Israel" l; the word "Ish" here used sometimes denotes an eminent person or persons, see Isa 2:9,

we be come from a far country; this lie they told, that they might not be thought to be inhabitants of Canaan, and be destroyed as those of Jericho and Ai were; and as the rest of the inhabitants would be, of which they had intelligence, as the design of the Israelites, and what their orders were; according to Jerom m, Gibeon was but four miles from Bethel, unless he means Gibeah; however, it could not be at a much greater distance; and as Gilgal was a mile and a quarter from Jericho, where the Gibeonites now were, and Ai but three miles from Jericho, and Bethel a mile from thence, and Gibeon four miles from Bethel, they were come but little more than nine miles. Bunting n makes it twelve miles from Gilgal to Gibeon:

now therefore make yea league with us; offensive and defensive, to help and assist each other against a common enemy.

Gill: Jos 9:7 - And the men of Israel said unto the Hivites // peradventure ye dwell among us // and how shall we make a league with you And the men of Israel said unto the Hivites,.... Though they did not know them to be such, but as they afterwards appeared to be the Hivites, as the G...

And the men of Israel said unto the Hivites,.... Though they did not know them to be such, but as they afterwards appeared to be the Hivites, as the Gibeonites were, they are here so called, see Jos 11:19. The name signifies "serpents"; according to a Derash, or mystical exposition, mentioned by Kimchi, the Gibeonites are so called, because they did the work of the serpent; that is to say, they deceived the Israelites, as the serpent deceived Eve:

peradventure ye dwell among us; of which they had some suspicion:

and how shall we make a league with you? which they were forbid to do with any of the seven nations, Deu 7:2.

Gill: Jos 9:8 - And they said unto Joshua, we are thy servants // and Joshua, said, who are ye? and from whence come ye And they said unto Joshua, we are thy servants,.... Not that they meant to be subjects of his, and tributaries to him; but this they said in great hu...

And they said unto Joshua, we are thy servants,.... Not that they meant to be subjects of his, and tributaries to him; but this they said in great humility and lowliness of mind, being willing to be or do anything he should enjoin them. Abarbinel observes, that this they proposed to Joshua singly, not to be servants to all the people, but to him only, and to have him for their head and governor:

and Joshua, said, who are ye? and from whence come ye? by what name are ye called? and from what country do ye come? suspecting, as it should seem, that they were the inhabitants of Canaan; or however he was cautious and upon his guard, lest they should be such, and yet was not enough upon his guard to prevent imposition.

Gill: Jos 9:9 - And they said unto him, from a very far country thy servants are come // because of the name of the Lord thy God // for we have heard the fame of him, and all that he did in Egypt And they said unto him, from a very far country thy servants are come,.... Which they magnified and expressed in stronger terms than before, but were ...

And they said unto him, from a very far country thy servants are come,.... Which they magnified and expressed in stronger terms than before, but were careful not to mention any country, lest such questions should be asked about it, their answers to which would betray them, but put it off by saying they were come:

because of the name of the Lord thy God; because of what they had heard of his name, his power and goodness; or "unto the name of the Lord thy God" o; that is, they were come to profess it, and to embrace the religion of the Israelites, and be proselytes to it; which they knew would be very agreeable to them, and engage them to show them favour; and so the Samaritan Chronicle p represents them as promising to do this, saying,"we will believe in thy Lord, nor will we contradict him in what ye shall mark out for us, be it small or great;''which seems to be, confirmed by what follows, unless it be considered as an explanation of the preceding clause:

for we have heard the fame of him, and all that he did in Egypt; the miracles wrought there, the plagues he inflicted on the Egyptians, and the wonderful deliverance of the children of Israel from their slavery.

Gill: Jos 9:10 - And all that he did to the two kings of the Amorites, that were beyond Jordan // to Sihon king of Heshbon, and to Og king of Bashan in Ashtaroth And all that he did to the two kings of the Amorites, that were beyond Jordan,.... On the other side of Jordan from Gilgal: to Sihon king of Heshb...

And all that he did to the two kings of the Amorites, that were beyond Jordan,.... On the other side of Jordan from Gilgal:

to Sihon king of Heshbon, and to Og king of Bashan in Ashtaroth; the history of which see in Num 21:21; they wisely took no notice of the miracle of dividing the waters of Jordan, to make a passage for the Israelites; nor of the destruction of Jericho and Ai, which were recent things, and could not be thought as yet to have reached a far country they pretended to come from; and which, if they mentioned, might have created a stronger suspicion still of their being Canaanites.

Gill: Jos 9:11 - Wherefore our elders, and all the inhabitants of our country // spake unto us // saying, take victuals with you for the journey // and go to meet them // and say unto them, we are your servants // therefore now make ye a league with us Wherefore our elders, and all the inhabitants of our country, spake unto us,.... They suggest, that their senate, or the states of their country, t...

Wherefore our elders, and all the inhabitants of our country,

spake unto us,.... They suggest, that their senate, or the states of their country, their principal men were convened, and that it was the unanimous voice of them, and of the people, that they should go on this embassy:

saying, take victuals with you for the journey; sufficient for so long a journey; for, in those times and countries, inns on the road were not frequent as now:

and go to meet them; to prevent their coming in an hostile manner unto them, and make peace, and enter into an alliance with them:

and say unto them, we are your servants; ready to come into any terms with them, just and reasonable:

therefore now make ye a league with us; that we may live in friendship, and mutually assist each other, as occasion should require.

Gill: Jos 9:12 - This our bread we took hot for our provision out of our houses // on the day we came forth to go unto you, but now, behold, it is dry // and it is mouldy This our bread we took hot for our provision out of our houses,.... These are not the words of the elders to the messengers they sent, continued, but...

This our bread we took hot for our provision out of our houses,.... These are not the words of the elders to the messengers they sent, continued, but of the ambassadors to the Israelites, pointing to the bread they brought with them, which they pretended was newly baked and took hot out of the oven:

on the day we came forth to go unto you, but now, behold, it is dry,

and it is mouldy: See Gill on Jos 9:5; which they gave as a demonstration and proof that they were come from a far country, as they had asserted.

Gill: Jos 9:13 - And these bottles of wine, which we filled, were new // and, behold, they be rent // and these our garments, and our shoes, are become old by reason of the very long journey And these bottles of wine, which we filled, were new,.... That is, on the day they came out on their journey: and, behold, they be rent; which wer...

And these bottles of wine, which we filled, were new,.... That is, on the day they came out on their journey:

and, behold, they be rent; which were owing to the long use that had been made of them, as they pretended:

and these our garments, and our shoes, are become old by reason of the very long journey: quite worn out through length of time and tedious travels. Isidore of Pelusium q thinks these Gibeonites were Cappadocians, of whom he gives a shocking character, and particularly that they were prone to lying and deceit; but his reason for it, that they were of the Philistines, will not hold good.

Gill: Jos 9:14 - And the men took of their victuals // and asked not counsel at the mouth of the Lord And the men took of their victuals,.... That is, the princes of Israel took thereof; not to eat of them, for it cannot be thought that such personages...

And the men took of their victuals,.... That is, the princes of Israel took thereof; not to eat of them, for it cannot be thought that such personages would eat of such dry and mouldy bread, and especially as they were now in a plentiful country, and possessed of the fruits of it; but to see whether it was in such a plight and condition as they said, whereby they might judge of the truth of what they said; and they learned and knew, as R. Jonah observes, from the dryness of their food, that it was truth they said; and so the Targum, the men hearkened to their words; and so Jarchi, they believed what they said on sight of their provisions; but, according to Kimchi and Ben Melech, they ate with them, to confirm the covenant they made with them; but had this been the case, as it sometimes was a custom to eat together at making covenants, see Gen 26:30; the princes would doubtless have provided a better entertainment for such a purpose: the "margin" of our Bibles leads to the other sense,"they received the men by reason of their victuals:"

and asked not counsel at the mouth of the Lord; as they might and should have done, by desiring the high priest to inquire of the Lord by Urim and Thummim; but this they neglected, which, had they attended to, the fraud would have been discovered; or however, they would have had the mind of God about making peace with the Gibeonites, which in all likelihood he would not have disapproved of, they becoming proselytes, and giving up their possessions to Israel; but this did not excuse their neglect.

Gill: Jos 9:15 - And Joshua made peace with them // and made a league with them, to let them live // and the princes of the congregation sware unto them And Joshua made peace with them,.... Upon the report the princes made of having examined what they had said, and which they found to be true, particul...

And Joshua made peace with them,.... Upon the report the princes made of having examined what they had said, and which they found to be true, particularly concerning their victuals:

and made a league with them, to let them live; and not destroy them as he did the Canaanites, and was ordered to do; they being supposed not to belong to them by the representation of things they had made:

and the princes of the congregation sware unto them; that they would keep the league and covenant they had made with them inviolable; they ratified it by an oath, which was a sacred solemn thing.

Gill: Jos 9:16 - And it came to pass at the end of three days, after they had made a league with them // that they heard that they were their neighbours, and that they dwelt among them And it came to pass at the end of three days, after they had made a league with them,.... The league seems to have been made the same day they came; t...

And it came to pass at the end of three days, after they had made a league with them,.... The league seems to have been made the same day they came; the Gibeonites were no doubt in haste to have it concluded, lest they should be discovered; and Joshua, and the princes of Israel, took no pains, and gave themselves no great trouble to inquire about them, but made peace with them at once; and it was but three days after, or within three days of its being made:

that they heard that they were their neighbours, and that they dwelt among them; that is, in their neighbourhood, as the Arabic version; and so Noldius r renders the words, "and that they dwelt near them"; for the Gibeonites did not dwell among the Israelites, or in the midst of them, but near the place where they were; and this they understood either by some deserters that came to the camp of Israel, or by some of the Israelites who were sent to reconnoitre several parts of the country, especially such as lay nearest, or for the sake of getting provisions for their camp.

Gill: Jos 9:17 - And the children of Israel journeyed // and came unto their cities on the third day // now their cities were Gibeon and Chephirah, and Beeroth and Kirjathjearim And the children of Israel journeyed,.... Not the whole camp, for that still remained at Gilgal, and continued there until the Gibeonites in distress ...

And the children of Israel journeyed,.... Not the whole camp, for that still remained at Gilgal, and continued there until the Gibeonites in distress sent to them for assistance in virtue of the league, as appears from the following chapter; but a party of them, who were sent along with some of the princes, to know the truth whether the Gibeonites were their neighbours or not, as had been reported to them:

and came unto their cities on the third day; not on the third day from their setting out on their journey, for it was but one night's march from Gilgal to them, Jos 10:9; but on the third day from the making of the league; it is very probable it was early on the third day they heard of their being their neighbours, upon which a party was sent out at once to know the truth of it, who arrived thither the same day:

now their cities were Gibeon and Chephirah, and Beeroth and Kirjathjearim; Gibeon was the metropolis, and the other three were subject to it; the three first fell to the lot of Benjamin, and the last to the tribe of Judah; we shall meet with them again in the lots of the several tribes, in Jos 15:60.

Gill: Jos 9:18 - And the children of Israel smote them not // because the princes of the congregation had sworn unto them by the Lord God of Israel // and all the congregation murmured against the princes And the children of Israel smote them not,.... The inhabitants of the four cities, when they came to them, though they found it to be a true report th...

And the children of Israel smote them not,.... The inhabitants of the four cities, when they came to them, though they found it to be a true report that was brought them of their being neighbours, and that they were imposed upon by them:

because the princes of the congregation had sworn unto them by the Lord God of Israel; by the Word of the Lord God of Israel, as the Targum, and therefore they restrained the people from smiting and plundering them; for it was not the oath of the princes the people so much regarded, or had such an influence on them as to abstain from seizing on them, but the princes, by reason of their oath, would not suffer them to touch them:

and all the congregation murmured against the princes; not only for taking such an oath, but chiefly because they restrained them from smiting the Gibeonites, and taking their substance for a prey; their eager desire of revenge, and of seizing their goods, and inhabiting their cities, raised a murmur in them against the princes. This is to be understood not of the whole body of the people at Gilgal, but of all that party that was sent to Gibeon, and of the princes that went with them.

Gill: Jos 9:19 - But all the princes said to all the congregation // we have sworn unto them by the Lord God of Israel // now therefore we may not touch them But all the princes said to all the congregation,.... That is, all the princes that went to Gibeon addressed all the Israelites that were there: we...

But all the princes said to all the congregation,.... That is, all the princes that went to Gibeon addressed all the Israelites that were there:

we have sworn unto them by the Lord God of Israel; by the Word of the Lord God, as the Targum; an oath is a solemn sacred thing, and not to be broken, and a good man will make conscience of it, and keep it, though he has sworn to his own hurt: and

now therefore we may not touch them; neither take away their lives nor their substance.

Gill: Jos 9:20 - This we will do to them // we will even let them live // lest wrath come upon us, because of the oath which we sware unto them This we will do to them,.... Either this favour we will show them, preserving their lives, next mentioned, or this punishment we will inflict on them,...

This we will do to them,.... Either this favour we will show them, preserving their lives, next mentioned, or this punishment we will inflict on them, making them hewers of wood, and drawers of water; which though not mentioned directly, was what was upon their minds, and in their design to propose, only they were extremely desirous of sparing their lives, which they repeat:

we will even let them live; this by all means must be done, their lives must not be taken away as the rest of the Canaanites:

lest wrath come upon us, because of the oath which we sware unto them; that is, lest the wrath of God come upon us princes, and upon the whole community, for perjury, a breach of the third command, Exo 20:7, a sin highly displeasing to God; since an oath is made not only in his presence, and before him as a witness, who is appealed unto, but in his name, and is often severely threatened, and sorely punished; and as even the breach of this oath was several hundreds of years after, in the times of David, 2Sa 21:1. The Vulgate Latin version therefore reads the words, "lest the wrath of the Lord come upon us": but Abarbinel observes, that it may be understood of the wrath of Israel; for the words may be rendered, "and there shall not be wrath upon us, because of the oath": there need be none, there is no occasion for it, since this was agreed upon on all hands, that the Gibeonites should be let to live; and since it was an act of kindness and goodness, and especially they would have no reason to be angry and wrathful with them, when they heard them out, what they had further to propose to them, to make them their servants, though they spared their lives.

Gill: Jos 9:21 - And the princes said to them, let them live // (but let them be hewers of wood, and drawers of water, unto all the congregation) // as the princes promised them And the princes said to them, let them live,.... They were very pressing upon them, and importunate with them, to save their lives, because of the oat...

And the princes said to them, let them live,.... They were very pressing upon them, and importunate with them, to save their lives, because of the oath they had taken:

(but let them be hewers of wood, and drawers of water, unto all the congregation): which was a very low and mean employment, Deu 29:11; as well as wearisome; and this being a yoke of servitude on the Gibeonites, and a punishment of them for their fraud, and of service, profit, and advantage to the people of Israel, the princess proposed it in hopes of pacifying them, and that they would yield to spare the lives of the Gibeonites; what they proposed was, not that they should hew wood and draw water for all the Israelites for their private use, but what was necessary for the service of the sanctuary, which the congregation was obliged to furnish them with; and now these men should do that work for them, which before was incumbent on them; for Joshua afterwards imposed this upon them, to be hewers of wood and drawers of water for the house of God, Jos 9:23; though Kimchi thinks that while the people of Israel were in camp, and before the land was divided, they were hewers of wood and drawers of water to the congregation; but after the land was divided, and they were settled in their cities and inheritances, then they only hewed wood and drew water for the sanctuary at Gilgal, Shiloh, Nob, Gibeon, and the temple; the Jewish writers say s, the Nethinim and the Gibeonites were the same, who became proselytes in the times of Joshua, see 1Ch 9:2,

as the princes promised them; which is to be connected, not with their being hewers of wood and drawers of water, this the princes had said nothing of before, and which is rightly included in a parenthesis, but with their being let to live; this they had promised and sworn to, even all the princes, not only all that were now at Gibeon, and were persuading the people to let the Gibeonites live, but all the princes, even those that were not present, but in the camp at Gilgal.

Gill: Jos 9:22 - And Joshua called for them // and he spake unto them, saying, wherefore have ye beguiled us // saying, we are very far from you, when ye dwell among us And Joshua called for them,.... The Gibeonites, who came as ambassadors for their people, who were detained at Gilgal until the children of Israel ret...

And Joshua called for them,.... The Gibeonites, who came as ambassadors for their people, who were detained at Gilgal until the children of Israel returned from Gibeon; and upon their return, and having made their report to Joshua that they found it to be true that they were near neighbours, Joshua ordered them to be brought before him:

and he spake unto them, saying, wherefore have ye beguiled us? what is your reason and motive for so doing? what has induced you to act such a deceitful part, to tell such lies and falsehoods, and impose upon us after this manner?

saying, we are very far from you, when ye dwell among us: pretending to come from a very far country, when they were inhabitants of the land Israel were come to possess.

Gill: Jos 9:23 - Now therefore ye are cursed // and there shall none of you be freed from being bondmen // and hewers of wood and drawers of water for the house of my God Now therefore ye are cursed,.... Appear to be the posterity of cursed Canaan, and, notwithstanding the artifice used, should not be exempted from the...

Now therefore ye are cursed,.... Appear to be the posterity of cursed Canaan, and, notwithstanding the artifice used, should not be exempted from the curse denounced on Canaan: "a servant of servants shall he be unto his brethren", Gen 9:25; as these Gibeonites were; they became the servants of the Levites, who were servants to the priests; and they seemed to be spared in Providence, that that part of the curse on Canaan might be fulfilled: "and Canaan shall be his servant"; the servant of Shem, from whom the Israelites sprang, Gen 9:25; though the curse was turned into a blessing to the Gibeonites, since though their post and office was mean, yet they had a place in the sanctuary of the Lord, and opportunity of learning the law of God, and understanding the true religion, worship, and knowledge of God, and were an emblem and pledge of the reception of the Gentiles into the church of God:

and there shall none of you be freed from being bondmen; which the oath taken did not oblige Joshua, and the princes, to exempt them from, only to let them live, Jos 9:15,

and hewers of wood and drawers of water for the house of my God; which explains what is meant by the "congregation", and who might purposely choose that phrase, to make the people more easy; but their work, as assigned them by Joshua, was not to hew wood and draw water for every one's private use, only for the service of the sanctuary, which in some sense was the service of the congregation; and a great deal of work there was to be done of this kind, much wood to hew for keeping the fire of the altar continually burning, and for boiling the flesh of the peace offerings, and the like, and much water to draw for various uses, for the washing of the priests and the sacrifices, and various other things.

Gill: Jos 9:24 - And they answered Joshua, and said, because it was certainly told thy servants // how that the Lord thy God commanded his servant Moses to give you all the land // and to destroy all the inhabitants of the land from before you // therefore we were sore afraid of our lives because of you, and have done this thing And they answered Joshua, and said, because it was certainly told thy servants,.... Or "it was told", told t; not only certainly, told, but frequently...

And they answered Joshua, and said, because it was certainly told thy servants,.... Or "it was told", told t; not only certainly, told, but frequently told them, they had often heard of it by one means or another:

how that the Lord thy God commanded his servant Moses to give you all the land; all the land of Canaan, no part excepted; they had heard much of the Lord God of Israel, and of Moses, what character he bore, and of the commands of the Lord to him; they seem to have knowledge of God, and faith in him as to his promises and threatenings, believing they would be fulfilled:

and to destroy all the inhabitants of the land from before you; as the gift of the land of Canaan to Israel was often spoken of by the Lord to Moses, and frequently mentioned by him; so there were instructions given him from the Lord, and which lie delivered to Israel, utterly to destroy the inhabitants of Canaan, so, that these people had accurate intelligence and information of this matter; see Deu 7:1,

therefore we were sore afraid of our lives because of you, and have done this thing; they answer to Joshua's question, "wherefore have ye beguiled us?" Jos 9:22, that it was fear of losing their lives, than which nothing is dearer to a man, and the principle of self-preservation that put them upon framing and using this device.

Gill: Jos 9:25 - And now, behold, we are in thine hand // as it seemeth good and right unto thee to do unto us, do And now, behold, we are in thine hand,.... In thy power, and at thy disposal, and are ready to submit to whatsoever may be enjoined us: as it seem...

And now, behold, we are in thine hand,.... In thy power, and at thy disposal, and are ready to submit to whatsoever may be enjoined us:

as it seemeth good and right unto thee to do unto us, do; do what is consistent with the laws of kindness, and with the rules of justice, and particularly with the league made, and oath taken; all which they left with him to consider of, and to do as in his wisdom and goodness he should see fit.

Gill: Jos 9:26 - And so did he unto them // and delivered them out of the hand of the children of Israel, that they slew them not And so did he unto them,.... What was good and right, he showed them favour, and did them justice: and delivered them out of the hand of the childr...

And so did he unto them,.... What was good and right, he showed them favour, and did them justice:

and delivered them out of the hand of the children of Israel, that they slew them not; who were so incensed against them for imposing on them in the manner they did, that they were ready many of them to draw their swords and slay them; and would have done it, had it not been for the interposition of Joshua, and the orders he gave to the contrary.

Gill: Jos 9:27 - And Joshua made them that day // hewers of wood and drawers of water for the congregation, and for the altar of the Lord // even unto this day in the place which he should choose And Joshua made them that day,.... Constituted and appointed them, ordered and settled them, in the post and office after mentioned; or "gave" them u;...

And Joshua made them that day,.... Constituted and appointed them, ordered and settled them, in the post and office after mentioned; or "gave" them u; hence some think they had the name Nethinim, persons given to the Levites for the service of the sanctuary: namely, to be

hewers of wood and drawers of water for the congregation, and for the altar of the Lord; some think they were employed both for the service of the congregation, when they wanted wood and water, and for the altar, and what belonged to it, that needed both. Abarbinel supposes that they served the congregation while they were engaged in war, and subduing the land, but after the division of the land they only served the sanctuary; See Gill on Jos 9:21,

even unto this day in the place which he should choose; to have the tabernacle pitched, and the altar set up therein, as it was in various places, before the temple built by Solomon at Jerusalem, which was the place the Lord chose; and this shows that the writer of this book lived before the building of the temple, or otherwise it, is highly probable he would have expressly mentioned it; whereas he uses only the phrase that Moses frequently expressed it by in his time; see Deu 12:5.

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki

NET Notes: Jos 9:1 Heb “in front of.”

NET Notes: Jos 9:2 Heb “they gathered together to fight against Joshua and Israel [with] one mouth.”

NET Notes: Jos 9:3 For location see Map5 B2; Map6 E1; Map7 E1; Map8 E3; Map10 A2; Map11 A1.

NET Notes: Jos 9:4 Heb “and they went and [?].” The root and meaning of the verb form יִצְטַיָּר&...

NET Notes: Jos 9:5 Or “moldy.”

NET Notes: Jos 9:7 Heb “in our midst.”

NET Notes: Jos 9:8 Heb “we are your servants.”

NET Notes: Jos 9:9 Heb “the report about him, all that he did in Egypt.”

NET Notes: Jos 9:11 Heb “your servants.”

NET Notes: Jos 9:12 Or “moldy.”

NET Notes: Jos 9:14 Heb “but they did not ask the mouth of the Lord.” This refers to seeking the Lord’s will and guidance through an oracle.

NET Notes: Jos 9:15 Heb “Joshua made peace with them and made a treaty with them to let them live, and the leaders of the community swore an oath to them.”

NET Notes: Jos 9:16 Heb “At the end of three days, after they made the treaty with them, they heard that they were neighbors to them and in their midst they were li...

NET Notes: Jos 9:18 Or “grumbled against.”

NET Notes: Jos 9:19 Or “touch.”

NET Notes: Jos 9:20 Heb “This is what we will do to them, keeping them alive so there will not be upon us anger concerning the oath which we swore to them.”

NET Notes: Jos 9:21 Heb “as the leaders said to them.”

NET Notes: Jos 9:22 Heb “live in our midst?”

NET Notes: Jos 9:23 Heb “Now you are cursed and a servant will not be cut off from you, woodcutters and water carriers for the house of my God.”

NET Notes: Jos 9:24 Or “we were very afraid.”

NET Notes: Jos 9:25 Heb “according to what is good and according to what is upright in your eyes to do us, do.”

NET Notes: Jos 9:26 Heb “And he did to them so and he rescued them from the hand of the sons of Israel and they did not kill them.”

NET Notes: Jos 9:27 Heb “and Joshua made them in that day woodcutters and water carriers for the community, and for the altar of the Lord to this day at the place w...

Geneva Bible: Jos 9:1 And it came to pass, when all the kings which ( a ) [were] on this side Jordan, in the hills, and in the valleys, and in all the coasts of the ( b ) g...

Geneva Bible: Jos 9:4 They did work wilily, and went and made as if they had been ambassadors, and took old sacks upon their asses, and wine bottles, old, and rent, and ( c...

Geneva Bible: Jos 9:7 And the men of Israel said unto the ( d ) Hivites, Peradventure ye dwell among us; and how shall we make a league with you? ( d ) For the Gibeonites ...

Geneva Bible: Jos 9:9 And they said unto him, From a very far country thy servants are come because of ( e ) the name of the LORD thy God: for we have heard the fame of him...

Geneva Bible: Jos 9:12 This our ( f ) bread we took hot [for] our provision out of our houses on the day we came forth to go unto you; but now, behold, it is dry, and it is ...

Geneva Bible: Jos 9:14 And the ( g ) men took of their victuals, and asked not [counsel] at the mouth of the LORD. ( g ) Some think that the Israelites are of their victual...

Geneva Bible: Jos 9:17 And the children of Israel ( h ) journeyed, and came unto their cities on the third day. Now their cities [were] Gibeon, and Chephirah, and Beeroth, a...

Geneva Bible: Jos 9:18 And the children of Israel smote them not, because the princes of the congregation had sworn unto them by the LORD God of Israel. And all the congrega...

Geneva Bible: Jos 9:20 This we will do to them; we will even let them live, lest wrath be upon us, because of the ( k ) oath which we sware unto them. ( k ) This does not e...

Geneva Bible: Jos 9:23 Now therefore ye [are] cursed, and there shall none of you be freed from being bondmen, and hewers of wood and drawers of water for ( l ) the house of...

Geneva Bible: Jos 9:26 And so did he unto them, and delivered them out of the ( m ) hand of the children of Israel, that they slew them not. ( m ) Who were minded to put th...

Geneva Bible: Jos 9:27 And Joshua made them that day hewers of wood and drawers of water for the congregation, and for the ( n ) altar of the LORD, even unto this day, in th...

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Rentang Ayat

MHCC: Jos 9:1-2 - --Hitherto the Canaanites had defended themselves, but here they consult to attack Israel. Their minds were blinded, and their hearts hardened to their ...

MHCC: Jos 9:3-13 - --Other people heard these tidings, and were driven thereby to make war upon Israel; but the Gibeonites were led to make peace with them. Thus the disco...

MHCC: Jos 9:14-21 - --The Israelites, having examined the provisions of the Gibeonites, hastily concluded that they confirmed their account. We make more haste than good sp...

MHCC: Jos 9:22-27 - --The Gibeonites do not justify their lie, but plead that they did it to save their lives. And the fear was not merely of the power of man; one might fl...

Matthew Henry: Jos 9:1-2 - -- Hitherto the Canaanites had acted defensively; the Israelites were the aggressors upon Jericho and Ai. But here the kings of Canaan are in consultat...

Matthew Henry: Jos 9:3-14 - -- Here, I. The Gibeonites desire to make peace with Israel, being alarmed by the tidings they heard of the destruction of Jericho, Jos 9:3. Other peop...

Matthew Henry: Jos 9:15-21 - -- Here is, I. The treaty soon concluded with the Gibeonites, Jos 9:15. The thing was not done with much formality, but in short, 1. They agreed to let...

Matthew Henry: Jos 9:22-27 - -- The matter is here settled between Joshua and the Gibeonites, and an explanation of the league agreed upon. We may suppose that now, not the messeng...

Keil-Delitzsch: Jos 9:1-2 - -- Jos 9:1, Jos 9:2 form the introduction to chs. 9-11, and correspond to the introduction in Jos 5:1. The news of the miraculous passage of the Israel...

Keil-Delitzsch: Jos 9:3-5 - -- But the inhabitants of a republic, which included not only Gibeon the capital, but the towns of Chephirah, Beeroth, and Kirjath-jearim also, acted d...

Keil-Delitzsch: Jos 9:6-7 - -- Having made these preparations, they went to the Israelitish camp at Gilgal (Jiljilia), introduced themselves to the men of Israel ( אישׁ , in a...

Keil-Delitzsch: Jos 9:8-10 - -- To the further question put by Joshua, where they had come from, the Gibeonites replied, "From a very distant land have thy servants come, because o...

Keil-Delitzsch: Jos 9:11-13 - -- When these tidings reached them, they were sent off by the elders (the leaders of the republic) and the inhabitants of the land to meet the Israelit...

Keil-Delitzsch: Jos 9:14-15 - -- The Israelites suffered themselves to be taken in by this pretence. " The men (the elders of Israel) took of their provisions; but they did not as...

Keil-Delitzsch: Jos 9:16-17 - -- Three days after the treaty had been concluded, the Israelites discovered that they had been deceived, and that their allies dwelt among them (see J...

Keil-Delitzsch: Jos 9:18-20 - -- "The Israelites smote them not," sc., with the edge of the sword, "because the princes of the congregation had sworn to them," sc., to let them live...

Keil-Delitzsch: Jos 9:21 - -- The princes declared again most emphatically, "They shall live." Thus the Gibeonites became hewers of wood and drawers of water to the congregation,...

Keil-Delitzsch: Jos 9:22-23 - -- Joshua then summoned the Gibeonites, charged them with their deceit, and pronounced upon them the curse of eternal servitude: "There shall not be cu...

Keil-Delitzsch: Jos 9:24-25 - -- The Gibeonites offered this excuse for their conduct, that having heard of the command of God which had been issued through Moses, that all the Cana...

Keil-Delitzsch: Jos 9:26-27 - -- "And so did he unto them, and delivered them out of the hand of the children of Israel, that they slew them not. He made them hewers of wood and dra...

Constable: Jos 5:13--13:1 - --C. Possession of the land 5:13-12:24 Before Israel entered the land of Canaan, God had been preparing fo...

Constable: Jos 9:1-27 - --5. The treaty with the Gibeonites ch. 9 The residents of the town of Gibeon decided that if they could not defeat the Israelites they would join them....

Guzik: Jos 9:1-27 - The Gibeonite Deception Joshua 9 - The Gibeonite Deception A. Two different strategies of attack against Israel. 1. (1-2) The southern kings gather together against Israel....

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Pendahuluan / Garis Besar

JFB: Joshua (Pendahuluan Kitab) JOSHUA. The title of this book is derived from the pious and valiant leader whose achievements it relates and who is commonly supposed to have been it...

JFB: Joshua (Garis Besar) THE LORD APPOINTS JOSHUA TO SUCCEED MOSES. (Jos. 1:1-18) RAHAB RECEIVES AND CONCEALS THE TWO SPIES. (Jos 2:1-7) THE COVENANT BETWEEN HER AND THEM. (J...

TSK: Joshua (Pendahuluan Kitab) The Book of Joshua is one of the most important documents in the Old Testament. The rapid conquest of the Promised Land, and the actual settlement of...

TSK: Joshua 9 (Pendahuluan Pasal) Overview Jos 9:1, The kings combine against Israel; Jos 9:3, The Gibeonites by craft obtain a league; Jos 9:22, They are condemned to perpetual bo...

Poole: Joshua (Pendahuluan Kitab) BOOK OF JOSHUA THE ARGUMENT IT is not material to know who was the penman of this book, whether Joshua, as seems most probable from Jos 24:26 , o...

Poole: Joshua 9 (Pendahuluan Pasal) CHAPTER 9 The kings of Canaan hear of Joshua’ s exploits; consult together, and conclude to fight against Israel, Jos 9:1,2 . The Gibeonites, ...

MHCC: Joshua (Pendahuluan Kitab) Here is the history of Israel's passing into the land of Canaan, conquering and dividing it, under the command of Joshua, and their history until his ...

MHCC: Joshua 9 (Pendahuluan Pasal) (Jos 9:1, Jos 9:2) The kings combine against Israel. (Jos 9:3-13) The Gibeonites apply for peace. (Jos 9:14-21) They obtain peace, but are soon dete...

Matthew Henry: Joshua (Pendahuluan Kitab) An Exposition, with Practical Observations, of The Book of Joshua I. We have now before us the history of the Jewish nation in this book and those tha...

Matthew Henry: Joshua 9 (Pendahuluan Pasal) Here is in this chapter, I. The impolite confederacy of the kings of Canaan against Israel (Jos 9:1, Jos 9:2). II. The polite confederacy of the ...

Constable: Joshua (Pendahuluan Kitab) Introduction Title The name of this book in Hebrew, Greek, and English comes from the ...

Constable: Joshua (Garis Besar) Outline I. The conquest of the land chs. 1-12 A. Preparations for entering Canaan chs. 1-2 ...

Constable: Joshua Joshua Bibliography Aharoni, Yohanan. "The Province-List of Judah." Vetus Testamentum 9 (1959):225-46. ...

Haydock: Joshua (Pendahuluan Kitab) INTRODUCTION. THE BOOK OF JOSUE. This book is called Josue , because it contains the history of what passed under him, and, according to the comm...

Gill: Joshua (Pendahuluan Kitab) INTRODUCTION TO JOSHUA The Jews distinguish the prophets into former and latter; the first of the former prophets is Joshua, or Sepher Joshua, the ...

Gill: Joshua 9 (Pendahuluan Pasal) INTRODUCTION TO JOSHUA 9 This chapter gives an account of the combination of the several kings of Canaan against Israel, Jos 9:1; and of the crafti...

Advanced Commentary (Kamus, Lagu-Lagu Himne, Gambar, Ilustrasi Khotbah, Pertanyaan-Pertanyaan, dll)


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