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Teks -- Joshua 24:1-33 (NET)

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Konteks
Israel Renews its Commitment to the Lord
24:1 Joshua assembled all the Israelite tribes at Shechem. He summoned Israel’s elders, rulers, judges, and leaders, and they appeared before God. 24:2 Joshua told all the people, “Here is what the Lord God of Israel says: ‘In the distant past your ancestors lived beyond the Euphrates River, including Terah the father of Abraham and Nahor. They worshiped other gods, 24:3 but I took your father Abraham from beyond the Euphrates and brought him into the entire land of Canaan. I made his descendants numerous; I gave him Isaac, 24:4 and to Isaac I gave Jacob and Esau. To Esau I assigned Mount Seir, while Jacob and his sons went down to Egypt. 24:5 I sent Moses and Aaron, and I struck Egypt down when I intervened in their land. Then I brought you out. 24:6 When I brought your fathers out of Egypt, you arrived at the sea. The Egyptians chased your fathers with chariots and horsemen to the Red Sea. 24:7 Your fathers cried out for help to the Lord; he made the area between you and the Egyptians dark, and then drowned them in the sea. You witnessed with your very own eyes what I did in Egypt. You lived in the wilderness for a long time. 24:8 Then I brought you to the land of the Amorites who lived east of the Jordan. They fought with you, but I handed them over to you; you conquered their land and I destroyed them from before you. 24:9 Balak son of Zippor, king of Moab, launched an attack against Israel. He summoned Balaam son of Beor to call down judgment on you. 24:10 I refused to respond to Balaam; he kept prophesying good things about you, and I rescued you from his power. 24:11 You crossed the Jordan and came to Jericho. The leaders of Jericho, as well as the Amorites, Perizzites, Canaanites, Hittites, Girgashites, Hivites, and Jebusites, fought with you, but I handed them over to you. 24:12 I sent terror ahead of you to drive out before you the two Amorite kings. I gave you the victory; it was not by your swords or bows. 24:13 I gave you a land in which you had not worked hard; you took up residence in cities you did not build and you are eating the produce of vineyards and olive groves you did not plant.’ 24:14 Now obey the Lord and worship him with integrity and loyalty. Put aside the gods your ancestors worshiped beyond the Euphrates and in Egypt and worship the Lord. 24:15 If you have no desire to worship the Lord, choose today whom you will worship, whether it be the gods whom your ancestors worshiped beyond the Euphrates, or the gods of the Amorites in whose land you are living. But I and my family will worship the Lord!” 24:16 The people responded, “Far be it from us to abandon the Lord so we can worship other gods! 24:17 For the Lord our God took us and our fathers out of slavery in the land of Egypt and performed these awesome miracles before our very eyes. He continually protected us as we traveled and when we passed through nations. 24:18 The Lord drove out from before us all the nations, including the Amorites who lived in the land. So we too will worship the Lord, for he is our God!” 24:19 Joshua warned the people, “You will not keep worshiping the Lord, for he is a holy God. He is a jealous God who will not forgive your rebellion or your sins. 24:20 If you abandon the Lord and worship foreign gods, he will turn against you; he will bring disaster on you and destroy you, though he once treated you well.” 24:21 The people said to Joshua, “No! We really will worship the Lord!” 24:22 Joshua said to the people, “Do you agree to be witnesses against yourselves that you have chosen to worship the Lord?” They replied, “We are witnesses!” 24:23 Joshua said, “Now put aside the foreign gods that are among you and submit to the Lord God of Israel.” 24:24 The people said to Joshua, “We will worship the Lord our God and obey him.” 24:25 That day Joshua drew up an agreement for the people, and he established rules and regulations for them in Shechem. 24:26 Joshua wrote these words in the Law Scroll of God. He then took a large stone and set it up there under the oak tree near the Lord’s shrine. 24:27 Joshua said to all the people, “Look, this stone will be a witness against you, for it has heard everything the Lord said to us. It will be a witness against you if you deny your God.” 24:28 When Joshua dismissed the people, they went to their allotted portions of land.
An Era Ends
24:29 After all this Joshua son of Nun, the Lord’s servant, died at the age of one hundred ten. 24:30 They buried him in his allotted territory in Timnath Serah in the hill country of Ephraim, north of Mount Gaash. 24:31 Israel worshiped the Lord throughout Joshua’s lifetime and as long as the elderly men who outlived him remained alive. These men had experienced firsthand everything the Lord had done for Israel. 24:32 The bones of Joseph, which the Israelites had brought up from Egypt, were buried at Shechem in the part of the field that Jacob bought from the sons of Hamor, the father of Shechem, for one hundred pieces of money. So it became the inheritance of the tribe of Joseph. 24:33 Eleazar son of Aaron died, and they buried him in Gibeah in the hill country of Ephraim, where his son Phinehas had been assigned land.
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Aaron a son of Amram; brother of Moses,son of Amram (Kohath Levi); patriarch of Israel's priests,the clan or priestly line founded by Aaron
 · Abraham a son of Terah; the father of Isaac; ancestor of the Jewish nation.,the son of Terah of Shem
 · Amorites members of a pre-Israel Semitic tribe from Mesopotamia
 · Balaam the son of Beor,son of Beor of Pethor on the Euphrates River
 · Balak a son of Zippor,son of Zippor, King of Moab, who hired Balaam against Israel
 · Beor the father of the prophet Balaam.,father of Bela king of Edom,father of Balaam the prophet
 · Beyond the Euphrates the region of Mesopotamia, between the Tigris and Euphrates
 · beyond the Euphrates the region of Mesopotamia, between the Tigris and Euphrates
 · Canaan the region ofeast Mediterranean coastal land from Arvad (modern Lebanon) south to Gaza,the coast land from Mt. Carmel north to the Orontes River
 · Canaanite residents of the region of Canaan
 · Egypt descendants of Mizraim
 · Egyptians descendants of Mizraim
 · Eleazar a son of Eliud; the father of Matthan; an ancestor of Jesus.,a chief priest; son of Aaron,son of Abinadab; caretaker of the Ark at Kiriath-Jearim,son of Dodo the Ahohite; one of David's military elite,son of Mahli the Levite,a priest who participated in the dedication of the wall,a priest under Ezra; son of Phinehas,a layman of the Parosh clan who put away his heathen wife
 · Ephraim the tribe of Ephraim as a whole,the northern kingdom of Israel
 · Esau a son of Isaac and Rebekah,son of Isaac & Rebekah; Jacob's elder twin brother,a people (and nation) descended from Esau, Jacob's brother
 · Euphrates a large river which joins the Tigris river before flowing into the Persian Gulf,a river flowing from eastern Turkey to the Persian Gulf
 · Gaash a mountain of Ephraim south of Timnath-Serah, 20 km ESE of Joppa,a region known as "The Brooks of Gaash"
 · Gibeah a town of Judah 8 km north of Jerusalem, 5 km east of Gibeon (SMM)
 · Girgashite members of a clan of Canaan
 · Hamor the father of Shechem.,father of Shechem whose people Simeon and Levi destroyed
 · Hittite a person/people living in the land of Syro-Palestine
 · Hivite a person/people descended from Canaan son of Ham son of Noah
 · Israel a citizen of Israel.,a member of the nation of Israel
 · Jacob the second so of a pair of twins born to Isaac and Rebeccaa; ancestor of the 12 tribes of Israel,the nation of Israel,a person, male,son of Isaac; Israel the man and nation
 · Jebusite resident(s) of the town of Jebus (Jerusalem)
 · Jericho a town five miles west of the Jordan and 15 miles northeast of Jerusalem,a town of Benjamin 11 km NW of the mouth of the Jordan River
 · Jordan the river that flows from Lake Galilee to the Dead Sea,a river that begins at Mt. Hermon, flows south through Lake Galilee and on to its end at the Dead Sea 175 km away (by air)
 · Joseph the husband of Mary and foster-father of Jesus,a Jewish man from Arimathea in whose grave the body of Jesus was laid,two different men listed as ancestors of Jesus,a man nominated with Matthias to take the place of Judas Iscariot as apostle,a son of Jacob and Rachel; the father of Ephraim and Manasseh and ruler of Egypt,a brother of Jesus; a son of Mary,a man who was a companion of Paul,son of Jacob and Rachel; patriarch of the tribes of Ephraim and Manasseh,a tribe, actually two tribes named after Joseph's sons, Ephraim and Manasseh,father of Igal, of Issachar, who helped spy out Canaan,son of Asaph the Levite; worship leader under Asaph and King David,a man who put away his heathen wife; an Israelite descended from Binnui,priest and head of the house of Shebaniah under High Priest Joiakim in the time of Nehemiah
 · Joshua a son of Eliezer; the father of Er; an ancestor of Jesus,the son of Nun and successor of Moses,son of Nun of Ephraim; successor to Moses,a man: owner of the field where the ark stopped,governor of Jerusalem under King Josiah,son of Jehozadak; high priest in the time of Zerubbabel
 · Moab resident(s) of the country of Moab
 · Moses a son of Amram; the Levite who led Israel out of Egypt and gave them The Law of Moses,a Levite who led Israel out of Egypt and gave them the law


Topik/Tema Kamus: Joshua | Shechem | COVENANT, IN THE OLD TESTAMENT | Israel | Death | APOSTASY; APOSTATE | Covenant | Decision | Backsliders | Red Sea | FLOOD | Burial | JOSHUA, BOOK OF | BEYOND | JUDGES, BOOK OF | God | Abraham | ELDER | Hornet | Choice | selebihnya
Daftar Isi

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Wesley , JFB , Clarke , Calvin , Defender , TSK

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Poole , PBC , Haydock , Gill

Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki
NET Notes , Geneva Bible

Catatan Rentang Ayat
Maclaren , MHCC , Matthew Henry , Keil-Delitzsch , Constable , Guzik

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per frasa)

Wesley: Jos 24:1 - All Israel Namely, their representatives.

Namely, their representatives.

Wesley: Jos 24:1 - Shechem To the city of Shechem, a place convenient for the purpose, not only because it was a Levitical city, and a city of refuge, and a place near Joshua's ...

To the city of Shechem, a place convenient for the purpose, not only because it was a Levitical city, and a city of refuge, and a place near Joshua's city, but especially for the two main ends for which he summoned them thither. For the solemn burial of the bones of Joseph, and the rest of the patriarchs, for which this place was designed. For the solemn renewing of their covenant with God; which in this place was first made between God and Abraham, Gen 12:6-7, and afterwards renewed by the Israelites at their first entrance into the land of Canaan, between the two mountains of Ebal and Gerizzim, Jos 8:30, &c. which were very near Shechem: and therefore this place was most proper, both to remind them of their former obligations to God, and to engage them to a farther ratification of them.

Wesley: Jos 24:1 - Before God As in God's presence, to hear what Joshua was to speak to them in God's name, and to receive God's commands from his mouth. He had taken a solemn fare...

As in God's presence, to hear what Joshua was to speak to them in God's name, and to receive God's commands from his mouth. He had taken a solemn farewell before: but as God renewed his strength, he desired to improve it for their good. We must never think our work for God done, 'till our life is done.

Wesley: Jos 24:2 - The people To the elders, by whom it was to be imparted to all the rest, and to as many of the people as came thither. He spake to them in God's name, and as fro...

To the elders, by whom it was to be imparted to all the rest, and to as many of the people as came thither. He spake to them in God's name, and as from him, in the language of a prophet, Thus saith the Lord. Jehovah, the great God, and the God of Israel, whom you are peculiarly engaged to hear.

Wesley: Jos 24:2 - The flood Or, the river, namely, Euphrates, so called by way of eminency.

Or, the river, namely, Euphrates, so called by way of eminency.

Wesley: Jos 24:2 - They served That is, Both Abraham and Nahor were no less idolaters than the rest of mankind. This is said to prevent their vain boasting in their worthy ancestors...

That is, Both Abraham and Nahor were no less idolaters than the rest of mankind. This is said to prevent their vain boasting in their worthy ancestors, and to assure them that whatsoever good was in, or had been done by their progenitors, was wholly from God's free grace, and not for their own merit or righteousness.

Wesley: Jos 24:3 - I took I snatched him out of that idolatrous place, and took him into acquaintance and covenant with myself, which was the highest honour and happiness he wa...

I snatched him out of that idolatrous place, and took him into acquaintance and covenant with myself, which was the highest honour and happiness he was capable of.

Wesley: Jos 24:3 - And led That is I brought him after his father's death into Canaan, Gen 12:1, and I conducted and preserved him in all his travels through the several parts o...

That is I brought him after his father's death into Canaan, Gen 12:1, and I conducted and preserved him in all his travels through the several parts of Canaan.

Wesley: Jos 24:3 - And multiplied That is, gave him a numerous posterity, not only by Hagar and Keturah, but even by Sarah and by Isaac.

That is, gave him a numerous posterity, not only by Hagar and Keturah, but even by Sarah and by Isaac.

Wesley: Jos 24:3 - Gave Isaac By my special power and grace to be heir of my covenant, and all my promises, and the seed in or by which all the nations were to be blessed.

By my special power and grace to be heir of my covenant, and all my promises, and the seed in or by which all the nations were to be blessed.

Wesley: Jos 24:4 - Mount Seir That he might leave Canaan entire to his brother Jacob and his posterity, Gen 36:7-8.

That he might leave Canaan entire to his brother Jacob and his posterity, Gen 36:7-8.

Wesley: Jos 24:4 - Into Egypt Where they long lived in grievous bondage; which God having delivered us from, I shall now pass it over.

Where they long lived in grievous bondage; which God having delivered us from, I shall now pass it over.

Wesley: Jos 24:7 - Your eyes He speaketh this to the elders, Jos 24:1, who were so, not only by power and dignity, but many of them by age; and there being now not sixty years pas...

He speaketh this to the elders, Jos 24:1, who were so, not only by power and dignity, but many of them by age; and there being now not sixty years past since those Egyptian plagues, it is very probable that a considerable number of those present, had seen those things in Egypt, and being not twenty years old, were exempted from that dreadful sentence passed upon all who were older, Num 14:29.

Wesley: Jos 24:9 - Balak warred Balak warred, tho' not by open force, yet by crafty counsel and warlike stratagems, by wicked devices.

Balak warred, tho' not by open force, yet by crafty counsel and warlike stratagems, by wicked devices.

Wesley: Jos 24:10 - Unto Balaam Who hereby appears to have desired of God leave to curse Israel; and therefore it is not strange, that God who permitted him simply to go, was highly ...

Who hereby appears to have desired of God leave to curse Israel; and therefore it is not strange, that God who permitted him simply to go, was highly angry with him for going with so wicked an intent, Num 22:20, Num 22:22, Num 22:32.

Wesley: Jos 24:10 - Delivered you That is, from Balak's malicious design against you.

That is, from Balak's malicious design against you.

Wesley: Jos 24:11 - Deliver them Namely, successively; for in these few words he seems to comprise all their wars, which being so fresh in their memory, he thought it needless particu...

Namely, successively; for in these few words he seems to comprise all their wars, which being so fresh in their memory, he thought it needless particularly to mention.

Wesley: Jos 24:12 - Sent the hornet When they were actually engaged in battle with the Canaanites. These dreadful swarms which first appeared in their war with Sihon and Og, tormented th...

When they were actually engaged in battle with the Canaanites. These dreadful swarms which first appeared in their war with Sihon and Og, tormented them with their stings and terrified them with their noise, so that they became an easy prey to Israel. God had promised to do this for them, Exo 23:27-28, and here Joshua observes the fulfilling the promise.

Wesley: Jos 24:14 - The gods Whereby it appears, that although Joshua had doubtless prevented and purged out all public idolatry, yet there were some of them who practised it in t...

Whereby it appears, that although Joshua had doubtless prevented and purged out all public idolatry, yet there were some of them who practised it in their private houses and retirements.

Wesley: Jos 24:14 - Your fathers Terah, and Nahor, and Abraham, as Jos 24:2, and other of your ancestors.

Terah, and Nahor, and Abraham, as Jos 24:2, and other of your ancestors.

Wesley: Jos 24:14 - In Egypt See Eze 23:3, Eze 23:8, Eze 23:19, Eze 23:21, Eze 23:27. Under these particulars, no doubt he comprehends all other false gods, which were served by t...

See Eze 23:3, Eze 23:8, Eze 23:19, Eze 23:21, Eze 23:27. Under these particulars, no doubt he comprehends all other false gods, which were served by the nations amongst whom they were, but only mentions these, as the idols which they were in more danger of worshipping than those in Canaan; partly because those of Canaan had been now lately and palpably disgraced by their inability to preserve their worshippers from total ruin; and partly, because the other idols came recommended to them by the venerable name of antiquity, and the custom of their forefathers.

Wesley: Jos 24:15 - Seem evil Unjust, unreasonable or inconvenient.

Unjust, unreasonable or inconvenient.

Wesley: Jos 24:15 - Choose ye Not that he leaves them to their liberty, whether they would serve God or idols; for Joshua had no such power himself, nor could give it to any other;...

Not that he leaves them to their liberty, whether they would serve God or idols; for Joshua had no such power himself, nor could give it to any other; and both he and they were obliged by the law of Moses, to give their worship to God only, and to forbear all idolatry in themselves, and severely to punish it in others; but it is a powerful insinuation, whereby he both implies, that the worship of God is so highly reasonable, necessary and beneficial; and the service of idols so absurd, and vain, and pernicious, that if it were left free for all men to take their choice, every man in his right wits must needs chuse the service of God, before that of idols; and provokes them to bind themselves faster to God by their own choice.

Wesley: Jos 24:15 - He will But know this, if you should all be so base and brutish, as to prefer senseless and impotent idols, before the true and living God, it is my firm purp...

But know this, if you should all be so base and brutish, as to prefer senseless and impotent idols, before the true and living God, it is my firm purpose, that I will, and my children, and servants (as far as I can influence them) shall be constant and faithful to the Lord. And that, whatever others do. They that resolve to serve God, must not start at being singular in it. They that are bound for heaven must be willing to swim against the stream, and must do, not as most do, but as the best do.

Wesley: Jos 24:19 - Ye cannot He speaks not of an absolute impossibility, (for then both his resolution to serve God himself, and his exhortation to them had been vain) but of a mo...

He speaks not of an absolute impossibility, (for then both his resolution to serve God himself, and his exhortation to them had been vain) but of a moral impossibility, or a very great difficulty, which he alledgeth not to discourage them from God's service, but to make them more considerate in obliging themselves; and more resolved in answering their obligations. The meaning is, God's service is not, as you seem to fancy, a slight and easy thing, but it is a work of great difficulty, and requires great care, and courage and resolution; and when I consider the infinite purity of God, that he will not be mocked or abused; and withal your proneness to superstition and idolatry, even during the life of Moses, and in some of you, while I live, and while the obligations which God had laid upon you in this land, are fresh in remembrance; I cannot but fear that after my decease you will think the service of God burdensome, and therefore will cast it off and revolt from him, if you do not carefully avoid all occasions of idolatry.

Wesley: Jos 24:19 - A jealous God In the Hebrew, He is the holy Gods, holy Father, holy Son, holy Spirit. He will not endure a partner in his worship; you can not serve him and idols t...

In the Hebrew, He is the holy Gods, holy Father, holy Son, holy Spirit. He will not endure a partner in his worship; you can not serve him and idols together.

Wesley: Jos 24:19 - Will not forgive If you who own yourselves his people and servants, shall wilfully transgress his laws, he will not let this go unpunished in you, as he doth in other ...

If you who own yourselves his people and servants, shall wilfully transgress his laws, he will not let this go unpunished in you, as he doth in other nations; therefore consider what you do, when you take the Lord for your God; weigh your advantages and inconveniences together; for as if you be sincere and faithful in God's service, you will have admirable benefits by it; so if you be false to your professions, and forsake him whom you have so solemnly avouched to be your God, he will deal more severely with you than with any people in the world.

Wesley: Jos 24:20 - Will turn That is, he will alter his course and the manner of his dealing with you, and will be as severe as ever he was kind and gracious. He will repent of hi...

That is, he will alter his course and the manner of his dealing with you, and will be as severe as ever he was kind and gracious. He will repent of his former kindnesses, and his goodness abused will be turned into fury.

Wesley: Jos 24:21 - The Lord Namely, him only, and not strange gods.

Namely, him only, and not strange gods.

Wesley: Jos 24:22 - Against yourselves This solemn profession will be a swift witness against you, if hereafter you apostatize from God.

This solemn profession will be a swift witness against you, if hereafter you apostatize from God.

Wesley: Jos 24:23 - Strange gods Those idols which you either brought out of Egypt, or have taken in Canaan, which some of you keep contrary to God's command, whether for the precious...

Those idols which you either brought out of Egypt, or have taken in Canaan, which some of you keep contrary to God's command, whether for the preciousness of the matter, or rather for some secret inclination to superstition and idolatry.

Wesley: Jos 24:25 - A statute He set or established that covenant with them, that is, the people, for a statute or an ordinance, to bind themselves and their posterity unto God for...

He set or established that covenant with them, that is, the people, for a statute or an ordinance, to bind themselves and their posterity unto God for ever.

Wesley: Jos 24:26 - These words That is, this covenant or agreement of the people with the Lord.

That is, this covenant or agreement of the people with the Lord.

Wesley: Jos 24:26 - In the book That is, in the volume which was kept in the ark, Deu 31:9, Deu 31:26, whence it was taken and put into this book of Joshua: this he did for the perpe...

That is, in the volume which was kept in the ark, Deu 31:9, Deu 31:26, whence it was taken and put into this book of Joshua: this he did for the perpetual remembrance of this great and solemn action, to lay the greater obligation upon the people to be true to their engagement; and as a witness for God, against the people, if afterward he punished them for their defection from God, to whom they had so solemnly and freely obliged themselves.

Wesley: Jos 24:26 - Set it up As a witness and monument of this great transaction, according to the custom of those ancient times. Possibly this agreement was written upon this sto...

As a witness and monument of this great transaction, according to the custom of those ancient times. Possibly this agreement was written upon this stone, as was then usual.

Wesley: Jos 24:26 - By the sanctuary That is, near the place where the ark and tabernacle then were; for tho' they were forbidden to plant a grove of trees near unto the altar, as the Gen...

That is, near the place where the ark and tabernacle then were; for tho' they were forbidden to plant a grove of trees near unto the altar, as the Gentiles did, yet they might for a time set up an altar, or the ark, near a great tree which had been planted there before.

Wesley: Jos 24:27 - It hath heard It shall be as sure a witness against you, as if it had heard. This is a common figure, whereby the sense of hearing is often ascribed to the heavens ...

It shall be as sure a witness against you, as if it had heard. This is a common figure, whereby the sense of hearing is often ascribed to the heavens and the earth, and other senseless creatures.

Wesley: Jos 24:32 - The bones of Joseph Joseph died two hundred years before in Egypt, but gave commandment concerning his bones, that they should not rest in a grave, 'till Israel rested in...

Joseph died two hundred years before in Egypt, but gave commandment concerning his bones, that they should not rest in a grave, 'till Israel rested in the land of promise. Now therefore they were deposited in that piece of ground, which his father gave him near Shechem. One reason why Joshua called all Israel to Shechem, might be to attend Joseph's bones to the grave. So that he now delivered as it were both Joseph's funeral sermon, and his own farewell sermon. And if it was in the last year of his life, the occasion might well remind him, of his own death now at hand. For he was just of the same age with his illustrious ancestor, who died being one hundred and ten years old, Gen 50:26.

Wesley: Jos 24:33 - Given him By special favour, and for his better conveniency in attending upon the ark, which then was, and for a long time was to be in Shiloh, near this place:...

By special favour, and for his better conveniency in attending upon the ark, which then was, and for a long time was to be in Shiloh, near this place: whereas the cities which were given to the priests, were in Judah. Benjamin, and Simeon, which were remote from Shiloh, tho' near the place where the ark was to have its settled abode, namely, at Jerusalem. It is probable Eleazar died about the same time with Joshua, as Aaron did in the same year with Moses. While Joshua lived, religion was kept up, under his care and influence, but after he and his contemporaries were gone, it swiftly went to decay. How well is it for the gospel church, that Christ, our Joshua, is still with it by his Spirit, and will be always, even to the end of the world?

JFB: Jos 24:1 - Joshua gathered all the tribes of Israel to Shechem Another and final opportunity of dissuading the people against idolatry is here described as taken by the aged leader, whose solicitude on this accoun...

Another and final opportunity of dissuading the people against idolatry is here described as taken by the aged leader, whose solicitude on this account arose from his knowledge of the extreme readiness of the people to conform to the manners of the surrounding nations. This address was made to the representatives of the people convened at Shechem, and which had already been the scene of a solemn renewal of the covenant (Jos 8:30, Jos 8:35). The transaction now to be entered upon being in principle and object the same, it was desirable to give it all the solemn impressiveness which might be derived from the memory of the former ceremonial, as well as from other sacred associations of the place (Gen 12:6-7; Gen 33:18-20; Gen 35:2-4).

JFB: Jos 24:1 - they presented themselves before God It is generally assumed that the ark of the covenant had been transferred on this occasion to Shechem; as on extraordinary emergencies it was for a ti...

It is generally assumed that the ark of the covenant had been transferred on this occasion to Shechem; as on extraordinary emergencies it was for a time removed (Jdg. 20:1-18; 1Sa 4:3; 2Sa 15:24). But the statement, not necessarily implying this, may be viewed as expressing only the religious character of the ceremony [HENGSTENBERG].

JFB: Jos 24:2 - Joshua said unto all the people His address briefly recapitulated the principal proofs of the divine goodness to Israel from the call of Abraham to their happy establishment in the l...

His address briefly recapitulated the principal proofs of the divine goodness to Israel from the call of Abraham to their happy establishment in the land of promise; it showed them that they were indebted for their national existence as well as their peculiar privileges, not to any merits of their own, but to the free grace of God.

JFB: Jos 24:2 - Your fathers dwelt on the other side of the flood The Euphrates, namely, at Ur.

The Euphrates, namely, at Ur.

JFB: Jos 24:2 - Terah, the father of Abraham, and the father of Nachor (see Gen 11:27). Though Terah had three sons, Nahor only is mentioned with Abraham, as the Israelites were descended from him on the mother's side thr...

(see Gen 11:27). Though Terah had three sons, Nahor only is mentioned with Abraham, as the Israelites were descended from him on the mother's side through Rebekah and her nieces, Leah and Rachel.

JFB: Jos 24:2 - served other gods Conjoining, like Laban, the traditional knowledge of the true God with the domestic use of material images (Gen 31:19, Gen 31:34).

Conjoining, like Laban, the traditional knowledge of the true God with the domestic use of material images (Gen 31:19, Gen 31:34).

JFB: Jos 24:3 - I took your father Abraham from the other side of the flood, and led him throughout all the land of Canaan It was an irresistible impulse of divine grace which led the patriarch to leave his country and relatives, to migrate to Canaan, and live a "stranger ...

It was an irresistible impulse of divine grace which led the patriarch to leave his country and relatives, to migrate to Canaan, and live a "stranger and pilgrim" in that land.

JFB: Jos 24:4 - I gave unto Esau mount Seir (See on Gen 36:8). In order that he might be no obstacle to Jacob and his posterity being the exclusive heirs of Canaan.

(See on Gen 36:8). In order that he might be no obstacle to Jacob and his posterity being the exclusive heirs of Canaan.

JFB: Jos 24:12 - I sent the hornet before you A particular species of wasp which swarms in warm countries and sometimes assumes the scourging character of a plague; or, as many think, it is a figu...

A particular species of wasp which swarms in warm countries and sometimes assumes the scourging character of a plague; or, as many think, it is a figurative expression for uncontrollable terror (see on Exo 23:28).|| 06491||1||15||0||@Now therefore fear the Lord, and serve him in sincerity and in truth==--After having enumerated so many grounds for national gratitude, Joshua calls on them to declare, in a public and solemn manner, whether they will be faithful and obedient to the God of Israel. He avowed this to be his own unalterable resolution, and urged them, if they were sincere in making a similar avowal, "to put away the strange gods that were among them"--a requirement which seems to imply that some were suspected of a strong hankering for, or concealed practice of, the idolatry, whether in the form of Zabaism, the fire-worship of their Chaldean ancestors, or the grosser superstitions of the Canaanites.

JFB: Jos 24:26 - Joshua wrote these words in the book of the law of God Registered the engagements of that solemn covenant in the book of sacred history.

Registered the engagements of that solemn covenant in the book of sacred history.

JFB: Jos 24:26 - took a great stone According to the usage of ancient times to erect stone pillars as monuments of public transactions.

According to the usage of ancient times to erect stone pillars as monuments of public transactions.

JFB: Jos 24:26 - set it up there under an oak Or terebinth, in all likelihood, the same as that at the root of which Jacob buried the idols and charms found in his family.

Or terebinth, in all likelihood, the same as that at the root of which Jacob buried the idols and charms found in his family.

JFB: Jos 24:26 - that was by the sanctuary of the Lord Either the spot where the ark had stood, or else the place around, so called from that religious meeting, as Jacob named Beth-el the house of God.

Either the spot where the ark had stood, or else the place around, so called from that religious meeting, as Jacob named Beth-el the house of God.

JFB: Jos 24:29-30 - Joshua . . . died LIGHTFOOT computes that he lived seventeen, others twenty-seven years, after the entrance into Canaan. He was buried, according to the Jewish practice...

LIGHTFOOT computes that he lived seventeen, others twenty-seven years, after the entrance into Canaan. He was buried, according to the Jewish practice, within the limits of his own inheritance. The eminent public services he had long rendered to Israel and the great amount of domestic comfort and national prosperity he had been instrumental in diffusing among the several tribes, were deeply felt, were universally acknowledged; and a testimonial in the form of a statue or obelisk would have been immediately raised to his honor, in all parts of the land, had such been the fashion of the times. The brief but noble epitaph by the historian is, Joshua, "the servant of the Lord."

JFB: Jos 24:31 - Israel served the Lord all the days of Joshua The high and commanding character of this eminent leader had given so decided a tone to the sentiments and manners of his contemporaries and the memor...

The high and commanding character of this eminent leader had given so decided a tone to the sentiments and manners of his contemporaries and the memory of his fervent piety and many virtues continued so vividly impressed on the memories of the people, that the sacred historian has recorded it to his immortal honor. "Israel served the Lord all the days of Joshua, and all the days of the elders that overlived Joshua."

JFB: Jos 24:32 - the bones of Joseph They had carried these venerable relics with them in all their migrations through the desert, and deferred the burial, according to the dying charge o...

They had carried these venerable relics with them in all their migrations through the desert, and deferred the burial, according to the dying charge of Joseph himself, till they arrived in the promised land. The sarcophagus, in which his mummied body had been put, was brought thither by the Israelites, and probably buried when the tribe of Ephraim had obtained their settlement, or at the solemn convocation described in this chapter.

JFB: Jos 24:32 - in a parcel of ground which Jacob bought . . . for an hundred pieces of silver Kestitah translated, "piece of silver," is supposed to mean "a lamb," the weights being in the form of lambs or kids, which were, in all probability, ...

Kestitah translated, "piece of silver," is supposed to mean "a lamb," the weights being in the form of lambs or kids, which were, in all probability, the earliest standard of value among pastoral people. The tomb that now covers the spot is a Mohammedan Welce, but there is no reason to doubt that the precious deposit of Joseph's remains may be concealed there at the present time.

JFB: Jos 24:33 - Eleazar the son of Aaron died, and they buried him in . . . mount Ephraim The sepulchre is at the modern village Awertah, which, according to Jewish travellers, contains the graves also of Ithamar, the brother of Phinehas, t...

The sepulchre is at the modern village Awertah, which, according to Jewish travellers, contains the graves also of Ithamar, the brother of Phinehas, the son of Eleazar [VAN DE VELDE].

Clarke: Jos 24:1 - Joshua gathered all the tribes Joshua gathered all the tribes - This must have been a different assembly from that mentioned in the preceding chapter, though probably held not lon...

Joshua gathered all the tribes - This must have been a different assembly from that mentioned in the preceding chapter, though probably held not long after the former

Clarke: Jos 24:1 - To Shechem To Shechem - As it is immediately added that they presented themselves before God, this must mean the tabernacle; but at this time the tabernacle wa...

To Shechem - As it is immediately added that they presented themselves before God, this must mean the tabernacle; but at this time the tabernacle was not at Shechem but at Shiloh. The Septuagint appear to have been struck with this difficulty, and therefore read Σηλω . Shiloh, both here and in Jos 24:25, though the Aldine and Complutensian editions have Συχεμ, Shechem, in both places. Many suppose that this is the original reading, and that Shechem has crept into the text instead of Shiloh. Perhaps there is more of imaginary than real difficulty in the text. As Joshua was now old and incapable of travelling, he certainly had a right to assemble the representatives of the tribes wherever he found most convenient, and to bring the ark of the covenant to the place of assembling: and this was probably done on this occasion. Shechem is a place famous in the patriarchal history. Here Abraham settled on his first coming into the land of Canaan, Gen 12:6, Gen 12:7; and here the patriarchs were buried, Act 7:16. And as Shechem lay between Ebal and Gerizim, where Joshua had before made a covenant with the people, Jos 8:30, etc., the very circumstance of the place would be undoubtedly friendly to the solemnity of the present occasion. Shuckford supposes that the covenant was made at Shechem, and that the people went to Shiloh to confirm it before the Lord. Mr. Mede thinks the Ephraimites had a proseucha , or temporary oratory or house of prayer, at Shechem, whither the people resorted for Divine worship when they could not get to the tabernacle; and that this is what is called before the Lord; but this conjecture seems not at all likely, God having forbidden this kind of worship.

Clarke: Jos 24:2 - On the other side of the flood On the other side of the flood - The river Euphrates

On the other side of the flood - The river Euphrates

Clarke: Jos 24:2 - They served other gods They served other gods - Probably Abraham as well as Terah his father was an idolater, till he received the call of God to leave that land. See on G...

They served other gods - Probably Abraham as well as Terah his father was an idolater, till he received the call of God to leave that land. See on Gen 11:31 (note); Gen 12:1 (note).

Clarke: Jos 24:9 - Then Balak - arose and warred against Israel Then Balak - arose and warred against Israel - This circumstance is not related in Numbers 22:1-41, nor does it appear in that history that the Moab...

Then Balak - arose and warred against Israel - This circumstance is not related in Numbers 22:1-41, nor does it appear in that history that the Moabites attacked the Israelites; and probably the warring here mentioned means no more than his attempts to destroy them by the curses of Balaam, and the wiles of the Midianitish women.

Clarke: Jos 24:11 - The men of Jericho fought against you The men of Jericho fought against you - See the notes on Joshua 3:1-16 (note) and Jos 6:1 (note), etc. The people of Jericho are said to have fought...

The men of Jericho fought against you - See the notes on Joshua 3:1-16 (note) and Jos 6:1 (note), etc. The people of Jericho are said to have fought against the Israelites, because they opposed them by shutting their gates, etc., though they did not attempt to meet them in the field.

Clarke: Jos 24:12 - I sent the hornet before you I sent the hornet before you - See the note on Exo 23:28.

I sent the hornet before you - See the note on Exo 23:28.

Clarke: Jos 24:14 - Fear the Lord Fear the Lord - Reverence him as the sole object of your religious worship

Fear the Lord - Reverence him as the sole object of your religious worship

Clarke: Jos 24:14 - Serve him Serve him - Perform his will by obeying his commands

Serve him - Perform his will by obeying his commands

Clarke: Jos 24:14 - In sincerity In sincerity - Having your whole heart engaged in his worship

In sincerity - Having your whole heart engaged in his worship

Clarke: Jos 24:14 - And in truth And in truth - According to the directions he has given you in his infallible word

And in truth - According to the directions he has given you in his infallible word

Clarke: Jos 24:14 - Put away the gods, etc. Put away the gods, etc. - From this exhortation of Joshua we learn of what sort the gods were, to the worship of whom these Israelites were still at...

Put away the gods, etc. - From this exhortation of Joshua we learn of what sort the gods were, to the worship of whom these Israelites were still attached

1.    Those which their fathers worshipped on the other side of the flood: i.e., the gods of the Chaldeans, fire, light, the sun

2.    Those of the Egyptians, Apis, Anubis, the ape, serpents, vegetables, etc

3.    Those of the Canaanites, Moabites, etc., Baal-peor or Priapus, Astarte or Venus, etc., etc

All these he refers to in this and the following verse. See at the conclusion of Jos 24:33 (note). How astonishing is this, that, after all God had done for them, and all the miracles they had seen, there should still be found among them both idols and idolaters! That it was so we have the fullest evidence, both here and in Jos 24:23; Amo 5:26; and in Act 7:41. But what excuse can be made for such stupid, not to say brutish, blindness? Probably they thought they could the better represent the Divine nature by using symbols and images, and perhaps they professed to worship God through the medium of these. At least this is what has been alleged in behalf of a gross class of Christians who are notorious for image worship. But on such conduct God will never look with any allowance, where he has given his word and testimony.

Clarke: Jos 24:15 - Choose you this day whom ye will serve Choose you this day whom ye will serve - Joshua well knew that all service that was not free and voluntary could be only deceit and hypocrisy, and t...

Choose you this day whom ye will serve - Joshua well knew that all service that was not free and voluntary could be only deceit and hypocrisy, and that God loveth a cheerful giver. He therefore calls upon the people to make their choice, for God himself would not force them - they must serve him with all their heart if they served him at all. As for himself and family, he shows them that their choice was already fixed, for they had taken Jehovah for their portion.

Clarke: Jos 24:16 - God forbid that we should forsake the Lord God forbid that we should forsake the Lord - That they were now sincere cannot be reasonably doubted, for they served the Lord all the days of Joshu...

God forbid that we should forsake the Lord - That they were now sincere cannot be reasonably doubted, for they served the Lord all the days of Joshua, and the elders that outlived him, Jos 24:31; but afterwards they turned aside, and did serve other gods. "It is ordinary,"says Mr. Trapp, "for the many-headed multitude to turn with the stream - to be of the same religion with their superiors: thus at Rome, in Diocletian’ s time, they were pagans; in Constantine’ s Christians; in Constantius’ s, Arians; in Julian’ s apostates, and in Jovinian’ s, Christians again! And all this within less than the age of a man. It is, therefore, a good thing that the heart be established with grace."

Clarke: Jos 24:19 - Ye cannot serve the Lord: for he is a holy God Ye cannot serve the Lord: for he is a holy God - If we are to take this literally, we cannot blame the Israelites for their defection from the worsh...

Ye cannot serve the Lord: for he is a holy God - If we are to take this literally, we cannot blame the Israelites for their defection from the worship of the true God; for if it was impossible for them to serve God, they could not but come short of his kingdom: but surely this was not the case. Instead of לא תוכלו lo thuchelu , ye Cannot serve, etc., some eminent critics read לא תכלו lo thechallu , ye shall not Cease to serve, etc. This is a very ingenious emendation, but there is not one MS. in all the collections of Kennicott and De Rossi to support it. However, it appears very possible that the first ו vau in תוכלו did not make a part of the word originally. If the common reading be preferred, the meaning of the place must be, "Ye cannot serve the Lord, for he is holy and jealous, unless ye put away the gods which your fathers served beyond the flood. For he is a jealous God, and will not give to nor divide his glory with any other. He is a holy God, and will not have his people defiled with the impure worship of the Gentiles."

Clarke: Jos 24:21 - And the people said - Nay; but we will serve, etc. And the people said - Nay; but we will serve, etc. - So they understood the words of Joshua to imply no moral impossibility on their side: and had t...

And the people said - Nay; but we will serve, etc. - So they understood the words of Joshua to imply no moral impossibility on their side: and had they earnestly sought the gracious assistance of God, they would have continued steady in his covenant.

Clarke: Jos 24:22 - Ye are witnesses against yourselves Ye are witnesses against yourselves - Ye have been sufficiently apprised of the difficulties in your way - of God’ s holiness - your own weakne...

Ye are witnesses against yourselves - Ye have been sufficiently apprised of the difficulties in your way - of God’ s holiness - your own weakness and inconstancy - the need you have of Divine help, and the awful consequences of apostasy; and now ye deliberately make your choice. Remember then, that ye are witnesses against yourselves, and your own conscience will be witness, judge, and executioner; or, as one terms it, index, judex, vindex .

Clarke: Jos 24:23 - Now therefore put away Now therefore put away - As you have promised to reform, begin instantly the work of reformation. A man’ s promise to serve God soon loses its ...

Now therefore put away - As you have promised to reform, begin instantly the work of reformation. A man’ s promise to serve God soon loses its moral hold of his conscience if he do not instantaneously begin to put it in practice. The grace that enables him to promise is that by the strength of which he is to begin the performance.

Clarke: Jos 24:25 - Joshua made a covenant Joshua made a covenant - Literally, Joshua cut the covenant, alluding to the sacrifice offered on the occasion

Joshua made a covenant - Literally, Joshua cut the covenant, alluding to the sacrifice offered on the occasion

Clarke: Jos 24:25 - And set then a statute and an ordinance And set then a statute and an ordinance - He made a solemn and public act of the whole, which was signed and witnessed by himself and the people, in...

And set then a statute and an ordinance - He made a solemn and public act of the whole, which was signed and witnessed by himself and the people, in the presence of Jehovah; and having done so, he wrote the words of the covenant in the book of the law of God, probably in some part of the skin constituting the great roll, on which the laws of God were written, and of which there were some blank columns to spare. Having done this, he took a great stone and set it up under an oak - that this might be עד ed or witness that, at such a time and place, this covenant was made, the terms of which might be found written in the book of the law, which was laid up beside the ark. See Deu 31:26.

Clarke: Jos 24:27 - This stone - hath heard all the words This stone - hath heard all the words - That is, the stone itself, from its permanency, shall be in all succeeding ages as competent and as substant...

This stone - hath heard all the words - That is, the stone itself, from its permanency, shall be in all succeeding ages as competent and as substantial a witness as one who had been present at the transaction, and heard all the words which on both sides were spoken on the occasion.

Clarke: Jos 24:28 - So Joshua So Joshua - After this verse the Septuagint insert Jos 24:31.

So Joshua - After this verse the Septuagint insert Jos 24:31.

Clarke: Jos 24:29 - Joshua the son of Nun - died Joshua the son of Nun - died - This event probably took place shortly after this public assembly; for he was old and stricken in years when he held ...

Joshua the son of Nun - died - This event probably took place shortly after this public assembly; for he was old and stricken in years when he held the assembly mentioned Jos 23:2; and as his work was now all done, and his soul ripened for a state of blessedness, God took him to himself, being one hundred and ten years of age; exactly the same age as that of the patriarch Joseph. See Gen 50:26.

Clarke: Jos 24:30 - And they buried him - in Timnath-serah And they buried him - in Timnath-serah - This was his own inheritance, as we have seen Jos 19:50. The Septuagint add here, "And they put with him th...

And they buried him - in Timnath-serah - This was his own inheritance, as we have seen Jos 19:50. The Septuagint add here, "And they put with him there, in the tomb in which they buried him, the knives of stone with which he circumcised the children of Israel in Gilgal, according as the Lord commanded when he brought them out of Egypt; and there they are till this day."St. Augustine quotes the same passage in his thirtieth question on the book of Joshua, which, in all probability, he took from some copy of the Septuagint. It is very strange that there is no account of any public mourning for the death of this eminent general; probably, as he was buried in his own inheritance, he had forbidden all funeral pomp, and it is likely was privately interred.

Clarke: Jos 24:31 - And Israel served the Lord, etc. And Israel served the Lord, etc. - Though there was private idolatry among them, for they had strange gods, yet there was no public idolatry all the...

And Israel served the Lord, etc. - Though there was private idolatry among them, for they had strange gods, yet there was no public idolatry all the days of Joshua and of the elders that overlived Joshua; most of whom must have been advanced in years at the death of this great man. Hence Calmet supposes that the whole of this time might amount to about fifteen years. It has already been noted that this verse is placed by the Septuagint after Jos 24:28.

Clarke: Jos 24:32 - And the bones of Joseph And the bones of Joseph - See the note on Gen 50:25, and on Exo 13:19. This burying of the bones of Joseph probably took place when the conquest of ...

And the bones of Joseph - See the note on Gen 50:25, and on Exo 13:19. This burying of the bones of Joseph probably took place when the conquest of the land was completed, and each tribe had received its inheritance; for it is not likely that this was deferred till after the death of Joshua.

Clarke: Jos 24:33 - And Eleazar - died And Eleazar - died - Probably about the same time as Joshua, or soon after; though some think he outlived him six years. Thus, nearly all the person...

And Eleazar - died - Probably about the same time as Joshua, or soon after; though some think he outlived him six years. Thus, nearly all the persons who had witnessed the miracles of God in the wilderness were gathered to their fathers; and their descendants left in possession of the great inheritance, with the Law of God in their hands, and the bright example of their illustrious ancestors before their eyes. It must be added that they possessed every advantage necessary to make them a great, a wise, and a holy people. How they used, or rather how they abused, these advantages, their subsequent history, given in the sacred books, amply testifies

Clarke: Jos 24:33 - A hill that pertained to Phinehas his son A hill that pertained to Phinehas his son - This grant was probably made to Phinehas as a token of the respect of the whole nation, for his zeal, co...

A hill that pertained to Phinehas his son - This grant was probably made to Phinehas as a token of the respect of the whole nation, for his zeal, courage, and usefulness: for the priests had properly no inheritance. At the end of this verse the Septuagint add: - "In that day the children of Israel, taking up the ark of the covenant of God, carried it about with them, and Phinehas succeeded to the high priest’ s office in the place of his father until his death; and he was buried in Gabaath, which belonged to himself. "Then the children of Israel went every man to his own place, and to his own city. "And the children of Israel worshipped Astarte and Ashtaroth, and the gods of the surrounding nations, and the Lord delivered them into the hands of Eglon king of Moab, and he tyrannized over them for eighteen years.

The last six verses in this chapter were, doubtless, not written by Joshua; for no man can give an account of his own death and burial. Eleazar, Phinehas, or Samuel, might have added them, to bring down the narration so as to connect it with their own times; and thus preserve the thread of the history unbroken. This is a common case; many men write histories of their own lives, which, in the last circumstances, are finished by others, and who has ever thought of impeaching the authenticity of the preceding part, because the subsequent was the work of a different hand? Hirtius’ s supplement has never invalidated the authenticity of the Commentaries of Caesar, nor the work of Quintus Smyrnaeus, that of the Iliad and Odyssey of Homer; nor the 13th book of Aeneid, by Mapheus Viggius, the authenticity of the preceding twelve, as the genuine work of Virgil. We should be thankful that an adequate and faithful hand has supplied those circumstances which the original author could not write, and without which the work would have been incomplete. Mr. Saurin has an excellent dissertation on this grand federal act formed by Joshua and the people of Israel on this very solemn occasion, of the substance of which the reader will not be displeased to find the following very short outline, which may be easily filled up by any whose business it is to instruct the public; for such a circumstance may with great propriety be brought before a Christian congregation at any time: -

"Seven things are to be considered in this renewal of the covenant

I. The dignity of the mediator

II. The freedom of those who contracted

III. The necessity of the choice

IV. The extent of the conditions

V. The peril of the engagement

VI. The solemnity of the acceptance

VII. The nearness of the consequence

"I. The dignity of the mediator. - Take a view of his names, Hosea and Jehoshua. God will save: he will save. The first is like a promise; the second, the fulfillment of that promise. God will save some time or other: - this is the very person by whom he will accomplish his promise. Take a view of Joshua’ s life: his faith, courage, constancy, heroism, and success. A remarkable type of Christ. See Heb 4:8

"II. The freedom of those who contracted. - Take away the gods which your fathers served beyond the flood; and in Egypt, etc., Jos 24:14, etc. Joshua exhibits to the Israelites all the religions which were then known

1. That of the Chaldeans, which consisted in the adoration of fire

2. That of the Egyptians, which consisted in the worship of the ox Apis, cats, dogs, and serpents; which had been preceded by the worship even of vegetables, such as the onion, etc

3. That of the people of Canaan, the principal objects of which were Astarte, (Venus), and Baal Peor, (Priapus). Make remarks on the liberty of choice which every man has, and which God, in matters of religion, applies to, and calls into action

"III. The necessity of the choice. - To be without religion, is to be without happiness here, and without any title to the kingdom of God. To have a false religion, is the broad road to perdition; and to have the true religion, and live agreeably to it, is the high road to heaven. Life is precarious - death is at the door - the Judge calls - much is to be done, and perhaps little time to do it in! Eternity depends on the present moment. Choose - choose speedily - determinately, etc

"IV. The extent of the conditions. - Fear the Lord, and serve him in truth and righteousness. Fear the Lord. Consider his being, his power, holiness, justice, etc. This is the gate to religion. Religion itself consists of two parts

I. Truth

1. In opposition to the detestable idolatry of the forementioned nations

2. In reference to that revelation which God gave of himself

3. In reference to that solid peace and comfort which false religions may promise, but cannot give; and which the true religion communicates to all who properly embrace it

II. Uprightness or integrity, in opposition to those abominable vices by which themselves and the neighboring nations had been defiled

1. The major part of men have one religion for youth, another for old age. But he who serves God in integrity, serves him with all his heart in every part of life

2. Most men have a religion of times, places, and circumstances. This is a defective religion. Integrity takes in every time, every place, and every circumstance; God’ s law being ever kept before the eyes, and his love in the heart, dictating purity and perfection to every thought, word, and work

3. Many content themselves with abstaining from vice, and think themselves sure of the kingdom of God because they do not sin as others. But he who serves God in integrity, not only abstains from the act and the appearance of evil, but steadily performs every moral good

4. Many think that if they practice some kind of virtues, to which they feel less of a natural repugnance, they bid fair for the kingdom; but this is opposite to uprightness. The religion of God equally forbids every species of vice, and recommends every kind of virtue

"V. The peril of the engagement. - This covenant had in it the nature of an oath; for so much the phrase before the Lord implies: therefore those who entered into this covenant bound themselves by oath unto the Lord, to be steady and faithful in it. But it may be asked, ‘ As human nature is very corrupt, and exceedingly fickle, is there not the greatest danger of breaking such a covenant; and is it not better not to make it, than to run the risk of breaking it, and exposing one’ s self to superadded punishment on that account?’ Answer: He who makes such a covenant in God’ s strength, will have that strength to enable him to prove faithful to it. Besides, if the soul do not feel itself under the most solemn obligation to live to God, it will live to the world and the flesh. Nor is such a covenant as this more solemn and strict than that which we have often made; first in our baptism, and often afterwards in the sacrament of the Lord’ s Supper, etc. Joshua allows there is a great danger in making this covenant. Ye cannot serve the Lord, for he is a holy, strong, and jealous God, etc. But this only supposes that nothing could be done right but by his Spirit, and in his strength. The energy of the Holy Spirit is equal to every requisition of God’ s holy law, as far as it regards the moral conduct of a believer in Christ

"VI. The solemnity of the acceptance. - Notwithstanding Joshua faithfully laid down the dreadful evils which those might expect who should abandon the Lord; yet they entered solemnly into the covenant. God forbid that we should forsake the Lord, but we will serve the Lord. They seemed to think that not to covenant in this case was to reject

"VII. The nearness of the consequence. - There were false gods among them, and these must be immediately put away. As ye have taken the Lord for your God, then put away the strange gods which are among you, Jos 24:23. The moment the covenant is made, that same moment the conditions of it come into force. He who makes this covenant with God should immediately break off from every evil design, companion, word, and work. Finally, Joshua erected two monuments of this solemn transaction

1. He caused the word to be written in the book of the law, Jos 24:26

2. He erected a stone under an oak, Jos 24:27; that these two things might be witnesses against them if they broke the covenant which they then made, etc.

There is the same indispensable necessity for every one who professes Christianity, to enter into a covenant with God through Christ. He who is not determined to be on God’ s side, will be found on the side of the world, the devil, and the flesh. And he who does not turn from all his iniquities, cannot make such a covenant. And he who does not make it now, may probably never have another opportunity. Reader, death is at the door, and eternity is at hand. These are truths which are everywhere proclaimed - everywhere professedly believed - everywhere acknowledged to be important and perhaps nowhere laid to heart as they should be. And yet all grant that they are born to die

On the character and conduct of Joshua, much has already been said in the notes; and particularly in the preface to this book. A few particulars may be added

It does not appear that Joshua was ever married, or that he had any children. That he was high in the estimation of God, we learn from his being chosen to succeed Moses in the government of the people. He was the person alone, of all the host of Israel, who was deemed every way qualified to go out before the congregation, and go in: to lead them out, and bring them in; and be the shepherd of the people, because the Spirit of God was in him. See Num 27:17, etc. He is called the servant of God, as was Moses; and was, of all men of that generation, next in eminence to that great legislator

Like his great master, he neither provided for himself nor his relatives; though he had it constantly in his power so to do. He was the head and leader of the people; the chief and foremost in all fatigues and dangers; without whose piety, prudence, wisdom, and military skill, the whole tribes of Israel, humanly speaking, must have been ruined. And yet this conqueror of the nations did not reserve to him self a goodly inheritance, a noble city, nor any part of the spoils of those he had vanquished. His countrymen, it is true, gave him an inheritance among them, Jos 19:50. This, we might suppose, was in consideration of his eminent services, and this, we might naturally expect, was the best inheritance in the land! No! they gave him Timnath-serah, in the barren mountains of Ephraim, and even this he asked Jos 19:50. But was not this the best city in the land? No - it was even No city; evidently no more than the ruins of one that had stood in that place; and hence it is said, he builded the city and dwelt therein - he, with some persons of his own tribe, revived the stones out of the rubbish, and made it habitable

Joshua believed there was a God; he loved him, acted under his influence, and endeavored to the utmost of his power to promote the glory of his Maker, and the welfare of man: and he expected his recompense in another world

Like Him of whom he was an illustrious type, he led a painful and laborious life, devoting himself entirely to the service of God and the public good. How unlike was Joshua to those men who, for certain services, get elevated to the highest honors: but, not content with the recompense thus awarded them by their country, use their new influence for the farther aggrandizement of themselves and dependents, at the expense, and often to the ruin of their country

Joshua retires only from labor when there is no more work to be done, and no more dangers to be encountered. He was the first in the field, and the last out of it; and never attempted to take rest till all the tribes of Israel had got their possessions, and were settled in their inheritances! Of him it might be truly said as of Caesar, he continued to work, nil actum reputans, si quid superesset agendum : for "he considered nothing done, while any thing remained undone.

Behold this man retiring from office and from life without any kind of emolument! the greatest man of all the tribes of Israel; the most patriotic, and the most serviceable; and yet the worst provided for! Statesmen! naval and military commanders! look Joshua in the face; read his history; and learn from It what true Patriotism means. That man alone who truly fears and loves God, credits his revelation, and is made a partaker of his Spirit, is capable of performing disinterested services to his country and to mankind

Masoretic Notes on Joshu

The number of verses in the Book of Joshua is 656, (should be 658, see on Jos 21:36 (note), etc.), of which the symbol is found in the word ותרן vetharon , (and shall sing), Isa 35:6

Its middle verse is Jos 13:26

Its Masoretic sections are 14; the symbol of which is found in the word יד yad , (the hand), Eze 37:1. See the note at the end of Genesis.

Calvin: Jos 24:1 - And Joshua gathered all the tribes, 1.And Joshua gathered all the tribes, etc He now, in my opinion, explains more fully what he before related more briefly. For it would not have been ...

1.And Joshua gathered all the tribes, etc He now, in my opinion, explains more fully what he before related more briefly. For it would not have been suitable to bring out the people twice to a strange place for the same cause. Therefore by the repetition the course of the narrative is continued. And he now states what he had not formerly observed, that they were all standing before the Lord, an expression which designates the more sacred dignity and solemnity of the meeting. I have accordingly introduced the expletive particle Therefore, to indicate that the narrative which had been begun now proceeds. For there cannot be a doubt that Joshua, in a regular and solemn manner, invoked the name of Jehovah, and, as in his presence, addressed the people, so that each might consider for himself that God was presiding over all the things which were done, and that they were not there engaged in a private business, but confirming a sacred and inviolable compact with God himself. We may add, as is shortly afterwards observed, that there was his sanctuary. Hence it is probable that the ark of the covenant was conveyed thither, not with the view of changing its place, but that in so serious an action they might sist themselves before the earthly tribunal of God. 196 For there was no religious obligation forbidding the ark to be moved, and the situation of Sichem was not far distant.

Calvin: Jos 24:2 - Your fathers dwelt on the other side, 2.Your fathers dwelt on the other side, etc He begins his address by referring to their gratuitous adoption by which God had anticipated any applicat...

2.Your fathers dwelt on the other side, etc He begins his address by referring to their gratuitous adoption by which God had anticipated any application on their part, so that they could not boast of any peculiar excellence or merit. For God had bound them to himself by a closer tie, having, while they were no better than others, gathered them together to be his peculiar people, from no respect to anything but his mere good pleasure. Moreover, to make it clearly appear that there was nothing in which they could glory, he leads them back to their origin, and reminds them how their fathers had dwelt in Chaldea, worshipping idols in common with others, and differing in nothing from the great body of their countrymen. Hence it is inferred that Abraham, when he was plunged in idolatry, was raised up, as it were, from the lowest deep.

The Jews, indeed, to give a false dignity to their race, fabulously relate that Abraham became an exile from his country because he refused to acknowledge the Chaldean fire as God. 197 But if we attend to the words of the inspired writer, we shall see that he is no more exempted from the guilt of the popular idolatry than Terah and Nachor. For why is it said that the fathers of the people served strange gods, and that Abraham was rescued from the country, but just to show how the free mercy of God was displayed in their very origin? Had Abraham been unlike the rest of his countrymen, his own piety would distinguish him. The opposite, however, is expressly mentioned to show that he had no peculiar excellence of his own which could diminish the grace bestowed upon him, and that therefore his posterity behooved to acknowledge that when he was lost, he was raised up from death unto life.

It seems almost an incredible and monstrous thing, that while Noah was yet alive, idolatry had not only spread everywhere over the world, but even penetrated into the family of Shem, in which at least, a purer religion ought to have flourished. How insane and indomitable human infatuation is in this respect, is proved by the fact that the holy Patriarch, on whom the divine blessing had been specially bestowed, was unable to curb his posterity, and prevent them from abandoning the true God, and prostituting themselves to superstition.

Calvin: Jos 24:3 - And I took your father Abraham, 3.And I took your father Abraham, etc This expression gives additional confirmation to what I lately showed, that Abraham did not emerge from profoun...

3.And I took your father Abraham, etc This expression gives additional confirmation to what I lately showed, that Abraham did not emerge from profound ignorance and the abyss of error by his own virtue, but was drawn out by the hand of God. For it is not said that he sought God of his own accord, but that he was taken by God and transported elsewhere. Joshua then enlarges on the divine kindness in miraculously preserving Abraham safe during his long pilgrimage. What follows, however, begets some doubt, namely, that God multiplied the seed of Abraham, and yet gave him only Isaac, because no mention is made of any but him. But this comparison illustrates the singular grace of God towards them in that, while the offspring of Abraham was otherwise numerous, their ancestor alone held the place of lawful heir. In the same sense it is immediately added, that while Esau and Jacob were brothers and twins, one of the two was retained and the other passed over. We see, therefore, why as well in the case of Ishmael and his brother as in that of Esau, he loudly extols the divine mercy and goodness towards Jacob, just as if he were saying, that his race did not excel others in any respect except in that of being specially selected by God.

Calvin: Jos 24:4 - But Jacob and his children went down, 4.But Jacob and his children went down, etc After mentioning the rejection of Esau, he proceeds to state how Jacob went down into Egypt, and though h...

4.But Jacob and his children went down, etc After mentioning the rejection of Esau, he proceeds to state how Jacob went down into Egypt, and though he confines himself to a single expression, it is one which indicates the large and exuberant and clear manifestation of the paternal favor of God. It cannot be doubted, that although the sacred historian does not speak in lofty terms of each miracle performed, Joshua gave the people such a summary exposition of their deliverance as might suffice. First, he points to the miracles performed in Egypt; next, he celebrates the passage of the Red Sea, where God gave them the aid of his inestimable power; and thirdly, he reminds them of the period during which they wandered in the desert.

Calvin: Jos 24:8 - And I brought you into the land, 8.And I brought you into the land, etc He at length begins to discourse of the victories which opened a way for the occupation of their settlements. ...

8.And I brought you into the land, etc He at length begins to discourse of the victories which opened a way for the occupation of their settlements. For although the country beyond the Jordan had not been promised as part of the inheritance, yet, as God, by his decree, joined it to the land of Canaan as a cumulative expression of his bounty, Joshua, not without cause, connects it with the other in commending the divine liberality towards the people, and declares, not merely that trusting to divine aid, they had proved superior in arms and strength, but had also been protected from the fatal snares which Balak had laid for them. For although the impostor Balaam was not able to effect anything by his curses and imprecations, it was, however, very profitable to observe the admirable power of God displayed in defeating his malice. For it was just as if he had come to close quarters, and warred with everything that could injure them.

The more firmly to persuade them that they had overcome not merely by the guidance of God, but solely by his power, he repeats what we read in the books of Moses, (Deu 7:20) that hornets were sent to rout the enemy without human hand. This was a more striking miracle than if they had been routed, put to flight, and scattered in any other way. For those who, contrary to expectation, gain a victory without any difficulty, although they confess that the prosperous issue of the war is the gift of God, immediately allow themselves to become blinded by pride, and transfer the praise to their own wisdom, activity, and valor. But when the thing is effected by hornets, the divine agency is indubitably asserted. Accordingly, the conclusion is, that the people did not acquire the land by their own sword or bow, a conclusion repeated in Psa 44:3, and apparently borrowed from the passage here. Lastly, after reminding them that they ate the fruits provided by other men’s labors, he exhorts them to love God as his beneficence deserves.

Calvin: Jos 24:15 - And if it seem evil unto you, 15.And if it seem evil unto you, etc It seems here as if Joshua were paying little regard to what becomes an honest and right-hearted leader. If the ...

15.And if it seem evil unto you, etc It seems here as if Joshua were paying little regard to what becomes an honest and right-hearted leader. If the people had forsaken God and gone after idols, it was his duty to inflict punishment on their impious and abominable revolt. But now, by giving them the option to serve God or not, just as they choose, he loosens the reins, and gives them license to rush audaciously into sin. What follows is still more absurd, when he tells them that they cannot serve the Lord, as if he were actually desirous of set purpose to impel them to shake off the yoke. But there is no doubt that his tongue was guided by the inspiration of the Spirit, in stirring up and disclosing their feelings. For when the Lord brings men under his authority, they are usually willing enough to profess zeal for piety, though they instantly fall away from it. Thus they build without a foundation. This happens because they neither distrust their own weakness so much as they ought, nor consider how difficult it is to bind themselves wholly to the Lord. There is need, therefore, of serious examination, lest we be carried aloft by some giddy movement, and so fail of success in our very first attempts. 201 With this design, Joshua, by way of probation, emancipates the Jews, making them, as it were, their own masters, and free to choose what God they are willing to serve, not with the view of withdrawing them from the true religion, as they were already too much inclined to do, but to prevent them from making inconsiderate promises, which they would shortly after violate. For the real object of Joshua was, as we shall see, to renew and confirm the covenant which had already been made with God. Not without cause, therefore, does he give them freedom of choice, that they may not afterwards pretend to have been under compulsion, when they bound themselves by their own consent. Meanwhile, to impress them with a feeling of shame, he declares that he and his house will persevere in the worship of God.

Calvin: Jos 24:16 - And the people answered and said, 16.And the people answered and said, etc Here we see he had no reason to repent of the option given, when the people, not swearing in the words of an...

16.And the people answered and said, etc Here we see he had no reason to repent of the option given, when the people, not swearing in the words of another, nor obsequiously submitting to extraneous dictation, declare that it would be an impious thing to revolt from God. And thus it tends, in no small degree, to confirm the covenant, when the people voluntarily lay the law upon themselves. The substance of the answer is, that since the Lord has, by a wonderful redemption, purchased them for himself as a peculiar people, has constantly lent them his aid, and shown that he is among them as their God, it would be detestable ingratitude to reject him and revolt to other gods.

Calvin: Jos 24:19 - And Joshua said unto the people, 19.And Joshua said unto the people, etc Here Joshua seems to act altogether absurdly in crushing the prompt and alert zeal of the people, by suggesti...

19.And Joshua said unto the people, etc Here Joshua seems to act altogether absurdly in crushing the prompt and alert zeal of the people, by suggesting ground of alarm. For to what end does he insist that they cannot serve the Lord, unless it be to make them, from a sense of their utter powerlessness, to give themselves up to despair, and thus necessarily become estranged from the fear of God. It was necessary, however, to employ this harsh mode of obtestation, in order to rouse a sluggish people, rendered more lethargic by security. And we see that the expedient did not fail to obtain, at least, a momentary success. For they neither despond nor become more slothful, but, surmounting the obstacle, answer intrepidly that they will be constant in the performance of duty.

In short, Joshua does not deter them from serving God, but only explains how refractory and disobedient they are, in order that they may learn to change their temper. So Moses, in his song, (Deu 32:0) when he seems to make a divorce between God and the people, does nothing else than prick and whet them, that they may hasten to change for the better. Joshua, indeed, argues absolutely from the nature of God; but what he specially aims at is the perverse behavior and untamed obstinacy of the people. He declares that Jehovah is a holy and a jealous God. This, certainly, should not by any means prevent men from worshipping him; but it follows from it that impure, wicked, and profane despisers, who have no religion, provoke his anger, and can have no intercourse with him, for they will feel him to be implacable. And when it is said that he will not spare their wickedness, no general rule is laid down, but the discourse is directed, as often elsewhere, against their disobedient temper. It does not refer to faults in general, or to special faults, but is confined to gross denial of God, as the next verse demonstrates. The people, accordingly, answer the more readily, 202 that they will serve the Lord.

Calvin: Jos 24:22 - And Joshua said unto the people, 22.And Joshua said unto the people, etc We now understand what the object was at which Joshua had hitherto aimed. It was not to terrify the people an...

22.And Joshua said unto the people, etc We now understand what the object was at which Joshua had hitherto aimed. It was not to terrify the people and make them fall away from their religion, but to make the obligation more sacred by their having of their own accord chosen his government, and betaken themselves to his guidance, that they might live under his protection. They acknowledge, therefore, that their own conscience will accuse them, and hold them guilty of perfidy, if they prove unfaithful. 203 But although they were not insincere in declaring that they would be witnesses to their own condemnation, still how easily the remembrance of this promise faded away, is obvious from the Book of Judges. For when the more aged among them had died, they quickly turned aside to various superstitions. By this example we are taught how multifarious are the fallacies which occupy the senses of men, and how tortuous the recesses in which they hide their hypocrisy and folly, while they deceive themselves by vain confidence. 204

Calvin: Jos 24:23 - Now, therefore, put away the strange gods, 23.Now, therefore, put away the strange gods, etc How can it be that those who were lately such stern avengers of superstition, have themselves given...

23.Now, therefore, put away the strange gods, etc How can it be that those who were lately such stern avengers of superstition, have themselves given admission to idols? Yet the words expressly enjoin that they are to put away strange gods from the midst of them. If we interpret that their own houses were still polluted by idols, we may see, as in a bright mirror, how complacently the greater part of mankind can indulge in vices which they prosecute with inexorable severity in others. But, as I do not think it probable that they dared, after the execution of Achan, to pollute themselves with manifest sacrilege, I am inclined to think that reference is made not to their practice but to their inclinations, and that they are told to put all ideas of false gods far away from them. For he had previously exhorted them in this same chapter to take away the gods whom their fathers had served beyond the river and in Egypt. But nobody will suppose that the idols of Chaldea were treasured up in their repositories, or that they had brought impure deities with them from Egypt, to be a cause of hostility between God and themselves. The meaning, therefore, simply is, that they are to renounce all idols, and clear themselves of all profanity, in order that they may purely worship God alone. 205 This seems to be the purport of the clause, incline your heart unto the Lord, which may be taken as equivalent to, rest in him, and so give up your heart to the love of him, as to delight and be contented only with him.

Calvin: Jos 24:25 - So Joshua made a covenant, 25.So Joshua made a covenant, etc This passage demonstrates the end for which the meeting had been called, namely, to bind the people more completely...

25.So Joshua made a covenant, etc This passage demonstrates the end for which the meeting had been called, namely, to bind the people more completely and more solemnly to God, by the renewal of the covenant. Therefore, in this agreement, Joshua acted as if he had been appointed on the part of God to receive in his name the homage and obedience promised by the people. It is accordingly added, exegetically, in the second clause, that he set before them precept and judgment. For the meaning is corrupted and wrested by some expositors, who explain it is referring to some new speech of Joshua, whereas it ought properly to be understood of the Law of Moses, as if it had been said that Joshua made no other paction than that they should remain steadfast in observing the Law, and that no other heads of the covenant were brought forward; they were only confirmed in that doctrine which they had formerly embraced and professed. In the same way, Malachi, to keep them under the yoke of God, demands nothing more than that they should remember the Law of Moses. (Mal 4:4)

Calvin: Jos 24:26 - And Joshua wrote these words, 26.And Joshua wrote these words, etc Understand that authentic volume which was kept near the ark of the covenant, as if it contained public records ...

26.And Joshua wrote these words, etc Understand that authentic volume which was kept near the ark of the covenant, as if it contained public records deposited for perpetual remembrance. And there is no doubt that when the Law was read, the promulgation of this covenant was also added. But as it often happens, that that which is written remains concealed in unopened books, 208 another aid is given to the memory, one which should always be exposed to the eye, namely, the stone under the ark, near the sanctuary. Not that the perpetual station of the ark was there, but because it had been placed there, in order that they might appear in the presence of God. Therefore, as often as they came into his presence, the testimony or memorial of the covenant which had been struck was in their view, that they might be the better kept in the faith.

Joshua’s expression, that the stone heard the words, is indeed hyperbolical, but is not inapt to express the efficacy and power of the divine word, as if it had been said that it pierces inanimate rocks and stones; so that if men are deaf, their condemnation is echoed in all the elements. To lie is here used, as it frequently is elsewhere, for acting cunningly and deceitfully, for frustrating and violating a promise that has been given. Who would not suppose that a covenant so well established would be firm and sacred to posterity for many ages? But all that Joshua gained by his very great anxiety was to secure its rigorous observance for a few years.

Calvin: Jos 24:29 - And it came to pass after these things, 29.And it came to pass after these things, etc The honor of sepulture was a mark of reverence, which of itself bore testimony to the affectionate reg...

29.And it came to pass after these things, etc The honor of sepulture was a mark of reverence, which of itself bore testimony to the affectionate regard of the people. But neither this reverence nor affection was deeply rooted. The title by which Joshua is distinguished after his death, when he is called the servant of the Lord, took away all excuse from those miserable and abandoned men who shortly after spurned the Lord, who had worked wonders among them. Accordingly, attention is indirectly drawn to their inconstancy, when it is said that they served the Lord while Joshua survived, and till the more aged had died out. For there is a tacit antithesis, implying lapse and alienation, when they were suddenly seized with a forgetfulness of the Divine favors. It is not strange, therefore, if, in the present day also, when God furnishes any of his servants with distinguished and excellent gifts, their authority protects and preserves the order and state of the Church; but when they are dead, sad havoc instantly commences, and hidden impiety breaks forth with unbridled license. 209

Calvin: Jos 24:32 - And the bones of Joseph, 32.And the bones of Joseph, etc The time when the bones of Joseph were buried is not mentioned; but it is easy to infer that the Israelites had perfo...

32.And the bones of Joseph, etc The time when the bones of Joseph were buried is not mentioned; but it is easy to infer that the Israelites had performed this duty after they obtained a peaceful habitation in the city of Shechem. For although he had not designated a particular place for a sepulchre, they thought it a mark of respect to deposit his bones in the field which Jacob had purchased. It may be, however, that this is expressed as a censure on the sluggishness of the people, to which it was owing, that Joseph could not be buried with Abraham, that locality being still in the power of the enemy. Stephen (Act 7:0) mentions the bones of the twelve patriarchs, and it is not impossible that the other tribes, from feelings of emulation, gathered together the ashes of their progenitors. It is there said that the field was purchased by Abraham; but obviously an error in the name has crept in. With regard to sepulture, we must hold in general, that the very frequent mention of it in Scripture is owing to its being a symbol of the future Resurrection.

END OF THE COMMENTARY ON THE BOOK
OF JOSHUA.

Defender: Jos 24:2 - the flood The "flood" here does not refer to the Noahic flood but to the flood plain of the great river Euphrates. Terah (the father of Abraham, Nahor and Haran...

The "flood" here does not refer to the Noahic flood but to the flood plain of the great river Euphrates. Terah (the father of Abraham, Nahor and Haran) had known the true God. In fact, Laban (Nahor's grandson, still living by the "flood" in Mesopotamia) spoke to Jacob about "the God of Abraham, and the God of Nahor, the God of their father" (Gen 31:53). Terah had probably written the brief patriarchal document ending with "these are the generations of Terah" (Genesis 11:10-27). Nevertheless, Terah and Nahor had begun to compromise their faith with the increasingly paganized culture and religion of the Chaldeans. Terah had even taken Abraham out of their original home in Ur of the Chaldees "to go into the land of Canaan," but instead he traveled up the Euphrates valley "unto Haran, and dwelt there" (Gen 11:31), still in the same kind of environment. Accordingly, God finally called "Abraham from the other side of the flood, and led him throughout all the land of Canaan" (Jos 24:3)."

Defender: Jos 24:12 - the hornet Joshua had to remind his people that, even though they had fought their enemies, it was really God who had won the victory for them (Exo 23:28). The B...

Joshua had to remind his people that, even though they had fought their enemies, it was really God who had won the victory for them (Exo 23:28). The Biblical hornet was a viciously stinging wasp, and the term is probably used here to symbolize the fear which God sent among the Canaanites in advance of the Israelite armies."

Defender: Jos 24:15 - choose you this day This is the same choice confronting each person in every age. One can choose to serve the true God of creation and redemption (now revealed in Jesus C...

This is the same choice confronting each person in every age. One can choose to serve the true God of creation and redemption (now revealed in Jesus Christ), or the pagan nature-gods of the world system (evolutionary pantheism), or attempt to serve both (as Terah and Nahor had done). But the true God "is a jealous God" (Jos 24:19). He will not share His glory with another. Joshua's exhortation is still needed: "Put away ... the strange gods which are among you, and incline your heart unto the Lord God of Israel" (Jos 24:23).

Defender: Jos 24:15 - gods which your fathers served Abraham's father Terah had indeed served the gods of the Chaldeans when he was in Ur, on the other side of the "flood" (meaning the great river Euphra...

Abraham's father Terah had indeed served the gods of the Chaldeans when he was in Ur, on the other side of the "flood" (meaning the great river Euphrates). Pantheism and polytheism did become widespread soon after Nimrod introduced it at Babel. At Ur, the principal deity was the moon god, but there were also shrines to many other gods."

Defender: Jos 24:26 - wrote these words In effect, Joshua here places his own writings (our present book of Joshua) on a par with those of Moses. Moses and Joshua were the human writers, alo...

In effect, Joshua here places his own writings (our present book of Joshua) on a par with those of Moses. Moses and Joshua were the human writers, along with editorial inserts made for clarification by later scribes, but the end product in every case had been "given by inspiration of God" (2Ti 3:16)."

Defender: Jos 24:29 - after these things The last five verses of Joshua were obviously written by an unknown scribe living after "all the days of the elders that overlived Joshua" (Jos 24:31)...

The last five verses of Joshua were obviously written by an unknown scribe living after "all the days of the elders that overlived Joshua" (Jos 24:31). This in no way brings into question the divine inspiration of the writings themselves."

Defender: Jos 24:32 - ground which Jacob bought Abraham had originally bought this property from Hamor, but in the long absence of Isaac and Jacob, the Shechemites had taken possession of it again. ...

Abraham had originally bought this property from Hamor, but in the long absence of Isaac and Jacob, the Shechemites had taken possession of it again. Jacob then repurchased it. (Compare Gen 33:19; Act 7:15, Act 7:16.)"

TSK: Jos 24:1 - Joshua // Shechem // called // presented Joshua : This must have been a different assembly from that mentioned in the preceding chapter, though probably held not long after the former. Sheche...

Joshua : This must have been a different assembly from that mentioned in the preceding chapter, though probably held not long after the former.

Shechem : As it is immediately added, that ""they presented themselves before God,""which is supposed to mean at the tabernacle; some are of opinion that Joshua caused it to be conveyed from Shiloh to Shechem on this occasion, to give the greater solemnity to his last meeting with the people. The Vatican and Alexandrian copies of the Septuagint, however, read Σηλω , both here and in Jos 24:25; which many suppose to have been the original reading. Dr. Shuckford supposes that the covenant was made at Shechem, and that the people went to Shiloh to confirm it. But the most probable opinion seems to be that of Dr. Kennicott, that when all the tribes were assembled as Shechem, Joshua called the chiefs to him on that mount, which had before been consecrated by the law, and by the altar which he had erected. Gen 12:6, Gen 33:18, Gen 33:19, Gen 35:4; Jdg 9:1-3; 1Ki 12:1

called : Jos 23:2; Exo 18:25, Exo 18:26

presented : 1Sa 10:19; Act 10:33

TSK: Jos 24:2 - Your fathers // served other gods Your fathers : Gen 11:26, Gen 11:31, Gen 12:1, Gen 31:53; Deu 26:5; Isa 51:2; Eze 16:3 served other gods : In the case of Abraham this was probably th...

Your fathers : Gen 11:26, Gen 11:31, Gen 12:1, Gen 31:53; Deu 26:5; Isa 51:2; Eze 16:3

served other gods : In the case of Abraham this was probably the case, till he was called to the knowledge of God, when above 70 years old. Jos 24:15; Gen 31:19, Gen 31:30, Gen 31:32, Gen 31:53, Gen 35:4

TSK: Jos 24:3 - I took // gave I took : Gen 12:1-4; Neh 9:7, Neh 9:8; Act 7:2, Act 7:3 gave : Gen 21:2, Gen 21:3; Psa 127:3

TSK: Jos 24:4 - unto Isaac // unto Esau // Jacob unto Isaac : Gen 25:24-26 unto Esau : Gen 32:3, Gen 36:8; Deu 2:5 Jacob : Gen 46:1-7; Psa 105:23; Act 7:15

unto Isaac : Gen 25:24-26

unto Esau : Gen 32:3, Gen 36:8; Deu 2:5

Jacob : Gen 46:1-7; Psa 105:23; Act 7:15

TSK: Jos 24:5 - sent // plagued sent : Exo 3:10, Exo 4:12, Exo 4:13; Psa 105:26 plagued : Exod. 7:1-12:51; Psa 78:43-51, Psa 105:27-36, Psa 135:8, Psa 135:9, Psa 136:10

TSK: Jos 24:6 - I brought // Egyptians I brought : Exo 12:37, Exo 12:51; Mic 6:4 Egyptians : Exod. 14:1-15:27; Neh 9:11; Psa 77:15-20, Psa 78:13, Psa 136:13-15; Isa 63:12, Isa 63:13; Act 7:...

TSK: Jos 24:7 - And when // he put // brought // your eyes // ye dwelt And when : Exo 14:10 he put : Exo 14:20 brought : Exo 14:27, Exo 14:28 your eyes : Exo 14:31; Deu 4:34, Deu 29:2 ye dwelt : Jos 5:6; Num 14:33, Num 14...

TSK: Jos 24:8 - -- Jos 13:10; Num 21:21-35; Deu 2:32-37, Deu 3:1-7; Neh 9:22; Psa 135:10, Psa 135:11; Psa 136:17-22

TSK: Jos 24:9 - -- Num 22:5, 6-21; Deu 23:4, Deu 23:5; Jdg 11:25; Mic 6:5

TSK: Jos 24:10 - -- Num 22:11, Num 22:12, Num 22:18-20, Num 22:35, Num 23:3-12, Num 23:15-26, Num 24:5-10; Isa 54:17

TSK: Jos 24:11 - And ye // the men And ye : Jos 3:14-17, Jos 4:10-12, Jos 4:23; Psa 114:3, Psa 114:5 the men : Josh. 6:1-27, 10:1-11:23; Neh 9:24, Neh 9:25; Psa 78:54, Psa 78:55, Psa 10...

TSK: Jos 24:12 - I sent // not I sent : Exo 23:28; Deu 7:20 not : Psa 44:3-6

I sent : Exo 23:28; Deu 7:20

not : Psa 44:3-6

TSK: Jos 24:13 - And I // cities And I : Jos 21:45 cities : Jos 11:13; Deu 6:10-12, Deu 8:7; Pro 13:22

TSK: Jos 24:14 - fear // serve // put // in Egypt fear : Deu 10:12; 1Sa 12:24; Job 1:1, Job 28:28; Psa 111:10, Psa 130:4; Hos 3:5; Act 9:31 serve : Jos 24:23; Gen 17:1, Gen 20:5, Gen 20:6; Deu 18:13; ...

fear : Deu 10:12; 1Sa 12:24; Job 1:1, Job 28:28; Psa 111:10, Psa 130:4; Hos 3:5; Act 9:31

serve : Jos 24:23; Gen 17:1, Gen 20:5, Gen 20:6; Deu 18:13; 2Ki 20:3; Psa 119:1, Psa 119:80; Luk 8:15; Joh 4:23, Joh 4:24; 2Co 1:12; Eph 6:24; Phi 1:10

put : From this exhortation of Joshua, we not only learn that the Israelites still retained some relics of idolatry, but to what gods they were attached.

1.    Those whom their fathers worshipped on the other side of the food, or the river Euphrates, i.e., the gods of the Chaldeans, fire, light, the sun, etc.

2.    Those of the Egyptians, Apis, Anubis, serpents, vegetables, etc.

3.    Those of the Amorites, Moabites, Canaanites, etc., Baal-peor, Astarte, etc.

How astonishing is it, that after all that God had done for them, and all the miracles they had seen, there should still be found among them both idols and idolaters! Jos 24:2, Jos 24:23; Gen 35:2; Exo 20:3, Exo 20:4; Lev 17:7; Ezr 9:11; Eze 20:18; Amo 5:25, Amo 5:26

in Egypt : Eze 20:7, Eze 20:8, Eze 23:3

TSK: Jos 24:15 - choose // whether the gods // or the gods // as for me choose : Rth 1:15, Rth 1:16; 1Ki 18:21; Eze 20:39; Joh 6:67 whether the gods : Jos 24:14 or the gods : Exo 23:24, Exo 23:32, Exo 23:33, Exo 34:15; Deu...

TSK: Jos 24:16 - -- 1Sa 12:23; Rom 3:6, Rom 6:2; Heb 10:38, Heb 10:39

TSK: Jos 24:17 - -- Jos 24:5-14; Exo 19:4; Deu 32:11, Deu 32:12; Isa 46:4, Isa 63:7-14; Amo 2:9, Amo 2:10

TSK: Jos 24:18 - will we also will we also : Exo 10:2, Exo 15:2; Psa 116:16; Mic 4:2; Zec 8:23; Luk 1:73-75

TSK: Jos 24:19 - Ye cannot // holy // a jealous // he will not Ye cannot : Jos 24:23; Rth 1:15; Mat 6:24; Luk 14:25-33 holy : Lev 10:3, Lev 19:2; 1Sa 6:20; Psa 99:5, Psa 99:9; Isa 5:16, Isa 6:3-5, Isa 30:11, Isa 3...

TSK: Jos 24:20 - he will turn he will turn : Jos 23:12-15; 1Ch 28:9; 2Ch 15:2; Ezr 8:22; Isa 1:28, Isa 63:10, Isa 65:11, Isa 65:12; Jer 17:13; Eze 18:24; Act 7:42; Heb 10:26, Heb 1...

TSK: Jos 24:21 - Nay Nay : Exo 19:8, Exo 20:19, Exo 24:3, Exo 24:7; Deu 5:27, Deu 5:28, Deu 26:17; Isa 44:5

TSK: Jos 24:22 - Ye are witnesses // ye have Ye are witnesses : Ye have been sufficiently apprised of the difficulties in your way - of God’ s holiness, and the nature of his service - y...

Ye are witnesses : Ye have been sufficiently apprised of the difficulties in your way - of God’ s holiness, and the nature of his service - your own weakness, inconstancy, and insufficiency - your need of the Divine help, and the hope of assistance held out in the law - and the awful consequences of apostasy, and now ye make your choice. Remember then that ye are witnesses against yourselves; and your own conscience will be witness, judge, and executioner. Deu 26:17; Job 15:6; Luk 19:22

ye have : Psa 119:11, Psa 119:173; Luk 10:42

TSK: Jos 24:23 - put away // incline put away : Jos 24:14; Gen 35:2-4; Exo 20:23; Jdg 10:15, Jdg 10:16; 1Sa 7:3, 1Sa 7:4; Hos 14:2, Hos 14:3, Hos 14:8; 1Co 10:19-21; 2Co 6:16-18 incline :...

TSK: Jos 24:24 - -- Deu 5:28, Deu 5:29

TSK: Jos 24:25 - made // in Shechem made : Exo 15:25, Exo 24:3, Exo 24:7, Exo 24:8; Deu 5:2, Deu 5:3, Deu 29:1, Deu 29:10-15; 2Ki 11:17; 2Ch 15:12, 2Ch 15:15; 2Ch 23:16, 2Ch 29:10, 2Ch 3...

TSK: Jos 24:26 - Joshua // took // set it // under Joshua : Exo 24:4; Deu 31:24-26 took : Jdg 9:6 set it : Jos 4:3-9, Jos 4:20-24; Gen 28:18-22 under : Gen 35:4, Gen 35:8; Jdg 9:6

TSK: Jos 24:27 - it hath // deny A curious coincidence of circumstances is related by Livy, the Roman historiancaps1 . hcaps0 e writes that ""when three ambassadors were sent from Ro...

A curious coincidence of circumstances is related by Livy, the Roman historiancaps1 . hcaps0 e writes that ""when three ambassadors were sent from Rome to complain of the perfidious conduct of the Aqui, the General informed them, that they might deliver their message to an oak which shaded his tent.""On this one of the ambassadors turning away, said, ""This venerable oak, and all the gods, shall know that you have violated the peace; they shall now hear our complaints; and may they also soon be witnesses, when we revenge with our arms the violation of divine and human rights.""It is worthy of remark that Joshua merely set up a pillar under an oak - the one, perhaps, to protect the other; while the General directed the ambassadors to address the oak, perhaps with an idolatrous feeling that they were addressing one of the gods, who would aid his cause; while the Roman ambassadors caught the feeling, and really invoked the aid of the oak and the gods.

Jos 22:27, Jos 22:28, Jos 22:34; Gen 31:44-52; Deu 4:26, Deu 30:19, Deu 31:19, Deu 31:21, Deu 31:26; 1Sa 7:12

it hath : Deu 32:1; Isa 1:2; Hab 2:11; Luk 19:40

deny : Job 31:23; Pro 30:9; Mat 10:33; 2Ti 2:12, 2Ti 2:13; Tit 1:16; Rev 3:8

TSK: Jos 24:28 - -- Jdg 2:6

TSK: Jos 24:29 - after these // an hundred after these : Deu 34:5; Jdg 2:8; Psa 115:17; 2Ti 4:7, 2Ti 4:8; Rev 14:13 an hundred : Gen 50:22, Gen 50:26

TSK: Jos 24:30 - Timnathserah // Gaash Timnathserah : Jos 19:50; Jdg 2:9 Gaash : 2Sa 23:30

Timnathserah : Jos 19:50; Jdg 2:9

Gaash : 2Sa 23:30

TSK: Jos 24:31 - served // overlived Joshua served : Deu 31:29; Jdg 2:7; 2Ch 24:2, 2Ch 24:17, 2Ch 24:18; Act 20:29; Phi 2:12 overlived Joshua : Heb. prolonged their days after Joshua, which had....

served : Deu 31:29; Jdg 2:7; 2Ch 24:2, 2Ch 24:17, 2Ch 24:18; Act 20:29; Phi 2:12

overlived Joshua : Heb. prolonged their days after Joshua, which had. Deu 11:2, Deu 11:7, Deu 31:13

TSK: Jos 24:32 - bones // buried // pieces of silver bones : Gen 50:25; Exo 13:19; Act 7:16; Heb 11:22 buried : Gen 33:19, Gen 48:22 pieces of silver : or, lambs

bones : Gen 50:25; Exo 13:19; Act 7:16; Heb 11:22

buried : Gen 33:19, Gen 48:22

pieces of silver : or, lambs

TSK: Jos 24:33 - Eleazar // died // Phinehas Eleazar : Jos 14:1; Exo 6:23, Exo 6:25; Num 3:32, Num 20:26-28 died : Job 30:23; Psa 49:10; Isa 57:1, Isa 57:2; Zec 1:5; Act 13:36; Heb 7:24; Heb 9:26...

kecilkan semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per Ayat)

Poole: Jos 24:1 - Gathered all the tribes of Israel // present themselves before God // Before God Gathered all the tribes of Israel to wit, by their representatives, as Jos 23:2 . To Shechem either, 1. To Shiloh, where the ark and tabernacle wa...

Gathered all the tribes of Israel to wit, by their representatives, as Jos 23:2 . To Shechem either,

1. To Shiloh, where the ark and tabernacle was; because they are here said to

present themselves before God and because the stone set up here is said to be set up in or by the sanctuary of the Lord of both which I shall speak in their proper places. And they say Shiloh is here called Shechem , because it was in the territory of Shechem; but that may be doubted, seeing Shiloh was ten miles distant from Shechem, as St. Jerom affirms. And had he meant Shiloh, why should he not express it in its own and proper name, by which it is called in all other places, rather than by another name no where else given to it? Or rather,

2. To the city of Shechem, a place convenient for the present purpose, not only because it was a Levitical city, and a city of refuge, and a place near to Joshua’ s city, but especially for the two main ends for which he summoned them thither.

1. For the solemn burial of the bones of Joseph , as is implied here, Jos 24:32 , and of the rest of the patriarchs, as is noted Act 7:15, Act 7:16 , for which this place was designed.

2. For the solemn renewing of their covenant with God; which in this place was first made between God and Abraham, Gen 12:6,7 , and afterwards was there renewed by the Israelites at their first entrance into the land of Canaan, between the two mountains of Ebal and Gerizim, Jos 8:30 , &c., which were very near Shechem, as appears from Jud 9:6,7 ; and therefore this place was most proper, both to remind them of their former obligations to God, and to engage them to a further ratification of them.

Before God either,

1. Before the ark or tabernacle, as that phrase is commonly used; which might be either in Shiloh, where they were fixed; or in Shechem, whither the ark was brought upon this great occasion, as it was sometimes removed upon such occasions, as 1Sa 4:3 2Sa 15:24 . Or,

2. In that public, and venerable, and sacred assembly met together for religious exercises; for in such God is present, Exo 20:24 Psa 82:1 Mat 18:20 . Or,

3. As in God’ s presence, to hear what Joshua was to speak to them in God’ s name, and to receive God’ s commands from his mouth. Thus Isaac is said to bless Jacob before the Lord, i.e. in his name and presence, Gen 27:7 ; and Jephthah is said to utter all his words before the Lord in Mizpeh , i.e. as in God’ s presence, calling him in to be witness of them.

Poole: Jos 24:2 - Unto all the people // The flood // They served Unto all the people i.e. that people which were present, to wit, to the elders, &c., by whom it was to be imparted to all the rest, and to as many of...

Unto all the people i.e. that people which were present, to wit, to the elders, &c., by whom it was to be imparted to all the rest, and to as many of the people as came thither.

The flood or, the river , to wit, Euphrates , as all agree; so called by way of eminency.

They served other gods, i.e. both Abraham and Nahor were no less idolaters than the rest of mankind. This is said to prevent their vain boasting in their worthy ancestors, and to assure them that whatsoever good was in or had been done by their progenitors, was wholly born God’ s free grace, and not for their own merit or righteousness, as the Jews were very apt to conceit.

Poole: Jos 24:3 - I took your father // Led him throughout all the land of Canaan // Multiplied his seed // Gave him Isaac I took your father I apprehended him by my grace, and snatched him out of that idolatrous and wicked place, and took him into acquaintance and covena...

I took your father I apprehended him by my grace, and snatched him out of that idolatrous and wicked place, and took him into acquaintance and covenant with myself, which was the highest honour and happiness he was capable of.

Led him throughout all the land of Canaan i.e. I brought him after his father’ s death into Canaan, Gen 12:1 , and I conducted and preserved him in safety in all his travels through the several parts of Canaan.

Multiplied his seed i.e. gave him a numerous posterity, not only by Hagar and Keturah, but even by Sarah and by Isaac, as it follows.

Gave him Isaac by my special power and grace, to be the heir of my covenant, and all my promises, and the seed in or by which all nations were to be blessed, Gen 12:3 21:2 .

Poole: Jos 24:4 - I gave unto Esau Mount Seir to possess it // Jacob and his children went down into Egypt I gave unto Esau Mount Seir to possess it that he might leave Canaan entire to his brother Jacob and his posterity, Gen 36:7,8 . Jacob and his child...

I gave unto Esau Mount Seir to possess it that he might leave Canaan entire to his brother Jacob and his posterity, Gen 36:7,8 .

Jacob and his children went down into Egypt where they long lived in grievous bondage; which God having delivered us from, I shall now pass it over.

Poole: Jos 24:5 - According to that which I did According to that which I did i.e. in such manner, and with such plagues as I inflicted, and are recorded.

According to that which I did i.e. in such manner, and with such plagues as I inflicted, and are recorded.

Poole: Jos 24:7 - -- He speaketh this to the elders, Jos 24:1 , who were so, not only by power and dignity, but many of them by age; and there being now not sixty years ...

He speaketh this to the elders, Jos 24:1 , who were so, not only by power and dignity, but many of them by age; and there being now not sixty years past since those Egyptian plagues, it is very probable that a considerable number of those here present had seen those things in Egypt, and being not twenty years old, were exempted from that dreadful sentence of destruction, passed upon all who were then of more years standing, Nu 14 .

Poole: Jos 24:9 - Quest // Balak did never fight against Israel // Answ // That he is rightly called a thief or an adulterer Balak warred against Israel. Quest. How is this true, when Balak did never fight against Israel Jud 11:25? Answ One prince may commence a wa...

Balak warred against Israel.

Quest. How is this true, when

Balak did never fight against Israel Jud 11:25?

Answ One prince may commence a war against another, though he never come to a battle, nor strike one stroke; so Balak warred, though not by open force, yet by crafty counsel and warlike stratagems, by magical arts, by wicked devices, by making bate betwixt them and God their confederate; or by warlike preparations, in case Balaam’ s charms had succeeded, as may be gathered from Num 22:11 ; or at least by design or intention; things being oft said to be done both in Scripture and other authors which were only designed or intended, as here. Jos 24:11 Gen 37:21 Eze 24:13 Mat 5:28 Joh 10:32,33 . And the old lawyers note,

That he is rightly called a thief or an adulterer & c., who wanted nothing but occasion to be so .

Poole: Jos 24:10 - I would not hearken unto Balaam // Out of his hand I would not hearken unto Balaam who hereby appears to have desired of God leave to curse Israel; and therefore it is not strange that God, who permit...

I would not hearken unto Balaam who hereby appears to have desired of God leave to curse Israel; and therefore it is not strange that God, who permitted him simply to go, was highly angry with him for going with so wicked an intent, Num 22:20,22,32 .

Out of his hand i.e. from Balak’ s malicious design against you.

Poole: Jos 24:11 - Fought against you Fought against you made opposition against you, by shutting their gates, by endeavouring to cut off your spies, &c.; they warred against you, if not ...

Fought against you made opposition against you, by shutting their gates, by endeavouring to cut off your spies, &c.; they warred against you, if not by an offensive, yet by a defensive war. In the names of these nations he seems to comprise all their wars, which being so fresh in their memory, he thought it needless particularly to mention.

Poole: Jos 24:12 - The hornet // Not with thy sword, nor with thy bow // which was called the land of giants The hornet either, 1. Figuratively, i.e. terrors and plagues, or other destroying judgments. Or, 2. Properly so called. See Poole "Exo 23:28" . An...

The hornet either,

1. Figuratively, i.e. terrors and plagues, or other destroying judgments. Or,

2. Properly so called. See Poole "Exo 23:28" . And this being done before Joshua’ s entrance into Canaan, it is not strange if it be not mentioned in this book or record of Joshua’ s actions.

Not with thy sword, nor with thy bow for though thou didst fight with them, and prevail against them in battle, yet this was not because thou hadst more force or courage than they; but because by my hornet, which I sent like a harbinger before thee, I had both broken their spirits, and greatly diminished their numbers, and particularly cut off those giants or others who were like to give time most trouble and difficulty; whence it comes to pass that we read of so few giants in that land,

which was called the land of giants Deu 3:3 .

Poole: Jos 24:13 - Cities which you built not Cities which you built not See Poole "Jos 11:12".

Cities which you built not See Poole "Jos 11:12".

Poole: Jos 24:14 - In sincerity and in truth // Put away the gods // On the other side of the flood, and in Egypt In sincerity and in truth either these two expressions note the same thing; or sincerity is opposed to the mixture of false gods with the true, as ...

In sincerity and in truth either these two expressions note the same thing; or sincerity is opposed to the mixture of false gods with the true, as it here follows, or of a false and corrupt worship of God with that which God appointeth; and truth is opposed to dissimulation and falseness, and instability of heart.

Put away the gods whereby it appears, that although Joshua had doubtless prevented and purged out all public and manifest idolatry, yet there were some of them who practised it in their private houses and retirements. See Jos 24:23 Amo 5:25,26 Ac 7:42,43 . Your fathers, Terah, and Nahor, and Abraham , as Jos 24:2 , and others of your ancestors.

On the other side of the flood, and in Egypt: see Eze 23:3,8,19,21,27 . Under these particulars no doubt he comprehends all other false gods, which were served by the nations amongst whom they were, as appears from Jos 24:15 , but only mentions these, as the idols which they were in more danger of worshipping than those in Canaan; partly because those of Canaan had been now lately and palpably disgraced by their inability to preserve their worshippers from total ruin; and partly because the other idols came recommended unto them by the venerable name of antiquity, and the custom of their forefathers. See Jer 44:17 Eze 20:18 .

Poole: Jos 24:15 - If it seem evil // Choose you this day whom ye will serve // But as for me and my house, we will serve the Lord If it seem evil unjust, unreasonable, or inconvenient. Choose you this day whom ye will serve: not that he leaves them to their liberty, whether th...

If it seem evil unjust, unreasonable, or inconvenient.

Choose you this day whom ye will serve: not that he leaves them to their liberty, whether they would serve God or idols; for Joshua had no such power or liberty himself, nor could give it to any other; and both he and they were obliged by the law of Moses to give their worship to God only, and to forbear all idolatry in themselves, and severely to punish it in others; but it is a rhetorical and powerful insinuation, whereby he both implies that the worship of God is so highly reasonable, so necessary and beneficial, and the service of idols is so absurd, and vain, and pernicious, that if it were left free to all men to make their choice, every man in his right wits must needs choose the service of God before that of idols; and provokes them to bind themselves faster to God by their own choice. See such manner of speeches in Rth 1:8,15 1Ki 18:21 .

But as for me and my house, we will serve the Lord but know this, if you should all be so base and brutish, as to prefer senseless and impotent idols before the true and living God, it is my firm purpose, that I will, and my children and servants (as far as I can influence them) shall, be constant and faithful to the Lord.

Poole: Jos 24:19 - Ye cannot serve the Lord // He is a jealous God // He will not forgive your transgressions Ye cannot serve the Lord: he speaks not of an absolute impossibility, (for then both his resolution to serve God himself, and his exhortation to them...

Ye cannot serve the Lord: he speaks not of an absolute impossibility, (for then both his resolution to serve God himself, and his exhortation to them to do so, had been vain and ridiculous,) but of a moral impossibility, or a very great difficulty, which he allegeth not to discourage them from God’ s service, which is his great design to engage them in; but only to make them more considerate and cautious in obliging themselves, and more circumspect and resolved in answering their obligations. The meaning is, God’ s service is not, as you seem to fancy, a slight and easy thing, as soon done as said; but it is a work of great difficulty, and requires great care, and courage, and resolution; and when I consider the infinite purity of God, that he will not be mocked or abused; and withal your great and often manifested proneness to superstition and idolatry, even during the life of Moses, and in some of you whilst I live, and whilst the obligations which God hath laid upon you in this land are fresh in remembrance; I cannot but fear that after my decease you will think the service of God too hard and burdensome for you, and therefore will cast it off, and revolt from him, if you do not double your watch, and carefully avoid all occasions of idolatry, which I fear you will not do, but I do hereby exhort you to do.

He is a jealous God he will not endure a co-rival or partner in his worship; you cannot serve him and idols together, as you will be inclined and tempted to do.

He will not forgive your transgressions if you who own yourselves for his people and servants, shall wickedly and wilfully transgress his laws by idolatry or other crimes, he will not let this go unpunished in you, as he doth in other nations; therefore consider what you do when you take the Lord for your God; weigh your advantages and inconveniences together; for as if you be sincere and faithful in God’ s service, you will have admirable benefits by it; so if you be false to your professions, and forsake him whom you have so solemnly avouched to be your God, he will deal more severely with you than with any people in the world.

Poole: Jos 24:20 - He will turn // Consume you, after that he hath done you good He will turn i.e. he will alter his course and the manner of his dealing with you, and will be as severe as ever he was kind and gracious. Consume y...

He will turn i.e. he will alter his course and the manner of his dealing with you, and will be as severe as ever he was kind and gracious.

Consume you, after that he hath done you good he will repent of all his former kindness, and his goodness abused will be turned into fury.

Poole: Jos 24:21 - -- To wit, him only, and not strange gods, as was supposed by Joshua, Jos 24:20 .

To wit, him only, and not strange gods, as was supposed by Joshua, Jos 24:20 .

Poole: Jos 24:22 - Ye are witnesses against yourselves Ye are witnesses against yourselves this solemn profession will be a swift witness against you, if hereafter you apostatize from God.

Ye are witnesses against yourselves this solemn profession will be a swift witness against you, if hereafter you apostatize from God.

Poole: Jos 24:23 - The strange gods which are among you The strange gods which are among you those idols which yon either brought out of Egypt, or have taken in Canaan, which I have too much reason to beli...

The strange gods which are among you those idols which yon either brought out of Egypt, or have taken in Canaan, which I have too much reason to believe that some of you, contrary to God’ s command, do keep, whether for the preciousness of the matter, or rather for some secret inclination to superstition and idolatry, as the following words imply. See Jos 24:14 .

Poole: Jos 24:25 - -- Either, 1. He set , or propounded, or declared unto them the statute and ordinance , i.e. the sum of the statutes and ordinances of God, which th...

Either,

1. He set , or propounded, or declared unto them the statute and ordinance , i.e. the sum of the statutes and ordinances of God, which their covenant obliged them to Or,

2. He set or established it, to wit, that covenant, with them, i.e. the people for a statute or an ordinance , to bind themselves and their posterity unto God for ever, as a statute and ordinance of God doth.

Poole: Jos 24:26 - These words // Set it up there // Under an oak that was by the sanctuary of the Lord These words i.e. this covenant or agreement of the people with the Lord. In the book of the law of God, i. e. in that volume which was kept in the ar...

These words i.e. this covenant or agreement of the people with the Lord. In the book of the law of God, i. e. in that volume which was kept in the ark, Deu 31:9,26 , whence it was taken and put into this book of Joshua. This he did, partly, for the perpetual remembrance of this great and solemn action; partly, to lay the greater obligation upon the people to be true to their engagement; and partly, as a witness for God, and against the people, if afterwards he severely punished them for their detection from God, to whom they had so solemnly and freely obliged themselves.

Set it up there as a witness and monument of this great transaction, according to the custom of those ancient times, as Gen 28:18 31:45 35:14 Exo 24:4 Deu 27:2 Jos 4:3 8:32 . Possibly this agreement was written upon this stone, as was then usual.

Under an oak that was by the sanctuary of the Lord i.e. near to the place where the ark and tabernacle then were; for though they were forbidden to plant a grove of trees near unto the altar, Deu 16:21 , as the Gentiles did, yet they might for a time set up an altar, or the ark, near a great tree which had been planted there before.

Poole: Jos 24:27 - It hath heard It hath heard it shall be as sure a witness against you as if it had heard. This is a common figure, called prosopopaie , whereby the sense of heari...

It hath heard it shall be as sure a witness against you as if it had heard. This is a common figure, called prosopopaie , whereby the sense of hearing is oft ascribed to the heavens and the earth, and other senseless creatures, as Deu 32:1 Isa 1:2 Jer 2:12 .

Poole: Jos 24:32 - In Shechem In Shechem not in the city of Shechem, but in a field near and belonging to it, as appears from the following words, and from Gen 33:18 , and from th...

In Shechem not in the city of Shechem, but in a field near and belonging to it, as appears from the following words, and from Gen 33:18 , and from the ancient custom of the Israelites to have their burying-places without cities, in fields or gardens.

Poole: Jos 24:33 - -- By special favour, and for his better conveniency in attending upon the ark, which then was, and for a long time was to be, in Shiloh, which was nea...

By special favour, and for his better conveniency in attending upon the ark, which then was, and for a long time was to be, in Shiloh, which was near to this place; whereas the cities which were given to the priests were in Judah, Benjamin, and Simeon, which were remote from Shiloh, though near to the place where the ark was to have its settled abode, to wit, to Jerusalem.

PBC: Jos 24:15 - -- See Little: MAKING THE CHOICE

See Little: MAKING THE CHOICE

Haydock: Jos 24:1 - Of Israel // In Sichem Of Israel. There seems no reason for restricting this to the ancients, &c. On this solemn occasion, when all Israel was probably assembled at one...

Of Israel. There seems no reason for restricting this to the ancients, &c. On this solemn occasion, when all Israel was probably assembled at one of the great festivals, Josue concluded his exhortation, by renewing the covenant (Calmet) in the place where he had formerly complied with the injunction of Moses, chap. viii. 31. (Haydock) ---

In Sichem, in the field which Jacob had purchased, and where a great oak (ver. 26,) was growing, that had been honoured, it is thought, with the presence of the patriarchs. It was near the two famous mountains of Garizim and Hebal. (Calmet) ---

Sichem was at the foot of the former mountain of blessings; and Josephus informs us, the altar was erected in its vicinity. No fitter place could therefore have been selected by the aged chief, to conclude the actions of his life, and to attach the people to the religion which they had once received, in the most signal manner. The Vatican and Alexandrian copies (Haydock) of the Septuagint, followed by St. Augustine (q. 30,) read Silo, where the tabernacle was fixed: but all the rest agree with the original, and with the ancient versions, in retaining Sichem, to which place the ark was removed on this occasion, (Calmet) the distance of ten (St. Jerome) or twelve miles. (Eusebius) ---

It is not probable that an oak would be growing in the sanctuary, near the altar, contrary to the express prohibition of the Lord, ver. 26., and Deuteronomy xvi. 21. (Calmet) ---

Many interpreters suppose that the assembly might be held at Silo, in the territory of Sichem. (Tirinus; Menochius; Serarius) ---

But the distance seems too great; and Bonfrere rather thinks that the copies of the Septuagint have been altered. (Haydock) ---

Salien remarks, that they might go in solemn procession from Sichem to Silo. (In the year of the world 2600)

Haydock: Jos 24:2 - Of the river // Gods Of the river. The Euphrates. (Challoner) --- Gods. Some think that Abraham himself was in his youth engaged in the worship of idols, (though thi...

Of the river. The Euphrates. (Challoner) ---

Gods. Some think that Abraham himself was in his youth engaged in the worship of idols, (though this is denied by St. Augustine, City of God xvi. 13.; Theodoret, q. 18.; &c.; Worthington) as well as his father, &c., ver. 14., and Genesis xi. 31. Thare was the father of both Abraham and Nachor, (Genesis xi. 26,) unless (Haydock) the grandfather (Menochius) of Abraham was meant, who was also called Nachor, (Haydock) as well as Rebecca's grandfather, Genesis xxiv. (Worthington)

Haydock: Jos 24:3 - From the From the. Hebrew and Septuagint, "other side of the flood or river," where Mesopotamia commences. (Haydock)

From the. Hebrew and Septuagint, "other side of the flood or river," where Mesopotamia commences. (Haydock)

Haydock: Jos 24:4 - Isaac Isaac, the promised seed and heir of the blessings, (Calmet) after Ismael was born. (Haydock)

Isaac, the promised seed and heir of the blessings, (Calmet) after Ismael was born. (Haydock)

Haydock: Jos 24:6 - You You. Many still survived, and had seen these wonders, as God had only exterminated those who had murmured.

You. Many still survived, and had seen these wonders, as God had only exterminated those who had murmured.

Haydock: Jos 24:9 - Fought Fought, not perhaps with the sword, but by endeavouring to get Israel cursed, that so he might be unable to make any resistance. He had the will to ...

Fought, not perhaps with the sword, but by endeavouring to get Israel cursed, that so he might be unable to make any resistance. He had the will to fight, and in this sense princes are said to be at war, though they never come to an engagement, 3 Kings xiv. 38. (Calmet) ---

Balac shut his gates against Israel. (St. Augustine, q. 26.)

Haydock: Jos 24:11 - Men Men. Hebrew, "the masters of Jericho," which may denote either the king or the inhabitants. It is thought that people of the different nations were...

Men. Hebrew, "the masters of Jericho," which may denote either the king or the inhabitants. It is thought that people of the different nations were come to defend the city, or the text may signify that not only Jericho, but these different people, (Calmet) fought successively against the people of God, but all in vain. (Haydock) ---

The fighting of the inhabitants of Jericho was only intentional; a miracle rendered all their efforts abortive. Yet this is called fighting in scripture (ver. 9,) as well as in other authors. "We judge of actions by the intention, says St. Isidore: (Pelus. ii. ep. 289,) the person who intended to murder is punished, though he only inflicted a wound; and on the other hand, he who dills undesignedly receives a pardon." So Orion was said to have violated Diana, because he wished to do it; and Virgin, (Æneid viii.) speaking of some who already thought they were in possession of the capital, says, Galli per dumos aderant, arcemque tenebant, "they seized the citadel," though they never entered it. (Calmet) ---

Yet it is probable that the inhabitants of Jericho would defend themselves. (Menochius)

Haydock: Jos 24:12 - Hornets // The two Hornets. St. Augustine explains this of the rumours, or devils, which terrified the people of the country. But it is generally understood literally...

Hornets. St. Augustine explains this of the rumours, or devils, which terrified the people of the country. But it is generally understood literally, Wisdom xii. 8. (Menochius) (Exodus xxiii. 28.) (Calmet) ---

The two, &c., not only the nations on the west, but also those on the east side of the Jordan, who fell, not so much by the valour of the Israelites, as by the terror and judgments of God. (Haydock) ---

The resistance which they made was hardly worth mentioning.

Haydock: Jos 24:14 - The gods // Fathers The gods. Some still retained in their hearts an affection for these idols, though privately; (Calmet) so that Josue could not convict them, or brin...

The gods. Some still retained in their hearts an affection for these idols, though privately; (Calmet) so that Josue could not convict them, or bring them to condign punishment; as no doubt he, and Moses before him, would have done, if they had been apprized of any overt act of idolatry. Amos (v. 26,) says, You carried a tabernacle of your Moloch and the image of your idols, &c., which is confirmed by Ezechiel xxiii. 3, 8., and Acts vii. 42. For these acts many of the people were punished, (Numbers xxv. 3, 9,) and the rest were either sincerely converted, or took care to hide their impiety till after the death of Josue. Yet the secret inclination of many was still corrupt; and these no sooner found a proper opportunity than they relapsed repeatedly into the worship of idols, for which reason the prophets represent their disposition as criminal from their youth. (Haydock) ---

St. Augustine (q. 29,) cannot think that the people, who are so often praised for their fidelity during the administration of Josue and of the ancients, (chap. xxii. 2., and xxiii. 3, 8., and xxiv. 31,) and who had testified such zeal against every appearance of idolatry in Ruben, (chap. xxii.) should be themselves infected with this deadly poison. He therefore supposes that Josue exhorts them to repent, if any of them should have retained a predilection for the worship of their ancestors in Mesopotamia, and in Egypt, (Calmet) which, by the prophetic light he say, was secretly the case. (Worthington) ---

Yet, though the great majority was clear of this crime, it seems many concealed from their leaders their secret attachment to it, ver. 23; (Calmet) or if they were sincere, for a time, their former bad habits soon gained the ascendancy, and involved them in perdition. (Haydock) ---

Fathers. He does not exempt Abraham, and the Jews acknowledge that he was once an idolater, which is the opinion of St. Ephrem, of the author of the Recognitions, B. i., and of many moderns; some of whom think that St. Paul gives him the epithet of impious, or ungodly, on that account, Romans iv. 5. The idolatry of the Hebrews in Egypt, is no less certain than that of their ancestors in Mesopotamia, Ezechiel xxiii. 2, 8, 27. (Calmet)

Haydock: Jos 24:15 - Choice Choice. Josue was persuaded that no restraint could bind the will; (Haydock) and that, if the Israelites did not freely adhere to the Lord, they wou...

Choice. Josue was persuaded that no restraint could bind the will; (Haydock) and that, if the Israelites did not freely adhere to the Lord, they would not serve him long, nor would their adoration have any merit. (Calmet) ---

Hence he endeavours by all means to draw from them a free and candid acknowledgment of his divinity; and he leads the way, by declaring that all his house will adhere to the true and only God. They answer his fullest expectations, and profess in the most cordial manner, that every tie of gratitude must bind them for ever to the service of the same Lord. (Haydock) ---

Elias makes a similar proposition; (3 Kings xviii. 21. See Ecclesiasticus xv. 18.; Menochius) not that it can be ever lawful to choose evil and to reject the sovereign good. But by this method the minds and hearts of the audience are stimulated to make the free and decided election of what alone can ensure their eternal happiness. (Haydock) ---

Thus we often set before the people hell or heaven for their choice. (Menochius)

Haydock: Jos 24:19 - You will not be able to serve the Lord You will not be able to serve the Lord, &c. This was not said by way of discouraging them; but rather to make them more earnest and resolute, by set...

You will not be able to serve the Lord, &c. This was not said by way of discouraging them; but rather to make them more earnest and resolute, by setting before them the greatness of the undertaking, and the courage and constancy necessary to go through with it. (Challoner) ---

Josue knew the fickle temper of his subjects. He insinuates, therefore, that if they do not lay that aside, they will not stand to their engagements, (Calmet) and will irritate God the more, if they enter into a covenant with him, and afterwards prove inconsistent. Hebrew La thuclu, "you cannot," may perhaps have the first u redundant; (Kennicott) as that is a letter which is often inserted or omitted at the transcriber's pleasure. (Aben Ezra Simon) ---

Hallet suggests that we ought to read lo thucelu, "you shall not cease," which would obviate the apparent difficulty of Josue's attempting, as it were, to cool the fervour of the people, by insinuating that they will not be able to stick to their resolutions, and that at a time when he is exerting every nerve to make them sensible of their duty, and to engage them to swear an inviolable fidelity to the Lord. "Cease not to serve the Lord, for he is a holy God, he is a jealous God, he will not forgive your rebellion, ( Copssaco. Job xxxiv. 27,) nor your sins; if you forsake the Lord, and serve strange gods, then he will turn and consume you." (Kennicott, Dis. 2.) ---

If we were to read with an interrogation, "Will you not be able? &c., it might answer the same end. Josue may be considered as starting an objection, which is but too common in the mouth of the slothful, and of may of the pretended reformers, Luther, &c., who endeavour to persuade the world that they are not able to comply with the rigour of God's law, and even make his severity an encouragement for their despair. Josue replies that these pretexts are groundless, and that God, who has already done so much for them, (ver. 20,) will not abandon them in their wants, if they cry unto him; and that, instead of being dejected by the thought of his judgments, they ought to strive, with the utmost fervour, to comply with his divine will. (Haydock) ---

A general sometimes withholds the ardour of his soldiers, telling them that they are not a match for the enemy, in order to inflame their courage the more. (Menochius) ---

A torrent which has been long repressed, rushes forward with greater fury when the dam is broken down. (Haydock)

Haydock: Jos 24:20 - Turn Turn, and alter his conduct in your regard, instead of being your protector, he will destroy you.

Turn, and alter his conduct in your regard, instead of being your protector, he will destroy you.

Haydock: Jos 24:21 - Lord Lord. We shall not experience the chastisements with which thou hast threatened us, because we will adhere inviolably to the Lord. (Calmet)

Lord. We shall not experience the chastisements with which thou hast threatened us, because we will adhere inviolably to the Lord. (Calmet)

Haydock: Jos 24:25 - Covenant Covenant. He renewed the one that had been formerly made, stipulating, on the part of God, that the people should serve Him alone, ver. 23. After w...

Covenant. He renewed the one that had been formerly made, stipulating, on the part of God, that the people should serve Him alone, ver. 23. After which he probably read some of the most striking passages of Deuteronomy, (Calmet) particularly the Decalogue, or ten commandments, with the blessings and curses which enforced the observance of them, Deuteronomy v., and xxvii., and xxviii., and xxix., and xxx. (Haydock) ---

Then the people swore that they would observe the law, the customary sacrifices were offered, and a record of the whole was subjoined by Josue to that of Moses, in order that it might be deposited in or near the ark, Deuteronomy xxxi. 26. (Calmet) ---

This renewal of the covenant prefigured the law of grace. (St. Augustine, q. 30.) (Worthington)

Haydock: Jos 24:26 - Lord // Stone // Oak // Sanctuary Lord, particularly what related to the ratification of the covenant, which was the last public act of this great man. He placed it in its proper ord...

Lord, particularly what related to the ratification of the covenant, which was the last public act of this great man. He placed it in its proper order in the continuation of the sacred history, which Moses had commenced. (Haydock) ---

Stone unpolished, except where there was an inscription, relating what had taken place. (Menochius) ---

This monument of religion was not forbidden, Deuteronomy xvi. 22. (Calmet) ---

Oak. Hebrew alla, is translated a turpentine tree, Genesis xxxv. 4., (Haydock) and by the Septuagint here. But most people translate the oak. (Chaldean; Aquila; &c.) Under it Jacob buried the idols of Laban, and Abimelech was chosen king; (Judges ix. 6,) as Abraham had entertained the angels under the same tree, Genesis xviii. 1., (Calmet) and had sat under it when he first came into Sichem, Genesis xii. 6. On which supposition it must have subsisted about 500 years. (Menochius) ---

It was even shewn some ages after Christ. But it is hardly credible that the same tree should have continued for such a length of time. ---

Sanctuary, or tent, where the ark was placed on this occasion under the oak. (Calmet; Bonfrere) ---

Some think it was at Silo. (Menochius; ver. 1.) ---

Kennicott denies that the ark was present, and supposes that they offered sacrifices upon the very altar which Josue had erected on Garizim, between 20 and 30 years before; and that this mountain is here called the sanctuary or "holy place." Upon it the oak might very well grow, and Josue might "with great propriety take some large stone, and set it up for a witness, making at the same time this striking remark, that this stone had heard all the words of the Lord, or had been present when his law was inscribed and read to the people at their former solemn convention." Hence he infers against Collins, "that the Jews had thoughts of worshipping, and did worship at Gerizim long before the separation of Israel from Juda;" and it was probably for fear of the Israelites returning to a sense of their duty, by the sight of these monuments of the old religion, that Jeroboam refrained from setting up his golden calves in the vicinity. (Diss. ii. p. 119.) (Haydock)

Haydock: Jos 24:27 - It hath heard // Lest It hath heard. This is a figure of speech, by which sensation is attributed to inanimate things; and they are called upon, as it were, to bear witne...

It hath heard. This is a figure of speech, by which sensation is attributed to inanimate things; and they are called upon, as it were, to bear witness in favour of the great Creator, whom they on their part constantly obey, (Challoner) which is the best manner of hearing. They rise up to our confusion. (Theodoret, q. 19.) (Worthington) ---

The oriental writers delight in these strong figurative expressions, which are not confined to poetry. Jesus Christ says, that if the children were silent, the stones would cry out, Luke xix. 40. See Numbers xiii. 33., and Genesis iv. 10. (Calmet) ---

Lest. Hebrew, "it shall be therefore a witness unto you, lest you deny your God;" or literally, "lie unto your Elohim." (Haydock) ---

The expression often means to revolt and prove faithless, Deuteronomy xxxiii. 29., &c.

Haydock: Jos 24:29 - And after And after, &c. If Josue wrote this book, as is commonly believed, these last verses were added by Samuel, or some other prophet. (Challoner) --- S...

And after, &c. If Josue wrote this book, as is commonly believed, these last verses were added by Samuel, or some other prophet. (Challoner) ---

Scholastic History. (Worthington) ---

Josue had governed Israel 17 years with the greatest prudence and fidelity. (Calmet) ---

Some extend his administration to a longer period. (Haydock) ---

He paid the debt of nature [i.e., he died] probably not long after the ratification of the covenant. It does not appear that he was ever married. (St. Jerome, contra Jov. 1.; St Chrysostom) ---

The Scripture does not mention that the people mourned for him, as they had done for Moses, &c. Yet we cannot doubt but they would shew this mark of respect to his memory, on account of the many benefits which they had received from him. The Holy Ghost has vouchsafed to be his panegyrist, Numbers xxvii. 12., and Ecclesiasticus xlvi. 1., &c. Josephus ([Antiquities?] v. 1,) represents him as a most universal character, equally perfect in everything that he took in hand. His greatest honour is to have been so striking a figure of Jesus, whose name he bore, (Calmet) and whose sacred office in administering a second circumcision after he had caused the people to cross the Jordan, he so well described. Like him he introduces the faithful into the land of promise, overthrows their enemies, and establishes them in peace, taking care both at the beginning and at the end of his administration, to set before their eyes the will of the heavenly Father, the God who is both holy and jealous, ver. 19. Under Josue the Israelites are invincible, only as long as they continue faithful, chap. vii. But Jesus secures his Church both from infidelity and from the attacks of all her enemies, by his all-powerful grace. (Haydock) ---

The Jews have attributed to Josue ten regulations, which are too trifling to have been made by him. (Selden, Jur. vi. 2.) ---

The Samaritan chronicle embellishes the account of this great man with many surprising and puerile fictions, as if the true history were not sufficient to excite our attention. See Basnage and Serarius. (Calmet) ---

The Jews say Josue died on the 26th of Nisan, unmarried. The Roman martyrology honours his memory on the 1st of September. (Salien, in the year before Christ 1453.) It is probable that the Egyptian or Tyrean Hercules, who encountered so many giants and difficulties, was no other than Josue, whose history the pagans have obscured with fables. (Vossius.) (Haydock)

Haydock: Jos 24:30 - Thamnathsare // Gaas Thamnathsare. Judges ii. 9. The last word is written hares ( eros ) the first and last letters being transposed in one of these places. It may p...

Thamnathsare. Judges ii. 9. The last word is written hares ( eros ) the first and last letters being transposed in one of these places. It may probably be in this verse, as we read of Mount Hares, Judges i. 35. Kennicott rather thinks that Sare is the proper reading, as it is found in the Syriac, Arabic, and Vulgate versions of the Book of Judges. He observes, that if we were to read in an English historian that the renowned Marlborough was buried at Blenheim, near Woodstock, and a few pages after that his remains were interred "at Blenmein, &c., we should naturally conclude that two letters had exchanged their places. And may we not allow the same in this part of the sacred history, as it is universally printed" in Hebrew? (Dis. i.) Some, however, maintain that Thamnath hares was so called, on account of "the image of the sun" being placed in the tomb of Josue, along with the knives of stone used by him in circumcision, which last the Septuagint and St. Augustine (q. 30,) admit. But these must be reckoned among the Jewish or Oriental fables, (Calmet) though it is not improbable but the circumcising knives might be thus preserved, as a monument of the covenant made with the Israelites. (Haydock) ---

Gaas. This was another name for Mount Sare, or Hares, a part of Mount Ephraim; where St. Jerome tells us St. Paula visited the tomb of Josue. It was shewn near Thamna in the days of Eusebius. (Calmet) ---

No mention is made of mourning, as for Moses, &c., to insinuate that under the law the saints descended into limbo, but are admitted into paradise under the gospel. (St. Jerome, mans. 34.) (Worthington)

Haydock: Jos 24:31 - Long time // Regis ad exemplar totus componitur orbis Long time; perhaps fifteen years. These ancients kept the people in order by their authority (Calmet) and good example, so great an influence have t...

Long time; perhaps fifteen years. These ancients kept the people in order by their authority (Calmet) and good example, so great an influence have the manners of superiors upon those of the subjects. (Menochius) ---

Regis ad exemplar totus componitur orbis. See 2 Paralipomenon xxiv. 2, 16. After the death of these virtuous rulers, who had been formed in the school of Moses and of Josue, and had beheld the wonders of God, (Haydock) the people began to embrace the worship of Baalim, Judges ii. 11.

Haydock: Jos 24:32 - Sichem // Field // Ewes Sichem. Joseph had charged his brethren to take his bones with them, Genesis l. 24., and Exodus xiii. 19. Masius supposes that they were solemnly i...

Sichem. Joseph had charged his brethren to take his bones with them, Genesis l. 24., and Exodus xiii. 19. Masius supposes that they were solemnly interred after the altar was erected near Sichem, and the covenant ratified, when all the people were together. Others think that they deferred doing this till the country was conquered and divided. Josue would lose no time unnecessarily in performing these last rites to the revered patriarch. ---

Field. Jacob had given this field to his son. He had first purchased it; (Genesis xxxiii. 19,) and when the Amorrhite had taken possession again, after the unhappy affair at Sichem, he recovered it by the sword, Genesis xlviii. 22. ---

Ewes. Hebrew Kesita may denote also some species of money, though not perhaps marked with any figure of a lamb, &c. (Calmet) ---

Protestants, "pieces of silver." (Haydock) ---

The mausoleum of Joseph at Sichem, was to be seen in St. Jerome's time. (q. Heb. in Gen.) (Worthington)

Haydock: Jos 24:33 - Eleazar Eleazar, the second high priest, was succeeded by his son Phinees. They were both of a very unexceptionable character. The Holy Ghost says, (Eccl...

Eleazar, the second high priest, was succeeded by his son Phinees. They were both of a very unexceptionable character. The Holy Ghost says, (Ecclesiasticus xlv. 28,) Phinees, the son of Eleazar, is the third in glory, by imitating him (his father or grandfather) in the fear of the Lord, &c. The Jews seem to have adopted the doctrine of Pythagoras, with respect to Phinees, (Haydock) as they say that he was the man of God, (3 Kings ii. 27,) who appeared to Heli, (Trad. Heb. in Reg.) and that he was consulted by Jephte, and gave him advice to fulfil his vow; that he was the same person with Elias, and with one Phinees, who returned from the captivity with Esdras, 1 Paralipomenon ix. 20. They will even have him to be an incarnate angel. (Ap. Munster, &c.) But without dwelling any longer on these fabulous accounts, (Calmet) he was surely a man of the greatest zeal and piety. (Haydock) ---

In consideration of his extraordinary merit, the city of Gabaath was given to him, though it was not properly a sacerdotal city, and priests could not regularly possess any land as their inheritance. Grotius supposes that he obtained this city along with his wife, as she was an heiress of the tribe of Ephraim. But if that had been the case, must she not have married some of the same tribe? Numbers xxxvi. 8. (Calmet) ---

Septuagint (Grabe) add, "In that day the children of Israel taking the ark of the covenant of God, carried it about among themselves, and Phinees was priest instead of his father, till he died, and he was buried in Gabaath, his own city. But the Israelites went each to his own place and city; and the children of Israel worshipped Astarte and Asteroth, and the gods of the surrounding nations, and the Lord delivered them into the hands of Eglon, the king of Moab, and he held them in subjection 18 years. See Judges iii. 12, 14. Why this is recorded in this place does not appear, unless it be to insinuate that the servitude under Eglon did not commence till after the death of Phinees, who had been high priest 40 years. Abisue, his son, entered upon the pontificate in the first year of the administration of Aod, 1 Paralipomenon vi. 4, 50. (Salien, in the year of the world 2641, in the year before Christ 1412.) Josue and Eleazar had reigned nearly during the same period of time, and finished their course together. They had assisted each other in keeping the people of God under due restraint. Their successors in office acted with the like zeal and concord, though they were not quite so successful. It is probable that Phinees would have the chief sway in "the aristocracy" of the ancients, which Josephus says took place between Josue and Othoniel. Their government is acknowledged by most authors, though Salien supposes that their authority, as distinct from the Sanhedrim, consisted in giving good example. Many assert that Phinees ruled the people twenty-three years. (Haydock)

Gill: Jos 24:1 - And Joshua gathered all the tribes of Israel to Shechem // and called for the elders of Israel, and for their heads, and for their judges, and for their officers // and they presented themselves before God And Joshua gathered all the tribes of Israel to Shechem,.... The nine tribes and a half; not all the individuals of them, but the chief among them, th...

And Joshua gathered all the tribes of Israel to Shechem,.... The nine tribes and a half; not all the individuals of them, but the chief among them, their representatives, as afterwards explained, whom he gathered together a second time, being willing, as long as he was among them, to improve his time for their spiritual as well as civil good; to impress their minds with a sense of religion, and to strengthen, enlarge, and enforce the exhortations he had given them to serve the Lord; and Abarbinel thinks he gathered them together again because before they returned him no answer, and therefore he determined now to put such questions to them as would oblige them to give one, as they did, and which issued in making a covenant with them; the place where they assembled was Shechem, which some take to be Shiloh, because of what is said Jos 24:25; that being as they say in the fields of Shechem; which is not likely, since Shiloh, as Jerom says u, was ten miles from Neapolis or Shechem. This place was chosen because nearest to Joshua, who was now old and infirm, and unfit to travel; and the rather because it was the place where the Lord first appeared to Abraham, when he brought him into the land of Canaan, and where he made a promise of giving the land to his seed, and where Abraham built an altar to him, Gen 12:6; where also Jacob pitched his tent when he came from Padanaram, bought a parcel of a field, and erected an altar to the Lord, Gen 33:18; and where Joshua also repeated the law to, and renewed the covenant with the children of Israel, quickly after their coming into the land of Canaan, for Ebal and Gerizim were near to Shechem, Jos 8:30;

and called for the elders of Israel, and for their heads, and for their judges, and for their officers: See Gill on Jos 23:2;

and they presented themselves before God; Kimchi and Abarbinel are of opinion that the ark was fetched from the tabernacle at Shiloh, and brought hither on this occasion, which was the symbol of the divine Presence; and therefore the place becoming sacred thereby is called the sanctuary of the Lord, and certain it is that here was the book of the law of Moses, Jos 24:26; which was put on the side of the ark, Deu 31:26.

Gill: Jos 24:2 - And Joshua said unto all the people // thus saith the Lord God of Israel // your fathers dwelt on the other side of the flood in old time // even Terah the father of Abraham, and the father of Nachor // and they served other gods And Joshua said unto all the people,.... Then present, or to all Israel by their representatives: thus saith the Lord God of Israel; he spoke to th...

And Joshua said unto all the people,.... Then present, or to all Israel by their representatives:

thus saith the Lord God of Israel; he spoke to them in the name of the Lord, as the prophet did, being himself a prophet, and at this time under a divine impulse, and spirit of prophecy. According to an Arabic writer w: the Angel of God appeared in the form of a man, and with a loud voice delivered the following, though they are expressed by him in a different manner; perhaps he mean, the Captain of the Lord's host, Jos 15:13; and which is not unlikely:

your fathers dwelt on the other side of the flood in old time; on the offer side the, river Euphrates; so the Targum,"beyond Perat;''i.e. Euphrates; in Mesopotamia and Chaldea; meaning not the remotest of their ancestors, Noah and Shem, but the more near, and who are expressly named:

even Terah the father of Abraham, and the father of Nachor; the Israelites sprung from Terah, in the line of Abraham, on the father's side, and from him in the line of Nachor on the mother's side, Rebekah, Leah, and Rachel, being of Nachor's family:

and they served other gods; besides the true God, strange gods, which were no gods: "idols"; the idols of the people, as the Targum; so did Terah, Abraham, and Nachor; See Gill on Gen 11:26; See Gill on Gen 11:28; See Gill on Gen 12:1.

Gill: Jos 24:3 - And I took your father Abraham from the other side of the flood // and led him throughout all the land of Canaan // and multiplied his seed, and gave him Isaac And I took your father Abraham from the other side of the flood,.... The river Euphrates, as before: or "your father, to wit, Abraham", as Noldius x; ...

And I took your father Abraham from the other side of the flood,.... The river Euphrates, as before: or "your father, to wit, Abraham", as Noldius x; he took him not only in a providential way, and brought him from the other side of the Euphrates, out of an idolatrous country and family, but he apprehended him by his grace, and called and converted him by it, and brought him to a spiritual knowledge of himself, and of the Messiah that should spring from his seed, and of the Covenant of grace, and of the blessings of it, and of his interest therein; which was a peculiar and distinguishing favour:

and led him throughout all the land of Canaan; from the northern to the southern part of it; he led him as far as Shechem, where Israel was now assembled, and then to Bethel, and still onward to the south, Gen 12:6; that he might have a view of the land his posterity was to inherit, and, by treading on it and walking through it, take as it were a kind of possession of it:

and multiplied his seed, and gave him Isaac; he multiplied his seed by Hagar, by whom he had Ishmael, who begat twelve princes; and by Keturah, from whose sons several nations sprung; see Gen 17:20; and by Sarah, who bore him Isaac in old age, in whom his seed was called; and from whom, in the line of Jacob, sprung the twelve tribes of Israel, and which seed may be chiefly meant; and the sense is, that he multiplied his posterity after he had given him Isaac, and by him a numerous seed; so Vatablus: Ishmael is not mentioned, because, as Kimchi observes, he was born of an handmaid; but Abarbinel thinks only such are mentioned, who were born in a miraculous manner, when their parents were barren, as in this and also in the next instance.

Gill: Jos 24:4 - And I gave unto Isaac Jacob and Esau // and I gave unto Esau Mount Seir to possess it // but Jacob and his children went down into Egypt And I gave unto Isaac Jacob and Esau,.... When Rebekah was barren, so that the children appeared the more to be the gift of God; though Esau perhaps i...

And I gave unto Isaac Jacob and Esau,.... When Rebekah was barren, so that the children appeared the more to be the gift of God; though Esau perhaps is mentioned, for the sake of what follows:

and I gave unto Esau Mount Seir to possess it; that Jacob and his posterity alone might inherit Canaan, and Esau and his seed make no pretension to it:

but Jacob and his children went down into Egypt; where they continued many years, and great part of the time in bondage and misery, which is here taken no notice of; and this was in order to their being brought into the land of Canaan, and that the power and goodness of God might be the more conspicuous in it.

Gill: Jos 24:5 - I sent Moses also and Aaron // and I plagued Egypt according to that which I did amongst them // and afterwards I brought you out I sent Moses also and Aaron,.... To demand Israel's dismission of Pharaoh, king of Egypt, and to be the deliverers of them: and I plagued Egypt acc...

I sent Moses also and Aaron,.... To demand Israel's dismission of Pharaoh, king of Egypt, and to be the deliverers of them:

and I plagued Egypt according to that which I did amongst them; inflicting ten plagues upon them for refusing to let Israel go:

and afterwards I brought you out; that is, out of Egypt, with an high hand, and outstretched arm.

Gill: Jos 24:6 - And I brought your fathers out of Egypt // and you came unto the sea // and the Egyptians pursued after your fathers, with chariots and horsemen, into the Red sea And I brought your fathers out of Egypt,.... Which more fully expresses the sense of the last clause of Jos 24:5, and you came unto the sea; which ...

And I brought your fathers out of Egypt,.... Which more fully expresses the sense of the last clause of Jos 24:5,

and you came unto the sea; which respects some senior persons then present; for, besides Caleb and Joshua, there were many at this time alive who came to and passed through the Red sea, at their coming out of Egypt; for those whose carcasses fell in the wilderness were such as were mere than twenty years of age at their coming out from Egypt, and who were the murmurers in the wilderness; and it may be reasonably supposed, that many of those who were under twenty years of age at that time were now living:

and the Egyptians pursued after your fathers, with chariots and horsemen, into the Red sea; of the number of their chariots and horsemen, see Exo 14:7; with these they pursued the Israelites, not only unto, but into the Red sea, following them into it; the reason of which strange action is given in Jos 24:7.

Gill: Jos 24:7 - And when they cried unto the Lord // he put darkness between you and the Egyptians // and brought the sea upon them, and covered them // and your eyes have seen what I have done in Egypt // and ye dwelt in the wilderness a long season And when they cried unto the Lord,.... That is, the Israelites, being in the utmost distress, the sea before them, Pharaoh's large host behind them, a...

And when they cried unto the Lord,.... That is, the Israelites, being in the utmost distress, the sea before them, Pharaoh's large host behind them, and the rocks on each side of them; see Exo 14:10,

he put darkness between you and the Egyptians; the pillar of cloud, the dark side of which was turned to the Egyptians, and which was the reason of their following the Israelites into the sea; for not being able to see their way, knew not where they were; see Exo 14:20,

and brought the sea upon them, and covered them; or "upon him, and covered him" y; on Pharaoh, as Kimchi; or on Egypt; that is, the Egyptians or on everyone of them, as Jarchi, none escaped; see Exo 14:26,

and your eyes have seen what I have done in Egypt; what signs and wonders were wrought there, before they were brought out of it, and what he had done to and upon the Egyptians at the Red sea; some then present had been eyewitnesses of them:

and ye dwelt in the wilderness a long season; forty years, where they had the law given them, were preserved from many evils and enemies, were fed with manna, and supplied with the necessaries of life, were led about and instructed, and at length brought out of it.

Gill: Jos 24:8 - And I brought you into the land of the Amorites, which dwelt on the other side Jordan // and I gave them into your hand, that ye might possess their land // and I destroyed them from before you And I brought you into the land of the Amorites, which dwelt on the other side Jordan,.... The kingdoms of Sihon and Og, and they fought with you; the...

And I brought you into the land of the Amorites, which dwelt on the other side Jordan,.... The kingdoms of Sihon and Og, and they fought with you; the two kings of them, and their armies:

and I gave them into your hand, that ye might possess their land; and which was now possessed by the two tribes of Reuben and Gad, and the half tribe of Manasseh:

and I destroyed them from before you; the kings, their forces, and the inhabitants of their countries; the history of which see in Num 21:10.

Gill: Jos 24:9 - Then Balak the son of Zippor, the king of Moab, arose // and warred against Israel // and sent and called Balaam the son of Beor to curse you Then Balak the son of Zippor, the king of Moab, arose,.... Being alarmed with what Israel had done to the two kings of the Amorites, and by their near...

Then Balak the son of Zippor, the king of Moab, arose,.... Being alarmed with what Israel had done to the two kings of the Amorites, and by their near approach to the borders of his kingdom:

and warred against Israel; he fully designed it, and purpose is put for action, as Kimchi observes; he prepared for it, proclaimed war, and commenced it, though he did not come to a battle, he made use of stratagems and wiles, and magical arts, to hurt them, and sent for Balaam to curse them, that they both together might smite the Israelites, and drive them out of the land, Num 22:6; so his fighting is interpreted by the next clause:

and sent and called Balaam the son of Beor to curse you; by which means he hoped to prevail in battle, and get the victory over them; but not being able to bring this about, durst not engage in battle with them.

Gill: Jos 24:10 - But I would not hearken unto Balaam // therefore he blessed you still // so I delivered you out of his hands But I would not hearken unto Balaam,.... Who was very solicitous to get leave of the Lord to curse Israel, which he knew he could not do without; he h...

But I would not hearken unto Balaam,.... Who was very solicitous to get leave of the Lord to curse Israel, which he knew he could not do without; he had a goodwill to it but could not accomplish it:

therefore he blessed you still; went on blessing Israel to the last, when Balak hoped every time he would have cursed them; and Balaam himself was very desirous of doing it; but could not, being overruled by the Lord, and under his restraint; which shows his power over evil spirits, and their agents:

so I delivered you out of his hands: both out of the hand of Balak, who was intimidated from bringing his forces against them, and out of the hand of Balaam, who was not suffered to curse them.

Gill: Jos 24:11 - And ye went over Jordan // and came unto Jericho // and the men of Jericho fought against you // the Amorites, and the Perizzites, and the Canaanites, and the Hittites, and the Girgashites, the Hivites and the Jebusites // and I delivered them into your hand And ye went over Jordan,.... In a miraculous manner, the waters parting to make way for the host of Israel: and came unto Jericho; the first city o...

And ye went over Jordan,.... In a miraculous manner, the waters parting to make way for the host of Israel:

and came unto Jericho; the first city of any size and strength in the land, which was about seven or eight miles from Jordan; See Gill on Num 22:1,

and the men of Jericho fought against you; by endeavouring to intercept their spies, and cut them off; by shutting up the gates of their city against Israel; and it may be throwing darts, arrows, and stones, from off the walls of it at them. Kimchi thinks that some of the great men of Jericho went out from thence, to give notice and warning to the kings of Canaan of the approach of the Israelites, and in the mean time the city was taken; and that these afterwards joined with the kings in fighting against Joshua and the people of Israel:

the Amorites, and the Perizzites, and the Canaanites, and the Hittites, and the Girgashites, the Hivites and the Jebusites; the seven nations of Canaan; this they did at different times, and in different places:

and I delivered them into your hand; these nations and their kings.

Gill: Jos 24:12 - And I sent the hornet before you // which drave them out from before you, even the two kings of the Amorites // but not with thy sword, nor with thy bow And I sent the hornet before you,.... Of which See Gill on Exo 23:28, which drave them out from before you, even the two kings of the Amorites; wh...

And I sent the hornet before you,.... Of which See Gill on Exo 23:28,

which drave them out from before you, even the two kings of the Amorites; who were Sihon and Og, and not only them, and the Amorites under them, but the other nations, Hivites, Hittites, &c.

but not with thy sword, nor with thy bow; but by insects of the Lord's sending to them, which, as Kimchi says, so blinded their eyes, that they could not see to fight, and so Israel came upon them, and slew them; in which the hand of the Lord was manifestly seen, and to whose power, and not, their own, the destruction of their enemies was to be ascribed.

Gill: Jos 24:13 - And I have given you a land for which you did not labour // and cities which ye built not, and ye dwell in them // of the vineyards and oliveyards, which ye planted not, do ye eat And I have given you a land for which you did not labour,.... Or, in which z, by manuring and cultivating it, by dunging, and ploughing, and sowing: ...

And I have given you a land for which you did not labour,.... Or, in which z, by manuring and cultivating it, by dunging, and ploughing, and sowing:

and cities which ye built not, and ye dwell in them; neither built the houses in them, nor the walls and fortifications about them; in which now they dwelt safely, and at ease, and which had been promised them as well as what follows; see Deu 6:10,

of the vineyards and oliveyards, which ye planted not, do ye eat; thus far an account is given of the many mercies they had been and were favoured with, and thus far are the words of the Lord by Joshua; next follow the use and improvement Joshua made of them.

Gill: Jos 24:14 - Now therefore fear the Lord // and serve him in sincerity and in truth // and put away the gods which your fathers served on the other side of the flood, and in Egypt // and serve ye the Lord Now therefore fear the Lord,.... Since he has done such great and good things, fear the Lord and his goodness, fear him for his goodness sake; nothing...

Now therefore fear the Lord,.... Since he has done such great and good things, fear the Lord and his goodness, fear him for his goodness sake; nothing so influences fear, or a reverential affection for God, as a sense of his goodness; this engages men sensible of it to fear the Lord, that is, to worship him both internally and externally in the exercise of every grace, and in the performance of every duty:

and serve him in sincerity and in truth: in the uprightness of their souls, without hypocrisy and deceit, and according to the truth of his word, and of his mind and will revealed in it, without any mixture of superstition and will worship, or of the commands and inventions of men:

and put away the gods which your fathers served on the other side of the flood, and in Egypt; that is, express an abhorrence of them, and keep at a distance from them, and show that you are far from giving in to such idolatries your ancestors were guilty of, when they lived on the other side Euphrates, in Chaldea, or when they were sojourners in Egypt; for it cannot be thought that the Israelites were at this time guilty of such gross idolatry, at least openly, since Joshua had bore such a testimony of them, that they had cleaved to the Lord unto that day, Jos 23:8; and their zeal against the two tribes and a half, on suspicion of idolatry, or of going into it, is a proof of it also:

and serve ye the Lord: and him only.

Gill: Jos 24:15 - And if it seem evil to you to serve the Lord // choose you this day whom you will serve // whether the gods your fathers served, that were on the other side of the flood // or the gods of the Amorites, in whose land ye dwell // but as for me and my house, we will serve the Lord And if it seem evil to you to serve the Lord,.... Irksome and troublesome, a burden, a weariness, and not a pleasure and delight: choose you this d...

And if it seem evil to you to serve the Lord,.... Irksome and troublesome, a burden, a weariness, and not a pleasure and delight:

choose you this day whom you will serve; say if you have found a better master, and whose service will be more pleasant and profitable:

whether the gods your fathers served, that were on the other side of the flood; the river Euphrates; these may bid rid rest for antiquity, but then they were such their fathers had relinquished, and for which undoubtedly they had good reason; and to take up with the worship of these again was to impeach their wisdom, judgment, and good sense:

or the gods of the Amorites, in whose land ye dwell: but then these were such as could not preserve their worshippers in the land, or the Israelites had not dwelt in it, and therefore no dependence could be had upon them for future security. The Amorites are only mentioned, because they were a principal nation, some of which dwelt on one side Jordan, and some on the other, and indeed there were of them in the several parts of the land:

but as for me and my house, we will serve the Lord; be your choice as it may be: this was the resolution of Joshua, and so far as he knew the sense of his family, or had influence over it, could and did speak for them; and which he observes as an example set for the Israelites to follow after; he full well knowing that the examples of great personages, such as governors, supreme and subordinate, have great influence over those that are under them,

Gill: Jos 24:16 - And the people answered and said // God forbid that we should forsake the Lord, to serve other gods And the people answered and said,.... To Joshua, upon his proposal to them, the option he gave them to serve the Lord or idols, and which was only don...

And the people answered and said,.... To Joshua, upon his proposal to them, the option he gave them to serve the Lord or idols, and which was only done to try them:

God forbid that we should forsake the Lord, to serve other gods; they speak with the utmost abhorrence of idolatry, as a thing far from their hearts and thoughts, as the most abominable and execrable that could be thought or spoken of; to forsake the word, and worship, and ordinances of God, and serve the idols of the Gentiles, strange gods, whether more ancient or more recent, such as their fathers worshipped in former times, or the inhabitants of the land they now dwelt in, for which they were spewed out of it.

Gill: Jos 24:17 - For the Lord our God, he it is that brought us up and our fathers, out of the land of Egypt // from the house of bondage // and which did those great signs in our sight // and preserved us in all the way wherein we went // and among all the people through whom we passed For the Lord our God, he it is that brought us up and our fathers, out of the land of Egypt,.... When Pharaoh, the king of it, refused to let them go...

For the Lord our God, he it is that brought us up and our fathers, out of the land of Egypt,.... When Pharaoh, the king of it, refused to let them go, yet he wrought such wonders in it and inflicted such plagues on it, as obliged Pharaoh and his people to dismiss them:

from the house of bondage: where they were held in the greatest thraldom and slavery, and their lives made bitter and miserable:

and which did those great signs in our sight; meaning the wonders and marvellous things wrought before Pharaoh and his people, and in the sight of Israel, Psa 78:11; though Abarbinel is of opinion it refers to what had been done in their sight of late in the land of Canaan, as the dividing of the waters of Jordan, the fall of the walls of Jericho, the standing still of the sun in Gibeon; but this seems not so well to agree with what follows:

and preserved us in all the way wherein we went: in the wilderness from serpents and scorpions, and beasts of prey, and from all dangers from every quarter:

and among all the people through whom we passed; through whose borders they passed, as the Edomites, Moabites, and Amorites; though the above writer seems to understand it of preservation from the dangers of their enemies in the land of Canaan.

Gill: Jos 24:18 - And the Lord drave out from before us all the people // even the Amorites which dwelt in the land // therefore will we also serve the Lord // for he is our God And the Lord drave out from before us all the people,.... The seven nations of the land of Canaan: even the Amorites which dwelt in the land; the s...

And the Lord drave out from before us all the people,.... The seven nations of the land of Canaan:

even the Amorites which dwelt in the land; the strongest and most populous of the nations, Amo 2:9, or especially the Amorites, so Vatablus; or "with the Amorites", as others; those that lived on the other side Jordan, over whom Sihon and Og reigned:

therefore will we also serve the Lord: as well as Joshua and his house, for the reasons before given, because he had done such great and good things for them:

for he is our God: that has made and preserved us, and loaded us with his benefits, and is our covenant God, and therefore will we fear and serve him.

Gill: Jos 24:19 - And Joshua said unto the people // ye cannot serve the Lord // for he is an holy God // he is a jealous God // he will not forgive your transgressions nor your sins And Joshua said unto the people,.... To their heads and representatives now assembled together, and who had returned to him the preceding answer: y...

And Joshua said unto the people,.... To their heads and representatives now assembled together, and who had returned to him the preceding answer:

ye cannot serve the Lord; which he said not to discourage or deter them from serving the Lord, since it was his principal view, through the whole of this conversation with them, to engage them in it, but to observe to them their own inability and insufficiency of themselves to perform service acceptable to God; and therefore it became them to implore grace and strength from the Lord to assist them in it, and to depend upon that and not to lean to and trust in their own strength; as also to observe to them, that they could not serve him perfectly without any defect and failure in their service, for there is no man that does good and sins not; and therefore when a man has done all he can, he must not depend upon it for his justification before God; or consider it as his justifying righteousness, which was what that people were always prone to; some supply it,"you cannot serve the Lord with your images,''or along with them, so Vatablus:

for he is an holy God: perfectly holy, so that the best of men, and the heat of their services, are impure and unholy before him and will not bear to be compared with him, and therefore by no means to be trusted in; and it requires much grace and spiritual strength to perform any service that may be acceptable to him through Christ. In the Hebrew text it is, "for the Holy Ones are he": which may serve to illustrate and confirm the doctrine of the trinity of, persons in the unity of the divine Essence, or of the three divine holy Persons, holy Father, holy Son, holy Spirit, as the one God, see Isa 6:3,

he is a jealous God; of his honour and glory, and of his worship, in which he will admit of no rival, of no graven images, or any idols to be worshipped with him, or besides him; nor will he suffer the idol of men's righteousness to be set up in the room of, or in opposition to, the righteousness of God, even no services and works of men, be they ever so good, since they cannot be perfect before him:

he will not forgive your transgressions nor your sins; even the transgressions and sins of such that forsake the worship and service of him, and fall into idolatry, or who seek for justification by their own services, these are both abominable to him; otherwise he is a God pardoning the iniquity, transgression, and sin, of all those who seek unto him and serve him, confess their sins, and renounce their own righteousness; see Exo 23:21.

Gill: Jos 24:20 - If you forsake the Lord, and serve strange gods // then he will turn and do you hurt // and consume you // after that he hath done you good If you forsake the Lord, and serve strange gods,.... Joshua knew the proneness of this people to idolatry, and therefore expresses his jealousy of the...

If you forsake the Lord, and serve strange gods,.... Joshua knew the proneness of this people to idolatry, and therefore expresses his jealousy of them, that they would not be able to continue in the service of God, and would be apt to be carried away after idols; and therefore, to make them the more cautious and watchful, he represents to them the danger they were in, and what would befall them should they forsake the Lord they now promised to serve, and follow after other gods, which their fathers worshipped before they were called out of their estate of Heathenism, or which the Canaanites, or Egyptians worshipped, whose examples they were too ready to imitate:

then he will turn and do you hurt; not that there is properly any change in God, either of his counsel or covenant, or of love and affection to his people, but of his providential dealings, or outward manner of acting towards men; or the sense is, he will again do you hurt, bring evils and calamities upon you again and again, frequently as you revolt from him, such as the sword, pestilence, famine, and captivity, which these people after experienced when they fell into idolatry:

and consume you; by these his sore judgments:

after that he hath done you good; by bringing you into such a good land, and bestowing so many good things upon you, natural, civil, and religious; and yet, notwithstanding, being disobedient to him, and especially in the instances mentioned, they are made to expect his resentment, and the effects of it.

Gill: Jos 24:21 - And the people said unto Joshua, nay // but we will serve the Lord And the people said unto Joshua, nay,.... We will not serve strange gods: but we will serve the Lord; according to his revealed will, and him only.

And the people said unto Joshua, nay,.... We will not serve strange gods:

but we will serve the Lord; according to his revealed will, and him only.

Gill: Jos 24:22 - And Joshua said unto the people // ye are witnesses against yourselves, that ye have chosen you the Lord God to serve him // and they said, we are witnesses And Joshua said unto the people,.... In reply to their answer and resolution: ye are witnesses against yourselves, that ye have chosen you the Lor...

And Joshua said unto the people,.... In reply to their answer and resolution:

ye are witnesses against yourselves, that ye have chosen you the Lord God to serve him; that is, should they, after this choice of him, which they had so publicly declared, desert his service, and go into idolatry, their testimony would rise up against them, and they would, be self-condemned:

and they said, we are witnesses; should we ever apostatize from the Lord and his worship, we are content to have this our witness produced against us.

Gill: Jos 24:23 - Now therefore put away, said he // the strange gods which are among you // and incline your heart unto the Lord God of Israel Now therefore put away, said he,.... Which last words are rightly supplied, for they are the words of Joshua: the strange gods which are among yo...

Now therefore put away, said he,.... Which last words are rightly supplied, for they are the words of Joshua:

the strange gods which are among you; not their private notions and secret sentiments that some of them had imbibed in favour of idols, and the worship of them, as Ben Gersom thinks; but, as the Targum expresses it,"the idols of the Gentiles;''either such as they had brought out of Egypt, or had found among the plunder of the Canaanites, and had secretly retained; or, as others think, their "penates", or household gods, they had privately kept and worshipped, such as those that were in Jacob's family, which he caused to be delivered to him, and which he hid under an oak in this place where Israel were now assembled, Gen 35:2; and which Joshua by a prophetic discerning spirit perceived were now among them:

and incline your heart unto the Lord God of Israel; to love, fear, and serve him; that is, pray that your hearts may be inclined thereunto, and make use of all means that may tend to direct your hearts to him, and his service; so the Targum,"to the worship of the Lord God of Israel.''

Gill: Jos 24:24 - And the people said unto Joshua // the Lord our God will we serve // and his voice will we obey And the people said unto Joshua,.... A third time, that as by the mouth of two or three witnesses everything is confirmed, so by three testimonies of ...

And the people said unto Joshua,.... A third time, that as by the mouth of two or three witnesses everything is confirmed, so by three testimonies of the same persons:

the Lord our God will we serve; as they had before declared, and to which they add:

and his voice will we obey; or his word, as the Targum, not only his word of command, but his essential Word, the Son of God.

Gill: Jos 24:25 - So Joshua made a covenant with the people that day // and set statute and an ordinance in Shechem So Joshua made a covenant with the people that day,.... Proposing to them what was most eligible, and their duty to do, and they agreeing to it, this ...

So Joshua made a covenant with the people that day,.... Proposing to them what was most eligible, and their duty to do, and they agreeing to it, this formally constituted a covenant, of which they selves were both parties and witnesses:

and set statute and an ordinance in Shechem; either made this covenant to have the nature of a statute and ordinance binding upon them, or repeated and renewed the laws of Moses, both moral and ceremonial, which had been delivered at Mount Sinai, and now, upon this repetition in Shechem, might be called a statute and ordinance there.

Gill: Jos 24:26 - And Joshua wrote these words // in the book of the law of God // and took a great stone // and set it up there under an oak, that was by the sanctuary of the Lord And Joshua wrote these words,.... Which had passed between him and the people: in the book of the law of God; written by Moses, and which he ordere...

And Joshua wrote these words,.... Which had passed between him and the people:

in the book of the law of God; written by Moses, and which he ordered to be put in the side of the ark, and that being now present, the book could be easily taken out, and these words inserted in it, Deu 31:26,

and took a great stone: on which also might be inscribed the same words:

and set it up there under an oak, that was by the sanctuary of the Lord; or "in it" a; that is, in the field or place where the ark was, which made it sacred, and upon which account the place was called a sanctuary, or an holy place; for there is no need to say that the tabernacle or sanctuary itself was brought hither, only the ark; and much less can it be thought that an oak should be in it; though it was not improbable, that had it been thither brought, it might have been placed under, or by an oak, as we render it; and it is a tradition of the Jews, which both Jarchi and Kimchi make mention of, that this was the same oak under which Jacob hid the strange gods of his family in Shechem, Gen 35:4; Mr. Mede b is of opinion that neither ark nor tabernacle were here, but that by "sanctuary" is meant a "proseucha", or place for prayer; such an one as in later times was near Shechem, as Epiphanius c relates, built by the Samaritans in imitation of the Jews; but it is a question whether there were any such places so early as the times of Joshua, nor is it clear that such are ever called sanctuaries.

Gill: Jos 24:27 - And Joshua said unto all the people // behold, this stone shall be a witness unto us // for it hath heard all the words of the Lord which he spake unto us // it shall be therefore a witness unto you, lest ye deny your God And Joshua said unto all the people,.... The chief of them now gathered together, and who represented the whole body: behold, this stone shall be a...

And Joshua said unto all the people,.... The chief of them now gathered together, and who represented the whole body:

behold, this stone shall be a witness unto us; of the covenant now made, and the agreement entered into, as the heap of stones were between Jacob and Laban, Gen 31:45,

for it hath heard all the words of the Lord which he spake unto us; this is said by a figure called "prosopopaeia", frequent in Scripture, by which inanimate creatures are represented as hearing, seeing, and speaking, and may signify, that should the Israelites break this covenant, and disobey the commands of the Lord they had promised to keep, they would be as stupid and senseless as this stone, or more so, which would rise in judgment against them. Nachmanides d a Jewish commentator, interprets this stone of the Messiah, the same as in Gen 49:24,

it shall be therefore a witness unto you, lest ye deny your God; for a memorial and testimony to prevent them from going into atheism, a denying of the true God, or into apostasy from him, and into idolatry and false worship. The Targum of which is,"behold, this stone shall be to us as the two tables of stone of the covenant, for we made it for a testimony; for the words which are written upon it are the sum of all the words of the Lord which he spake unto us, and it shall be unto you for a memorial, and for a testimony, lest ye lie before the Lord.''

Gill: Jos 24:28 - So Joshua let the people depart, every man unto his inheritance. So Joshua let the people depart, every man unto his inheritance. Dismissed them, and took his final leave and farewell of them, dying soon after; upon...

So Joshua let the people depart, every man unto his inheritance. Dismissed them, and took his final leave and farewell of them, dying soon after; upon which they returned to the possessions and inheritances assigned by lot to the several tribes, of which they were the heads and princes.

Gill: Jos 24:29 - And it came to pass, after these things // that Joshua the son of Nun, the servant of the Lord, died, being an hundred and ten years old And it came to pass, after these things,.... Some little time after, very probably the same year: that Joshua the son of Nun, the servant of the Lo...

And it came to pass, after these things,.... Some little time after, very probably the same year:

that Joshua the son of Nun, the servant of the Lord, died, being an hundred and ten years old; he wanted ten years of Moses his predecessor, Deu 34:7, and just the age of Joseph, Gen 50:22, from whom he sprung, being of the tribe of Ephraim, Num 13:8.

Gill: Jos 24:30 - And they buried him in the border of his inheritance // in Timnathserah, which is in Mount Ephraim // on the north side of the hill of Gaash And they buried him in the border of his inheritance,.... In a field belonging to his estate; for they buried not in towns and cities in those times. ...

And they buried him in the border of his inheritance,.... In a field belonging to his estate; for they buried not in towns and cities in those times. The Greek version adds,"and they put into the tomb, in which he was buried, the stone knives with which he circumcised the children of Israel at Gilgal, when he brought them out of Egypt;''and an Arabic writer e affirms the same, but without any foundation:

in Timnathserah, which is in Mount Ephraim; which was his city, and where he dwelt; and of which See Gill on Jos 19:50; and his grave was near the city; here, they say f, his father Nun, and Caleb also, were buried:

on the north side of the hill of Gaash; of the brooks or valleys of Gnash mention is made in 2Sa 23:30; which very probably were at the bottom of this hill.

Gill: Jos 24:31 - And the children of Israel served the Lord all the days of Joshua // and all the days of the elders that overlived Joshua // and which had known all the works of the Lord, that he had done for Israel And the children of Israel served the Lord all the days of Joshua,.... Without going into idolatrous practices: and all the days of the elders that...

And the children of Israel served the Lord all the days of Joshua,.... Without going into idolatrous practices:

and all the days of the elders that overlived Joshua; that lived a few years longer than he; some of them that came young out of Egypt, and were now elderly men; and some of them doubtless were of the court of the seventy elders; these could not overlive Joshua a great many years, for, in the times of Chushanrishathaim, Israel fell into idolatry, Jdg 2:6,

and which had known all the works of the Lord, that he had done for Israel; in Egypt, at the Red sea, in the wilderness, as well as since their coming into the land of Canaan.

Gill: Jos 24:32 - And the bones of Joseph, which the children of Israel brought up out of Egypt // buried they in Shechem // in a parcel of ground which Jacob bought of the sons of Hamor, the father of Shechem, for an hundred pieces of silver // and it became the inheritance of the children of Joseph And the bones of Joseph, which the children of Israel brought up out of Egypt,.... At the request, and by the order of Joseph, Gen 50:25; which were p...

And the bones of Joseph, which the children of Israel brought up out of Egypt,.... At the request, and by the order of Joseph, Gen 50:25; which were punctually observed by the children of Israel under the direction and command of Moses, and therefore is ascribed to him, as here to them, Exo 13:19,

buried they in Shechem; not in the city, but in a field near it, as the next clause shows. The Jews in their Cippi Hebraici say g, that Joseph was buried at a village called Belata, a sabbath day's journey from Shechem; but Jerom says h he was buried in Shechem, and his monument was to be seen there in his time. Not that they buried him at the same time Joshua was buried, but very probably as soon as the tribe of Ephraim was in the quiet possession of this place; though the historian inserts the account of it here, taking an occasion for it from the interment of Joshua:

in a parcel of ground which Jacob bought of the sons of Hamor, the father of Shechem, for an hundred pieces of silver; of which purchase See Gill on Gen 33:19,

and it became the inheritance of the children of Joseph; and particularly of the tribe of Ephraim by lot, agreeably to the gift and disposal of it by Jacob to Joseph; see Gill on Gen 48:22.

Gill: Jos 24:33 - And Eleazar the son of Aaron died // and they buried him in a hill that pertaineth to Phinehas his son // which was given him in Mount Ephraim And Eleazar the son of Aaron died,.... Very probably in a short time after Joshua; and, according to the Samaritan Chronicle i, he died as Joshua did,...

And Eleazar the son of Aaron died,.... Very probably in a short time after Joshua; and, according to the Samaritan Chronicle i, he died as Joshua did, gathered the chief men of the children of Israel a little before his death, and enjoined them strict obedience to the commands of God, and took his leave of them, and then stripped himself of his holy garments, and clothed Phinehas his son with them; what his age was is not said:

and they buried him in a hill that pertaineth to Phinehas his son; or in the hill of Phinehas; which was so called from him, and might have the name given it by his father, who might possess it before him, and what adjoined to it. The Jews in the above treatise say k, that at Avarta was a school of Phinehas in a temple of the Gentiles; that Eleazar was buried upon the hill, and Joshua below the village among the olives, and on this hill is said l to be a school or village of Phinehas:

which was given him in Mount Ephraim; either to Eleazar, that he might be near to Shiloh, where the tabernacle then was, as the cities given to the priests and Levites were chiefly in those tribes that lay nearest to Jerusalem; though the Jews say, as Jarchi and Kimchi relate, that Phinehas might come into the possession of that place through his wife, or it might fall to him as being a devoted field; but it is most likely it was given to his father by the children of Ephraim, for the reason before observed. The Talmudists say, that Joshua wrote his own book, which is very probable; yet the last five verses, Jos 24:29, must be written by another hand, even as the last eight verses in Deuteronomy, Deu 34:5, were written by him, as they also say; and therefore this is no more an objection to his being the writer of this book, than the addition of eight verses by him to Deuteronomy is to Moses being the writer of that; and the same Talmudists m also observe, that Jos 24:29, "Joshua the son of Nun, the servant of the Lord, died", &c. were written by Eleazar, and Jos 24:33, "and Eleazar, the son of Aaron, died", &c. by Phinehas, which is not improbable.

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki

NET Notes: Jos 24:2 Or “served.”

NET Notes: Jos 24:3 Or “through.”

NET Notes: Jos 24:4 Heb “I gave to Esau Mount Seir to possess it.”

NET Notes: Jos 24:5 Heb “by that which I did in its midst.”

NET Notes: Jos 24:7 Heb “many days.”

NET Notes: Jos 24:8 Or “took possession of.”

NET Notes: Jos 24:9 Or “to curse.”

NET Notes: Jos 24:10 Heb “hand.”

NET Notes: Jos 24:11 Or perhaps, “citizens.”

NET Notes: Jos 24:12 Heb “and it drove them out from before you, the two kings of the Amorites, not by your sword and not by your bow.” The words “I gave...

NET Notes: Jos 24:13 The words “the produce of” are supplied for clarification.

NET Notes: Jos 24:14 Or “and serve.”

NET Notes: Jos 24:15 Or “will serve.”

NET Notes: Jos 24:16 Or “can serve.”

NET Notes: Jos 24:17 Heb “and he guarded us in all the way in which we walked and among all the peoples through whose midst we passed.”

NET Notes: Jos 24:18 Or “will serve.”

NET Notes: Jos 24:19 This assertion obviously needs qualification, for the OT elsewhere affirms that God does forgive. Joshua is referring to the persistent national rebel...

NET Notes: Jos 24:20 Heb “after he did good for you.”

NET Notes: Jos 24:21 Or “will serve.”

NET Notes: Jos 24:22 Like witnesses in a court of law, Israel’s solemn vow to worship the Lord will testify against them in the divine court if the nation ever viola...

NET Notes: Jos 24:23 Heb “bend your heart toward.” The term לֵבָב (levav, “heart”) probably here refers to the people...

NET Notes: Jos 24:24 Heb “and listen to his voice.”

NET Notes: Jos 24:25 Heb “a statute and a judgment.”

NET Notes: Jos 24:27 Or “lest,” “so that you might not.”

NET Notes: Jos 24:28 Heb “And Joshua sent the people away, each to his inheritance.”

NET Notes: Jos 24:29 Heb “after these things.”

NET Notes: Jos 24:30 Heb “in the territory of his inheritance.”

NET Notes: Jos 24:31 Heb “who knew all the work of the Lord which he had done for Israel.”

NET Notes: Jos 24:32 Heb “and they became for the sons of Joseph an inheritance.” One might think “bones” is the subject of the verb “they be...

NET Notes: Jos 24:33 Heb “in Gibeah of Phinehas, his son, which had been given to him in the hill country of Ephraim.”

Geneva Bible: Jos 24:1 And Joshua gathered all the ( a ) tribes of Israel to Shechem, and called for the elders of Israel, and for their heads, and for their judges, and for...

Geneva Bible: Jos 24:2 And Joshua said unto all the people, Thus saith the LORD God of Israel, Your fathers dwelt on the other side of the ( c ) flood in old time, [even] Te...

Geneva Bible: Jos 24:7 And when they cried unto the LORD, he put darkness between you and the Egyptians, and brought the sea upon them, and covered them; and your eyes have ...

Geneva Bible: Jos 24:11 And ye went over Jordan, and came unto Jericho: and the ( e ) men of Jericho fought against you, the Amorites, and the Perizzites, and the Canaanites,...

Geneva Bible: Jos 24:14 Now therefore ( f ) fear the LORD, and serve him in sincerity and in truth: and put away the gods which your fathers served on the other side of the f...

Geneva Bible: Jos 24:15 And if it seem evil unto you to serve the LORD, choose you this day whom ye will serve; whether the gods which your fathers served that [were] on the ...

Geneva Bible: Jos 24:18 And the LORD drave out from before us all the people, even the Amorites which dwelt in the land: [therefore] will we also serve the LORD; ( h ) for he...

Geneva Bible: Jos 24:22 And Joshua said unto the people, Ye [are] witnesses ( i ) against yourselves that ye have chosen you the LORD, to serve him. And they said, [We are] w...

Geneva Bible: Jos 24:23 Now therefore put away, [said he], the strange ( k ) gods which [are] among you, and incline your heart unto the LORD God of Israel. ( k ) Out of you...

Geneva Bible: Jos 24:25 So Joshua ( l ) made a covenant with the people that day, and set them a statute and an ordinance in Shechem. ( l ) By joining God and the people tog...

Geneva Bible: Jos 24:27 And Joshua said unto all the people, Behold, this stone shall be a witness unto us; for it ( m ) hath heard all the words of the LORD which he spake u...

Geneva Bible: Jos 24:31 And Israel ( n ) served the LORD all the days of Joshua, and all the days of the elders that overlived Joshua, and which had known all the works of th...

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Rentang Ayat

Maclaren: Jos 24:19-28 - The National Oath At Shechem Joshua 24:19-28 We reach in this passage the close of an epoch. It narrates the last public act of Joshua and the last of the assembled people before ...

MHCC: Jos 24:1-14 - --We must never think our work for God done, till our life is done. If he lengthen out our days beyond what we expected, like those of Joshua, it is bec...

MHCC: Jos 24:15-28 - --It is essential that the service of God's people be performed with a willing mind. For LOVE is the only genuine principle whence all acceptable servic...

MHCC: Jos 24:29-33 - --Joseph died in Egypt, but gave commandment concerning his bones, that they should not rest in their grave till Israel had rest in the land of promise....

Matthew Henry: Jos 24:1-14 - -- Joshua thought he had taken his last farewell of Israel in the solemn charge he gave them in the foregoing chapter, when he said, I go the way of a...

Matthew Henry: Jos 24:15-28 - -- Never was any treaty carried on with better management, nor brought to a better issue, than this of Joshua with the people, to engage them to serve ...

Matthew Henry: Jos 24:29-33 - -- This book, which began with triumphs, here ends with funerals, by which all the glory of man is stained. We have here 1. The burial of Joseph, Jos 2...

Keil-Delitzsch: Jos 24:1-18 - -- Renewal of the Covenant at the National Assembly in Shechem. - Jos 24:1. Joshua brought his public ministry to a close, as Moses had done before him...

Keil-Delitzsch: Jos 24:19-20 - -- But in order to place most vividly before the minds of the people to what it was that they bound themselves by this declaration, that they might not...

Keil-Delitzsch: Jos 24:21 - -- The people adhered to their resolution. לא , minime , as in Jos 5:14, i.e., we will not serve other gods, but Jehovah.

Keil-Delitzsch: Jos 24:22-23 - -- Upon this repeated declaration Joshua says to them, "ye are witnesses against yourselves," i.e., ye will condemn yourselves by this your own testimo...

Keil-Delitzsch: Jos 24:24-25 - -- On the repeated and decided declaration of the people, "the Lord our God will we serve, and to His voice will we hearken," Joshua completed the cove...

Keil-Delitzsch: Jos 24:26-27 - -- All these things ( האלּה הדּברים are not merely the words spoken on both sides, but the whole ceremony of renewing the covenant) Joshua ...

Keil-Delitzsch: Jos 24:28 - -- Joshua then dismissed the people, each one to his inheritance. He had done all that was in his power to establish the people in fidelity to the Lord...

Keil-Delitzsch: Jos 24:29-33 - -- Death and Burial of Joshua and Eleazar. - With the renewal of the covenant Joshua had ended his vocation. He did not formally lay down his office, b...

Constable: Jos 22:1--24:33 - --III. JOSHUA'S LAST ACTS AND DEATH chs. 22--24 "Each of the final three chapters describes a single event. At fir...

Constable: Jos 24:1-28 - --C. Israel's second renewal of the covenant 24:1-28 "Joshua did not merely settle for a series of public ...

Constable: Jos 24:1 - --1. Preamble 24:1 Shechem was a strategic location for this important ceremony. Joshua called on ...

Constable: Jos 24:2-13 - --2. Historical prologue 24:2-13 Joshua introduced what follows as the words of Yahweh, Israel's G...

Constable: Jos 24:14-24 - --3. Covenant stipulations 24:14-24 On the basis of God's great acts for them (v. 14) Joshua appea...

Constable: Jos 24:25-28 - --4. Provisions for the preservation of the covenant 24:25-28 The covenant that Joshua made with t...

Constable: Jos 24:29-33 - --D. The death and burial of Joshua and Eleazar 24:29-33 These final verses record the end of Joshua's lif...

Guzik: Jos 24:1-33 - The Covenant Renewed Joshua 24 - The Covenant Renewed A. Joshua recounts God's great works on Israel's behalf. 1. (1) Joshua speaks to the nation again, through its lead...

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Pendahuluan / Garis Besar

JFB: Joshua (Pendahuluan Kitab) JOSHUA. The title of this book is derived from the pious and valiant leader whose achievements it relates and who is commonly supposed to have been it...

JFB: Joshua (Garis Besar) THE LORD APPOINTS JOSHUA TO SUCCEED MOSES. (Jos. 1:1-18) RAHAB RECEIVES AND CONCEALS THE TWO SPIES. (Jos 2:1-7) THE COVENANT BETWEEN HER AND THEM. (J...

TSK: Joshua (Pendahuluan Kitab) The Book of Joshua is one of the most important documents in the Old Testament. The rapid conquest of the Promised Land, and the actual settlement of...

TSK: Joshua 24 (Pendahuluan Pasal) Overview Jos 24:1, Joshua assembles the tribes at Shechem; Jos 24:2, A brief history of God’s benefits, from Terah; Jos 24:14, He renews the cov...

Poole: Joshua (Pendahuluan Kitab) BOOK OF JOSHUA THE ARGUMENT IT is not material to know who was the penman of this book, whether Joshua, as seems most probable from Jos 24:26 , o...

Poole: Joshua 24 (Pendahuluan Pasal) CHAPTER 24 Joshua assemble all the tribes at Shechem, Jos 24:1 . A brief history of God’ s benefits from Terah: he exhorts them faithfully to ...

MHCC: Joshua (Pendahuluan Kitab) Here is the history of Israel's passing into the land of Canaan, conquering and dividing it, under the command of Joshua, and their history until his ...

MHCC: Joshua 24 (Pendahuluan Pasal) (Jos 24:1-14) God's benefits to their fathers. (Jos 24:15-28) Joshua renews the covenant between the people and God. (Jos 24:29-33) Joshua's death, ...

Matthew Henry: Joshua (Pendahuluan Kitab) An Exposition, with Practical Observations, of The Book of Joshua I. We have now before us the history of the Jewish nation in this book and those tha...

Matthew Henry: Joshua 24 (Pendahuluan Pasal) This chapter concludes the life and reign of Joshua, in which we have, I. The great care and pains he took to confirm the people of Israel in the ...

Constable: Joshua (Pendahuluan Kitab) Introduction Title The name of this book in Hebrew, Greek, and English comes from the ...

Constable: Joshua (Garis Besar) Outline I. The conquest of the land chs. 1-12 A. Preparations for entering Canaan chs. 1-2 ...

Constable: Joshua Joshua Bibliography Aharoni, Yohanan. "The Province-List of Judah." Vetus Testamentum 9 (1959):225-46. ...

Haydock: Joshua (Pendahuluan Kitab) INTRODUCTION. THE BOOK OF JOSUE. This book is called Josue , because it contains the history of what passed under him, and, according to the comm...

Gill: Joshua (Pendahuluan Kitab) INTRODUCTION TO JOSHUA The Jews distinguish the prophets into former and latter; the first of the former prophets is Joshua, or Sepher Joshua, the ...

Gill: Joshua 24 (Pendahuluan Pasal) INTRODUCTION TO JOSHUA 24 This chapter gives us an account of another summons of the tribes of Israel by Joshua, who obeyed it, and presented thems...

Advanced Commentary (Kamus, Lagu-Lagu Himne, Gambar, Ilustrasi Khotbah, Pertanyaan-Pertanyaan, dll)


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