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Teks -- John 2:1-25 (NET)

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Turning Water into Wine
2:1 Now on the third day there was a wedding at Cana in Galilee. Jesus’ mother was there, 2:2 and Jesus and his disciples were also invited to the wedding. 2:3 When the wine ran out, Jesus’ mother said to him, “They have no wine left.” 2:4 Jesus replied, “Woman, why are you saying this to me? My time has not yet come.” 2:5 His mother told the servants, “Whatever he tells you, do it.” 2:6 Now there were six stone water jars there for Jewish ceremonial washing, each holding twenty or thirty gallons. 2:7 Jesus told the servants, “Fill the water jars with water.” So they filled them up to the very top. 2:8 Then he told them, “Now draw some out and take it to the head steward,” and they did. 2:9 When the head steward tasted the water that had been turned to wine, not knowing where it came from (though the servants who had drawn the water knew), he called the bridegroom 2:10 and said to him, “Everyone serves the good wine first, and then the cheaper wine when the guests are drunk. You have kept the good wine until now!” 2:11 Jesus did this as the first of his miraculous signs, in Cana of Galilee. In this way he revealed his glory, and his disciples believed in him.
Cleansing the Temple
2:12 After this he went down to Capernaum with his mother and brothers and his disciples, and they stayed there a few days. 2:13 Now the Jewish feast of Passover was near, so Jesus went up to Jerusalem. 2:14 He found in the temple courts those who were selling oxen and sheep and doves, and the money changers sitting at tables. 2:15 So he made a whip of cords and drove them all out of the temple courts, with the sheep and the oxen. He scattered the coins of the money changers and overturned their tables. 2:16 To those who sold the doves he said, “Take these things away from here! Do not make my Father’s house a marketplace!” 2:17 His disciples remembered that it was written, “Zeal for your house will devour me.” 2:18 So then the Jewish leaders responded, “What sign can you show us, since you are doing these things?” 2:19 Jesus replied, “Destroy this temple and in three days I will raise it up again.” 2:20 Then the Jewish leaders said to him, “This temple has been under construction for forty-six years, and are you going to raise it up in three days?” 2:21 But Jesus was speaking about the temple of his body. 2:22 So after he was raised from the dead, his disciples remembered that he had said this, and they believed the scripture and the saying that Jesus had spoken.
Jesus at the Passover Feast
2:23 Now while Jesus was in Jerusalem at the feast of the Passover, many people believed in his name because they saw the miraculous signs he was doing. 2:24 But Jesus would not entrust himself to them, because he knew all people. 2:25 He did not need anyone to testify about man, for he knew what was in man.
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Cana a town of Galilee 14 kilometers NE of Nazareth
 · Capernaum a town located on the northwest shore of the Sea of Galilee.
 · Galilee the region of Palestine north of Sameria and west of the upper Jordan River,a region west of Lake Galilee and north of the Jezreel Valley
 · Jerusalem the capital city of Israel,a town; the capital of Israel near the southern border of Benjamin
 · Jewish the people descended from Israel
 · Jews the people descended from Israel
 · Passover a Jewish religious feast. It may also refer to the lamb sacrificed and eaten at the feast.


Topik/Tema Kamus: Jesus, The Christ | Cana | JESUS CHRIST, 4B | Mary | Wine | Miracles | Water | UNCLEANNESS | Marriage-feasts | JESUS CHRIST, 4E1 | Temple | Marriage | DEBT; DEBTOR | Temple, Herod's | MIRACLE | TEMPLE, A2 | Feasts | BANQUET | Resurrection of Christ | WOMAN | selebihnya
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Robertson , Vincent , Wesley , JFB , Clarke , Calvin , Defender , TSK

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Maclaren , MHCC , Matthew Henry , Barclay , Constable , College , McGarvey , Lapide

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Evidence

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per frasa)

Robertson: Joh 2:1 - The third day The third day ( tēi hēmerāi tēi tritēi ). "On the day the third"(locative case), from the start to Galilee when Philip was found (Joh 1:43)...

The third day ( tēi hēmerāi tēi tritēi ).

"On the day the third"(locative case), from the start to Galilee when Philip was found (Joh 1:43), seven days since Joh 1:19.

Robertson: Joh 2:1 - There was a marriage There was a marriage ( gamos egeneto ). "A wedding (or marriage festival) took place."See Mat 22:8.

There was a marriage ( gamos egeneto ).

"A wedding (or marriage festival) took place."See Mat 22:8.

Robertson: Joh 2:1 - In Cana of Galilee In Cana of Galilee ( en Kana tēs Galilaias ). This town, the home of Nathanael (Joh 21:2), is only mentioned again in Joh 4:46 as the home of the n...

In Cana of Galilee ( en Kana tēs Galilaias ).

This town, the home of Nathanael (Joh 21:2), is only mentioned again in Joh 4:46 as the home of the nobleman. There was a Cana in Coele-Syria. It is usually located at Kefr Kenna (3-1/2 miles from Nazareth), though Ain Kana and Khirbet Kana are also possible. Bernard thinks that it was probably on Wednesday afternoon the fourth day of the week (usual day for marriage of virgins), when the party of Jesus arrived.

Robertson: Joh 2:1 - And the mother of Jesus was there And the mother of Jesus was there ( kai ēn hē mētēr tou Iēsou ekei ). When they arrived. John does not mention her name, probably because a...

And the mother of Jesus was there ( kai ēn hē mētēr tou Iēsou ekei ).

When they arrived. John does not mention her name, probably because already well known in the Synoptics. Probably Joseph was already dead. Mary may have been kin to the family where the wedding took place, an intimate friend clearly.

Robertson: Joh 2:2 - Jesus also was bidden Jesus also was bidden ( eklēthē kai ho Iēsous ). First aorist passive indicative of kaleō , "was also invited"as well as his mother and becau...

Jesus also was bidden ( eklēthē kai ho Iēsous ).

First aorist passive indicative of kaleō , "was also invited"as well as his mother and because of her presence, possibly at her suggestion.

Robertson: Joh 2:2 - And his disciples And his disciples ( kai hoi mathētai ). Included in the invitation and probably all of them acquaintances of the family. See note on Joh 1:35 for t...

And his disciples ( kai hoi mathētai ).

Included in the invitation and probably all of them acquaintances of the family. See note on Joh 1:35 for this word applied to John’ s followers. This group of six already won form the nucleus of the great host of "learners"through the ages who will follow Jesus as Teacher and Lord and Saviour. The term is sometimes restricted to the twelve apostles, but more often has a wider circle in view as in Joh 6:61, Joh 6:66; Joh 20:30.

Robertson: Joh 2:3 - When the wine failed When the wine failed ( husterēsantos oinou ). Genitive absolute with first aorist active participle of hustereō , old verb from husteros , late o...

When the wine failed ( husterēsantos oinou ).

Genitive absolute with first aorist active participle of hustereō , old verb from husteros , late or lacking. See same use in Mar 10:21. A longer Western paraphrase occurs in some manuscripts. It was an embarrassing circumstance, especially to Mary, if partly due to the arrival of the seven guests.

Robertson: Joh 2:3 - They have no wine They have no wine ( Oinon ouk echousin ). The statement of the fact was in itself a hint and a request. But why made by the mother of Jesus and why t...

They have no wine ( Oinon ouk echousin ).

The statement of the fact was in itself a hint and a request. But why made by the mother of Jesus and why to Jesus? She would not, of course, make it to the host. Mary feels some kind of responsibility and exercises some kind of authority for reasons not known to us. Mary had treasured in her heart the wonders connected with the birth of Jesus (Luk 2:19, Luk 2:51). The ministry of the Baptist had stirred her hopes afresh. Had she not told Jesus all that she knew before he went to the Jordan to be baptized of John? This group of disciples meant to her that Jesus had begun his Messianic work. So she dares propose the miracle to him.

Robertson: Joh 2:4 - Woman Woman ( gunai ). Vocative case of gunē , and with no idea of censure as is plain from its use by Jesus in Joh 19:26. But the use of gunai instead...

Woman ( gunai ).

Vocative case of gunē , and with no idea of censure as is plain from its use by Jesus in Joh 19:26. But the use of gunai instead of mēter (Mother) does show her she can no longer exercise maternal authority and not at all in his Messianic work. That is always a difficult lesson for mothers and fathers to learn, when to let go.

Robertson: Joh 2:4 - What have I to do with thee? What have I to do with thee? ( Ti emoi kai soi ). There are a number of examples of this ethical dative in the lxx (Judges 11:12; 2Sam 16:10; 1Kings ...

What have I to do with thee? ( Ti emoi kai soi ).

There are a number of examples of this ethical dative in the lxx (Judges 11:12; 2Sam 16:10; 1Kings 17:18; 2Kings 3:13; 2Chron 35:21) and in the N.T. (Mar 1:24; Mar 5:7; Mat 8:29; Mat 27:19; Luk 8:28). Some divergence of thought is usually indicated. Literally the phrase means, "What is it to me and to thee?"In this instance F.C. Burkitt ( Journal of Theol. Studies , July, 1912) interprets it to mean, "What is it to us?"That is certainly possible and suits the next clause also.

Robertson: Joh 2:4 - Mine hour is not yet come Mine hour is not yet come ( oupō hēkei hē hōra mou ). This phrase marks a crisis whenever it occurs, especially of his death (Joh 7:30; Joh 8...

Mine hour is not yet come ( oupō hēkei hē hōra mou ).

This phrase marks a crisis whenever it occurs, especially of his death (Joh 7:30; Joh 8:20; Joh 12:23; Joh 13:1; Joh 17:1). Here apparently it means the hour for public manifestation of the Messiahship, though a narrower sense would be for Christ’ s intervention about the failure of the wine. The Fourth Gospel is written on the plane of eternity (W. M. Ramsay) and that standpoint exists here in this first sign of the Messiah.

Robertson: Joh 2:5 - Unto the servants Unto the servants ( tois diakonois ). See note on Mat 20:26 for this word (our "deacon,"but not that sense here).

Unto the servants ( tois diakonois ).

See note on Mat 20:26 for this word (our "deacon,"but not that sense here).

Robertson: Joh 2:5 - Whatsoever he saith unto you, do it Whatsoever he saith unto you, do it ( Hoti an legēi humin poiēsate ). Indefinite relative sentence (hoti an and present active subjunctive, gen...

Whatsoever he saith unto you, do it ( Hoti an legēi humin poiēsate ).

Indefinite relative sentence (hoti an and present active subjunctive, general statement) with aorist active imperative of poieō for instant execution. Mary took comfort in the "not yet"(oupō ) and recognized the right of Jesus as Messiah to independence of her, but evidently expected him to carry out her suggestion ultimately as he did. This mother knew her Son.

Robertson: Joh 2:6 - Waterpots Waterpots ( hudriai ). Old word from hudōr (water) and used in papyri for pots or pans for holding money or bread as well as water. These stone (...

Waterpots ( hudriai ).

Old word from hudōr (water) and used in papyri for pots or pans for holding money or bread as well as water. These stone (lithinai as in 2Co 3:3) jars full of water were kept handy ( set there , keimenai , present middle participle of keimai ) at a feast for ceremonial cleansing of the hands (2Ki 3:11; Mar 7:3), "after the Jews’ manner of purifying"(kata ton katharismon tōn Ioudaiōn ). See Mar 1:44; Luk 2:22 for the word katharismos (from katharizō ) which fact also raised a controversy with disciples of John because of his baptizing (Joh 3:25).

Robertson: Joh 2:6 - Containing Containing ( chōrousai ). Present active participle feminine plural of chōreō , old verb from chōros , place, space, having space or room for...

Containing ( chōrousai ).

Present active participle feminine plural of chōreō , old verb from chōros , place, space, having space or room for.

Robertson: Joh 2:6 - Two or three firkins apiece Two or three firkins apiece ( ana metrētas duo ē treis ). The word metrētēs , from metreō , to measure, simply means "measurer,"an amphora ...

Two or three firkins apiece ( ana metrētas duo ē treis ).

The word metrētēs , from metreō , to measure, simply means "measurer,"an amphora for measuring liquids (in Demosthenes, Aristotle, Polybius), the Hebrew bath (2Ch 4:5), here only in N.T., about 8-1/2 English gallons. Each hudria thus held about 20 gallons. This common distributive use of ana occurs here only in this Gospel, but is in Rev 4:8. In Joh 4:28 a much smaller hudria was used for carrying water.

Robertson: Joh 2:7 - Fill Fill ( gemisate ). Effective first aorist active imperative of gemizō , to fill full.

Fill ( gemisate ).

Effective first aorist active imperative of gemizō , to fill full.

Robertson: Joh 2:7 - With water With water ( hudatos ). Genitive case of material.

With water ( hudatos ).

Genitive case of material.

Robertson: Joh 2:7 - Up to the brim Up to the brim ( heōs anō ). "Up to the top."See heōs katō (Mat 27:51) for "down to the bottom."No room left in the waterpots now full of w...

Up to the brim ( heōs anō ).

"Up to the top."See heōs katō (Mat 27:51) for "down to the bottom."No room left in the waterpots now full of water.

Robertson: Joh 2:8 - Draw out now Draw out now ( Antlēsate nun ). First aorist active imperative of antleō , from ho antlos , bilge water, or the hold where the bilge water settle...

Draw out now ( Antlēsate nun ).

First aorist active imperative of antleō , from ho antlos , bilge water, or the hold where the bilge water settles (so in Homer). The verb occurs in Joh 4:7, Joh 4:15, for drawing water from the well, and Westcott so interprets it here, but needlessly so, since the servants seem bidden to draw from the large water-jars now full of water. Apparently the water was still water when it came out of the jars (Joh 2:9), but was changed to wine before reaching the guests. The water in the jars remained water.

Robertson: Joh 2:8 - Unto the ruler of the feast Unto the ruler of the feast ( tōi architriklinōi ). Dative case. The triklinos was a room (oikos ) with three couches (klinē ) for the feas...

Unto the ruler of the feast ( tōi architriklinōi ).

Dative case. The triklinos was a room (oikos ) with three couches (klinē ) for the feast. The architriklinos was originally the superintendent of the dining-room who arranged the couches and tasted the food, not the toast-master (sumposiarchēs ).

Robertson: Joh 2:8 - And they bare it And they bare it ( hoi de ēnegkan ). Second aorist active indicative of pherō . Apparently not knowing at first that they bore wine.

And they bare it ( hoi de ēnegkan ).

Second aorist active indicative of pherō . Apparently not knowing at first that they bore wine.

Robertson: Joh 2:9 - Tasted Tasted ( egeusato ). First aorist middle indicative of geuomai . As it was his function to do.

Tasted ( egeusato ).

First aorist middle indicative of geuomai . As it was his function to do.

Robertson: Joh 2:9 - The water now become wine The water now become wine ( to hudōr oinon gegenēmenon ). Accusative case, though the genitive also occurs with geuomai . Perfect passive partici...

The water now become wine ( to hudōr oinon gegenēmenon ).

Accusative case, though the genitive also occurs with geuomai . Perfect passive participle of ginomai and oinon , predicative accusative. The tablemaster knew nothing of the miracle, "whence it was"(pothen estin , indirect question retaining present indicative). The servants knew the source of the water, but not the power that made the wine.

Robertson: Joh 2:9 - Calleth the bridegroom Calleth the bridegroom ( phōnei ton numphion ). As apparently responsible for the supply of the wine ( thou hast kept tetērēkas ). See Mat 9:...

Calleth the bridegroom ( phōnei ton numphion ).

As apparently responsible for the supply of the wine ( thou hast kept tetērēkas ). See Mat 9:15 for numphios . When men have drunk freely (hotan methusthōsin ). Indefinite temporal clause with hotan and first aorist passive subjunctive of methuskō . The verb does not mean that these guests are now drunk, but that this is a common custom to put "the worse"(ton elassō , the less, the inferior) wine last. It is real wine that is meant by oinos here. Unlike the Baptist Jesus mingled in the social life of the time, was even abused for it (Mat 11:19; Luk 7:34). But this fact does not mean that today Jesus would approve the modern liquor trade with its damnable influences. The law of love expounded by Paul in 1Cor 8-10 and in Rom 14, 15 teaches modern Christians to be willing gladly to give up what they see causes so many to stumble into sin.

Robertson: Joh 2:11 - This beginning of his signs did Jesus This beginning of his signs did Jesus ( tautēn epoiēsen archēn tōn sēmeiōn ho Iēsous ). Rather, "this Jesus did as a beginning of his s...

This beginning of his signs did Jesus ( tautēn epoiēsen archēn tōn sēmeiōn ho Iēsous ).

Rather, "this Jesus did as a beginning of his signs,"for there is no article between tautēn and archēn . "We have now passed from the ‘ witness’ of the Baptist to the ‘ witness’ of the works of Jesus"(Bernard). This is John’ s favourite word "signs"rather than wonders (terata ) or powers (dunameis ) for the works (erga ) of Jesus. Sēmeion is an old word from sēmainō , to give a sign (Joh 12:33). He selects eight in his Gospel by which to prove the deity of Christ (Joh 20:30) of which this is the first.

Robertson: Joh 2:11 - Manifested his glory Manifested his glory ( ephanerōsen tēn doxan autou ). First aorist (effective) active indicative of phaneroō , that glory of which John spoke i...

Manifested his glory ( ephanerōsen tēn doxan autou ).

First aorist (effective) active indicative of phaneroō , that glory of which John spoke in Joh 1:14.

Robertson: Joh 2:11 - Believed on him Believed on him ( episteusan eis auton ). First aorist active indicative of pisteuō , to believe, to put trust in, so common in John. These six dis...

Believed on him ( episteusan eis auton ).

First aorist active indicative of pisteuō , to believe, to put trust in, so common in John. These six disciples (learners) had already believed in Jesus as the Messiah (1:35-51). Now their faith was greatly strengthened. So it will be all through this Gospel. Jesus will increasingly reveal himself while the disciples will grow in knowledge and trust and the Jews will become increasingly hostile till the culmination.

Robertson: Joh 2:12 - He went down to Capernaum He went down to Capernaum ( katebē eis Kapharnaoum autos ). Second aorist active indicative of katabainō . Cana was on higher ground. This brief ...

He went down to Capernaum ( katebē eis Kapharnaoum autos ).

Second aorist active indicative of katabainō . Cana was on higher ground. This brief stay ( not many days , ou pollas hēmeras ) in this important city (Tell Hum) on the north shore of Galilee was with Christ’ s mother, brothers (apparently friendly at first) and the six disciples, all in the fresh glow of the glory manifested at Cana. Surely Mary’ s heart was full.

Robertson: Joh 2:13 - The passover of the Jews The passover of the Jews ( to pascha tōn Ioudaiōn ). The Synoptics do not give "of the Jews,"but John is writing after the destruction of the tem...

The passover of the Jews ( to pascha tōn Ioudaiōn ).

The Synoptics do not give "of the Jews,"but John is writing after the destruction of the temple and for Gentile readers. John mentions the passovers in Christ’ s ministry outside of the one when Christ was crucified, this one and one in Joh 6:4. There may be another (Joh 5:1), but we do not know. But for John we should not know that Christ’ s ministry was much over a year in length.

Robertson: Joh 2:14 - Those that sold Those that sold ( tous pōlountas ). Present active articular participle of pōleō , to sell. They were in the Court of the Gentiles within the t...

Those that sold ( tous pōlountas ).

Present active articular participle of pōleō , to sell. They were in the Court of the Gentiles within the temple precinct (en tōi hierōi ), but not in the naos or temple proper. The sacrifices required animals (oxen, boas , sheep, probata , doves, peristeras ) and "changers of money"(kermatistas , from kermatizō , to cut into small pieces, to change money, only here in N.T., late and rare). Probably their very presence in his Father’ s house angered Jesus. The Synoptics (Mar 11:15-17; Mat 21:12.; Luk 19:45.) record a similar incident the day after the Triumphal Entry. If there was only one, it would seem more natural at the close. But why could it not occur at the beginning also? Here it is an obvious protest by Christ at the beginning of his ministry as in the Synoptics it is an indignant outcry against the desecration. The cessation was only temporary in both instances.

Robertson: Joh 2:15 - A scourge of cords A scourge of cords ( phragellion ek schoiniōn ). The Latin flagellum . In papyri, here only in N.T. and note Latin l becomes r in Koiné. S...

A scourge of cords ( phragellion ek schoiniōn ).

The Latin flagellum . In papyri, here only in N.T. and note Latin l becomes r in Koiné. Schoiniōn is a diminutive of schoinos (a rush), old word for rope, in N.T. only here and Act 27:32.

Robertson: Joh 2:15 - Cast out Cast out ( exebalen ). Second aorist active indicative of ekballō . It is not said that Jesus smote the sheep and oxen (note te kai , both and), fo...

Cast out ( exebalen ).

Second aorist active indicative of ekballō . It is not said that Jesus smote the sheep and oxen (note te kai , both and), for a flourish of the scourge would answer.

Robertson: Joh 2:15 - He poured out He poured out ( execheen ). Second aorist active indicative of ekcheō , to pour out.

He poured out ( execheen ).

Second aorist active indicative of ekcheō , to pour out.

Robertson: Joh 2:15 - The changers’ money The changers’ money ( tōn kollubistōn ta kermata ). "The small pieces of money (kermata , cut in pieces, change) of the bankers (kollubiste...

The changers’ money ( tōn kollubistōn ta kermata ).

"The small pieces of money (kermata , cut in pieces, change) of the bankers (kollubistēs from kollubos , clipped, late word see note on Mat 21:12)."Perhaps he took up the boxes and emptied the money.

Robertson: Joh 2:15 - Overthrew their tables Overthrew their tables ( tas trapezas anetrepsen ). First aorist active indicative of anatrepō , to turn up, though some MSS. have anestrepsen fr...

Overthrew their tables ( tas trapezas anetrepsen ).

First aorist active indicative of anatrepō , to turn up, though some MSS. have anestrepsen from anastrephō , also to turn up.

Robertson: Joh 2:16 - Take these things hence Take these things hence ( Arate tauta enteuthen ). First aorist active imperative of airō . Probably the doves were in baskets or cages and so had ...

Take these things hence ( Arate tauta enteuthen ).

First aorist active imperative of airō . Probably the doves were in baskets or cages and so had to be taken out by the traders.

Robertson: Joh 2:16 - Make not my Father’ s house a house of merchandise Make not my Father’ s house a house of merchandise ( mē poieite ton oikon tou patros mou oikon emporiou ). "Stop making,"it means, mē and ...

Make not my Father’ s house a house of merchandise ( mē poieite ton oikon tou patros mou oikon emporiou ).

"Stop making,"it means, mē and the present active imperative. They had made it a market-house (emporiou , here only in N.T., old word from emporos , merchant, one who goes on a journey for traffic, a drummer). Note the clear-cut Messianic claim here (My Father as in Luk 2:49). Jerome says: "A certain fiery and starry light shone from his eyes and the majesty of Godhead gleamed in His face."

Robertson: Joh 2:17 - Remembered Remembered ( emnēsthēsan ). First aorist passive indicative of mimnēskō , to remind, "were reminded."Westcott notes the double effect of this...

Remembered ( emnēsthēsan ).

First aorist passive indicative of mimnēskō , to remind, "were reminded."Westcott notes the double effect of this act as is true of Christ’ s words and deeds all through John’ s Gospel. The disciples are helped, the traders are angered.

Robertson: Joh 2:17 - That it is written That it is written ( hoti gegrammenon estin ). Periphrastic perfect passive indicative of graphō retained in indirect discourse (assertion).

That it is written ( hoti gegrammenon estin ).

Periphrastic perfect passive indicative of graphō retained in indirect discourse (assertion).

Robertson: Joh 2:17 - The zeal of thine house The zeal of thine house ( ho zēlos tou oikou sou ). Objective genitive. "The zeal for thy house."

The zeal of thine house ( ho zēlos tou oikou sou ).

Objective genitive. "The zeal for thy house."

Robertson: Joh 2:17 - Shall eat me up Shall eat me up ( kataphagetai me ). Future middle indicative of katesthiō , defective verb, to eat down ("up"we say), perfective use of kata -. T...

Shall eat me up ( kataphagetai me ).

Future middle indicative of katesthiō , defective verb, to eat down ("up"we say), perfective use of kata -. This future phagomai is from the second aorist ephagon . It is a quotation from Psa 69:9, frequently quoted in the N.T.

Robertson: Joh 2:18 - What sign shewest thou unto us? What sign shewest thou unto us? ( Ti sēmeion deiknueis hēmin ). They may have heard of the "sign"at Cana or not, but they have rallied a bit on t...

What sign shewest thou unto us? ( Ti sēmeion deiknueis hēmin ).

They may have heard of the "sign"at Cana or not, but they have rallied a bit on the outside of the temple area and demand proof for his Messianic assumption of authority over the temple worship. These traders had paid the Sadducees and Pharisees in the Sanhedrin for the concession as traffickers which they enjoyed. They were within their technical rights in this question.

Robertson: Joh 2:19 - Destroy this temple Destroy this temple ( lusate ton naon touton ). First aorist active imperative of luō , to loosen or destroy. It is the permissive imperative, not ...

Destroy this temple ( lusate ton naon touton ).

First aorist active imperative of luō , to loosen or destroy. It is the permissive imperative, not a command to do it. Note also naos , not hieron , the sanctuary, symbol of God’ s naos , in our hearts (1Co 3:16.). There is much confusion about this language since Jesus added: "And in three days I will raise it up"(kai en trisin hēmerais egerō auton ). Those who heard Jesus, including the disciples till after the resurrection (Joh 2:22), understood the reference to be to Herod’ s temple. Certainly that is the obvious way to take it. But Jesus often spoke in parables and even in enigmas. He may have spoken of the literal temple as a parable for his own body which of course they would not understand, least of all the resurrection in three days.

Robertson: Joh 2:20 - Forty and six years was this temple in building Forty and six years was this temple in building ( Tesserakonta kai hex etesin oikodomēthē ho naos houtos ). "Within forty and six years (associat...

Forty and six years was this temple in building ( Tesserakonta kai hex etesin oikodomēthē ho naos houtos ).

"Within forty and six years (associative instrumental case) was built (first aorist passive indicative, constative or summary use of the aorist, of oikodomeō , without augment) this temple."As a matter of fact, it was not yet finished, so distrustful had the Jews been of Herod.

Robertson: Joh 2:20 - And wilt thou? And wilt thou? ( kai su ). An evident sneer in the use of su (thou, an unknown upstart from Galilee, of the peasant class, not one of the Sanhedrin...

And wilt thou? ( kai su ).

An evident sneer in the use of su (thou, an unknown upstart from Galilee, of the peasant class, not one of the Sanhedrin, not one of the ecclesiastics or even architects).

Robertson: Joh 2:21 - But he spake of the temple of his body But he spake of the temple of his body ( ekeinos de elegen peri tou naou tou sōmatos autou ). Emphatic he (ekeinos ) and imperfect tense (he had b...

But he spake of the temple of his body ( ekeinos de elegen peri tou naou tou sōmatos autou ).

Emphatic he (ekeinos ) and imperfect tense (he had been speaking). This is John’ s view as he looks back at it, not what he understood when Jesus spoke the words.

Robertson: Joh 2:22 - When therefore he was raised from the dead When therefore he was raised from the dead ( Hote oun ēgerthē ek nekrōn ). First aorist passive indicative of egeirō , to raise up. And not a...

When therefore he was raised from the dead ( Hote oun ēgerthē ek nekrōn ).

First aorist passive indicative of egeirō , to raise up. And not at first then, but only slowly after the disciples themselves were convinced. Then "they believed the Scripture"(episteusan tēi graphēi ). They "believed"again. Dative case graphēi . Probably Psa 16:10 is meant (Act 2:31; Act 13:35).

Robertson: Joh 2:22 - And the word which Jesus had said And the word which Jesus had said ( kai tōi logōi hon eipen ). Dative case logōi also, but hon (relative) is not attracted to the dative. C...

And the word which Jesus had said ( kai tōi logōi hon eipen ).

Dative case logōi also, but hon (relative) is not attracted to the dative. Clearly then John interprets Jesus to have a parabolic reference to his death and resurrection by his language in Joh 2:19. There are those who bluntly say that John was mistaken. I prefer to say that these scholars are mistaken. Even Bernard considers it "hardly possible"that John interprets Jesus rightly in Joh 1:21. "Had he meant that, He would have spoken with less ambiguity."But how do we know that Jesus wished to be understood clearly at this time? Certainly no one understood Christ when he spoke the words. The language of Jesus is recalled and perverted at his trial as "I will destroy"(Mar 14:58), "I can destroy"(Mat 26:61), neither of which he said.

Robertson: Joh 2:23 - In Jerusalem In Jerusalem ( en tois Ierosolumois ). The form Ierosoluma as in Joh 2:13 always in this Gospel and in Mark, and usually in Matthew, though Ierousa...

In Jerusalem ( en tois Ierosolumois ).

The form Ierosoluma as in Joh 2:13 always in this Gospel and in Mark, and usually in Matthew, though Ierousalēm only in Revelation, and both forms by Luke and Paul.

Robertson: Joh 2:23 - During the feast During the feast ( en tēi heortēi ). The feast of unleavened bread followed for seven days right after the passover (one day strictly), though to...

During the feast ( en tēi heortēi ).

The feast of unleavened bread followed for seven days right after the passover (one day strictly), though to pascha is used either for the passover meal or for the whole eight days.

Robertson: Joh 2:23 - Believed on his name Believed on his name ( episteusan eis to onoma autou ). See note on Joh 1:12 for this phrase. Only one has to watch for the real import of pisteuō ...

Believed on his name ( episteusan eis to onoma autou ).

See note on Joh 1:12 for this phrase. Only one has to watch for the real import of pisteuō .

Robertson: Joh 2:23 - Beholding his signs Beholding his signs ( theōrountes autou ta sēmeia ). Present active participle (causal use) of theōreō .

Beholding his signs ( theōrountes autou ta sēmeia ).

Present active participle (causal use) of theōreō .

Robertson: Joh 2:23 - Which he did Which he did ( ha epoiei ). "Which he was doing"(imperfect tense). He did his first sign in Cana, but now he was doing many in Jerusalem. Already Jes...

Which he did ( ha epoiei ).

"Which he was doing"(imperfect tense). He did his first sign in Cana, but now he was doing many in Jerusalem. Already Jesus had become the cynosure of all eyes in Jerusalem at this first visit in his ministry.

Robertson: Joh 2:24 - But Jesus did not trust himself to them But Jesus did not trust himself to them ( autos de Iēsous ouk episteuen hauton autois ). "But Jesus himself kept on refusing (negative imperfect) t...

But Jesus did not trust himself to them ( autos de Iēsous ouk episteuen hauton autois ).

"But Jesus himself kept on refusing (negative imperfect) to trust himself to them."The double use of pisteuō here is shown by Act 8:13 where Simon Magus "believed"(episteusen ) and was baptized, but was unsaved. He merely believed that he wanted what Philip had.

Robertson: Joh 2:24 - For that he knew all men For that he knew all men ( dia to auton ginōskein pantas ). Causal use of dia and the accusative case of the articular infinitive to ginōskein ...

For that he knew all men ( dia to auton ginōskein pantas ).

Causal use of dia and the accusative case of the articular infinitive to ginōskein (because of the knowing) with the object of the infinitive (pantas , all men) and the accusative of general reference (auton , as to himself).

Robertson: Joh 2:25 - And because he needed not And because he needed not ( kai hoti chreian eichen ). Imperfect active, "and because he did not have need."

And because he needed not ( kai hoti chreian eichen ).

Imperfect active, "and because he did not have need."

Robertson: Joh 2:25 - That any one should bear witness concerning man That any one should bear witness concerning man ( hina tis marturēsēi peri tou anthrōpou ). Non-final use of hina with first aorist active su...

That any one should bear witness concerning man ( hina tis marturēsēi peri tou anthrōpou ).

Non-final use of hina with first aorist active subjunctive of martureō and the generic article (peri tou anthrōpou ) concerning mankind as in the next clause also.

Robertson: Joh 2:25 - For he himself knew For he himself knew ( autos gar eginōsken ). Imperfect active, "for he himself kept on knowing"as he did from the start.

For he himself knew ( autos gar eginōsken ).

Imperfect active, "for he himself kept on knowing"as he did from the start.

Robertson: Joh 2:25 - What was in man What was in man ( ti ēn en tōi anthrōpōi ). Indirect question with estin of the direct changed to the imperfect ēn , a rare idiom in the ...

What was in man ( ti ēn en tōi anthrōpōi ).

Indirect question with estin of the direct changed to the imperfect ēn , a rare idiom in the Koiné. This supernatural knowledge of man is a mark of deity. Some men of genius can read men better than others, but not in the sense meant here.

Vincent: Joh 2:1 - The third day The third day Reckoning from the last day mentioned (Joh 1:43).

The third day

Reckoning from the last day mentioned (Joh 1:43).

Vincent: Joh 2:1 - A marriage A marriage ( γάμος ) Or marriage festival , including a series of entertainments, and therefore often found in the plural. See on Mat 22:...

A marriage ( γάμος )

Or marriage festival , including a series of entertainments, and therefore often found in the plural. See on Mat 22:2.

Vincent: Joh 2:1 - Cana of Galilee Cana of Galilee To distinguish it from Cana in Coelo-Syria.

Cana of Galilee

To distinguish it from Cana in Coelo-Syria.

Vincent: Joh 2:1 - Mother of Jesus Mother of Jesus Her name is never mentioned by John.

Mother of Jesus

Her name is never mentioned by John.

Vincent: Joh 2:1 - Was there Was there When Jesus arrived. Probably as an intimate friend of the family, assisting in the preparations.

Was there

When Jesus arrived. Probably as an intimate friend of the family, assisting in the preparations.

Vincent: Joh 2:2 - Was called Was called Rev., bidden . After His return from the Baptist.

Was called

Rev., bidden . After His return from the Baptist.

Vincent: Joh 2:2 - His disciples His disciples In honor of Jesus.

His disciples

In honor of Jesus.

Vincent: Joh 2:3 - They wanted wine They wanted wine ( ὑστερήσαντος οἴνου ) Literally, when the wine failed . So Rev., Wyc., and wine failing . ...

They wanted wine ( ὑστερήσαντος οἴνου )

Literally, when the wine failed . So Rev., Wyc., and wine failing . Some early authorities read: " they had no wine, for the wine of the marriage was consumed." Marriage festivals sometimes lasted a whole week (Gen 29:27; Jdg 14:15; Tobit 9:1-2; 10:1).

Vincent: Joh 2:3 - They have no wine They have no wine Implying a request for help, not necessarily the expectation of a miracle.

They have no wine

Implying a request for help, not necessarily the expectation of a miracle.

Vincent: Joh 2:4 - Woman Woman Implying no severity nor disrespect. Compare Joh 20:13, Joh 20:15. It was a highly respectful and affectionate mode of address.

Woman

Implying no severity nor disrespect. Compare Joh 20:13, Joh 20:15. It was a highly respectful and affectionate mode of address.

Vincent: Joh 2:4 - What have I to do with thee What have I to do with thee ( τί ἐμοὶ καὶ σοὶ ) Literally, what is there to me and to thee . See on Mar 5:7,...

What have I to do with thee ( τί ἐμοὶ καὶ σοὶ )

Literally, what is there to me and to thee . See on Mar 5:7, and compare Mat 8:29; Mat 27:19; Mar 1:24; Luk 8:28. It occurs often in the Old Testament, 2Sa 16:10; 1Ki 17:18, etc. Though in a gentle and affectionate manner, Jesus rejects her interference, intending to supply the demand in His own way. Compare Joh 6:6. Wyc., What to me and to thee , thou woman?

Vincent: Joh 2:4 - Mine hour is not yet come Mine hour is not yet come Compare Joh 8:20; Joh 12:23; Joh 13:1. In every case the coming of the hour indicates some crisis in the pers...

Mine hour is not yet come

Compare Joh 8:20; Joh 12:23; Joh 13:1. In every case the coming of the hour indicates some crisis in the personal life of the Lord, more commonly His passion. Here the hour of His Messianic manifestation (Joh 2:11).

Vincent: Joh 2:5 - Unto the servants Unto the servants ( διακόνοις ) See on Mat 20:26; see on Mar 9:35.

Unto the servants ( διακόνοις )

See on Mat 20:26; see on Mar 9:35.

Vincent: Joh 2:6 - Water-pots Water-pots ( ὑδρίαι ) Used by John only, and only in the Gospel, Joh 2:7; Joh 4:28. Water -pots is literally correct, as the word is f...

Water-pots ( ὑδρίαι )

Used by John only, and only in the Gospel, Joh 2:7; Joh 4:28. Water -pots is literally correct, as the word is from ὕδωρ , water .

Vincent: Joh 2:6 - Of stone Of stone Because less liable to impurity, and therefore prescribed by the Jewish authorities for washing before and after meals.

Of stone

Because less liable to impurity, and therefore prescribed by the Jewish authorities for washing before and after meals.

Vincent: Joh 2:6 - After the manner of the purifying, etc After the manner of the purifying, etc. That is, for the purifications customary among the Jews.

After the manner of the purifying, etc.

That is, for the purifications customary among the Jews.

Vincent: Joh 2:6 - Containing Containing ( χωροῦσαι ) From χῶρος , a place or space . Hence, to make room or give place , and so, to have spa...

Containing ( χωροῦσαι )

From χῶρος , a place or space . Hence, to make room or give place , and so, to have space or room for holding something .

Vincent: Joh 2:6 - Firkins Firkins ( μετρητὰς ) Only here in the New Testament. From μετρέω , to measure; and therefore, properly, a measurer . A l...

Firkins ( μετρητὰς )

Only here in the New Testament. From μετρέω , to measure; and therefore, properly, a measurer . A liquid measure containing nearly nine gallons.

Vincent: Joh 2:7 - Fill Fill ( γεμίσατε ) Compare Mar 4:37, and see on Luk 14:23.

Fill ( γεμίσατε )

Compare Mar 4:37, and see on Luk 14:23.

Vincent: Joh 2:8 - Draw out Draw out ( ἀντλήσατε ) From ἄντλος , the hold of a ship where the bilge-water settles , and hence, the ...

Draw out ( ἀντλήσατε )

From ἄντλος , the hold of a ship where the bilge-water settles , and hence, the bilge-water itself . The verb, therefore, originally, means to bale out bilge-water; thence, generally, to draw , as from a well (Joh 4:15). Canon Westcott thinks that the water which was changed into wine was not taken from the vessels of purification, but that the servants were bidden, after they had filled the vessels with water, to continue drawing from the well or spring.

Vincent: Joh 2:8 - Ruler of the feast Ruler of the feast ( ἀρχιτρικλίνῳ ) From ἄρχω , to be chief , and τρίκλινον , Latin, triclinium , a ...

Ruler of the feast ( ἀρχιτρικλίνῳ )

From ἄρχω , to be chief , and τρίκλινον , Latin, triclinium , a banqueting-hall with three couches (see on Mar 6:39). Some explain the word as meaning the superintendent of the banqueting-chamber , a servant whose duty it was to arrange the table-furniture and the courses, and to taste the food beforehand. Others as meaning one of the guests selected to preside at the banquet according to the Greek and Roman usage. This latter view seems to be supported by a passage in Ecclesiasticus (35:1, 2): " If thou be made the master of a feast, lift not thyself up, but be among them as one of the rest; take diligent care for them, and so sit down. And when thou hast done all thy office, take thy place, that thou mayst be merry with them, and receive a crown for thy well ordering of the feast." According to the Greek and Roman custom, the ruler of the feast was chosen by throwing the dice. Thus Horace, in his ode to his friend Sestius, says, moralizing on the brevity of life: " Soon the home of Pluto will be thine, nor wilt thou cast lots with the dice for the presidency over the wine." He prescribed the proportions of wine and water, and could also impose fines for failures to guess riddles, etc. As the success of the feast depended largely upon him, his selection was a matter of some delicacy. Plato says, " Must we not appoint a sober man and a wise to be our master of the revels? For if the ruler of drinkers be himself young and drunken, and not over-wise, only by some special good fortune will he be saved from doing some great evil" (" Laws," 640). The word occurs only here and Joh 2:9. Wyc. simply transcribes: architriclyn .

Vincent: Joh 2:10 - Have well drunk Have well drunk ( μεθυσθῶσι ) Wyc., be filled . Tynd., be drunk . The A.V. and Tynd. are better than the Rev. when men have...

Have well drunk ( μεθυσθῶσι )

Wyc., be filled . Tynd., be drunk . The A.V. and Tynd. are better than the Rev. when men have drunk freely . The ruler of the feast means that when the palates of the guests have become less sensitive through indulgence, an inferior quality of wine is offered. In every instance of its use in the New Testament the word means intoxication. The attempt of the advocates of the unfermented-wine theory to deny or weaken this sense by citing the well-watered garden (Isa 58:11; Jer 31:12) scarcely requires comment. One might answer by quoting Plato, who uses βαπτίζεσθαι , to be baptized , for being drunk (" Symposium," 176). In the Septuagint the verb repeatedly occurs for watering (Psa 65:9, Psa 65:10), but always with the sense of drenching or soaking; of being drunken or surfeited with water. In Jer 48:26 (Sept. 31:26), it is found in the literal sense, to be drunken . The metaphorical use of the word has passed into common slang, as when a drunken man is said to be wetted or soaked (so Plato, above). The figurative use of the word in the Septuagint has a parallel in the use of ποτίζω , to give to drink , to express the watering of ground. So Gen 2:6, a mist watered the face of the earth, or gave it drink. Compare Gen 13:10; Deu 11:10. A curious use of the word occurs in Homer, where he is describing the stretching of a bull's hide, which, in order to make it more elastic, is soaked (μεθύουσαν ) with fat (" Iliad," xvii. 390).

Vincent: Joh 2:10 - Worse Worse ( ἐλάσσω ) Literally, smaller . Implying both worse and weaker. Small appears in the same sense in English, as small-beer .

Worse ( ἐλάσσω )

Literally, smaller . Implying both worse and weaker. Small appears in the same sense in English, as small-beer .

Vincent: Joh 2:10 - Hast kept Hast kept ( τετήρηκας ) See on 1Pe 1:4.

Hast kept ( τετήρηκας )

See on 1Pe 1:4.

Vincent: Joh 2:11 - This beginning This beginning Or, more strictly, this as a beginning .

This beginning

Or, more strictly, this as a beginning .

Vincent: Joh 2:11 - Of miracles Of miracles ( σημείων ) Rev., correctly, signs . See on Mat 11:20; see on Mat 24:24. This act was not merely a prodigy (τέρας ...

Of miracles ( σημείων )

Rev., correctly, signs . See on Mat 11:20; see on Mat 24:24. This act was not merely a prodigy (τέρας ), nor a wonderful thing (θαυμάσιον ), nor a power (δύναμις ), but distinctively a sign , a mark of the doer's power and grace, and divine character. Hence it falls in perfectly with the words manifested His glory .

Vincent: Joh 2:11 - Believed on Him Believed on Him ( ἐπίστευσαν εἰς αὐτὸν ) See on Joh 1:12. Literally, believed into . Canon Westcott most aptly says ...

Believed on Him ( ἐπίστευσαν εἰς αὐτὸν )

See on Joh 1:12. Literally, believed into . Canon Westcott most aptly says that it conveys the idea of " the absolute transference of trust from one's self to another."

Vincent: Joh 2:12 - He went down He went down ( κατέβη ) Capernaum being on the lake shore, and Nazareth and Cana on the higher ground.

He went down ( κατέβη )

Capernaum being on the lake shore, and Nazareth and Cana on the higher ground.

Vincent: Joh 2:13 - The Jews' passover The Jews' passover On John's use of the term Jews , see on Joh 1:19. So it is used here with an under-reference to the national religion as cons...

The Jews' passover

On John's use of the term Jews , see on Joh 1:19. So it is used here with an under-reference to the national religion as consisting in mere ceremonies. The same hint underlies the words in Joh 2:6, " after the Jews' manner of purifying." Only John mentions this earliest passover of Christ's ministry. The Synoptists relate no incident of his ministry in Judaea, and but for the narrative of John, it could not be positively asserted that Jesus went up to Jerusalem during His public life until the time of His arrest and crucifixion.

Vincent: Joh 2:14 - The temple The temple ( ἱερῷ ) The temple inclosure: not the sanctuary (ναόξ ). See on Mat 9:5; see on Mar 11:16.

The temple ( ἱερῷ )

The temple inclosure: not the sanctuary (ναόξ ). See on Mat 9:5; see on Mar 11:16.

Vincent: Joh 2:14 - Those that sold Those that sold ( τοὺς πωλοῦντας ) The article defines them as a well-known class.

Those that sold ( τοὺς πωλοῦντας )

The article defines them as a well-known class.

Vincent: Joh 2:14 - Changers of money Changers of money ( κερματιστὰς ) Only here in the New Testament. The kindred noun κέρμα , money , which occurs only in Joh ...

Changers of money ( κερματιστὰς )

Only here in the New Testament. The kindred noun κέρμα , money , which occurs only in Joh 2:15, is from κείρω , to cut into bits , and means therefore small coin; " small change," of which the money-changers would require a large supply. Hence changers of money means, strictly, dealers in small change . Matthew and Mark use λυβιστής (see Joh 2:15), of which the meaning is substantially the same so far as regards the dealing in small coin; but with the difference that κόλλυβος , the noun from which it is derived, and meaning a small coin , is also used to denote the rate of exchange. This latter word therefore gives a hint of the premium on exchange, which John's word here does not convey. The money-changers opened their stalls in the country towns a month before the feast. By the time of the first arrivals of passover-pilgrims at Jerusalem, the country stalls were closed, and the money-changers sat in the temple (see on Mat 17:24; see on Mat 21:12; see on Mar 11:15). John's picture of this incident is more graphic and detailed than those of the Synoptists, who merely state summarily the driving out of the traders and the overthrow of the tables. Compare Mat 21:12, Mat 21:13; Mar 11:15-17; Luk 19:45, Luk 19:46.

Vincent: Joh 2:15 - A scourge A scourge ( φραγέλλιον ) Only here in the New Testament. Only John records this detail.

A scourge ( φραγέλλιον )

Only here in the New Testament. Only John records this detail.

Vincent: Joh 2:15 - Of small cords Of small cords ( ἐκ σχοινίων ) The Rev. omits small , but the word is a diminutive of σχοῖνος , a rush , and thence a ...

Of small cords ( ἐκ σχοινίων )

The Rev. omits small , but the word is a diminutive of σχοῖνος , a rush , and thence a rope of twisted rushes . The A.V. is therefore strictly literal. Herodotus says that when Croesus besieged Ephesus, the Ephesians made an offering of their city to Diana, by stretching a small rope (σχοινίον ) from the town wall to the temple of the goddess, a distance of seven furlongs (i., 26). The schoene was an Egyptian measure of length, marked by a rush-rope. See Herodotus, ii. 6. Some find in this the etymology of skein .

Vincent: Joh 2:15 - Drove out Drove out ( ἐξέβαλεν ) Literally, as Rev., cast out . See on Mat 10:34; see on Mat 12:35; see on Mar 1:12; see on Jam 2:25.

Drove out ( ἐξέβαλεν )

Literally, as Rev., cast out . See on Mat 10:34; see on Mat 12:35; see on Mar 1:12; see on Jam 2:25.

Vincent: Joh 2:15 - All All Referring to the animals . The A.V. makes the reference to the traders; but Rev., correctly, " cast all out - both the sheep and the oxen....

All

Referring to the animals . The A.V. makes the reference to the traders; but Rev., correctly, " cast all out - both the sheep and the oxen."

Vincent: Joh 2:15 - Money Money See on Joh 2:14.

Money

See on Joh 2:14.

Vincent: Joh 2:15 - Tables Tables Wyc., turned upside down the boards . See on Luk 19:23.

Tables

Wyc., turned upside down the boards . See on Luk 19:23.

Vincent: Joh 2:16 - My Father's house My Father's house See on Father's business , Luk 2:49, and compare Mat 23:38, where Jesus speaks of the temple as your house. The people had...

My Father's house

See on Father's business , Luk 2:49, and compare Mat 23:38, where Jesus speaks of the temple as your house. The people had made God's house their own.

Vincent: Joh 2:16 - Merchandise Merchandise ( ἐμπορίου ) Only here in the New Testament. The Synoptists say a den of robbers .

Merchandise ( ἐμπορίου )

Only here in the New Testament. The Synoptists say a den of robbers .

Vincent: Joh 2:17 - It was written It was written ( γεγραμμένον ἐστὶν ) Literally, it stands written . This form of the phrase, the participle with the s...

It was written ( γεγραμμένον ἐστὶν )

Literally, it stands written . This form of the phrase, the participle with the substantive verb, is peculiar to John in place of the more common γέγραπται . For a similar construction see Joh 3:21.

Vincent: Joh 2:17 - The zeal of thine house The zeal of thine house Jealousy for the honor of God's house. Zeal , ζῆλος , from ζέω , to boil . See on Jam 3:14.

The zeal of thine house

Jealousy for the honor of God's house. Zeal , ζῆλος , from ζέω , to boil . See on Jam 3:14.

Vincent: Joh 2:17 - Hath eaten me up Hath eaten me up ( κατέφαγέ με ) So the Sept., Psalms 68 (A.V., Psa 69:9). But the best texts read καταφάγεται , shal...

Hath eaten me up ( κατέφαγέ με )

So the Sept., Psalms 68 (A.V., Psa 69:9). But the best texts read καταφάγεται , shall eat up . So Rev., Wyc., " The fervor of love of thine house hath eaten me."

Vincent: Joh 2:18 - Answered Answered Often used in reply to an objection or criticism, or to something present in another's mind, as Joh 19:7, or Joh 3:3, where Jesus answer...

Answered

Often used in reply to an objection or criticism, or to something present in another's mind, as Joh 19:7, or Joh 3:3, where Jesus answers with reference to the error in Nicodemus' mind, rather than in direct reply to his address.

Vincent: Joh 2:18 - Destroy this temple Destroy this temple ( λύσατε τὸν ναὸν τοῦτον ) Destroy , Literally, loosen . Wyc., undo . See on Mar 13:2; see on L...

Destroy this temple ( λύσατε τὸν ναὸν τοῦτον )

Destroy , Literally, loosen . Wyc., undo . See on Mar 13:2; see on Luk 9:12; see on Act 5:38. Notice that the word for temple is ναὸν , sanctuary (see on Joh 2:14). This temple points to the literal temple, which is truly a temple only as it is the abode of God, hence sanctuary , but with a typical reference to Jesus' own person as the holy dwelling-place of God who " was in Christ." Compare 1Co 3:16, 1Co 3:17. Christ's death was therefore the pulling down of the temple, and His resurrection its rebuilding. The imperative in destroy is of the nature of a challenge. Compare fill ye up , Mat 23:32.

Vincent: Joh 2:20 - Forty and six years was this temple in building Forty and six years was this temple in building ( τεσσαράκοντα και¹̀ ἓξ ἔτεσιν ῷκοδομήθη ὁ να...

Forty and six years was this temple in building ( τεσσαράκοντα και¹̀ ἓξ ἔτεσιν ῷκοδομήθη ὁ ναὸς οὗτος )

Literally, In forty and six years was this temple built . It was spoken of as completed, although not finished until thirty-six years later.

Vincent: Joh 2:20 - Thou Thou The position of the Greek pronoun makes it emphatic.

Thou

The position of the Greek pronoun makes it emphatic.

Vincent: Joh 2:21 - He He ( ἐκεῖνος ) See on Joh 1:18. Emphatic, and marking the contrast between the deeper meaning of Jesus and the literalism of the Jews ...

He ( ἐκεῖνος )

See on Joh 1:18. Emphatic, and marking the contrast between the deeper meaning of Jesus and the literalism of the Jews and of His disciples (see next verse). For other illustrations of John's pointing out the meaning of words of Jesus which were not at first understood, see Joh 7:39; Joh 12:33; Joh 21:19.

Vincent: Joh 2:22 - Was risen Was risen ( ἠγέρθη ) Rev., more correctly, was raised . The same verb as in Joh 2:19, Joh 2:20.

Was risen ( ἠγέρθη )

Rev., more correctly, was raised . The same verb as in Joh 2:19, Joh 2:20.

Vincent: Joh 2:22 - Had said Had said ( ἔλεγεν ) Rev., more correctly, He spake . The best texts omit unto them .

Had said ( ἔλεγεν )

Rev., more correctly, He spake . The best texts omit unto them .

Vincent: Joh 2:22 - Believed the Scripture Believed the Scripture ( ἐπίστευσαν τῇ γραφῇ ) Notice that ἐπίοτευσαν , believed , is used here with ...

Believed the Scripture ( ἐπίστευσαν τῇ γραφῇ )

Notice that ἐπίοτευσαν , believed , is used here with the simple dative, and not with the preposition εἰς , into (see on Joh 1:12). The meaning is, therefore, they believed that the Scripture was true. On γραφή , a passage or section of Scripture, see on Mar 12:10.

In John, as elsewhere, the word almost always refers to a particular passage cited in the context. The only two exceptions are Joh 17:12; Joh 20:9. For the Old Testament, as a whole, John always uses the plural αἱ γραφαί . The passage referred to here is probably Psa 16:10. Compare Act 2:27, Act 2:31; Act 13:35.

Vincent: Joh 2:22 - The word The word The saying just uttered concerning the destruction of the temple.

The word

The saying just uttered concerning the destruction of the temple.

Vincent: Joh 2:23 - At the passover At the passover Note the omission of of the Jews (Joh 2:13).

At the passover

Note the omission of of the Jews (Joh 2:13).

Vincent: Joh 2:23 - In the feast-day In the feast-day ( ἐν τῇ ἑορτῇ ) Rev., during the feast . The feast of unleavened bread, during the seven days succeedi...

In the feast-day ( ἐν τῇ ἑορτῇ )

Rev., during the feast . The feast of unleavened bread, during the seven days succeeding the actual passover (see on Mar 14:1).

Vincent: Joh 2:23 - Believed on Believed on ( ἐπίστευσαν εἰς ) The stronger expression of faith (Joh 1:12).

Believed on ( ἐπίστευσαν εἰς )

The stronger expression of faith (Joh 1:12).

Vincent: Joh 2:23 - His name His name See on Joh 1:12. With the phrase believe on His name , compare believe on Him (Joh 8:30), which is the stronger expression,...

His name

See on Joh 1:12. With the phrase believe on His name , compare believe on Him (Joh 8:30), which is the stronger expression, indicating a casting of one's self upon Him; while to believe on the name is rather to believe in Him as being that which he claims to be, in this case the Messiah. It is believing recognition rather than appropriation . " Their faith in His name (as that of the Messiah) did not yet amount to any decision of their inner life for Jesus, but was only an opinion produced by the sight of His miracles, that He was the Messiah" (Meyer).

Vincent: Joh 2:23 - When they saw When they saw ( θεωροῦντες ) Rev., literally and rightly, beholding (see on Joh 1:14, Joh 1:29).

When they saw ( θεωροῦντες )

Rev., literally and rightly, beholding (see on Joh 1:14, Joh 1:29).

Vincent: Joh 2:23 - He did He did ( ἐποίει ) Better, was doing; the imperfect denoting the wonderful works as in progress .

He did ( ἐποίει )

Better, was doing; the imperfect denoting the wonderful works as in progress .

Vincent: Joh 2:24 - But Jesus But Jesus ( αὐτὸς δὲ ὁ Ἱησοῦς ) The αὐτὸς , which does not appear in translation, has the force of on His ...

But Jesus ( αὐτὸς δὲ ὁ Ἱησοῦς )

The αὐτὸς , which does not appear in translation, has the force of on His part , marking the contrast with those just mentioned.

Vincent: Joh 2:24 - Did not commit Did not commit ( οὐκ ἐπίστευτεν ) Rev., trust . There is a kind of word-play between this and ἐπίστευσαν , bel...

Did not commit ( οὐκ ἐπίστευτεν )

Rev., trust . There is a kind of word-play between this and ἐπίστευσαν , believed , in the preceding verse. Wyc. reproduces it: " Jesus himself believed not himself to them." He did not trust His person to them. Tynd., put not himself in their hands . " He had no faith in their faith" (Godet).

Vincent: Joh 2:24 - Because He knew Because He knew ( διὰ τὸ αὐτὸν γινώσκειν ) Literally, on account of the fact of His knowing . John de...

Because He knew ( διὰ τὸ αὐτὸν γινώσκειν )

Literally, on account of the fact of His knowing . John describes the Lord's knowledge by two words which it is important to distinguish. Γινώσκειν , as here, implies acquired knowledge; knowledge which is the result of discernment and which may be enlarged. This knowledge may be drawn from external facts (Joh 5:6; Joh 6:15) or from spiritual sympathy (Joh 10:14, Joh 10:27; Joh 17:25). Εἰδέναι (Joh 1:26) implies absolute knowledge: the knowledge of intuition and of satisfied conviction. Hence it is used of Christ's knowledge of divine things (Joh 3:11; Joh 5:32; Joh 7:29), Of the facts of His own being (Joh 6:6; Joh 8:14; Joh 13:1), and of external facts (Joh 6:61, Joh 6:64; Joh 13:11). In Joh 21:17 the two words appear together. Peter says to Jesus, appealing to His absolute knowledge, " Thou knowest (οἶδας ) all things:" appealing to his discernment , " Thou knowest or perceivest (γινώσκεις ) that I love Thee."

Vincent: Joh 2:25 - He needed not He needed not ( οὐ χρείαν εἰχεν ) Literally, he had not need .

He needed not ( οὐ χρείαν εἰχεν )

Literally, he had not need .

Vincent: Joh 2:25 - Testify Testify ( μαρτυρήσῃ ) Rev., better, bear witness . The same word is in Joh 1:7, Joh 1:8, Joh 1:15, Joh 1:32 (see on Joh 1:7).

Testify ( μαρτυρήσῃ )

Rev., better, bear witness . The same word is in Joh 1:7, Joh 1:8, Joh 1:15, Joh 1:32 (see on Joh 1:7).

Vincent: Joh 2:25 - Of man Of man ( περὶ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ) Better, as Rev., concerning man.

Of man ( περὶ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου )

Better, as Rev., concerning man.

Vincent: Joh 2:25 - He knew He knew ( αὐτὸς ἐγίνωσκεν ) The pronoun is expressed, and with a view to emphasis, as Rev., " He himself knew." The impe...

He knew ( αὐτὸς ἐγίνωσκεν )

The pronoun is expressed, and with a view to emphasis, as Rev., " He himself knew." The imperfect expresses continuance: He was all along cognizant as the successive cases presented themselves; thus falling in with the next words, " what was in the man," i . e ., in each particular man with whom He had to do. No such characteristic as this was attributed to the gods of Paganism. " While, then, the gift of anything like general foreknowledge appears to be withheld from all the deities of invention, that of 'the discerner of the thoughts and intents of the heart,' is nowhere found; nor was it believed of any member of the Olympian community, as it was said of One greater than they, 'He knew all men, and needed not that any should testify of man, for He knew what was in man,'" (Gladstone, " Homer and the Homeric Age," ii., 366).

Wesley: Joh 2:1 - And the third day After he had said this.

After he had said this.

Wesley: Joh 2:1 - In Cana of Galilee There were two other towns of the same name, one in the tribe of Ephraim, the other in Caelosyria.

There were two other towns of the same name, one in the tribe of Ephraim, the other in Caelosyria.

Wesley: Joh 2:2 - Jesus and his disciples were invited to the marriage Christ does not take away human society, but sanctifies it. Water might have quenched thirst; yet our Lord allows wine; especially at a festival solem...

Christ does not take away human society, but sanctifies it. Water might have quenched thirst; yet our Lord allows wine; especially at a festival solemnity. Such was his facility in drawing his disciples at first, who were afterward to go through rougher ways.

Wesley: Joh 2:3 - And wine falling short How many days the solemnity had lasted, and on which day our Lord came, or how many disciples might follow him, does not appear. His mother saith to h...

How many days the solemnity had lasted, and on which day our Lord came, or how many disciples might follow him, does not appear. His mother saith to him, They have not wine - Either she might mean, supply them by miracle; or, Go away, that others may go also, before the want appears.

Wesley: Joh 2:4 - Jesus saith to her, Woman So our Lord speaks also, Joh 19:26. It is probable this was the constant appellation which he used to her. He regarded his Father above all, not knowi...

So our Lord speaks also, Joh 19:26. It is probable this was the constant appellation which he used to her. He regarded his Father above all, not knowing even his mother after the flesh. What is it to me and thee? A mild reproof of her inordinate concern and untimely interposal.

Wesley: Joh 2:4 - Mine hour is not yet come The time of my working this miracle, or of my going away. May we not learn hence, if his mother was rebuked for attempting to direct him in the days o...

The time of my working this miracle, or of my going away. May we not learn hence, if his mother was rebuked for attempting to direct him in the days of his flesh, how absurd it is to address her as if she had a right to command him, on the throne of his glory? Likewise how indecent it is for us to direct his supreme wisdom, as to the time or manner in which he shall appear for us in any of the exigencies of life!

Wesley: Joh 2:5 - His mother saith to the servants Gathering from his answer he was about to do something extraordinary.

Gathering from his answer he was about to do something extraordinary.

Wesley: Joh 2:6 - The purifying of the Jews Who purified themselves by frequent washings particularly before eating.

Who purified themselves by frequent washings particularly before eating.

Wesley: Joh 2:9 - The governor of the feast The bridegroom generally procured some friend to order all things at the entertainment.

The bridegroom generally procured some friend to order all things at the entertainment.

Wesley: Joh 2:10 - And saith St. John barely relates the words he spoke, which does not imply his approving them.

St. John barely relates the words he spoke, which does not imply his approving them.

Wesley: Joh 2:10 - When they have well drunk does not mean any more than toward the close of the entertainment.

does not mean any more than toward the close of the entertainment.

Wesley: Joh 2:11 - And his disciples believed More steadfastly.

More steadfastly.

Wesley: Joh 2:14 - Oxen, and sheep, and doves Used for sacrifice: And the changers of money - Those who changed foreign money for that which was current at Jerusalem, for the convenience of them t...

Used for sacrifice: And the changers of money - Those who changed foreign money for that which was current at Jerusalem, for the convenience of them that came from distant countries.

Wesley: Joh 2:15 - Having made a scourge of rushes (Which were strewed on the ground,) he drove all out of the temple, (that is, the court of it,) both the sheep and the oxen - Though it does not appea...

(Which were strewed on the ground,) he drove all out of the temple, (that is, the court of it,) both the sheep and the oxen - Though it does not appear that he struck even them; and much less, any of the men. But a terror from God, it is evident, fell upon them.

Wesley: Joh 2:17 - -- Psa 69:9.

Wesley: Joh 2:18 - Then answered the Jews Either some of those whom he had just driven out, or their friends: What sign showest thou? - So they require a miracle, to confirm a miracle!

Either some of those whom he had just driven out, or their friends: What sign showest thou? - So they require a miracle, to confirm a miracle!

Wesley: Joh 2:19 - This temple Doubtless pointing, while he spoke, to his body, the temple and habitation of the Godhead.

Doubtless pointing, while he spoke, to his body, the temple and habitation of the Godhead.

Wesley: Joh 2:20 - Forty and six years Just so many years before the time of this conversation, Herod the Great had begun his most magnificent reparation of the temple, (one part after anot...

Just so many years before the time of this conversation, Herod the Great had begun his most magnificent reparation of the temple, (one part after another,) which he continued all his life, and which was now going on, and was continued thirty - six years longer, till within six or seven years of the destruction of the state, city, and temple by the Romans.

Wesley: Joh 2:22 - They believed the scripture, and the word which Jesus had said Concerning his resurrection.

Concerning his resurrection.

Wesley: Joh 2:23 - Many believed That he was a teacher sent from God.

That he was a teacher sent from God.

Wesley: Joh 2:24 - He did not trust himself to them Let us learn hence not rashly to put ourselves into the power of others. Let us study a wise and happy medium between universal suspiciousness and tha...

Let us learn hence not rashly to put ourselves into the power of others. Let us study a wise and happy medium between universal suspiciousness and that easiness which would make us the property of every pretender to kindness and respect.

Wesley: Joh 2:25 - He To whom all things are naked, knew what was in man - Namely, a desperately deceitful heart.

To whom all things are naked, knew what was in man - Namely, a desperately deceitful heart.

JFB: Joh 2:1 - third day He would take two days to reach Galilee, and this was the third.

He would take two days to reach Galilee, and this was the third.

JFB: Joh 2:1 - mother there It being probably some relative's marriage. John never names her [BENGEL].

It being probably some relative's marriage. John never names her [BENGEL].

JFB: Joh 2:3 - no wine Evidently expecting some display of His glory, and hinting that now was His time.

Evidently expecting some display of His glory, and hinting that now was His time.

JFB: Joh 2:4-5 - Woman No term of disrespect in the language of that day (Joh 19:26).

No term of disrespect in the language of that day (Joh 19:26).

JFB: Joh 2:4-5 - what . . . to do with thee That is, "In my Father's business I have to do with Him only." It was a gentle rebuke for officious interference, entering a region from which all cre...

That is, "In my Father's business I have to do with Him only." It was a gentle rebuke for officious interference, entering a region from which all creatures were excluded (compare Act 4:19-20).

JFB: Joh 2:4-5 - mine hour, &c. Hinting that He would do something, but at His own time; and so she understood it (Joh 2:5).

Hinting that He would do something, but at His own time; and so she understood it (Joh 2:5).

JFB: Joh 2:6 - firkins About seven and a half gallons in Jewish, or nine in Attic measure; each of these huge water jars, therefore, holding some twenty or more gallons, for...

About seven and a half gallons in Jewish, or nine in Attic measure; each of these huge water jars, therefore, holding some twenty or more gallons, for washings at such feasts (Mar 7:4).

JFB: Joh 2:7-8 - Fill . . . draw . . . bear Directing all, but Himself touching nothing, to prevent all appearance of collusion.

Directing all, but Himself touching nothing, to prevent all appearance of collusion.

JFB: Joh 2:9-10 - well drunk "drunk abundantly" (as Son 5:1), speaking of the general practice.

"drunk abundantly" (as Son 5:1), speaking of the general practice.

JFB: Joh 2:10 - the good wine . . . until now Thus testifying, while ignorant of the source of supply, not only that it was real wine, but better than any at the feast.

Thus testifying, while ignorant of the source of supply, not only that it was real wine, but better than any at the feast.

JFB: Joh 2:11 - manifested forth his glory Nothing in the least like this is said of the miracles of prophet or apostle, nor could without manifest blasphemy be said of any mere creature. Obser...

Nothing in the least like this is said of the miracles of prophet or apostle, nor could without manifest blasphemy be said of any mere creature. Observe, (1) At a marriage Christ made His first public appearance in any company, and at a marriage He wrought His first miracle--the noblest sanction that could be given to that God-given institution. (2) As the miracle did not make bad good, but good better, so Christianity only redeems, sanctifies, and ennobles the beneficent but abused institution of marriage; and Christ's whole work only turns the water of earth into the wine of heaven. Thus "this beginning of miracles" exhibited the character and "manifested forth the glory" of His entire Mission. (3) As Christ countenanced our seasons of festivity, so also that greater fulness which befits such; so far was He from encouraging that asceticism which has since been so often put for all religion. (4) The character and authority ascribed by Romanists to the Virgin is directly in the teeth of this and other scriptures.

JFB: Joh 2:12 - Capernaum On the Sea of Galilee. (See on Mat 9:1).

On the Sea of Galilee. (See on Mat 9:1).

JFB: Joh 2:12 - his mother and his brethren (See on Luk 2:51, and Mat 13:54-56).

(See on Luk 2:51, and Mat 13:54-56).

JFB: Joh 2:14-17 - in the temple Not the temple itself, as Joh 2:19-21, but the temple-court.

Not the temple itself, as Joh 2:19-21, but the temple-court.

JFB: Joh 2:14-17 - sold oxen, &c. For the convenience of those who had to offer them in sacrifice.

For the convenience of those who had to offer them in sacrifice.

JFB: Joh 2:14-17 - changers of money Of Roman into Jewish money, in which the temple dues (see on Mat 17:24) had to be paid.

Of Roman into Jewish money, in which the temple dues (see on Mat 17:24) had to be paid.

JFB: Joh 2:15 - small cords Likely some of the rushes spread for bedding, and when twisted used to tie up the cattle there collected. "Not by this slender whip but by divine maje...

Likely some of the rushes spread for bedding, and when twisted used to tie up the cattle there collected. "Not by this slender whip but by divine majesty was the ejection accomplished, the whip being but a sign of the scourge of divine anger" [GROTIUS].

JFB: Joh 2:15 - poured out . . . overthrew Thus expressing the mingled indignation and authority of the impulse.

Thus expressing the mingled indignation and authority of the impulse.

JFB: Joh 2:16 - my Father's house How close the resemblance of these remarkable words to Luk 2:49; the same consciousness of intrinsic relation to the temple--as the seat of His Father...

How close the resemblance of these remarkable words to Luk 2:49; the same consciousness of intrinsic relation to the temple--as the seat of His Father's most august worship, and so the symbol of all that is due to Him on earth--dictating both speeches. Only, when but a youth, with no authority, He was simply "a SON IN His own house"; now He was "a SON OVER His own house" (Heb 3:6), the proper Representative, and in flesh "the Heir," of his Father's rights.

JFB: Joh 2:16 - house of merchandise There was nothing wrong in the merchandise; but to bring it, for their own and others' convenience, into that most sacred place, was a high-handed pro...

There was nothing wrong in the merchandise; but to bring it, for their own and others' convenience, into that most sacred place, was a high-handed profanation which the eye of Jesus could not endure.

JFB: Joh 2:17 - eaten me up A glorious feature in the predicted character of the suffering Messiah (Psa 69:9), and rising high even in some not worthy to loose the latchet of His...

A glorious feature in the predicted character of the suffering Messiah (Psa 69:9), and rising high even in some not worthy to loose the latchet of His shoes. (Exo 32:19, &c.).

JFB: Joh 2:18-22 - What sign showest thou unto us, seeing that thou doest these things? Though the act and the words of Christ, taken together, were sign enough, they were unconvinced: yet they were awed, and though at His very next appea...

Though the act and the words of Christ, taken together, were sign enough, they were unconvinced: yet they were awed, and though at His very next appearance at Jerusalem they "sought to kill Him" for speaking of "His Father" just as He did now (Joh 5:18), they, at this early stage, only ask a sign.

JFB: Joh 2:19 - Destroy this temple, &c. (See on Mar 14:58-59).

(See on Mar 14:58-59).

JFB: Joh 2:20 - Forty and six years From the eighteenth year of Herod till then was just forty-six years [JOSEPHUS, Antiquities, 15.11.1].

From the eighteenth year of Herod till then was just forty-six years [JOSEPHUS, Antiquities, 15.11.1].

JFB: Joh 2:21 - temple of his body In which was enshrined the glory of the eternal Word. (See on Joh 1:14). By its resurrection the true Temple of God upon earth was reared up, of which...

In which was enshrined the glory of the eternal Word. (See on Joh 1:14). By its resurrection the true Temple of God upon earth was reared up, of which the stone one was but a shadow; so that the allusion is not quite exclusively to Himself, but takes in that Temple of which He is the foundation, and all believers are the "lively stones." (1Pe 2:4-5).

JFB: Joh 2:22 - believed the scripture On this subject; that is, what was meant, which was hid from them till then. Mark (1) The act by which Christ signalized His first public appearance i...

On this subject; that is, what was meant, which was hid from them till then. Mark (1) The act by which Christ signalized His first public appearance in the Temple. Taking "His fan in His hand, He purges His floor," not thoroughly indeed, but enough to foreshadow His last act towards that faithless people--to sweep them out of God's house. (2) The sign of His authority to do this is the announcement, at this first outset of His ministry, of that coming death by their hands, and resurrection by His own, which were to pave the way for their judicial ejection.

JFB: Joh 2:23-25 - in the feast day The foregoing things occurring probably before the feast began.

The foregoing things occurring probably before the feast began.

JFB: Joh 2:23-25 - many believed Superficially, struck merely by "the miracles He did." Of these we have no record.

Superficially, struck merely by "the miracles He did." Of these we have no record.

JFB: Joh 2:24 - did not commit "entrust," or let Himself down familiarly to them, as to His genuine disciples.

"entrust," or let Himself down familiarly to them, as to His genuine disciples.

JFB: Joh 2:25 - knew what was in man It is impossible for language more clearly to assert of Christ what in Jer 17:9-10, and elsewhere, is denied of all mere creatures.

It is impossible for language more clearly to assert of Christ what in Jer 17:9-10, and elsewhere, is denied of all mere creatures.

Clarke: Joh 2:1 - Cana of Galilee Cana of Galilee - This was a small city in the tribe of Asher, Jos 19:28, and by saying this was Cana of Galilee, the evangelist distinguishes it fr...

Cana of Galilee - This was a small city in the tribe of Asher, Jos 19:28, and by saying this was Cana of Galilee, the evangelist distinguishes it from another Cana, which was in the tribe of Ephraim, in the Samaritan country. See Jos 16:8; Jos 17:9

Some suppose that the third day, mentioned here, refers to the third day of the marriage feast: such feasts lasting among the Jews seven days. See Jdg 14:12, Jdg 14:17, Jdg 14:18, and Bishop Pearce

Clarke: Joh 2:1 - The mother of Jesus was there The mother of Jesus was there - Some of the ancients have thought that this was the marriage of John the evangelist, who is supposed to have been a ...

The mother of Jesus was there - Some of the ancients have thought that this was the marriage of John the evangelist, who is supposed to have been a near relative of our Lord. See the sketch of his life prefixed to these notes.

Clarke: Joh 2:2 - And both Jesus was called, and his disciples And both Jesus was called, and his disciples - There are several remarkable circumstances here 1.    This was probably the first Chri...

And both Jesus was called, and his disciples - There are several remarkable circumstances here

1.    This was probably the first Christian wedding that was ever in the world

2.    The great Author of the Christian religion, with his disciples, (probably then only four or five in number, see Joh 1:37, etc.), were invited to it

3.    The first miracle Jesus Christ wrought was at it, and in honor of it

4.    The mother of Christ, the most pure of all virgins, the most holy of all wives, and the first Christian mother, was also at it

5.    The marriage was according to God, or these holy persons would not have attended it

6.    The bride and bridegroom must have been a holy pair, otherwise they would have had nothing to do with such holy company

Marriage is ever honorable in itself; but it is not at all times used honourably. Where Jesus is not invited to bless the union, no good can be expected; and where the disciples of sin and Satan are preferred to the disciples of Christ, on such occasions, it is a melancholy intimation that so bad a beginning will have a bad ending. I am afraid we may search long, before we find a marriage conducted on such principles as this appears to have been, even among those who make more than a common profession of the religion of Christ.

Clarke: Joh 2:3 - They have no wine They have no wine - Though the blessed virgin is supposed to have never seen her son work a miracle before this time, yet she seems to have expected...

They have no wine - Though the blessed virgin is supposed to have never seen her son work a miracle before this time, yet she seems to have expected him to do something extraordinary on this occasion; as, from her acquaintance with him, she must have formed some adequate idea of his power and goodness.

Clarke: Joh 2:4 - Woman, what have I to do with thee? Woman, what have I to do with thee? - Τι εμοι και σοι, γυναι : O, woman, what is this to thee and me? This is an abrupt denial, as...

Woman, what have I to do with thee? - Τι εμοι και σοι, γυναι : O, woman, what is this to thee and me? This is an abrupt denial, as if he had said: "We are not employed to provide the necessaries for this feast: this matter belongs to others, who should have made a proper and sufficient provision for the persons they had invited."The words seem to convey a reproof to the virgin, for meddling with that which did not particularly concern her. The holiest persons are always liable to errors of judgment: and should ever conduct themselves with modesty and humility, especially in those things in which the providence of God is particularly concerned. But here indeed there appears to be no blame. It is very likely the bride or bridegroom’ s family were relatives of the blessed virgin; and she would naturally suppose that our Lord would feel interested for the honor and comfort of the family, and, knowing that he possessed extraordinary power, made this application to him to come forward to their assistance. Our Lord’ s answer to his mother, if properly translated, is far from being disrespectful. He addresses the virgin as he did the Syrophoenician woman, Mat 15:28; as he did the Samaritan woman, Joh 4:21, as he addressed his disconsolate mother when he hung upon the cross, Joh 19:26; as he did his most affectionate friend Mary Magdalene, Joh 20:15, and as the angels had addressed her before, Joh 20:13; and as St. Paul does the believing Christian woman, 1Co 7:16; in all which places the same term, γυναι which occurs in this verse, is used; and where certainly no kind of disrespect is intended, but, on the contrary, complaisance, affability, tenderness, and concern and in this sense it is used in the best Greek writers

Clarke: Joh 2:4 - Mine hour is not yet come Mine hour is not yet come - Or, my time, for in this sense the word ὡρα is often taken. My time for working a miracle is not yet fully come. ...

Mine hour is not yet come - Or, my time, for in this sense the word ὡρα is often taken. My time for working a miracle is not yet fully come. What I do, I do when necessary, and not before. Nature is unsteady - full of haste; and ever blundering, in consequence. It is the folly and sin of men that they are ever finding fault with the Divine providence. According to them, God never does any thing in due time - he is too early or too late: whereas it is utterly impossible for the Divine wisdom to forestall itself; or for the Divine goodness to delay what is necessary.

Clarke: Joh 2:5 - His mother saith, etc. His mother saith, etc. - The virgin seems to have understood our Lord as hinted above. It was not yet time to grant them a supply, because the want ...

His mother saith, etc. - The virgin seems to have understood our Lord as hinted above. It was not yet time to grant them a supply, because the want had not as yet been generally felt. But, silently receiving the respectful caution, she saw that the miracle should be wrought when it best suited the purposes of the Divine wisdom.

Clarke: Joh 2:6 - After the manner of the purifying of the Jews After the manner of the purifying of the Jews - Or, for the purpose of the purifying of the Jews. The preposition κατα, which I have translated...

After the manner of the purifying of the Jews - Or, for the purpose of the purifying of the Jews. The preposition κατα, which I have translated, for the purpose, often denotes in the best Greek writers the final cause of a thing. See several examples produced by Raphelius, from Arrian and Herodotus. These six vessels were set in a convenient place, for the purpose of the Jews washing their hands before they sat down to meat, and probably for other purposes of purification. See this custom referred to in Mat 15:2 (note). As to the number six, we need seek for no mystery in it; the number of pots was proportioned to the number of the guests

Clarke: Joh 2:6 - Containing two or three firkins apiece Containing two or three firkins apiece - Measures or metretes, μετρητας . Bishop Cumberland supposes that the Syrian metretes is here meant...

Containing two or three firkins apiece - Measures or metretes, μετρητας . Bishop Cumberland supposes that the Syrian metretes is here meant, which he computes to have held seven pints and one eighth of a pint; and, if this computation be right, the whole six water pots might have contained about fourteen gallons and a quart. Others make each metretes to contain ten gallons and two pints: see Arbuthnot. But the contents of the measures of the ancients are so very uncertain that it is best, in this and numberless other cases, to attempt to determine nothing.

Clarke: Joh 2:8 - Governor of the feast Governor of the feast - The original word, αρχιτρικλινος, signifies one who is chief or head over three couches, or tables. In the Asi...

Governor of the feast - The original word, αρχιτρικλινος, signifies one who is chief or head over three couches, or tables. In the Asiatic countries, they take their meals sitting, or rather reclining, on small low couches. And when many people are present, so that they cannot all eat together, three of these low tables or couches are put together in form of a crescent, and some one of the guests is appointed to take charge of the persons who sit at these tables. Hence the appellation of architriclinus , the chief over three couches or tables, which in process of time became applied to the governor or steward of a feast, let the guests be many or few; and such person, having conducted the business well, had a festive crown put on his head by the guests, at the conclusion of the feast. See Ecclesiasticus, 32:1-3. It is very common for the Hindoos to appoint a person who is expert in conducting the ceremonies of a feast to manage as governor. This person is seldom the master of the house

Clarke: Joh 2:8 - And they bare it And they bare it - A question has been asked, "Did our Lord turn all the water into wine which the six measures contained?"To which I answer: There ...

And they bare it - A question has been asked, "Did our Lord turn all the water into wine which the six measures contained?"To which I answer: There is no proof that he did; and I take it for granted that he did not. It may be asked, "How could a part be turned into wine, and not the whole?"To which I answer: The water, in all likelihood, was changed into wine as it was drawn out, and not otherwise. "But did not our Lord by this miracle minister to vice, by producing an excess of inebriating liquor?"No; for the following reasons

1.    The company was a select and holy company, where no excess could be permitted. And

2.    Our Lord does not appear to have furnished any extra quantity, but only what was necessary. "But it is intimated in the text that the guests were nearly intoxicated before this miraculous addition to their wine took place; for the evangelist says, ὁταν μεθυσθωσι, when they have become intoxicated."I answer

1.    It is not intimated, even in the most indirect manner, that these guests were at all intoxicated

2.    The words are not spoken of the persons at that wedding at all: the governor of the feast only states that such was the common custom at feasts of this nature; without intimating that any such custom prevailed there

3.    The original word bears a widely different meaning from that which the objection forces upon it. The verbs μεθυσκω and μεθυω, from μεθυ, wine, which, from μετα θυειν, to drink after sacrificing, signify not only to inebriate, but to take wine, to drink wine, to drink enough: and in this sense the verb is evidently used in the Septuagint, Gen 43:34; Son 5:1; 1 Maccabees 16:16; Hag 1:6; Ecclus. 1:16. And the Prophet Isaiah, Isa 58:11, speaking of the abundant blessings of the godly, compares them to a watered garden, which the Septuagint translate, ὡς κηπος μεθυων, by which is certainly understood, not a garden drowned with water, but one sufficiently saturated with it, not having one drop too much, nor too little.

Clarke: Joh 2:10 - The good wine until now The good wine until now - That which our Lord now made being perfectly pure, and highly nutritive!

The good wine until now - That which our Lord now made being perfectly pure, and highly nutritive!

Clarke: Joh 2:11 - This beginning of miracles This beginning of miracles - It was probably the first he ever wrought: - at any rate, it was the first he wrought after his baptism, and the first ...

This beginning of miracles - It was probably the first he ever wrought: - at any rate, it was the first he wrought after his baptism, and the first he wrought publicly

Clarke: Joh 2:11 - His glory His glory - His supreme Divinity: Joh 1:14

His glory - His supreme Divinity: Joh 1:14

Clarke: Joh 2:11 - His disciples believed on him His disciples believed on him - Were more abundantly confirmed in their faith, that he was either the promised Messiah, or a most extraordinary prop...

His disciples believed on him - Were more abundantly confirmed in their faith, that he was either the promised Messiah, or a most extraordinary prophet, in the fullest intercourse with the ever blessed God.

Clarke: Joh 2:13 - And the Jews’ passover was at hand And the Jews’ passover was at hand - This was the reason why he stayed but a few days at Capernaum, Joh 2:12, as he wished to be present at th...

And the Jews’ passover was at hand - This was the reason why he stayed but a few days at Capernaum, Joh 2:12, as he wished to be present at the celebration of this feast at Jerusalem

This was the first passover after Christ’ s baptism. The second is mentioned, Luk 6:1. The third, Joh 6:4. And the fourth, which was that at which he was crucified, Joh 11:55. From which it appears

1.    That our blessed Lord continued his public ministry about three years and a half, according to the prophecy of Daniel, Dan 9:27. And

2.    That, having been baptized about the beginning of his thirtieth year, he was crucified precisely in the middle of his thirty-third. See Martin.

Clarke: Joh 2:14 - Found in the temple those that sold oxen, etc. Found in the temple those that sold oxen, etc. - This is a similar fact to that mentioned Mat 21:12; Mar 11:15; Luk 19:45. See it explained on Mat 2...

Found in the temple those that sold oxen, etc. - This is a similar fact to that mentioned Mat 21:12; Mar 11:15; Luk 19:45. See it explained on Mat 21:12 (note). If it be the same fact, then John anticipates three years of time in relating it here; as that cleansing of the temple mentioned by the other evangelists took place in the last week of our Lord’ s life. Mr. Mann, Dr. Priestley, and Bp. Pearce, contend that our Lord cleansed the temple only once; and that was at the last passover. Calvin, Mr. Mede, L’ Enfant and Beausobre, Dr. Lardner, Bp. Hurd, and Bp. Newcome, contend that he purged the temple twice; and that this, mentioned by John, was the first cleansing, which none of the other evangelists have mentioned. Let the reader, says Bp. Newcome, observe the order of events

"Jesus works his first miracle at Cana of Galilee, Joh 2:11; then he passes a few days at Capernaum, which bring him on his way to Jerusalem, Joh 2:12. The passover being near, he goes up to Jerusalem, Joh 2:13, and casts the traders out of the temple, Joh 2:15, Joh 2:16, At the passover he works many miracles, Joh 2:23. While he is in Jerusalem, which city he does not leave till, Joh 3:22, Nicodemus comes to him by night, Joh 3:1, Joh 3:2. Joh 3:2 contains a reference to Joh 2:23. After these things, Jesus departs from Jerusalem, and dwells and baptizes in Judea, Joh 3:22. And all these incidents take place before John was cast into prison, Joh 3:24. But the second cleansing of the temple happens most clearly during the last week of our Lord’ s life, after the death of the Baptist, and at a time when it would be absurd to say that afterwards Jesus dwelt and baptized in Judea.

The vindication of God’ s house from profanation was the first and the last care of our Lord; and it is probable he began and finished his public ministry by this significant act

It certainly appears that John directly asserts an early cleansing of the temple, by the series of his history; as the other three evangelists assert a later cleansing of it. And though the act mentioned here seems to be nearly the same with that mentioned by the other evangelists, yet there are some differences. St. John alone mentions the scourge of rushes, and the casting out of the sheep and oxen. Besides, there is a considerable difference in our Lord’ s manner of doing it: in the cleansing mentioned by the three evangelists, he assumes a vast deal of authority, and speaks more pointedly concerning himself, than he appears to do in this cleansing mentioned by St. John: the reason which has been given is, In the first cleansing he was just entering upon his public ministry, and therefore avoided (as much as was consistent with the accomplishment of his work) the giving any offense to the Jewish rulers; but, in the last cleansing, he was just concluding his ministry, being about to offer up his life for the salvation of the world, in consequence of which he speaks fully and without reserve. For answers to all the objections made against two cleansings of the temple, see the notes at the end of Bp. Newcome’ s Greek Harmony of the Gospels, pp. 7-9.

Clarke: Joh 2:17 - The zeal of thine house The zeal of thine house - See Psa 59:10. Zeal to promote thy glory, and to keep thy worship pure.

The zeal of thine house - See Psa 59:10. Zeal to promote thy glory, and to keep thy worship pure.

Clarke: Joh 2:18 - What sign showest thou What sign showest thou - See on Mat 12:38 (note); Mat 16:1 (note). When Moses came to deliver Israel, he gave signs, or miracles, that he acted unde...

What sign showest thou - See on Mat 12:38 (note); Mat 16:1 (note). When Moses came to deliver Israel, he gave signs, or miracles, that he acted under a Divine commission. What miracle dost thou work to show us that thou art vested with similar authority?

Clarke: Joh 2:19 - Destroy this temple Destroy this temple - Τον ναον τουτον, This very temple; perhaps pointing to his body at the same time.

Destroy this temple - Τον ναον τουτον, This very temple; perhaps pointing to his body at the same time.

Clarke: Joh 2:20 - Forty and six years was this temple in building Forty and six years was this temple in building - The temple of which the Jews spake was begun to be rebuilt by Herod the Great, in the 18th year of...

Forty and six years was this temple in building - The temple of which the Jews spake was begun to be rebuilt by Herod the Great, in the 18th year of his reign: Josephus. Ant. b. xv. c. 11, s. 1; and xx. c. 9, s. 5, 7. But though he finished the main work in nine years and a half, yet some additional buildings or repairs were constantly carried on for many years afterwards. Herod began the work sixteen years before the birth of our Lord: the transactions which are here related took place in the thirtieth year of our Lord, which make the term exactly forty-six years. Rosenmuller. Josephus, Ant. b. xx. c. 8, s. 5, 7, has told us that the whole of the buildings belonging to the temple were not finished till Nero’ s reign, when Albinus, the governor of Judea, was succeeded by Gessius Florus, which was eighty years after the eighteenth year of Herod’ s reign. See Bp. Pearce.

Clarke: Joh 2:21 - Of the temple of his body Of the temple of his body - Rather, the temple, his body: his body had no particular temple: but it was the temple of his Divinity - the place in wh...

Of the temple of his body - Rather, the temple, his body: his body had no particular temple: but it was the temple of his Divinity - the place in which, as in the ancient temple, his Godhead dwelt; See how the Jews perverted these words, Mat 26:60 (note), and the notes there.

Clarke: Joh 2:22 - Remembered that he had said this unto them Remembered that he had said this unto them - Αυτοις, to them, is wanting in AEHLMS, Matt. BV, upwards of one hundred others; both the Syriac;...

Remembered that he had said this unto them - Αυτοις, to them, is wanting in AEHLMS, Matt. BV, upwards of one hundred others; both the Syriac; Persic, Arabic, Coptic, Ethiopic, Armenian, Slavonic, Vulgate, and Itala. Griesbach has left it out of the text

Clarke: Joh 2:22 - They believed the scripture They believed the scripture - The scripture which the evangelist immediately refers to may have been Psa 16:10. Compare this with Act 2:31, Act 2:32...

They believed the scripture - The scripture which the evangelist immediately refers to may have been Psa 16:10. Compare this with Act 2:31, Act 2:32, and with Act 13:35-37. See also Psa 2:7, and compare it with Heb 1:5, and Heb 5:5, and with Act 13:33. They understood these scriptures in a sense in which they never before understood them

It is the property of many prophecies never to be understood except by their accomplishment; but these are so marked that, when their fulfillment takes place, they cannot be misunderstood, or applied to any other event.

Clarke: Joh 2:23 - Many believed in his name Many believed in his name - They believed him to be the promised Messiah, but did not believe in him to the salvation of their souls: for we find, f...

Many believed in his name - They believed him to be the promised Messiah, but did not believe in him to the salvation of their souls: for we find, from the following verse, that their hearts were not at all changed, because our blessed Lord could not trust himself to them.

Clarke: Joh 2:24 - He knew all men He knew all men - Instead of παντας all men, EGH, and about thirty others, read παντα, every man, or all things; and this I am incline...

He knew all men - Instead of παντας all men, EGH, and about thirty others, read παντα, every man, or all things; and this I am inclined to believe is the true reading. Jesus knew all things; and why? Because he made all things, Joh 1:3, and because he was the all-wise God, Joh 1:1; and he knew all men, because he alone searches the heart, and tries the reins. He knows who are sincere, and who are hypocritical: he knows those in whom he can confide, and those to whom he can neither trust himself nor his gifts. Reader, he also knows thee: thy cares, fears, perplexities, temptations, afflictions, desires, and hopes; thy helps and hinderances; the progress thou hast made in the Divine life, or thy declension from it. If he know thee to be hypocritical or iniquitous, he looks upon thee with abhorrence: if he know thee to be of a meek and broken spirit, he looks on thee with pity, complacency, and delight. Take courage - thou canst say, Lord, thou knowest all things, thou knowest that I do love thee, and mourn because I love and serve thee so little: then expect him to come in unto thee, and make his abode with thee: while thy eye and heart are simple, he will love thee, and thy whole soul shall be full of light. To him be glory and dominion for ever!

Calvin: Joh 2:1 - There was a marriage in Cana of Galilee // And the mother of Jesus was there 1.There was a marriage in Cana of Galilee As this narrative contains the first miracle which Christ performed, it would be proper for us, were it on ...

1.There was a marriage in Cana of Galilee As this narrative contains the first miracle which Christ performed, it would be proper for us, were it on this ground alone, to consider the narrative attentively; though — as we shall afterwards see — there are other reasons which recommend it to our notice. But while we proceed, the various advantages arising from it will be more clearly seen. The Evangelist first mentions Cana of Galilee, not that which was situated towards Zare-phath (1Kg 17:9; Oba 1:20; Luk 4:26) or Sarepta, between Tyre and Sidon, and was called the greater in comparison of this latter Cana, which is placed by some in the tribe of Zebulun, and by others in the tribe of Asher. For Jerome too assures us that, even in his time, there existed a small town which bore that name. There is reason to believe that it was near the city of Nazareth, since the mother of Christ came there to attend the marriage. From the fourth chapter of this book it will be seen that it was not more than one day’s journey distant from Capernaum. That it lay not far from the city of Bethsaida may also be inferred from the circumstance, that three days after Christ had been in those territories, the marriage was celebrated — the Evangelist tells us — in Cana of Galilee. There may have been also a third Cana, not far from Jerusalem, and yet out of Galilee; but I leave this undetermined, because I am unacquainted with it.

And the mother of Jesus was there It was probably one of Christ’s near relations who married a wife; for Jesus is mentioned as having accompanied his mother. From the fact that the disciples also are invited, we may infer how plain and frugal was his way of living; for he lived in common with them. It may be thought strange, however, that a man who has no great wealth or abundance (as will be made evident from the scarcity of the wine) invites four or five other persons, on Christ’s account. But the poor are readier and more frank in their invitations; because they are not, like the rich, afraid of being disgraced, if they do not treat their guests with great costliness and splendor; for the poor adhere more zealously to the ancient custom of having an extended acquaintance.

Again, it may be supposed to show a want of courtesy, that the bridegroom allows his guests, in the middle of the entertainment, to be in want of wine; for it looks like a man of little thoughtfulness not to have a sufficiency of wine for his guests. I reply, nothing is here related which does not frequently happen, especially when people are not accustomed to the daily use of wine. Besides, the context shows, that it was towards the conclusion of the banquet that the wine fell short, when, according to custom, it might be supposed that they had already drunk enough; for the master of the feast thus speaks, Other men place worse wine before those who have drunk enough, but thou hast kept the best till now. Besides, I have no doubt that all this was regulated by the Providence of God, that there might be room for the miracle.

Calvin: Joh 2:3 - The mother of Jesus saith to him 3.The mother of Jesus saith to him It may be doubted if she expected or asked any thing from her Son, since he had not yet performed any miracle; and...

3.The mother of Jesus saith to him It may be doubted if she expected or asked any thing from her Son, since he had not yet performed any miracle; and it is possible that, without expecting any remedy of this sort, she advised him to give some pious exhortations which would have the effect of preventing the guests from feeling uneasiness, and at the same time of relieving the shame of the bridegroom. I consider her words to be expressive of (συμπαθεία) earnest compassion; for the holy woman, perceiving that those who had been invited were likely to consider themselves as having been treated with disrespect, and to murmur against the bridegroom, and that the entertainment might in that way be disturbed, wished that some means of soothing them could be adopted. Chrysostom throws out a suspicion that she was moved by the feelings of a woman to seek I know not what favor for herself and her Son; but this conjecture is not supported by any argument.

Calvin: Joh 2:4 - Woman, what have I to do with thee? // My hour is not yet come 4.Woman, what have I to do with thee? Why does Christ repel her so rashly? I reply, though she was not moved by ambition, nor by any carnal affection...

4.Woman, what have I to do with thee? Why does Christ repel her so rashly? I reply, though she was not moved by ambition, nor by any carnal affection, still she did wrong in going beyond her proper bounds. Her anxiety about the inconvenience endured by others, and her desire to have it in some way mitigated, proceeded from humanity, and ought to be regarded as a virtue; but still, by putting herself forward, she might obscure the glory of Christ. Though it ought also to be observed, that what Christ spoke was not so much for her sake as for the sake of others. Her modesty and piety were too great, to need so severe a chastisement. Besides, she did not knowingly and willingly offend; but Christ only meets the danger, that no improper use may be made of what his mother had said, as if it were in obedience to her command that he afterwards performed the miracle.

The Greek words (Τί ἐμοὶ καὶ σοὶ) literally mean, What to me and to thee ? But the Greek phraseology is of the same import with the Latin — Quid tibi mecum ? ( what hast thou to do with me ?) The old translator led many people into a mistake, by supposing Christ to have asserted, that it was no concern of his, or of his mother’s, if the wine fell short. But from the second clause we may easily conclude how far removed this is from Christ’s meaning; for he takes upon himself this concern, and declares that it belongs to him to do so, when he adds, my hour is not yet come. Both ought to be joined together — that Christ understands what it is necessary for him to do, and yet that he will not act in this matter at his mother’s suggestion.

It is a remarkable passage certainly; for why does he absolutely refuse to his mother what he freely granted afterwards, on so many occasions, to all sorts of persons? Again, why is he not satisfied with a bare refusal? and why does he reduce her to the ordinary rank of women, and not even deign to call her mother ? This saying of Christ openly and manifestly warns men to beware lest, by too superstitiously elevating the honor of the name of mother in the Virgin Mary, 45 they transfer to her what belongs exclusively to God. Christ, therefore, addresses his mother in this manner, in order to lay down a perpetual and general instruction to all ages, that his divine glory must not be obscured by excessive honor paid to his mother.

How necessary this warning became, in consequence of the gross and disgraceful superstitions which followed afterwards, is too well known. For Mary has been constituted the Queen of Heaven, the Hope, the Life, and the Salvation of the world; and, in short, their fury and madness proceeded so far that they stripped Christ of his spoils, and left him almost naked. And when we condemn those horrid blasphemies against the Son of God, the Papists call us malignant and envious; and — what is worse — they maliciously slander us as deadly foes to the honor of the holy Virgin. As if she had not all the honor that is due to her, unless she were made a Goddess; or as if it were treating her with respect, to adorn her with blasphemous titles, and to substitute her in the room of Christ. The Papists, therefore, offer a grievous insult to Mary when, in order to disfigure her by false praises, they take from God what belongs to Him.

My hour is not yet come He means that he has not hitherto delayed through carelessness or indolence, but at the same time he states indirectly that he will attend to the matter, when the proper time for it shall arrive. As he reproves his mother for unseasonable haste, so, on the other hand, he gives reason to expect a miracle. The holy Virgin acknowledges both, for she abstains from addressing him any farther; and when she advises the servants to do whatever he commands, she shows that she expects something now. But the instruction conveyed here is still more extensive that whenever the Lord holds us in suspense, and delays his aid, he is not therefore asleep, but, on the contrary, regulates all His works in such a manner that he does nothing but at the proper time. Those who have applied this passage to prove that the time of events is appointed by Fate, are too ridiculous to require a single word to be said for refuting them. The hour of Christ sometimes denotes the hour which had been appointed to him by the Father; and by his time he will afterwards designate what he found to be convenient and suitable for executing the commands of his Father; but in this place he claims the right to take and choose the time for working and for displaying his Divine power. 46

Calvin: Joh 2:5 - His mother saith to the servants 5.His mother saith to the servants Here the holy Virgin gives an instance of true obedience which she owed to her Son, 47 when the question related, ...

5.His mother saith to the servants Here the holy Virgin gives an instance of true obedience which she owed to her Son, 47 when the question related, not to the relative duties of mankind, but to his divine power. She modestly acquiesces, therefore, in Christ’s reply; and in like manner exhorts others to comply with his injunctions. I acknowledge, indeed, that what the Virgin now said related to the present occurrence, and amounted to a declaration that, in this instance, she had no authority, and that Christ would do, according to his own pleasure, whatever he thought right. But if you attend closely to her design, the statement which she made is still more extensive; for she first disclaims and lays aside the power which she might seem to have improperly usurped; and next, she ascribes the whole authority to Christ, when she bids them do whatever he shall command. We are taught generally by these words, that if we desire any thing from Christ, we will not obtain our wishes, unless we depend on him alone, look to him, and, in short, do whatever he commands On the other hand, he does not send us to his mother, but rather invites us to himself.

Calvin: Joh 2:6 - And there were there six water-pots of stone 6.And there were there six water-pots of stone According to the computation of Budaeus, we infer that these water-pots were very large; for as the ...

6.And there were there six water-pots of stone According to the computation of Budaeus, we infer that these water-pots were very large; for as the metreta 48 (μετρητὴς) contains twenty congii, each contained, at least, a Sextier of this country. 49 Christ supplied them, therefore, with a great abundance of wine, as much as would be sufficient for a banquet to a hundred and fifty men. Besides, both the number and the size of the water-pots serve to prove the truth of the miracle. If there had been only two or three jars, many might have suspected that they had been brought from some other place. If in one vessel only the water had been changed into wine, the certainty of the miracle would not have been so obvious, or so well ascertained. It is not, therefore, without a good reason that the Evangelist mentions the number of the water-pots, and states how much they contained.

It arose from superstition that vessels so numerous and so large were placed there. They had the ceremony of washing, indeed, prescribed to them by the Law of God; but as the world is prone to excess in outward matters, the Jews, not satisfied with the simplicity which God had enjoined, amused themselves with continual washings; and as superstition is ambitious, they undoubtedly served the purpose of display, as we see at the present day in Popery, that every thing which is said to belong to the worship of God is arranged for pure display. There was, then, a twofold error: that without the command of God, they engaged in a superfluous ceremony of their own invention; and next, that, under the pretense of religion, ambition reigned amidst that display. Some Popish scoundrels have manifested an amazing degree of wickedness, when they had the effrontery to say that they had among their relics those water-pots with which Christ performed this miracle in Cana, and exhibited some of them, 50 which, first, are of small size, and, next, are unequal in size. And in the present day, when the light of the Gospel shines so clearly around us, they are not ashamed to practice those tricks, which certainly is not to deceive by enchantments, but daringly to mock men as if they were blind; and the world, which does not perceive such gross mockery, is evidently bewitched by Satan.

Calvin: Joh 2:7 - Fill the water-pots with water 7.Fill the water-pots with water The servants might be apt to look upon this injunction as absurd; for they had already more than enough of water. Bu...

7.Fill the water-pots with water The servants might be apt to look upon this injunction as absurd; for they had already more than enough of water. But in this way the Lord often acts towards us, that his power may be more illustriously displayed by an unexpected result; though this circumstance is added to magnify the miracle; for when the servants drew wine out of vessels which had been filled with water, no suspicion can remain.

Calvin: Joh 2:8 - And carry to the master of the feast 8.And carry to the master of the feast For the same reason as before, Christ wished that the flavor of the wine should be tried by the master of the...

8.And carry to the master of the feast For the same reason as before, Christ wished that the flavor of the wine should be tried by the master of the feast, before it had been tasted by himself, or by any other of the guests; and the readiness with which the servants obey him in all things shows us the great reverence and respect in which he was held by them. The Evangelist gives the name of the master of the feast to him who had the charge of preparing the banquet and arranging the tables; not that the banquet was costly and magnificent, but because the honorable appellations borrowed from the luxury and splendor of the rich are applied even to the marriages of the poor. But it is wonderful that a large quantity of wine, and of the very best wine, is supplied by Christ, who is a teacher of sobriety. I reply, when God daily gives us a large supply of wine, it is our own fault if his kindness is an excitement to luxury; but, on the other hand, it is an undoubted trial of our sobriety, if we are sparing and moderate in the midst of abundance; as Paul boasts that he had learned to know both how to be full and to be hungry, (Phi 4:12.)

Calvin: Joh 2:11 - This beginning of miracles // And manifested his glory; // And his disciples believed on him 11.This beginning of miracles The meaning is, that this was the first of Christ’s miracles; for when the angels announced to the shepherds that he ...

11.This beginning of miracles The meaning is, that this was the first of Christ’s miracles; for when the angels announced to the shepherds that he was born in Bethlehem, (Luk 2:8,) when the star appeared to the Magi, (Mat 2:2,) when the Holy Spirit descended on him in the shape of a dove, (Mat 3:16; Mar 1:10; Joh 1:32,) though these were miracles, yet, strictly speaking, they were not performed by him; but the Evangelist now speaks of the miracles of which he was himself the Author. For it is a frivolous and absurd interpretation which some give, that this is reckoned the first among; the miracles which Christ performed in Cana of Galilee; as if a place, in which we do not read that he ever was more than twice, had been selected by him for a display of his power. It was rather the design of the Evangelist to mark the order of time which Christ followed in the exercise of his power. For until he was thirty years of age, he kept himself concealed at home, like one who held no public office. Having been consecrated, at his baptism, to the discharge of his office, he then began to appear in public, and to show by clear proofs for what purpose he was sent by the Father. We need not wonder, therefore, if he delayed till this time the first proof of his Divinity. It is a high honor given to marriage, that Christ not only deigned to be present at a nuptial banquet, but honored it with his first miracle. There are some ancient Canons which forbid the clergy to attend a marriage. The reason of the prohibition was, that by being the spectators of the wickedness which was usually practiced on such occasions, they might in some measure be regarded as approving of it. But it would have been far better to carry to such places so much gravity as to restrain the licentiousness in which unprincipled and abandoned men indulge, when they are withdrawn from the eyes of others. Let us, on the contrary, take Christ’s example for our rule; and let us not suppose that any thing else than what we read that he did can be profitable to us.

And manifested his glory; that is, because he then gave a striking and illustrious proof, by which it was ascertained that he was the Son of God; for all the miracles which he exhibited to the world were so many demonstrations of his divine power. The proper time for displaying his glory was now come, when he wished to make himself known agreeably to the command of his Father. Hence, also, we learn the end of miracles; for this expression amounts to a declaration that Christ, in order to manifest his glory, performed this miracle. What, then, ought we to think of those miracles which obscure the glory of Christ?

And his disciples believed on him If they were disciples, they must already have possessed some faith; but as they had hitherto followed him with a faith which was not distinct and firm, they began at that time to devote themselves to him, so as to acknowledge him to be the Messiah, such as he had already been announced to them. The forbearance of Christ is great in reckoning as disciples those whose faith is so small. And indeed this doctrine extends generally to us all; for the faith which is now full grown had at first its infancy, nor is it so perfect in any as not to make it necessary that all to a man should make progress in believing. Thus, they who now believed may be said to begin to believe, so far as they daily make progress towards the end of their faith. Let those who have obtained the first-fruits of faith labor always to make progress. These words point out likewise the advantage of miracles; namely, that they ought to be viewed as intended for the confirmation and progress of faith. Whoever twists them to any other purpose corrupts and debases the whole use of them; as we see that Papists boast of their pretended miracles for no other purpose than to bury faith, and to turn away the minds of men from Christ to the creatures.

Calvin: Joh 2:12 - He went down to Capernaum // And his brethren 12.He went down to Capernaum The Evangelist passes to an additional narrative; for having resolved to collect a few things worthy of remembrance whic...

12.He went down to Capernaum The Evangelist passes to an additional narrative; for having resolved to collect a few things worthy of remembrance which the other three had left out, he states the time when the occurrence which he is about to relate took place; for the other three also relate what we here read that Christ did, but the diversity of the time shows that it was a similar event, but not the same. On two occasions, then, did Christ cleanse the temple from base and profane merchandise; once, when he was beginning to discharge his commission, and another time, (Mat 21:12; Mar 11:15; Luk 19:45,) when he was about to leave the world and go to the Father, (Joh 16:28.)

To obtain a general view of the passage, it will be necessary briefly to examine the details in their order. That oxen, and sheep, and doves, were exposed to sale in the temple, and that money-changers were sitting there, was not without a plausible excuse. For they might allege that the merchandise transacted there was not irreligious, but, on the contrary, related to the sacred worship of God, that every person might obtain, without difficulty, what he might offer to the Lord; and, certainly, it was exceedingly convenient for godly persons to find oblations of any sort laid ready to their hand, and in this way to be freed from the trouble of running about in various directions to obtain them. We are apt to wonder, therefore, why Christ was so highly displeased with it. But there are two reasons which deserve our attention. First, as the Priests abused this merchandise for their own gain and avarice, such a mockery of God could not be endured. Secondly, whatever excuse men may plead, as soon as they depart, however slightly, from the command of God, they deserve reproof and need correction. And this is the chief reason why Christ undertook to purify the temple; for he distinctly states that the temple of God is not a place of merchandise

But it may be asked, Why did he not rather begin with doctrine? For it seems to be a disorderly and improper method to apply the hand for correcting faults, before the remedy of doctrine has been applied. But Christ had a different object in view: for the time being now at hand when he would publicly discharge the office assigned to him by the Father, he wished in some way to take possession of the temple, and to give a proof of his divine authority. And that all might be attentive to his doctrine, it was necessary that something new and strange should be done to awaken their sluggish and drowsy minds. Now, the temple was a sanctuary of heavenly doctrine and of true religion. Since he wished to restore purity of doctrine, it was of great importance that he should prove himself to be the Lord of the temple. Besides, there was no other way in which he could bring back sacrifices and the other exercises of religion to their spiritual design than by removing the abuse of them. What he did at that time was, therefore, a sort of preface to that reformation which the Father had sent him to accomplish. In a word, it was proper that the Jews should be aroused by this example to expect from Christ something that was unusual and out of the ordinary course; and it was also necessary to remind them that the worship of God had been corrupted and perverted, that they might not object to the reformation of those abuses

And his brethren Why the brethren of Christ accompanied him, cannot be determined with certainty, unless, perhaps, they intended to go along with him to Jerusalem. The word brethren, it is well known, is employed, in the Hebrew language, to denote cousins and other relatives.

Calvin: Joh 2:13 - And the passover of the Jews was at hand; therefore Jesus went up to Jerusalem 13.And the passover of the Jews was at hand; therefore Jesus went up to Jerusalem The Greek words καὶ ἀνέβη, may be literally rendered, an...

13.And the passover of the Jews was at hand; therefore Jesus went up to Jerusalem The Greek words καὶ ἀνέβη, may be literally rendered, and he went up; but the Evangelist has used the copulative and instead of therefore; for he means that Christ went up at that time, in order to celebrate the passover at Jerusalem. There were two reasons why he did so; for since the Son of God became subject to the Law on our account, he intended, by observing with exactness all the precepts of the Law, to present in his own person a pattern of entire subjection and obedience. Again, as he could do more good, when there was a multitude of people, he almost always availed himself of such an occasion. Whenever, therefore, we shall afterwards find it said that Christ came to Jerusalem at the feast, let the reader observe that he did so, first, that along with others he might observe the exercises of religion which God had appointed, and, next, that he might publish his doctrine amidst a larger concourse of people.

Calvin: Joh 2:16 - Make not my Father’s house a house of merchandise // My Father’s house 16.Make not my Father’s house a house of merchandise At the second time that he drove the traders out of the Temple, the Evangelists relate that he...

16.Make not my Father’s house a house of merchandise At the second time that he drove the traders out of the Temple, the Evangelists relate that he used sharper and more severe language; for he said, that they had made the Temple of God a den of robbers, (Mat 21:13;) and this was proper to be done, when a milder chastisement was of no avail. At present, he merely warns them not to profane the Temple of God by applying it to improper uses. The Temple was called the house of God; because it was the will of God that there He should be peculiarly invoked; because there He displayed his power; because, finally, he had set it apart to spiritual and holy services.

My Father’s house Christ declares himself to be the Son of God, in order to show that he has a right and authority to cleanse the Temple. As Christ here assigns a reason for what he did, if we wish to derive any advantage from it, we must attend chiefly to this sentence. Why, then, does he drive the buyers and sellers out of the Temple? It is that he may bring back to its original purity the worship of God, which had been corrupted by the wickedness of men, and in this way may restore and maintain the holiness of the Temple. Now that temple, we know, was erected, that it might be a shadow of those things the lively image of which is to be found in Christ. Thai; it might continue to be devoted to God, it was necessary that it should be applied exclusively to spiritual purposes. For this reason he pronounces it to be unlawful that it should be converted into a market-place; for he founds his statement on the command of God, which we ought always to observe. Whatever deceptions Satan may employ, let us know that any departure — however small — from the command of God is wicked. It was a plausible and imposing disguise, that; the worship of God was aided and promoted, when the sacrifices which were to be offered by believers were laid ready to their hand; but as God had appropriated his Temple to different purposes, Christ disregards the objections that might be offered against the order which God had appointed.

The same arguments do not apply, in the present day, to our buildings for public worship; but what is said about the ancient Temple applies properly and strictly to the Church, for it is the heavenly sanctuary of God on earth. We ought always, therefore, to keep before our eyes the majesty of God, which dwells in the Church, that it may not be defiled by any pollutions; and the only way in which its holiness can remain unimpaired is, that nothing shall be admitted into it that is at variance with the word of God.

Calvin: Joh 2:17 - And his disciples remembered // The zeal of thine house hath eaten me up 17.And his disciples remembered It is to no purpose that some people tease themselves with the inquiry how the disciples remembered a passage of Sc...

17.And his disciples remembered It is to no purpose that some people tease themselves with the inquiry how the disciples remembered a passage of Scripture, with the meaning of which they were hitherto unacquainted. For we must not understand that this passage of Scripture came to their remembrance at that time; but afterwards, when, having been taught by God, they considered with themselves what was the meaning of this action of Christ, by the direction of the Holy Spirit this passage of Scripture occurred to them. And, indeed, it does not always happen that the reason of God’s works is immediately perceived by us, but afterwards, in process of time, He makes known to us his purpose. And this is a bridle exceedingly well adapted to restrain our presumption, that we may not murmur against God, if at any time our judgment does not entirely approve of what he does. We are at the same time reminded, that when God holds us as it were in suspense, it is our duty to wait for the time of more abundant knowledge, and to restrain the excessive haste which is natural to us; for the reason why God delays the full manifestation of his works is, that he may keep us humble.

The zeal of thine house hath eaten me up The meaning is, that the disciples at length came to know, that the zeal for the house of God, with which Christ burned, excited him to drive out of it those profanations. By a figure of speech, in which a part is taken for the whole, David employs the name of the temple to denote the whole worship of God; for the entire verse runs thus:

the zeal of thy house hath eaten me up, and the reproaches of them who reproached thee have fallen on me, (Psa 69:9.)

The second clause corresponds to the first, or rather it is nothing else than a repetition explaining what had been said. The amount of both clauses is, that David’s anxiety about maintaining the worship of God was so intense, that he cheerfully laid down his head to receive all the reproaches which wicked men threw against God; and that he burned with such zeal, that this single feeling swallowed up every other. He tells us that he himself had such feelings; but there can be no doubt that he described in his own person what strictly belonged to the Messiah.

Accordingly, the Evangelist says, that this was one of the marks by which the disciples knew that it was Jesus who protected and restored the kingdom of God. Now observe that they followed the guidance of Scripture, in order to form such an opinion concerning Christ as they ought to entertain; and, indeed, no man will ever learn what Christ is, or the object of what he did and suffered, unless he has been taught and guided by Scripture. So far, then, as each of us shall desire to make progress in the knowledge of Christ, it will be necessary that Scripture shall be the subject of our diligent and constant meditation. Igor is it without a good reason that David mentions the house of God, when the divine glory is concerned; for though God is sufficient for himself, and needs not the services of any, yet he wishes that his glory should be displayed in the Church. In this way he gives a remarkable proof of his love towards us, because he unites his glory — as it were, by an indissoluble link — with our salvation.

Now as Paul informs us that, in the example of the head, a general doctrine is presented to the whole body, (Rom 15:3,) let each of us apply to the invitation of Christ, that — so far as lies in our power — we may not permit the temple of God to be in any way polluted. But, at the same time, we must beware lest any man transgress the bounds of his calling. All of us ought to have zeal in common with the Son of God; but all are not at liberty to seize a whip, that we may correct vices with our hands; for we have not received the same power, nor have we been entrusted with the same commission.

Calvin: Joh 2:18 - What sign showest thou to us? 18.What sign showest thou to us? When in so large an assembly no man laid hands on Christ, and none of the dealers in cattle or of the money-changers...

18.What sign showest thou to us? When in so large an assembly no man laid hands on Christ, and none of the dealers in cattle or of the money-changers repelled him by violence, we may conclude that they were all stunned and struck with astonishment by the hand of God. And, therefore, if they had not been utterly blinded, this would have been a sufficiently evident miracle, that one man against a great multitude, an unarmed man against strong men, all unknown man against so great rulers, attempted so great an achievement. For since they were far stronger, why did they not oppose him, but because their hands were loosened and — as it were — broken?

Yet they have some ground for putting the question; for it does not belong to every man to change suddenly, if any thing is faulty or displeases him in the temple of God. All are, indeed, at liberty to condemn corruptions; but if a private man put forth his hand to remove them, he will be accused of rashness. As the custom of selling in the temple had been generally received, Christ attempted what was new and uncommon; and therefore they properly call on him to prove that he was sent by God; for they found their argument on this principle, that in public administration it is not lawful to make any change without an undoubted calling and command of God. But they erred on another point, by refusing to admit the calling of Christ, unless he had performed a miracle; for it was not an invariable rule that the Prophets and other ministers of God should perform miracles; and God did not limit himself to this necessity. They do wrong, therefore, in laying down a law to God by demanding a sign. When the Evangelist says that the Jews asked him, he unquestionably means by that term the multitude who were standing there, and, as it were, the whole body of the Church; as if he had said, that it was not the speech of one or two persons, but of the people.

Calvin: Joh 2:19 - Destroy this temple // This temple // I will raise it up again 19.Destroy this temple This is an allegorical mode of expression; and Christ intentionally spoke with that degree of obscurity, because he reckoned t...

19.Destroy this temple This is an allegorical mode of expression; and Christ intentionally spoke with that degree of obscurity, because he reckoned them unworthy of a direct reply; as he elsewhere declares that he speaks to them in parables, because they are unable to comprehend the mysteries of the heavenly kingdom, (Mat 13:13.) But first he refuses to them the sign which they demanded, either because it would have been of no advantage, or because he knew that it was not the proper time. Some compliances he occasionally made even with their unreasonable requests, and there must have been a strong reason why he now refused. Yet that they may not seize on this as a pretense for excusing themselves, he declares that his power will be approved and confirmed by a sign of no ordinary value; for no greater approbation of the divine power in Christ could be desired than his resurrection from the dead. But he conveys this information figuratively, because he does not reckon them worthy of an explicit promise. In short, he treats unbelievers as they deserve, and at the same time protects himself against all contempt. It was not yet made evident, indeed, that they were obstinate, but Christ knew well what was the state of their feelings.

But it may be asked, since he performed so many miracles, and of various kinds, why does he now mention but one? I answer, he said nothing about all the other miracles, First, because his resurrection alone was sufficient to shut their mouth: Secondly, he was unwilling to expose the power of God to their ridicule; for even respecting the glory of his resurrection he spoke allegorically: Thirdly, I say that he produced what was appropriate to the case in hand; for, by these words, he shows that all authority over the Temple belongs to him, since his power is so great in building the true Temple of God.

This temple. Though he uses the word temple in accommodation to the present occurrence, yet the body of Christ is justly and appropriately called a temple. The body of each of us is called a tabernacle, (2Co 5:4; 2Pe 1:13,) because the soul dwells in it; but the body of Christ was the abode of his Divinity. For we know that the Son of God clothed himself with our nature in such a manner that the eternal majesty of God dwelt in the flesh which he assumed, as in his sanctuary.

The argument of Nestorius, who abused this passage to prove that it is not one and the same Christ who is God and man, may be easily refuted. He reasoned thus: the Son of God dwelt in the flesh, as in a temple; therefore the natures are distinct, so that the same person was not God and man. But this argument might be applied to men; for it will follow that it is not one man whose soul dwells in the body as in a tabernacle; and, therefore, it is folly to torture this form of expression for the purpose of taking away the unity of Person in Christ. It ought to be observed, that our bodies also are called temples of God, (1Co 3:16, and 1Co 6:19; 2Co 6:16) but it is in a different sense, namely, because God dwells in us by the power and grace of his Spirit; but in Christ the fullness of the Godhead dwells bodily, so that he is truly God manifested in flesh, (1Ti 3:16.)

I will raise it up again Here Christ claims for himself the glory of his resurrection, though, in many passages of Scripture, it is declared to be the work of God the Father. But these two statements perfectly agree with each other; for, in order to give us exalted conceptions of the power of God, Scripture expressly ascribes to the Father that he raised up his Son from the dead; but here, Christ in a special manner asserts his own Divinity. And Paul reconciles both.

If the Spirit of Him, that raised up Jesus from the dead dwell in you, he that raised up Christ from the dead shall also quicken your mortal bodies by his Spirit that dwelleth in you,
(Rom 8:11.)

While he makes the Spirit the Author of the resurrection, he calls Him indiscriminately sometimes the Spirit of Christ, and sometimes the Spirit of the Father.

Calvin: Joh 2:20 - Forty and six years // When therefore he was risen from the dead 20.Forty and six years The computation of Daniel agrees with this passage, (Dan 9:25;) for he reckons seven weeks, which make Forty-nine years; but,...

20.Forty and six years The computation of Daniel agrees with this passage, (Dan 9:25;) for he reckons seven weeks, which make Forty-nine years; but, before the last of these weeks had ended, the temple was finished. The time described in the history of Ezra is much shorter; but, though it has some appearance of contradiction, it is not at all at variance with the words of the Prophet. For, when the sanctuary had been reared, before the building of the temple was completed, they began to offer sacrifices. The work was afterwards stopped for a long time through the indolence of the people, as plainly appears from the complaints of the Prophet Hag 1:4; for he severely reproves the Jews for being too earnestly engaged in building their private dwellings, while they left the Temple of God in an unfinished state.

But why does he mention that temple which had been destroyed by Herod about forty years before that time? For the temple which they had at that time, though it had been built with great magnificence and at a vast expense, had been completed by Herod, contrary to the expectation of men, as is related by Josephus, (Ant. Book 15. chapter 11.) I think it probable that this new building of the temple was reckoned as if the ancient temple had always remained in its original condition, that it might be regarded with greater veneration; and that they spoke in the usual and ordinary manner, that their fathers, with the greatest difficulty, had scarcely built the temple in Forty-six, years

This reply shows plainly enough what was their intention in asking a sign; for if they had been ready to obey, with reverence, a Prophet sent by God, they would not have so disdainfully rejected what he had said to them about the confirmation of his office. They wish to have some testimony of divine power, and yet they receive nothing which does not correspond to the feeble capacity of man. Thus the Papists in the present day demand miracles, not that they would give way to the power of God, (for it is a settled principle with them to prefer men to God, and not to move a hair’s breadth from what they have received by custom and usage;) but that they may not appear to have no reason for rebelling against God, they hold out this excuse as a cloak for their obstinacy. In such a manner do the minds of unbelievers storm in them with blind impetuosity, that they desire to have the hand of God exhibited to them and yet do not wish that it should be divine.

When therefore he was risen from the dead This recollection was similar to the former, which the Evangelist lately mentioned, (verse 17.) The Evangelist did not understand Christ when he said this; but the doctrine, which appeared to have been useless, and to have vanished into air, afterwards produced fruit in its own time. Although, therefore, many of the actions and sayings of our Lord are obscure for a time, we must not give them up in despair, or despise that which we do not all at once understand. 52 We ought to observe the connection of the words, that they believed the Scripture, and the word which Jesus had spoken; for the Evangelist means that, by comparing the Scripture with the word of Christ, they were aided in making progress in faith.

Calvin: Joh 2:23 - Many believed 23.Many believed The Evangelist appropriately connects this narrative with the former. Christ had not given such a sign as the Jews demanded; and now...

23.Many believed The Evangelist appropriately connects this narrative with the former. Christ had not given such a sign as the Jews demanded; and now, when he produced no good effect on them by many miracles — except that they entertained a cold faith, which was only the shadow of faith — this event sufficiently proves that they did not deserve that he should comply with their wishes. It was, indeed, some fruit of the signs, that many believed in Christ, and in his name, so as to profess that they wished to follow his doctrine; for name is here put for authority. This appearance of faith, which hitherto was fruitless, might ultimately be changed into true faith, and might be a useful preparation for celebrating the name of Christ among others; and yet what we have said is true, that they were far from having proper feelings, so as to profit by the works of God, as they ought to have done.

Yet this was not a pretended faith by which they wished to gain reputation among men; for they were convinced that Christ was some great Prophet, and perhaps they even ascribed to him the honor of being the Messiah, of whom there was at that time a strong and general expectation. But as they did not understand the peculiar office of the Messiah, their faith was absurd, because it was exclusively directed to the world and earthly things. It was also a cold belief, and unaccompanied by the true feelings of the heart. For hypocrites assent to the Gospel, not that they may devote themselves in obedience to Christ, nor that with sincere piety they may follow Christ when he calls them, but because they do not venture to reject entirely the truth which they have known, and especially when they can find no reason for opposing it. For as they do not voluntarily, or of their own accord, make war with God, so when they perceive that his doctrine is opposed to their flesh and to their perverse desires, they are immediately offended, or at least withdraw from the faith which they had already embraced.

When the Evangelist says, therefore, that those men believed, I do not understand that they counterfeited a faith which did not exist, but that they were in some way constrained to enroll themselves as the followers of Christ; and yet it appears that their faith was not true and genuine, because Christ excludes them from the number of those on whose sentiments reliance might be placed. Besides, that faith depended solely on miracles, and had no root in the Gospel, and therefore could not be steady or permanent. Miracles do indeed assist the children of God in arriving at the truth; but it does not amount to actual believing, when they admire the power of God so as merely to believe that it is true, but not to subject themselves wholly to it. And, therefore, when we speak generally about faith, let us know that there is a kind of faith which is perceived by the understanding only, and afterwards quickly disappears, because it is not fixed in the heart; and that is the faith which James calls dead; but true faith always depends on the Spirit of regeneration, (Jas 2:17.) Observe, that all do not derive equal profit from the works of God; for some are led by them to God, and others are only driven by a blind impulse, so that, while they perceive indeed the power of God, still they do not cease to wander in their own imaginations.

Calvin: Joh 2:24 - But Christ did not rely on them // Because he knew them all 24.But Christ did not rely on them Those who explain the meaning to be, that Christ was on his guard against them, because he knew that they were not...

24.But Christ did not rely on them Those who explain the meaning to be, that Christ was on his guard against them, because he knew that they were not upright and faithful, do not appear to me to express sufficiently well the meaning of the Evangelist. Still less do I agree with what Augustine says about recent converts. The Evangelist rather means, in my opinion, that Christ did not reckon them to be genuine disciples, but despised them as volatile and unsteady. It is a passage which ought to be carefully observed, that not all who profess to be Christ’s followers are such in his estimation. But we ought also to add the reason which immediately follows:

Because he knew them all Nothing is more dangerous than hypocrisy, for this reason among others, that it is an exceedingly common fault. There is scarcely any man who is not pleased with himself; and while we deceive ourselves by empty flatteries, we imagine that God is blind like ourselves. But here we are reminded how widely his judgment differs from ours; for he sees clearly those things which we cannot perceive, because they are concealed by some disguise; and he estimates according to their hidden source, that is, according to the most secret feeling of the heart, those things which dazzle our eyes by false luster. This is what Solomon says, that

God weighs in his balance the hearts of men, while they flatter themselves in their ways, (Pro 21:2.)

Let us remember, therefore, that none are the true disciples of Christ but those whom He approves, because in such a matter He alone is competent to decide and to judge.

A question now arises: when the Evangelist says that Christ knew them all, does he mean those only of whom he had lately spoken, or does the expression refer to the whole human race? Some extend it to the universal nature of man, and think that the whole world is here condemned for wicked and perfidious hypocrisy. And, certainly, it is a true statement, that Christ can find in men no reason why he should deign to place them in the number of his followers; but I do not see that this agrees with the context, and therefore I limit it to those who had been formerly mentioned.

Calvin: Joh 2:25 - For he knew what was in man 25.For he knew what was in man As it might be doubted whence Christ obtained this knowledge, the Evangelist anticipates this question, and replies th...

25.For he knew what was in man As it might be doubted whence Christ obtained this knowledge, the Evangelist anticipates this question, and replies that Christ perceived every thing in men that is concealed from our view, so that he could on his own authority make a distinction among men. Christ, therefore, who knows the hearts, had no need of any one to inform him what sort of men they were. He knew them to have such a disposition and such feelings, that he justly regarded them as persons who did not belong to him.

The question put by some — whether we too are authorized by the example of Christ to hold those persons as suspected who have not given us proof of their sincerity — has nothing to do with the present passage. There is a wide difference between him and us; for Christ knew the very roots of the trees, but, except from the fruits which appear outwardly, we cannot discover what is the nature of any one tree. Besides, as Paul tells us, that charity is not suspicious, (1Co 13:5,) we have no right to entertain unfavorable suspicions about men who are unknown to us. But, that we may not always be deceived by hypocrites, and that the Church may not be too much exposed to their wicked impostures, it belongs to Christ to impart to us the Spirit of discretion.

Defender: Joh 2:1 - Cana Cana, a small town near Nazareth, was the home of Nathanael (Joh 21:2).

Cana, a small town near Nazareth, was the home of Nathanael (Joh 21:2).

Defender: Joh 2:1 - mother of Jesus Mary is never called by name in John's Gospel (Joh 19:25-27)."

Mary is never called by name in John's Gospel (Joh 19:25-27)."

Defender: Joh 2:3 - wanted wine In view of the long trip from Bethabara to Cana, it is probable that Jesus and the disciples arrived late to the wedding only to find that the guests ...

In view of the long trip from Bethabara to Cana, it is probable that Jesus and the disciples arrived late to the wedding only to find that the guests had exhausted the wine supply and had "well drunk" (literally had "become drunken" - Joh 2:10)."

Defender: Joh 2:4 - with thee This question was not disrespectful but somewhat sad. Literally, Jesus said: "Woman what to me and to thee?" meaning "Is there anything we have in com...

This question was not disrespectful but somewhat sad. Literally, Jesus said: "Woman what to me and to thee?" meaning "Is there anything we have in common?" The Lord rebuked drunkenness (Luk 21:34), yet His mother not only seemed to tolerate it but now was asking for still more wine for the already drunken guests.

Defender: Joh 2:4 - hour Mary should have remembered what her son's mission was, not to meet temporal social needs and certainly not to encourage sinful behavior, but rather t...

Mary should have remembered what her son's mission was, not to meet temporal social needs and certainly not to encourage sinful behavior, but rather to "save his people from their sins" (Mat 1:21). On more than one occasion, He had to remind people that "his hour was not yet come" (Joh 7:6; Joh 8:20). Finally, however, He did come to that hour and so testified (Joh 12:23; Joh 13:1; Joh 17:1)."

Defender: Joh 2:5 - do it Somewhat rebuked by Jesus' response to her desire for Him to get more wine for the guests, Jesus' mother is never shown again in Scripture as requesti...

Somewhat rebuked by Jesus' response to her desire for Him to get more wine for the guests, Jesus' mother is never shown again in Scripture as requesting or demanding anything from Jesus. Instead, the only command the record shows on her part, anywhere in Scripture, is this one. Simply: "Do whatever Jesus says!" No doubt she would say the same to us today."

Defender: Joh 2:6 - six waterpots These six waterpots (normally used for washing feet) when full would contain about 150 gallons. This much additional intoxicating wine would certainly...

These six waterpots (normally used for washing feet) when full would contain about 150 gallons. This much additional intoxicating wine would certainly be too much for guests who were already drunk, and it is inconceivable that Jesus would provide such."

Defender: Joh 2:10 - have well drunk "Have well drunk" is one word in the Greek (methuo) meaning simply "are drunk" and is translated with this meaning in every other instance where it is...

"Have well drunk" is one word in the Greek (methuo) meaning simply "are drunk" and is translated with this meaning in every other instance where it is used (Mat 24:49).

Defender: Joh 2:10 - the good wine This "good wine" had been miraculously created by the Creator and was brand new, with no time to ferment and become old, intoxicating wine. The Greek ...

This "good wine" had been miraculously created by the Creator and was brand new, with no time to ferment and become old, intoxicating wine. The Greek word oinos was used for the juice of grapes in general, the same word for both unfermented and fermented wine, with the context determining which. The decay process, utilizing leaven (always in Scripture representing corruption) to convert good fresh wine into old, intoxicating wine, could not have acted in this case because Christ Himself had created the wine in its originally intended form before sin and decay entered the world. In this form, it was certainly the best wine, having all the health-giving, joy-inspiring character it was created to exhibit in the beginning. It was probably the same wine which Christ will provide in "that day when I drink it new with you in my Father's kingdom" (Mat 26:29), and it will certainly not induce drunkenness."

Defender: Joh 2:11 - beginning of miracles This is the first of the seven great "miracles," or "signs" (same Greek word) which John describes in order to persuade his readers to believe in Jesu...

This is the first of the seven great "miracles," or "signs" (same Greek word) which John describes in order to persuade his readers to believe in Jesus Christ (Joh 20:30, Joh 20:31). Like the other six (Joh 4:49-54; Joh 5:5-9; Joh 6:5-14; Joh 6:16-21; Joh 9:1-7; Joh 11:41-44), this first miracle was a miracle of creation (as distinct from miracles of providence, which only control rates and timing of natural processes). It required the direct creative power of the Creator, superseding the law of entropy to cause an instantaneous increase of complexity, transmuting the simple molecular structure of water into the much more complex structure of new wine."

Defender: Joh 2:13 - the Jews' passover John called it "the Jews' passover" rather than "the Lord's passover" (Exo 12:27), probably because he was writing for Gentiles but perhaps also becau...

John called it "the Jews' passover" rather than "the Lord's passover" (Exo 12:27), probably because he was writing for Gentiles but perhaps also because the Jewish leaders had so corrupted its observance."

Defender: Joh 2:14 - in the temple This visit to Jerusalem and the temple at the beginning of Christ's ministry is recorded only by John as is true with many of the other events and dis...

This visit to Jerusalem and the temple at the beginning of Christ's ministry is recorded only by John as is true with many of the other events and discourses in this Gospel. As the "disciple whom Jesus loved" (Joh 13:23), John may well have been told more by Jesus and also been able to remember more through the Holy Spirit (Joh 14:26) than the other writers in order to do this."

Defender: Joh 2:16 - my Father's Note John's reference to "my Father" instead of "your Father" (Luk 2:49), essentially thereby claiming His unique divine Sonship (Joh 1:34; Joh 5:18).

Note John's reference to "my Father" instead of "your Father" (Luk 2:49), essentially thereby claiming His unique divine Sonship (Joh 1:34; Joh 5:18).

Defender: Joh 2:16 - house of merchandise Three years later, when Christ came to the temple again and found the situation even worse, He called it "a den of thieves" (Mat 21:13). This coming t...

Three years later, when Christ came to the temple again and found the situation even worse, He called it "a den of thieves" (Mat 21:13). This coming to the temple may also be considered as a precursive fulfillment of the Old Testament prophecies regarding Christ's coming to the future temple (Hag 2:7; Mal 3:1-4; Eze 40:1.; especially Eze 43:5)."

Defender: Joh 2:17 - it was written This event fulfilled the prophecy of Psa 69:9."

This event fulfilled the prophecy of Psa 69:9."

Defender: Joh 2:18 - What sign "For the Jews require a sign" (1Co 1:22; Mat 12:38)."

"For the Jews require a sign" (1Co 1:22; Mat 12:38)."

Defender: Joh 2:19 - in three days In addition to referring to the temple of His body (Joh 2:21), there may be a parallel reference to the raising up of the future millennial temple (co...

In addition to referring to the temple of His body (Joh 2:21), there may be a parallel reference to the raising up of the future millennial temple (compare Hos 6:2)."

Defender: Joh 2:22 - believed the scriptures Note the superior category of faith of the disciples to that of the "many" (Joh 2:23) who believed "when they saw the miracles," (Joh 2:23) but soon f...

Note the superior category of faith of the disciples to that of the "many" (Joh 2:23) who believed "when they saw the miracles," (Joh 2:23) but soon fell away. The disciples did not believe because of the miracles but because of the Scripture and Jesus' words. It is far better to place one's faith in God's Word than in signs and wonders."

Defender: Joh 2:24 - commit "Commit" here is the same Greek word as "believe." Although many in the Jerusalem crowd "believed in his name when they saw the miracles" (Joh 2:23), ...

"Commit" here is the same Greek word as "believe." Although many in the Jerusalem crowd "believed in his name when they saw the miracles" (Joh 2:23), Jesus did not "believe" in them because He knew their hearts and knew their outward faith in Him was only superficial."

TSK: Joh 2:1 - the third // a marriage // Cana am 4034, ad 30 the third : Joh 1:43 a marriage : Gen 1:27, Gen 1:28, Gen 2:18-25; Psa 128:1-4; Pro 18:22, Pro 19:14, Pro 31:10-12; Eph 5:30-33; 1Ti 4:...

TSK: Joh 2:2 - both // the marriage both : Mat 12:19; Luk 7:34-38; 1Co 7:39, 1Co 10:31; Col 3:17; Rev 3:20 his : Mat 10:40-42, Mat 25:40,Mat 25:45 the marriage : Heb 13:4

TSK: Joh 2:3 - they wanted // They have they wanted : Psa 104:15; Ecc 10:19; Isa 24:11; Mat 26:28 They have : Joh 11:3; Phi 4:6

they wanted : Psa 104:15; Ecc 10:19; Isa 24:11; Mat 26:28

They have : Joh 11:3; Phi 4:6

TSK: Joh 2:4 - Woman // what // mine Woman : Joh 19:26, Joh 19:27, Joh 20:13, Joh 20:15; Mat 15:28 what : Deu 33:9; 2Sa 16:10, 2Sa 19:22; Luk 2:49; 2Co 5:16; Gal 2:5, Gal 2:6 mine : Joh 7...

TSK: Joh 2:5 - Whatsoever Whatsoever : Joh 15:14; Gen 6:22; Jdg 13:14; Luk 5:5, Luk 5:6, Luk 6:46-49; Act 9:6; Heb 5:9, Heb 11:8

TSK: Joh 2:6 - after after : Joh 3:25; Mar 7:2-5; Eph 5:26; Heb 6:2, Heb 9:10,Heb 9:19, Heb 10:22

TSK: Joh 2:7 - Fill Fill : Joh 2:3, Joh 2:5; Num 21:6-9; Jos 6:3-5; 1Ki 17:13; 2Ki 4:2-6, 2Ki 5:10-14; Mar 11:2-6; Mar 14:12-17; Act 8:26-40

TSK: Joh 2:8 - Draw // the governor Draw : Joh 2:9; Pro 3:5, Pro 3:6; Ecc 9:6 the governor : Rom 13:7

Draw : Joh 2:9; Pro 3:5, Pro 3:6; Ecc 9:6

the governor : Rom 13:7

TSK: Joh 2:9 - the water that // but the water that : Joh 4:46 but : Joh 7:17; Psa 119:100

the water that : Joh 4:46

but : Joh 7:17; Psa 119:100

TSK: Joh 2:10 - and when // but and when : Gen 43:34; Son 5:1 but : Psa 104:15; Pro 9:1-6, Pro 9:16-18; Luk 16:25; Rev 7:16, Rev 7:17

TSK: Joh 2:11 - beginning // did // manifested // and his beginning : Joh 1:17; Exo 4:9, Exo 7:19-21; Ecc 9:7; Mal 2:2; 2Co 4:17; Gal 3:10-13 did : Joh 1:50, Joh 3:2, Joh 4:46 manifested : Joh 1:14, Joh 5:23,...

TSK: Joh 2:12 - Capernaum // and his brethren Capernaum : Joh 6:17; Mat 4:13, Mat 11:23 and his brethren : Joh 7:3-5; Mat 12:46, Mat 13:55, Mat 13:56; Mar 6:3; Act 1:13, Act 1:14; 1Co 9:5; Gal 1:1...

TSK: Joh 2:13 - passover passover : Joh 2:23, Joh 5:1, Joh 6:4, Joh 11:55; Exo 12:6-14; Num 28:16-25; Deu 16:1-8, Deu 16:16; Luk 2:41

TSK: Joh 2:14 - -- Deu 14:23-26; Mat 21:12; Mar 11:15; Luk 19:45, Luk 19:46

TSK: Joh 2:15 - he drove he drove : Joh 18:6; Zec 4:6; 2Co 10:4

he drove : Joh 18:6; Zec 4:6; 2Co 10:4

TSK: Joh 2:16 - make // my make : Isa 56:5-11; Jer 7:11; Hos 12:7, Hos 12:8; Mat 21:13; Mar 11:17; Act 19:24-27; 1Ti 6:5; 2Pe 2:3, 2Pe 2:14, 2Pe 2:15 my : Joh 5:17, Joh 8:49, Jo...

TSK: Joh 2:17 - The zeal The zeal : Psa 69:9, Psa 119:139

The zeal : Psa 69:9, Psa 119:139

TSK: Joh 2:18 - What // seeing What : Joh 6:30; Mat 12:38-42, Mat 16:1-4; Mar 8:11; Luk 11:29 seeing : Joh 1:25; Mat 21:23; Mar 11:27, Mar 11:28; Luk 20:1, Luk 20:2; Act 4:7, Act 5:...

TSK: Joh 2:19 - Destroy // and in // I will Destroy : Mat 26:60,Mat 26:61, Mat 27:40; Mar 14:58, Mar 15:29 and in : Mat 12:40, Mat 27:63 I will : Joh 5:19, Joh 10:17, Joh 10:18, Joh 11:25; Mar 8...

TSK: Joh 2:21 - he // temple he : Joh 1:14 *Gr: Col 1:19, Col 2:9; Heb 8:2 temple : 1Co 3:16, 1Co 6:19; 2Co 6:16; Eph 2:20-22; 1Pe 2:4, 1Pe 2:5

TSK: Joh 2:22 - his // and they his : Joh 2:17, Joh 12:16, Joh 14:26, Joh 16:4; Luk 24:7, Luk 24:8, Luk 24:44; Act 11:16 and they : Joh 2:11, Joh 20:8, Joh 20:9

TSK: Joh 2:23 - many many : Joh 3:2, Joh 6:14, Joh 7:31, Joh 8:30,Joh 8:31, Joh 12:42, Joh 12:43; Mat 13:20,Mat 13:21; Mar 4:16, Mar 4:17; Luk 8:13; Gal 5:6; Eph 3:16, Eph...

TSK: Joh 2:24 - did // because did : Joh 6:15; Mat 10:16, Mat 10:17 because : Joh 1:42, Joh 1:46, Joh 1:47, Joh 5:42, Joh 6:64, Joh 16:30, Joh 21:17; 1Sa 16:7; 1Ch 28:9, 1Ch 29:17; ...

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Poole: Joh 2:1 - -- Joh 2:1-11 Christ turneth water into wine in Cana of Galilee. Joh 2:12 He goeth to Capernaum. Joh 2:13-17 Thence to Jerusalem, where he driveth...

Joh 2:1-11 Christ turneth water into wine in Cana of Galilee.

Joh 2:12 He goeth to Capernaum.

Joh 2:13-17 Thence to Jerusalem, where he driveth the buyers and

sellers out of the temple.

Joh 2:18-22 He giveth his own death and resurrection for a sign.

Joh 2:23-25 Many believe in him because of his miracles, but he

would not trust himself unto them.

Whether it was the third day after that our Saviour had left the province of Judea or the third day after Philip came to him, or after Peter or Nathanael came to him, is hardly worth the disputing; if it be to be interpreted with relation to Joh 1:43 , (which speaks of the day following), it must be the third day after Simon came to Christ, there happened to be a marriage in Cana of Galilee. Some reckon three cities of this name; one in the lot of Manasseh, another in the lot of Ephraim, another in rite lot of Asher. This Cana is concluded by most interpreters to be the same mentioned, Jos 19:28 , which was in the tribe of Asher, which was in Galilee: some others say, it was another Cana, near to Capernaum. At this wedding feast was the virgin Mary, our Lord’ s mother; and it is probable that the persons for whose marriage the feast was solemnized were some of the virgin’ s kindred or near relations. Some think, from the virgin’ s taking notice of the want of wine, that it was a family where she had either a constant charge, or the charge for that day.

Poole: Joh 2:2 - -- Whether only the five disciples mentioned in the former chapter, or some others also, the Scripture doth not say. Christ and his disciples being at ...

Whether only the five disciples mentioned in the former chapter, or some others also, the Scripture doth not say. Christ and his disciples being at this marriage feast, both lets us know that feasting at such a time is proper, and that the most severe religious persons may lawfully be present at such meetings; only they are obliged to keep to rules of frugality, modesty, and sobriety, to a breach of which possibly such meetings may give more temptations.

Poole: Joh 2:3 - Whatsoever he say unto you, do it The word usterhsantov may as well be translated, coming short, or behind, as wanting; and so some think it is to be understood; but Mary tells Jesu...

The word usterhsantov may as well be translated, coming short, or behind, as wanting; and so some think it is to be understood; but Mary tells Jesus, they had no wine: they either had none, or she discerned it came short; they had not enough. It lets us know the frugality of him who made the feast. But whether Mary told her Son of it in expectation that he should supply it by a miracle, or that he should entertain the company with some pious discourse while the want should be supplied, is not so easy to determine: that which seems to oppose the first (and most generally received) opinion, is, that this was the first miracle he wrought, which we have upon record; nor had our Saviour by any words given her hope to see any miraculous operations from him; for though some say he had, from the last verse of the former chapter, yet the words can hardly be strained to such a sense, nor doth it appear that Mary was in Judea to hear them. But yet it seems probable she had some such expectation, both from our Saviour’ s answer, Joh 2:4 , and from her saying to the servants, Joh 2:5 ,

Whatsoever he say unto you, do it and though Christ had as yet done no public miracle, yet what the virgin might have seen of him in thirty years time, while he lived at home with her, we cannot tell.

Poole: Joh 2:4 - mine hour is not yet come That it was ordinary with the Jews, speaking to women, to call them by the name of their sex, is plain from Mat 15:28 Luk 13:12 Luk 22:57 Joh 4:21 ....

That it was ordinary with the Jews, speaking to women, to call them by the name of their sex, is plain from Mat 15:28 Luk 13:12 Luk 22:57 Joh 4:21 . But that, speaking to their relations, they were wont to own their relation in their compellation, sometimes is also evident, from 1Ki 2:20 , Ask on, my mother. So as our Saviour’ s here calling the blessed virgin, Woman, not mother, is agreed by most to signify to her, that in this thing he did not own her as his mother, and so clothed with an authority to command him. And indeed so much the next words ( what have I to do with thee? ) signify, which is a form of speech that both signifies some displeasure for her unseasonable interrupting him, and also that she had no right nor authority upon him in this thing. See the use of the same phrase, Jud 11:12 2Sa 16:10 Ezr 4:3 Mat 8:29 27:19 . None was more obedient and respective to his parents than our Saviour, Luk 2:51 , therein fulfilling the will of God, Jer 35:13,14 ; but in the business of his calling he regarded them not, Mat 12:48 Luk 2:49 ; and hath hereby taught us our duty, to prefer our obedience to our heavenly Father before our obedience to any earthly relation, Mat 5:37 Luk 14:26 . He hath also hereby taught us, that the blessed virgin is not to be preferred before her Son (as the papists do). Besides this, our Lord giveth another reason for his not present hearkening to his mother,

mine hour is not yet come either, because the time was not yet come to work miracles publicly; or to show her, that she was not to prescribe the time to him when he should work miraculously; thereby also showing us, that for things in this life we are to submit our desires to the Divine will, and to wait God’ s leisure; yet by this expression he also gives her some hopes that he would in his own time supply this want.

Poole: Joh 2:5 - -- She plainly by these words declareth her confidence that Christ (notwithstanding the repulse he gave her) would supply this want; and therefore taki...

She plainly by these words declareth her confidence that Christ (notwithstanding the repulse he gave her) would supply this want; and therefore taking no notice of Christ’ s reprehension of her, she orders the servants to be absolutely obedient to him, doing, without disputing, whatsoever he bid them; and indeed such is the obedience which we all owe to God and Jesus Christ.

Poole: Joh 2:6 - -- The Jews were wont in their dining rooms to have waterpots standing; whether one for every guest (upon which account some think here were six) doth ...

The Jews were wont in their dining rooms to have waterpots standing; whether one for every guest (upon which account some think here were six) doth not appear. For the contents of these vessels, it is uncertain; the reason is, because the Jewish measures, both for things dry and liquid, are much unknown to us, most countries varying in their measures. According to our measures, these vessels should contain three hogsheads, or near it; but it is not probable that so great vessels of stone should stand in a room: the end of their standing there was for the people to wash in, before they did eat, Mat 15:2 Mar 7:3 , and to wash their vessels in, Mar 7:4 . We are certain of the number of the vessels, but not of the contents of them. Some say, they held so much water as, being turned into wine, was enough for one hundred and fifty persons; but we can make no certain judgment of it.

Poole: Joh 2:7 - with water Either the water was defiled by some persons washing in it, or else the vessels were not full. Our Lord commands them to be filled (the water pots, ...

Either the water was defiled by some persons washing in it, or else the vessels were not full. Our Lord commands them to be filled (the water pots, not wine vessels)

with water pure water; he commands them all to be filled by the servants, who could attest the miracle, that there was nothing in the vessels but pure water. Here was no new creature to be produced; he doth not therefore command the production of wine out of nothing; but only the transformation of a creature already existent into a creature of another kind. The servants dispute not his command, nor ask any reason of his command, but yield that ready and absolute obedience which we all of us owe to Divine precepts. They fill them, and so full that they could hold no more.

Poole: Joh 2:8 - governor The Jews had one who was to order the affairs of their feast, and who is upon that account called the master, or governor of it; to whom our Savio...

The Jews had one who was to order the affairs of their feast, and who is upon that account called the master, or

governor of it; to whom our Saviour directs, that some of this newly made wine should be carried; either that they might not suspect it was by some art provided by him, or because he was of the best judgment in those affairs. The servants yield the same ready obedience to his commands which they had before yielded.

Poole: Joh 2:9 - that was made wine Our Saviour’ s action, by which he turned the water into wine, being not obvious to the senses of any; but only the secret motion of his will, ...

Our Saviour’ s action, by which he turned the water into wine, being not obvious to the senses of any; but only the secret motion of his will, willing the thing to be; is not recorded, only the effect and the consequents of it are. The papists would from hence argue, that the bread in the sacrament may be called bread, though it be transubstantiated, as the water here is called water, though it were turned into wine; but it must be observed, that it is not here called water, without the addition of

that was made wine: we have no such addition in the gospel, where the sacramental bread is called bread; it is not said, the bread which now is turned into the flesh of Christ; nor doth the Scripture any where (as here) attest any such transubstantiation. The governor of the feast had a cup of wine presented to him, but knew not whence it came; only the servants, who by Christ’ s command first filled the vessels, and drew out this cupful, they knew.

Poole: Joh 2:10 - -- The governor calls the bridegroom, (at whose cost the provision for the feast was to be provided), and minds him, that he seemed to have done contra...

The governor calls the bridegroom, (at whose cost the provision for the feast was to be provided), and minds him, that he seemed to have done contrary to the common practice of such as made feasts; for they used to bring forth their best wine first, when men’ s palates were quickest, and least adulterated; and worse after that they had drank well; so the word meyusywsi signifies, as appears by the Septuagint’ s translation of the Hebrew word so signifying, Gen 43:34 Hag 1:6 ; not only men’ s distempering themselves with wine, which it also sometimes signifieth; and this speaketh our translation of it, 1Co 11:21 , are drunken, something hard, the word not necessarily nor always so signifying; and they must be very uncharitable to the primitive church of Corinth, who can think that it would permit persons actually drunken to come to the Lord’ s table. But the custom, it seems, was, if they had any wine worse than another, to bring it out to their guests after that the edge of their palates was a little blunted with the taste of better. Now this bridegroom, as the governor of the feast (who knew nothing of the miracle) thought, had kept his briskest and most generous wine to the last; thereby giving a great approbation of the miracle, not only owning it to be true wine, but much better than they had before at the feast.

Poole: Joh 2:11 - -- The sense is not, that this was the first miracle which Christ wrought in Cana of Galilee; but this was the first miracle which Christ wrought after...

The sense is not, that this was the first miracle which Christ wrought in Cana of Galilee; but this was the first miracle which Christ wrought after he was entered upon the public ministry, and it was wrought in that Cana which is within the confines of Galilee, either in the lot of Zebulun or Asher: yet there are some who would not have it the first miracle which Christ wrought, but the first which he wrought in that place; but there is no reason for such an interpretation; for then there had been no reason for the following words, for Christ did not manifest his glory there only; though some object those wonderful or miraculous things happening at our Saviour’ s birth, of which we read, Mat 2:9 Luk 2:9 . Yet as some distinguish between mira and miracula, so others give a more plain and satisfactory answer, telling us those were miraculous operations more proper to the Father and the Spirit, thereby attesting the Deity of Christ, than to Christ considered as God man. This was the first of those miraculous operations which were wrought by Christ Jesus as God man, by which he manifested his glory, the glory mentioned in Joh 1:14 , as of the only begotten of the Father; his Divine majesty and power.

And his disciples, who before believed on him, Joh 1:41,45 , now more firmly believed on him, Joh 14:1 , as Mediator. In Scripture that is often said to be, which doth not commence, but increase from that time and occasion.

Poole: Joh 2:12 - Capernaum // and his mother, and his brethren // and his disciples Capernaum was a city lifted up to heaven, for mercies of all sorts, which Christ foretold, Mat 11:28 , should be brought down to hell, for their cont...

Capernaum was a city lifted up to heaven, for mercies of all sorts, which Christ foretold, Mat 11:28 , should be brought down to hell, for their contempt of his doctrine and miracles. It was in the tribe of Naphtali, whose lot was contiguous to Zebulun, and lay on the north east of it; a place where Christ afterwards preached much, and wrought many miracles, Mat 8:13,14 9:18 Mar 2:1 5:22 ; a place brought so low in Hierom’ s time, that it scarce consisted of seven poor cottages of fishermen. Thither at this time went Christ,

and his mother, and his brethren ( by which term the Scripture often expresses any near kinsmen),

and his disciples whether only the five mentioned in the former chapter, or others also, is not said. But they did not at that time stay long there, probably because the passover time (when they were to be at Jerusalem) was so nigh, as would not admit any long stay before they began their journey; and it is likely that the company mentioned here to be with Christ at Capernaum, did also design to go along with him to the passover, of which we next read.

Poole: Joh 2:13 - -- Concerning the Jewish passover we have once and again spoken in our notes on the other evangelists. The institution of it was Exo 12:1-51 . It was t...

Concerning the Jewish passover we have once and again spoken in our notes on the other evangelists. The institution of it was Exo 12:1-51 . It was to be solemnized yearly in the place which the Lord should choose, according to the law, Deu 16:6 . Christ, though he was not naturally subject to the law, yet to fulfil all righteousness, and to redeem his people from the curse of the law, Gal 4:5 , kept the passover yearly, taking also advantage from the conflux of the people to Jerusalem at that time, to make himself and his doctrine more known. None of the other evangelists make mention of more than one passover between the time of Christ’ s baptism and death: John plainly mentions three, one here, another in Joh 6:4 , the last, Joh 18:39 ; and some think that he mentions another, though more obscurely, Joh 5:1 . Our Lord was at them all.

Poole: Joh 2:14 - -- Mat 21:12 Luk 19:45, is a piece of history so like this, that some have questioned whether it mentions not the same individual matter of fact; but i...

Mat 21:12 Luk 19:45, is a piece of history so like this, that some have questioned whether it mentions not the same individual matter of fact; but it is apparent that it doth not:

1. Because St. John mentions it as done three years before it, at the first passover; all the other evangelists mention what they report as done at the fourth passover.

2. The circumstances of the narrative make it appear.

a) John mentions only the ejection of the sellers; all the others mention the ejection both of the buyers and sellers.

b) Here, he only saith they had made his Father’ s house a place of merchandise; the others say, that whereas it was written, it should be called a house of prayer, they had made it a den of thieves.

c) Here he only bids them that sold doves take their goods away; the others say he overturned the seats of them that sold doves: so as our Saviour plainly appeareth to have done this twice, at his first passover and at the last.

For the more full explication of the parts of this history, See Poole on "Mat 21:12" . See Poole on "Mar 11:15" . See Poole on "Luk 19:45" . The reason of their bringing oxen, and sheep, and doves into the temple, was to supply those that came afar off, and could not bring their sacrifices with them, with such sacrifices as the law required in several cases. The money changers were there, to change the people’ s money into half shekels, every one being obliged to offer his half shekel, Exo 30:13 . Our Saviour did not condemn this course of accommodating of people; but blames the covetousness of the priests, who for their private lucre had made the temple their marketplace, whenas there was room enough elsewhere.

Poole: Joh 2:15 - -- It concerns not us to inquire where our Saviour had the small cords, of which he made his whip; there were doubtless cords enough at hand, taken off...

It concerns not us to inquire where our Saviour had the small cords, of which he made his whip; there were doubtless cords enough at hand, taken off from beasts brought thither, though he was himself in no Franciscan habit, as the papists idly dream. But herein was the mighty power of God seen, that Christ, a single, private, obscure person, should without any more noise or opposition drive out the multitude of these hucksters, and overturn their tables. Nor I think (after the consideration of this circumstance) need we inquire by what authority he did this? It was prophesied of him, Mal 3:1 , that he should come to his temple; Mal 3:3 , should sit as a refiner and purifier of silver; and purify the sons of Levi, and purge them as gold and silver. Christ here, according to that prophecy, cometh to his temple, and begins to purge it.

Poole: Joh 2:16 - -- At this his first coming, he gives them that sold doves a liberty to take their goods away; but at the last coming, Mat 21:12 , it is said, he overt...

At this his first coming, he gives them that sold doves a liberty to take their goods away; but at the last coming, Mat 21:12 , it is said, he overturned their seats. Those that think this precedent sufficient to vindicate private persons tumultuous pulling down images, seem not to consider, that Christ was no private person, (though so esteemed), and did what he did as Lord of his house. Those who urge it as inferring magistrates and superiors duty in this case, urge it well; for it may well be from hence concluded, that it is the will of Christ, that places set apart for public worship, should neither wickedly be made dens of thieves, nor yet indecently made places for men to buy and sell in; though we can ascribe no such holiness to any place as to the temple, which had not only a particular dedication, but was built by God’ s order, his acceptation of it declared, and had peculiar promises annexed to it; besides its prefiguration of Christ (of which we shall speak more afterward); yet even nature itself teacheth, that there is a decent reverence and respect due to such places. This action of Christ’ s also, before he had published the doctrine of the gospel, instructs us, that those who have authority are not always to refrain from removing instruments of superstition and idolatry, or gross and indecent corruptions, until people be first by the preaching of the true doctrine persuaded willingly to part with them. But if this were to make God’ s house a place of merchandise for men, there to sell oxen, and sheep, and doves, and keep shops for changing money; what do papists make such houses, by their showing their relics and images to people, thereby to get money for their priests, and for selling pardons, indulgences, &c.? Never were God’ s houses to that degree made places of merchandise, and dens of thieves, if every one that cheateth for his profit be (as he is) a thief.

Poole: Joh 2:17 - -- The disciples, as well as the rest of the people there present, could not but be astonished at this so strange a thing, to see a single person, and ...

The disciples, as well as the rest of the people there present, could not but be astonished at this so strange a thing, to see a single person, and he in no repute but as a private person, to make a whip, and with authority drive the buyers and sellers out of the temple, and nobody to oppose him; but they remembered the words of David, Psa 69:9 . Some think that John here reports what they did after Christ’ s resurrection; and, indeed, whoso considereth the following part of the gospel history, would think that it were so; for they did not seem so early to have had a persuasion of Christ’ s Divine nature, nor that he was the Messiah; or if they at this time remembered it, and apprehended that Christ was the Son of David, the impression seems to have worn off. It is a greater question whether Psa 69:1-36 (from whence this quotation is) is to be understood of Christ, properly and literally, or merely as the Antitype to David, of whom that Psalm is literally to be understood? Some of the Lutherans think that Psalm primarily concerned Christ. Mr. Calvin and others think it only concerned Christ as David’ s Antitype. The former, for their opinion, take notice of the frequent quotation of it in the New Testament, Mat 27:48 Joh 19:28 Act 1:20 Rom 15:3 . The other urge that there are some things in that Psalm which cannot agree to Christ. The matter is not much. Zeal is nothing but a warmth of love and anger. It is good to be zealous, yea, swallowed up with zeal, in a good cause; but men must take heed of the Pharisaical zeal, not according to knowledge. Christ was zealous, but the cause was good.

Poole: Joh 2:18 - what sign Which of the Jews, whether some of the magistrates, or the priests, (who were more specially concerned for their profit), or the common people, or a...

Which of the Jews, whether some of the magistrates, or the priests, (who were more specially concerned for their profit), or the common people, or all together, is not said. They undertake not to justify their fact, nor could they deny it, but they ask him

what sign he could show them to justify his Divine authority. For this seemeth to have been their principle, that let corruptions and abuses in a church be never so great, yet they were not to be reformed, but either by the ordinary authority of the magistrate, or by all extraordinary authority from God. Such an extraordinary authority they would acknowledge in prophets; but they expected that those who pretended to such an extraordinary Divine mission, should be able to confirm that mission by some miraculous operations, as Moses did, Exo 4:30 . They had had no prophets now for four hundred years amongst them; the Jews required therefore a sign, 1Co 1:22 . The papists were at the same point with the first reformers; but they mistook, for they brought no new doctrine, but still cried, To the law and to the testimony; and where the true doctrine and sacraments are upheld, there is a true church, which hath power to call and send out preachers.

Poole: Joh 2:19 - Destroy Our Saviour refuseth to give them any sign, but that of his resurrection the third day from the dead. This was the sign to which he afterwards refer...

Our Saviour refuseth to give them any sign, but that of his resurrection the third day from the dead. This was the sign to which he afterwards refers the Pharisees, Mat 12:39 Luk 11:29 . Our Saviour’ s words must not be understood as commanding or licensing them to destroy him, but as foretelling what they would do. It is in Scripture very ordinary to use the imperative mood for the future tense of the indicative; see Gen 42:18 Deu 32:50 Isa 8:9,10 54:1 Joh 13:27 .

Destroy is as much as, I know you will destroy, or, If you do destroy this temple, I will build it up in three days. The resurrection of Christ from the dead is ordinarily in Scripture attributed to the Father; but here Christ saith he would do it; and the Spirit, by whom he is said to have been quickened, equally proceedeth both from the Father and the Son. Nor is this the only text where it is attributed to Christ; see Joh 20:17,18 . It was the work of the Trinity, out of itself, and so the work of all the three Persons. These words were three years after this made a great charge against Christ, Mat 26:61 ; but they reported them thus, This fellow said, I am able to destroy the temple of God, and to build it in three days. He said only, this temple, meaning his body.

Poole: Joh 2:20 - -- The Jews understood his words of that material temple in which they at this time were, which the best interpreters think was the temple built by Ezr...

The Jews understood his words of that material temple in which they at this time were, which the best interpreters think was the temple built by Ezra and Zerubbabel; but how to make it out that it was forty six years building, they are not well agreed. Some say, Cyrus reigned thirty, Cambyses eight, Darius six; these added together make forty four. Others say that the Magi reigned two years more. Some reckon to Cyrus thirty one, to his son Cambyses nine, Darius six. Others say that the years wherein the building was hindered during Artaxerxes’ s time, Ezr 4:21 , added to the two years of Darius, Ezr 4:24 , in whose sixth year it was finished, are reckoned together. The Jews thought it strange that our Saviour should undertake in three days to rear a building which had cost their forefathers so many years.

Poole: Joh 2:21 - -- But, alas, our Saviour spoke not of their material temple, but of the temple of his body; which yet was proper speaking: for if the apostle calleth ...

But, alas, our Saviour spoke not of their material temple, but of the temple of his body; which yet was proper speaking: for if the apostle calleth our bodies the temple of God, as he doth, 1Co 3:16 6:19 2Co 6:16 ; it much more may be said so of the body of Christ: for as God dwelt in the temple, and there revealed his will, and would be there worshipped; how properly must the notion of the temple agree to Christ, in whom the fulness of the Godhead dwelt bodily, Col 2:9 , who revealeth his Father’ s nature and will to men, Mat 11:27 , and in whom all must worship him? So as the temple at Jerusalem was every way a most illustrious type of Christ, and Christ might well, speaking concerning his body, say, Destroy this temple; and thus Christ (would these blind Jews have seen it) drew off the Jews from glorying in their temple, Jer 7:4 ; and from the temple, which was but a type, (as the tabernacle was before, Act 7:44 Heb 9:23,24 ), to himself, prefigured by those houses, Heb 9:11 . Nor doth he think fit at this time to speak more plainly; for as he knew that the perverse Jews, in seeing would not see, nor bear any such doctrine; so he also knew, that his better disciples were as yet weak in faith; and none putteth new wine into old bottles.

Poole: Joh 2:22 - And they believed the Scripture, and the word which Jesus had said Even Christ’ s own disciples at the first rather admired than perfectly understood their Lord. It is said of Christ, Luk 24:45 , a little befor...

Even Christ’ s own disciples at the first rather admired than perfectly understood their Lord. It is said of Christ, Luk 24:45 , a little before his ascension into heaven, Then opened he their understanding, that they might understand the Scripture. The disciples did not distinctly understand many things till after Christ’ s resurrection from the dead, when they saw the things accomplished, and when Christ further opened their eyes; which was also further done when the Holy Ghost came upon them in the days of Pentecost. Thus we hear for the time to come; and the seed which lieth a long time under the clods, at last springeth up through the influence of heaven upon it.

And they believed the Scripture, and the word which Jesus had said the disciples then more clearly and more firmly believed the Scriptures, and were able to make a clearer application and interpretation of them. By the Scripture here, are meant the Scriptures of the Old Testament; to which is added, and the word which Jesus had said. Christ’ s words gave them a clearer insight into the Scriptures of the Old Testament; and the harmony of the writings of the Old Testament with Christ’ s words under the New Testament, confirmed the disciples’ faith in both.

Poole: Joh 2:23 - Believed in his name To believe in Christ’ s name, and to believe in Christ himself, are one and the same thing; as it is the same to call upon God, and to call upo...

To believe in Christ’ s name, and to believe in Christ himself, are one and the same thing; as it is the same to call upon God, and to call upon the name of God: so Act 3:16 . The meaning is, that they believed the things which were published concerning his person and office: yet the periphrasis,

Believed in his name is not vain; but declareth a mutual relation between God and the word, by the preaching of which he maketh himself known to the world.

True faith cometh by hearing, and hearing by the word of God. I think it is to no purpose disputed here by some, whether the faith here mentioned was true faith, yea or no. It appeareth by what followeth, that it was not true justifying faith; but it was true in its kind. To make up true justifying, saving faith, which the apostle calls the faith of God’ s elect, three things are required:

1. A knowledge of the proposition of the word revealing Christ: this is acquired by reading, hearing, meditation, &c.

2. The second is assent, which is the act of the understanding, agreeing in the truth of the word revealed, when such an assent is given to a proposition, if merely upon the Divine revelation of it: this is faith, a true faith in its kind.

3. Upon this now (in those who savingly believe) the will closes with Christ as an adequate object; for it receiveth him, accepteth him, relies on him as its Saviour, and moveth by the affections to love, desire, hope, rejoice in him; and commandeth the outward man into an obedience to his law.

Now it is very possible, that, through a common influence of the Holy Spirit of God, men upon the hearing of the word, especially having the advantage of seeing miraculous operations confirming the word, may give a true assent to the proposition of the word, as a proposition of truth, and yet may never receive Christ as their Saviour, close with him, trust in him, desire, love, or obey him; this was the case of these persons, many at least of them. They believed, seeing the miracles which Christ did: they wanted a due knowledge of Christ founded in the word; neither had they any certain, steady, fixed assent, founded in the discerning the truth of the proposition; their assent was sudden, founded only upon the miracles they saw wrought; so as though they might have some confidence in him, as a famous person, and some great prince, from whom they might expect some earthly good, yet this was all, which was far enough from true saving faith.

Poole: Joh 2:24 - -- Christ did not take all these seeming believers into his bosom, nor call them after him, nor maintain any familiar fellowship and communion with the...

Christ did not take all these seeming believers into his bosom, nor call them after him, nor maintain any familiar fellowship and communion with them; but made haste again into Galilee, till his time was come, knowing that in so public a place of danger they were not to be trusted; for being God blessed for ever, he had knowledge of the hearts of all men.

Poole: Joh 2:25 - -- And needed not any information concerning the principles and humours of all men; for he perfectly knew men, not only from their more external acts a...

And needed not any information concerning the principles and humours of all men; for he perfectly knew men, not only from their more external acts and behaviours, (as we know them), but he knew what was in them, searching the hearts, and trying the reins, which is the property of God alone, 1Ki 8:39 Psa 33:15 . Here what we formerly observed is again observable, that oft times in holy writ, for the further confirmation of a proposition, to a universal affirmative is added a contrary negative. Here ariseth a question, agitated between the Lutherans and the Calvinists, Whether Christ as man knew all things, and what is in the heart of man. They affirm it, because of the personal union of the Divine and human natures in Christ. We say, that although there be such a personal union, yet the properties of each nature remain distinct; upon which account Christ denieth that he, as the Son of man, knew the day and hour of the end of the world. Besides, by the same reason that omniscience belongeth to the human nature of Christ, omnipotence, infiniteness, and omnipresence, also must; which last indeed they affirm, seeing that without it they were not able to defend their doctrine of consubstantiation, or the presence of the body and blood of Christ, wherever the sacrament of his supper is administered; but this being a matter polemical, we shall not here discourse it. Those who would be satisfied as to what is said on either side, may find enough in Gerard, Hunnius, and Farnovius, on the Lutherans’ side; and in Zanchius and others on the Calvinists’ side, Zanchius de Natura and Attributis Dei, lib. 3. cap. 2. qu. 16.

Lightfoot: Joh 2:1 - And the third day there was a marriage, etc.// A marriage. // And the mother of Jesus was there And the third day there was a marriage in Cana of Galilee; and the mother of Jesus was there:   [And the third day there was a marriage, e...

And the third day there was a marriage in Cana of Galilee; and the mother of Jesus was there:   

[And the third day there was a marriage, etc.] A virgin marries on the fourth day of the week; and a widow on the fifth. "This custom came not in but from the decree of Ezra, and so onward: for the Sanhedrim doth not sit but on the second and the fifth days; but before the decree of Ezra, when the Sanhedrim assembled every day, then was it lawful to take a wife on any day." There is a twofold reason given for this restraint:   

I. The virgin was to be married on the fourth day of the week because the assembly of the twenty-three met on the fifth: so that if the husband should find his wife to be no virgin, but already violated, he might have recourse to the consistory in the heat of his displeasure, and procure just punishment for her according to law. But why then might they not as well marry on the first day of the week, seeing the Beth Din met on the second as well as the fifth?   

II. Lest the sabbath should be polluted by preparations for the nuptials: for the first, second, and third days of the week are allowed for those kind of preparations. And the reason why the widow was to be married on the fifth day was, that her husband might rejoice with her for three days together, viz. Fifth, sixth, and the sabbath day.   

If therefore our bride in this place was a virgin, then the nuptials were celebrated on the fourth day of the week, which is our Wednesday: if she was a widow, then she was married on the fifth day of the week, which is our Thursday. Let us therefore number our days according to our evangelist, and let it be but granted that that was the sabbath in which it is said, "They abode with him all that day," Joh 1:39; then on the first day of the week Christ went into Galilee and met with Nathanael. So that the third day from thence is the fourth day of the week; but as to that, let every one reckon as he himself shall think fit.   

[A marriage.] I. The virgin to be married cometh forth from her father's house to that of her husband, "in some veil, but with her hair dishevelled, or her head uncovered."   

II. If any person meets her upon that day, he gives her the way; which once was done by king Agrippa himself.   

III. They carry before her a cup of wine, which they were wont to call the cup of Trumah; which denoted that she, for her unspotted virginity, might have married a priest, and eaten of the Trumah.   

IV. Skipping and dancing, they were wont to sing the praises of the bride. In Palestine they used these words "She needs no paint nor stibium, no plaiting of the hair, or any such thing; for she is of herself most beautiful."   

V. They scattered some kind of grain or corn amongst the children; that they, if occasion should serve, might bear witness hereafter that they saw that woman a married virgin.   

VI. They sprinkled also or sowed barley before them, by that ceremony denoting their fruitfulness. Whether these sports were used at the wedding where our Saviour was present, let others inquire.   

VII. In Sotah there is mention of crowns which the bride and bridegroom wore; as also what fashion they were of, and of what materials they were made.   

VIII. Because of the mirth that was expected at nuptial solemnities, they forbade all weddings celebrating within the feasts of the Passover, Pentecost, and Tabernacles, "because there were great rejoicings at nuptials, and they must not intermingle one joy with another"; that is, the joy of nuptials with the joy of a festival.   

IX. The nuptial festivity was continued for the whole seven days; which we also see of old, Jdg 19:12.   

[And the mother of Jesus was there.] The mother of Jesus was there; not invited (as it should seem) with Christ and his disciples, but had been there before the invitation made to them.   

You may conceive who were the usual nuptial guests by those words of Maimonides: " The bridegroom and his companions, the children of the bridechamber; are not bound to make a tabernacle."   

I. In a more general sense, denotes a friend or companion; as in the Targum, Jdg 14:2; 2Sa 13:3; but it is more particularly applied to those friends that are the nuptial guests.   

II. But in a most strict sense to those two mentioned Chetubb. Folio 12. 1: "Of old they appointed two Shoshbenin; one for the bridegroom, the other for the bride, that they should minister to them especially at their entry into the bridal chamber." They were especially instituted for this end, that they should take care and provide that there should be no fraud nor deceit as to the tokens of the bride's virginity. So Gloss upon the place. The Rabbins very ridiculously (as they almost always do) tell a trifling story, that Michael and Gabriel were the two Shoshbenin at Adam and Eve's wedding.   

III. But as to the signification of this nuptial term in a more large sense, we may see farther: " If any amongst the brethren make a Shoshbenuth while the father is yet alive, when the Shoshbenuth returns, that also is returned too; for the Shoshbenuth is required even before the Beth Din; but if any one send to his friend any measures of wine, those are not required before the Beth Din; for this was a deed of gift? or work of charity."   

The words are very obscure, but they seem to bear this sense, viz.: This was the manner of the Shoshbenuth; some bachelor or single person, for joy of his friend's marriage, takes something along with him to eat and be merry with the bridegroom: when it comes to the turn of this single person to marry, this bridegroom, to whom he had brought this portion, is bound to return the same kindness again. Nay, if the father should make a wedding for his son, and his friends should bring gifts along with them in honour of the nuptials, and give them to his son [the bridegroom], the father was bound to return the same kindness whenever any of those friends should think fit to marry themselves. But if any one should send the bridegroom to congratulate his nuptials, either wine or oil, or any such gift, and not come himself to eat and make merry with them, this was not of the nature of the Shoshbenuth; nor could be required back again before the tribunal, because that was a free gift.   

IV. Christ therefore, and five of his disciples, were not of these voluntary Shoshbenin at this wedding, for they were invited guests, and so of the number of those that were called the children of the bridechamber; distinguished from the Shoshbenin. But whether our Saviour's mother was to be accounted either the one or the other is a vain and needless question. Perhaps she had the care of preparing and managing the necessaries for the wedding, as having some relation either with the bridegroom or the bride.

Lightfoot: Joh 2:6 - Six waterpots. // Firkins And there were set there six waterpots of stone, after the manner of the purifying of the Jews, containing two or three firkins apiece.   ...

And there were set there six waterpots of stone, after the manner of the purifying of the Jews, containing two or three firkins apiece.   

[Six waterpots.] Gloss, "If any one have water fit to drink, and that water by chance contract any uncleanness, let him fill the stone vessel with it."   

The number of the six waterpots; I suppose, needs not be ascribed to any custom of the nation, but rather to the multitude then present. It is true indeed that at nuptials and other feasts, there were waterpots always set for the guests to wash their hands at; but the number of the vessels and the quantity of water was always proportioned according to the number of the guests; for both the hands and vessels, and perhaps the feet of some of them, were wont to be washed.   

Mashicala mashi culla, the greater vessel out of which all wash; maschilta mashia callatha, the lesser vessel in which the bride washes; and (saith the Gloss) the better sort of the guests.   

[Firkins.] The Greek version thus expresseth the measure of a bath; 2Ch 4:5; so Hag 2:16; where the same measure of a bath is to be understood. Now if every one of these waterpots in our story contained two or three baths apiece, how great a quantity of wine must that be which all that water was changed into!   

The waterpots of Lydda and Bethlehem; where the Gloss, "They were wont to make pots in Lydda from the measure of the seah to that of the log; and in Bethlehem from the measure of two seahs to that of one." How big were these pots that contained six or nine seahs; for every bath contained three seahs.   

As to the washing of the hands, we have this in Jadaim; "they allot a fourth part of a log for the washing of one person's hands; it may be of two; half a log for three or four; a whole log to five or ten, nay, to a hundred; with this provision, saith R. Jose, that the last that washeth hath no less than a fourth part of a log for himself."

Lightfoot: Joh 2:7 - Jesus said, Fill, etc. Jesus saith unto them, Fill the waterpots with water. And they filled them up to the brim.   [Jesus said, Fill, etc.] I. It is probabl...

Jesus saith unto them, Fill the waterpots with water. And they filled them up to the brim.   

[Jesus said, Fill, etc.] I. It is probable that the discourse betwixt Jesus and his mother was not public and before the whole company, but privately and betwixt themselves: which if we suppose, the words of the son towards the mother, "Woman, what have I to do with thee?" will not seem so harsh as we might apprehend them if spoken in the hearing of all the guests. And although the son did seem by his first answer to give a plain denial to what was propounded to him, yet perhaps by something which he afterward said to her, (though not expressed by the evangelist,) or some other token, the mother understood his mind so far, that when they came into company again she could intimate to them, "Whatsoever he saith unto you, do it."   

II. He answered his mother, "Mine hour is not yet come": for it might be justly expected that the first miracle he would exert should be done in Jerusalem, the metropolis of that nation.

Lightfoot: Joh 2:8 - The governor of the feast And he saith unto them, Draw out now, and bear unto the governor of the feast. And they bare it.   [The governor of the feast.] This g...

And he saith unto them, Draw out now, and bear unto the governor of the feast. And they bare it.   

[The governor of the feast.] This governor of the feast I would understand to have been in the place of chaplain, to give thanks, and pronounce blessings in such kind of feasts as these were. There was the bridegroom's blessing; recited every day for the whole space of the seven days, besides other benedictions during the whole festival time, requisite upon a cup of wine (for over a cup of wine there used to be a blessing pronounced;) especially that which was called the cup of good news; when the virginity of the bride is declared and certified. He, therefore, who gave the blessing for the whole company, I presume, might be called the governor of the feast. Hence to him it is that our Saviour directs the wine that was made of water, as he who, after some blessing pronounced over the cup, should first drink of it to the whole company, and after him the guests pledging and partaking of it.   

As to what is contained in verses 14 Joh 2:14; 15 Joh 2:15; and 16 Joh 2:16 of this chapter, I have already discussed that in Mat 21:12.

Lightfoot: Joh 2:18 - What sign showest thou unto us Then answered the Jews and said unto him, What sign showest thou unto us, seeing that thou doest these things?   [What sign showest thou u...

Then answered the Jews and said unto him, What sign showest thou unto us, seeing that thou doest these things?   

[What sign showest thou unto us?] "Noah, Hezekiah, etc., require a sign; much more the wicked and ungodly."   

Since there had been so many, no less than four hundred years past, from the time that the Holy Spirit had departed from that nation, and prophecies had ceased, in which space there had not appeared any one person that pretended to the gift either of prophesying or working miracles, it is no wonder if they were suspicious of one that now claimed the character, and required a sign of him.

Lightfoot: Joh 2:19 - Destroy this Temple Jesus answered and said unto them, Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up.   [Destroy this Temple.] I. Christ showeth...

Jesus answered and said unto them, Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up.   

[Destroy this Temple.] I. Christ showeth them no sign that was a mere sign; Mat 12:39. The turning of Moses' rod into a serpent, and returning the serpent into a rod again; the hand becoming leprous, and restored to its proper temperament again; these were mere signs; but those wonders which Moses afterward wrought in Egypt were not mere signs; but beneficent miracles; and whoever would not believe upon those infinite miracles which he wrought, would much less have believed upon mere signs. And, indeed, it was unbecoming our blessed Lord so far to indulge to their obstinate incredulity, to be showing new signs still at every beck of theirs, who would not believe upon those infinite numbers he put forth upon every proper occasion.   

II. Mat 12:39-40. When they had required a sign; Christ remits them to the sign of the prophet Jonah; and he points at the very same sense in these words, Destroy this Temple; etc.: that is, "My resurrection from the dead will be a sign beyond all denial, proving and affirming, that what I do I act upon divine authority, and that I am he who is to come (Rom 1:4). Further than this you must expect no other sign from me. If you believe me not while I do such works, at least believe me when I arise from the dead."   

He acted here, while he is purging the Temple, under that notion as he was the authorized Messiah, Mal 3:1; Mal 3:3, and expressly calls it "his Father's house," Joh 2:16. Show us therefore some sign; (say the Jews,) by which it may appear that thou art the Messiah the Son of God; at least, that thou art a prophet. I will show you a sufficient sign; saith Christ: destroy this temple; viz. of my body, and I will raise it from the dead again; a thing which was never yet done, nor could be done by any of the prophets.

Lightfoot: Joh 2:20 - Forty-and-six years Then said the Jews, Forty and six years was this temple in building, and wilt thou rear it up in three days?   [Forty-and-six years.] I. ...

Then said the Jews, Forty and six years was this temple in building, and wilt thou rear it up in three days?   

[Forty-and-six years.] I. That this was spoken of the Temple as beautified and repaired by Herod, not as built by Zorobabel, these reasons seem to sway with me:   

1. That these things were done and discoursed betwixt Christ and the Jews in Herod's Temple.   

2. That the account, if meant of the Temple of Zorobabel, will not fall in either with the years of the kings of Persia; or those seven weeks mentioned Dan 9:25; in which Jerusalem was to be built, "even in troublous times." For whoever reckons by the kings of Persia, he must necessarily attribute at least thirty years to Cyrus; which they willingly do that are fond of this account: which thirty years too, if they do not reckon to him after the time that he had taken Babylon, and subverted that monarchy, they prove nothing as to this computation at all.   

"Cyrus destroyed the empire of the Medes, and reigned over Persia, having overthrown Astyages, the king of the Medes": and from thence Eusebius reckons to Cyrus thirty years. But by what authority he ascribes the Jews' being set at liberty from their captivity to that very same year, I cannot tell. For Cyrus could not release the Jews from their captivity in Babylon before he had conquered Babylon for himself; and this was a great while after he had subdued the Medes, as appears from all that have treated upon the subversion of that empire: which how they agree with Xenophon, I shall not inquire at this time: content at present with this, that it doth not appear amongst any historians that have committed the acts of Cyrus to memory, that they have given thirty or twenty, no, not ten years to him after he had taken Babylon. Leunclavius gives him but eight years; and Xenophon himself seems to have given him but seven. So that this account of forty-and-six years falls plainly to the ground, as not being able to stand, but with the whole thirty years of Cyrus included into the number.   

Their opinion is more probable who make these forty-and-six years parallel with the seven weeks in Dan 9:25. But the building of the Temple ceased for more years than wherein it was built; and, in truth, if we compute the times wherein any work was done upon the Temple, it was really built within the space of ten years.   

II. This number of forty-six years fits well enough with Herod's Temple; for Josephus tells us, that Herod began the work in the eighteenth year of his reign; nor does he contradict himself when he tells us, in the fifteenth year of his reign he repaired the Temple; because the fifteenth year of his reign alone, after he had conquered Antigonus, was the eighteenth year from the time wherein he had been declared king by the Romans. Now Herod (as the same Josephus relates) lived thirty-seven years from the time that the Romans had declared him king; and in his thirty-fifth year Christ was born; and he was now thirty years old when he had this discourse with the Jews. So that between the eighteenth of Herod and the thirtieth of Christ exclusively there were just forty-six years complete.   

III. The words of our evangelist therefore may be thus rendered in English: "Forty-and-six years hath this Temple been in building": and this version seems warranted by Josephus, who, beginning the history of G. Florus, the procurator of Judea, about the 11th of Nero, hath this passage; From that time particularly our city began to languish, all things growing worse and worse. He tells us further, that Albinus, when he went off from his government, set open all the gaols and dismissed the prisoners, and so filled the whole province with thieves and robberies. He tells withal, that king Agrippa permitted the Levite singing-men to go about as they pleased in their linen garments: and at length concludes, "And now was the Temple finished [note that]; wherefore the people, seeing the workmen, to the number of eighteen thousand, were at a stand, having nothing to do...besought the king that he would repair the porch upon the east," etc. If therefore the Temple was not finished till that time, then much less was it so when Christ was in it. Whence we may properly enough render those words of the Jews into such a kind of sense as this: "It is forty-and-six years since the repairing of the Temple was first undertook, and indeed to this day is not quite perfected; and wilt thou pretend to build a new one in three days?"

Lightfoot: Joh 2:21 - But he spake of the temple of his body But he spake of the temple of his body.   [But he spake of the temple of his body.] If we consider how much the second Temple came behind t...

But he spake of the temple of his body.   

[But he spake of the temple of his body.] If we consider how much the second Temple came behind that of the first, it will the more easily appear why our blessed Saviour should call his body the Temple.   

"In the second Temple there wanted the Fire from heaven, the Ark with the Propitiatory and Cherubims, Urim and Thummim, the Divine Glory; the Holy Ghost, and the anointing Oil."   

These things were all in Solomon's Temple, which therefore was accounted a full and plenary type of the Messiah: but so long as the second Temple had them not, it wanted what more particularly shadowed and represented him.   

I. There was indeed in the second Temple a certain ark in the Holy of Holies; but this was neither Moses' ark nor the ark of the covenant: which may not unfitly come to mind when we read that passage, Rev 11:19; "The Temple of God was opened in heaven, and there was seen in his Temple the ark of his testament." It was not seen, nor indeed was it at all in the second Temple.   

The Jews have a tradition, that Josias hid the ark before the Babylonish captivity, lest it should fall into the hands of the enemy, as once it did amongst the Philistines; but there is no mention that it was ever found and restored again.   

II. In Moses' Tabernacle and Solomon's Temple the divine presence sat visibly over the Ark in the Propitiatory, in a cloud of glory: but when the destruction of that Temple drew near, it went up from the Propitiatory, Eze 10:4; and never returned into the second Temple, where neither the Ark nor the Propitiatory was ever restored.   

III. The high priest, indeed, ministered in the second Temple as in the first, in eight several garments. Amongst these was the pectoral, or breastplate, wherein the precious stones were put (out of which the jasper chanced to fall and was lost): but the oracle by Urim and Thummim was never restored: see Ezr 2:63; Neh 7:63. And if not restored in the days of Ezra or Nehemiah, much less certainly in the ages following, when the spirit of prophecy had forsaken and taken leave of that people. For that is a great truth amongst the Talmudists; "Things are not asked or inquired after now [by Urim and Thummim] by the high priest, because he doth not speak by the Holy Ghost, nor does there any divine afflatus breathe on him."   

This, to omit other things, was the state of Zorobabel's Temple with respect to those things which were the peculiar glory of it. And these things being wanting, how much inferior must this needs be to that of Solomon's!   

But there was one thing that degraded Herod's Temple still lower; and that was the person of Herod himself, to whom it is ascribed. It was not without scruple, even amongst the Jews themselves, that it was built and repaired by such a one: (and who knew not what Herod was?) and they dispute whether by right such a person ought to have meddled with it; and invent arguments for their own satisfaction as to the lawfulness of the thing.   

They object first, It is not permitted to any one to demolish one synagogue till he hath built another; much less to demolish the Temple. But Herod demolished the Temple before he had built another. Ergo,   

They answer, "Baba Ben Buta gave Herod that counsel, that he should pull it down." Now this Baba was reckoned amongst the great wise men, and he did not rashly move Herod to such a work; for he saw such clefts and breaches in the Temple that threatened its ruin.   

They object, secondly, concerning the person of Herod, that he was a servant to the Asmonean family, that he rose up against his masters and killed them, and had killed the Sanhedrim.   

They answer, We were under his power, and could not resist it. And if those hands stained with blood would be building, it was not in their power to hinder it.   

These and other things they apologize for their Temple; adding this invention for the greater honour of the thing -- that all that space of time wherein it was a building, it never once rained by day, that the work might not be interrupted.   

The Rabbins take a great deal of pains, but to no purpose, upon those words, Hag 2:9; "The glory of this latter house shall be greater than of the former." "R. Jochanan and R. Eliezer say; one, that it was a greater for the fabric; the other, that it was greater for the duration." As if the glory of the Temple consisted in any mathematical reasons of space, dimension, or duration; as if it lay in walls, gilding, or ornament. The glory of the first Temple was the Ark, the divine cloud over the Ark, the Urim and the Thummim, etc. Now where or in what can consist the greater glory of the second Temple when these are gone?   

Herein it is indeed that the Lord of the Temple was himself present in his Temple: he himself was present in whom dwelleth all the fulness of the Godhead bodily; Col 2:9; as the divine glory of old was over the ark typically; or by way of shadow only.   

This is the glory; when he himself is present who is the great High Priest and the Prophet; who, answerably to the Urim and Thummim of old, reveals the counsels and will of God; he who is the true and living Temple, whom that Temple shadowed out. "This Temple of yours, O ye Jews, does not answer its first pattern and exemplar: there are wanting in that, what were the chief glory of the former; which very defect intimates that there is another Temple to be expected, that in all things may fall in with its first type, as it is necessary the antitype should do. And this is the Temple of my body." No further did he think fit to reply to them at that time.

Haydock: Joh 2:1 - The Mother of Jesus The Mother of Jesus was present. It is supposed she was then a widow, since in all the rest of the history of Jesus, not a single word occurs respec...

The Mother of Jesus was present. It is supposed she was then a widow, since in all the rest of the history of Jesus, not a single word occurs respecting St. Joseph. (Calmet)

Haydock: Joh 2:3 - They have no wine They have no wine. The blessed virgin Mother was not ignorant of the divine power of her Son, and that the time was come when he designed to make hi...

They have no wine. The blessed virgin Mother was not ignorant of the divine power of her Son, and that the time was come when he designed to make himself known to the world. She could not make her request in more modest terms. (Witham)

Haydock: Joh 2:4 - My hour is not yet come Some of the Fathers have spoken without sufficient precaution on this action of the blessed Virgin; supposing she was actuated by some inclination to ...

Some of the Fathers have spoken without sufficient precaution on this action of the blessed Virgin; supposing she was actuated by some inclination to vanity, in begging her Son perform a miracle on this occasion; that some of the glory of it might accrue to her, and that on this account our Saviour answers her with severity, saying, Woman, (not Mother ) what is it to thee or me. Other Fathers, with more reason, attribute the interference of the blessed Virgin to her charity and compassion for the new married couple. Whatever turn be given to our Saviour's answer, it must be acknowledged it has in it the appearance of something severe. But the Fathers have explained it with mildness, observing that our Saviour only meant to say, Mother, what affair is it of ours if they want wine? Ought we to concern ourselves about that? Others think that he wished, by these words, to let his Mother know that she must not forestall the time appointed by the heavenly Father, as if her demand were unseasonable and out of time. But most of the Fathers and best commentators understand, that he speaks here not as man and Son of Mary, but as God; and in that quality, he observes to his Mother, I have nothing in common with you. It is not for you to prescribe when miracles are to be performed, which are not to be expected in compliance with any human respect. I know when my power is to be manifested for the greater glory of God. (Calmet) ---See the like forms of speech, Mark i. 24; Luke iv. 34; &c. ---

My hour is not yet come. It is not yet time. He waited till the wine was quite done, lest any should believe that he had only increased the quantity, or had only mixed water with the wine. He would have his first miracle to be incontestable, and that all the company should be witnesses of it. (St. Augustine, et alii patres passim. ---

Christ's first miracle in the New Testament, was a kind of transubstantiation in changing water into wine; the first miracle Moses performed when sent to the Jews, was transubstantiation. (Exodus iv.) The first Moses and Aaron performed, when sent to the Egyptians, was transubstantiation. (Exodus vii.)

Haydock: Joh 2:6 - Two or three measures // Metretas binas vel ternas, Greek: ana metretas duo e treis Two or three measures, [1] called metreta. Both the Latin and Greek text, by the derivation, may signify a measure in general, according to the Rhe...

Two or three measures, [1] called metreta. Both the Latin and Greek text, by the derivation, may signify a measure in general, according to the Rhemish translation: but metreta was a particular measure of liquids: yet, not corresponding to our firkins, I could not think it proper with the Protestant and M. N. to put two or three firkins. (Witham)

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[BIBLIOGRAPHY]

Metretas binas vel ternas, Greek: ana metretas duo e treis. See Walton's preface to his first volume, p. 42, and others, de ponderibus et mensuris.

Haydock: Joh 2:10 - When men have well drank When men have well drank, [2] or plentifully; this is the literal sense: nor need we translate, when they are drunk, being spoken of such company, w...

When men have well drank, [2] or plentifully; this is the literal sense: nor need we translate, when they are drunk, being spoken of such company, where our Saviour, Christ, his blessed Mother, and his disciples, were present. See Genesis xliii. 34; 1 Machabees xvi. ver. 16, where the same word may be taken in the same sense. (Witham)

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[BIBLIOGRAPHY]

When they have drank well: cum inebriati fuerint, Greek: otan methusthosi. See Legh. Crit. Sac. on the word Greek: methuo.

====================

Haydock: Joh 2:11 - -- This was the first miracle which Jesus had performed in public, and to manifest his glory; but Maldonatus is of opinion that he had before wrought man...

This was the first miracle which Jesus had performed in public, and to manifest his glory; but Maldonatus is of opinion that he had before wrought many miracles, known to the blessed Virgin and St. Joseph; which gave her the confidence to ask one now. This opinion is no way contrary to the evangelist. His disciples believed in him. They had believed in him before or they would not have followed him. This confirmed their faith. (Calmet)

Haydock: Joh 2:15 - He drove them all out of the temple He drove them all out of the temple. According to St. John Chrysostom (hom. lxvii. in Matt.) this casting out was different from that which is there...

He drove them all out of the temple. According to St. John Chrysostom (hom. lxvii. in Matt.) this casting out was different from that which is there related, chap. xxi. ver. 12. (Witham) ---

How could the Son of the carpenter, Joseph, whose divinity was yet unknown to the people, succeed in expelling so great a multitude from the temple! There was undoubtedly something divine in his whole conduct and appearance, which deterred all from making resistance. The evangelist seems to insinuate this by putting these words: "The house of my Father," into our Saviour's mouth, which was making himself immediately the Son of God. This made Origen consider this miracle, in overcoming the unruly dispositions of so many, as a superior manifestation of power to what he had shewn in changing the nature of water at Cana. (Haydock) ---

Jesus Christ here shews the respect he requires should be shewn to the temple of God; and St. Paul, speaking of the profaners of God's Church, saith: If any man defile the temple of God, he will God destroy. (1 Corinthians iii. 17.) Which in a spiritual sense may be understood of the soul of man, which is the living temple of the living God. (Haydock)

Haydock: Joh 2:20 - Six and forty years Six and forty years, &c. This many understand of the time the second temple was building, from the edict of Cyrus to the sixth year of Darius Hystas...

Six and forty years, &c. This many understand of the time the second temple was building, from the edict of Cyrus to the sixth year of Darius Hystaspes. Others, of the enlarging and beautifying the temple, which was begun by Herod the great, forty-six years before the Jews spoke this to our Saviour. (Witham) ---

Interpreters are much embarrassed by these words; as the building of the temple, which then existed, had been finished in much less than 46 years. Herod renewed the temple from the foundations, and spent in that work only nine years and a half. It was begun 46 years before the first Pasch at which our Saviour appeared. (Usher, ad an. Mundi 3987.) ---

But this prince, according to Josephus, continued to make new building and embellishments to the very time in which the Jews uttered these words: it is now 46 years, &c.

Haydock: Joh 2:24 - Trust himself to them Trust himself to them. The Fathers generally understand these words, to them, to refer to those who believed in him, mentioned in the preceding ve...

Trust himself to them. The Fathers generally understand these words, to them, to refer to those who believed in him, mentioned in the preceding verse. Though they believed in him, he did not trust himself to them, because he knew them. He knew their weaknesses, their inconstancy, their unsteadiness. He knew they would abandon him on the first occasion; and that his passion, his cross, his doctrines, would be a subject of scandal. St. Augustine compares these first believers to catechumens. They believe in Christ, confess his name, and sign their foreheads with his cross: but Jesus Christ does not trust himself to them; he does not trust to them the knowledge of his mysteries; he does not reveal to them the secrets of his religion. (Calmet) ---

The catechumens were not allowed to be present at the holy mysteries of the sacrifice of the mass, but went out after the instruction of the gospel; whence the first part of the mass was frequently called the mass of the catechumens.

Gill: Joh 2:1 - And the third day there was a marriage // in Cana of Galilee // and the mother of Jesus was there And the third day there was a marriage,.... Either from the second testimony bore by John the Baptist concerning Christ, and from the call of Simon Pe...

And the third day there was a marriage,.... Either from the second testimony bore by John the Baptist concerning Christ, and from the call of Simon Peter, which seem to be of the same date; see Joh 1:35, or from Christ's coming into Galilee; or from the conversation he had with Nathanael; from either of which the date is taken, it matters not; the first is as agreeable and plain, as any. There is much dispute, and many rules with the Jews about the times, and days of marriage:

"a virgin, (they say z,) marries on the fourth day (of the week), and a widow on the fifth, because the sanhedrim sit in the cities twice in the week, on the second, and on the fifth days; so that if there is any dispute about virginity, he (the husband) may come betimes to the sanhedrim.''

This was a law that obtained since the times of Ezra; for it is said a,

"before the order of Ezra, a woman might be married on any day;''

but in after times, feast days, and sabbath days, were particularly excepted. One of their canons is b.

"they do not marry women on a feast day, neither virgins, nor widows:''

The reason of it was, that they might not mix one joy with another; and lest a man should leave the joy of the feast, for the joy of his wife. The account Maimonides c gives of these several things is this;

"it is lawful to espouse on any common day, even on the ninth of Ab, whether in the day, or in the night; but they do not marry wives neither on the evening of the sabbath, nor on the first of the week: the decree is, lest the sabbath should be profaned by preparing the feast; for the bridegroom is employed about the feast: and there is no need to say, that it is unlawful to marry a wife on the sabbath day; and even on the common day of a feast they do not marry wives, as we have explained; because they do not mix one joy with another, as it is said in Gen 29:27, "fulfil her week, and we will give thee this also": but on the rest of the days it is lawful to marry a wife, any day a man pleases; for he must be employed in the marriage feast three days before the marriage. A place in which the sanhedrim do not sit, but on the second and fifth days only, a virgin is married on the fourth day; that if there is any objection to her virginity, he (her husband) may come betimes to the sanhedrim: and it is a custom of the wise men, that he that marries one that has been married, he may marry her on the fifth day, that so he may rejoice with her on the fifth day, and on the evening of the sabbath, (i.e. the sixth,) and on the sabbath day, and may go forth to his work on the first day.''

But elsewhere it is said d, that

"now they are used to marry on the "sixth day of the week".''

Yea e, that

"it is lawful to marry, and to make the feast on the sabbath day.''

But whether this marriage was of a virgin, or a widow, cannot be known; nor with certainty can it be said on what day of the week it was: if that day was a sabbath day on which the disciples abode with Christ, as Dr. Lightfoot conjectures, then it must be on the first day that Christ went into Galilee, and found Philip, and conversed with Nathanael; and if this third day is reckoned from John's second testimony, it must be on a Tuesday, the third day of the week; but if from Christ's going into Galilee, then it must be on a Wednesday, the fourth day of the week, the day fixed by the Jewish canon for the marriage of a virgin. This marriage was

in Cana of Galilee. The Syriac and Persic versions, read, in "Kotne, a city of Galilee"; and which, in the Jewish map, is called בגליל קטנא, "Katna" in "Galilee", and is placed in the tribe of Zebulun, which was in Galilee, and not far from Nazareth; and bids fair to be the same place with this; though it is more generally thought f, that Cana, in the tribe of Asher, mentioned in Jos 19:28, which was also in Galilee, is here meant; and is so called to distinguish it from another Kanah, in the tribe of Ephraim, Jos 16:8. Josephus g speaks of a town, or village, of Galilee, called Cana, which was a day's march from it to Tiberias, and seems to be the same place: and another Jewish writer h says,

"to me it appears that Cepher Chanania, is Copher Cana; or the village of Cans, as is clear in Misna Sheviith, c. 9. sect. 1. for there is the beginning of lower, Galilee,''

which also accords with this. Now in the case of marriage, there was some difference between Judea and Galilee, and certain rules were laid down relating thereunto: and it is said i,

"there are three countries, for the celebration of marriages; Judea, the country beyond Jordan, and Galilee;''

that is, that were obliged to marry among themselves; so that if any one married a wife out of any of these countries, she was not obliged to go along with him from one country to another k: hence it follows,

"they do not bring them out from city to city, (i.e. oblige them to go with them from city to city,) nor from town to town; but in the same country they bring them out from city to city, and from town to town.''

And it is elsewhere observed l, that

"in Judea, at first, they joined the bridegroom and bride together an hour before they went into the bride chamber, that so his heart might be lifted up in her; but in Galilee they did not do so: in Judea, at first, they appointed for them two companions, one for him, and another for her, that they might minister to, or wait on the bridegroom, and bride, when they went into the bride chamber; but in Galilee they did not do so: in Judea, at first, the companions slept in the house where the bridegroom and bride slept; but in Galilee they did not do so.''

Next we have an account of the persons that were present at this marriage:

and the mother of Jesus was there; who seems to have been a principal person at this wedding, and was very officious; when wine was wanted, she signified it to her son, and ordered the servants to do whatever he bid them: and since she, and Jesus, and his brethren, were all here, it looks as if it was a relation of hers that was now married: and since these brethren were the kinsmen of Christ, Simon, Judas, and Joses, the sons of Cleophas or Alphaeus, whose wife was sister to the mother of our Lord; and since one of them, to distinguish him from Simon Peter, is called Simon the Canaanite, or an inhabitant of Cana, as some have thought; hence it is conjectured by Dr. Lightfoot, that Alphaeus had an house in Cana, and that his family dwelt there, and that it was for one of his family that this marriage feast was made; see Joh 2:2. Joseph, the husband of Mary, perhaps, was now dead, since no mention is made of him here, nor any where else, as alive, after Christ had entered on his public ministry.

Gill: Joh 2:2 - And both Jesus was called // and his disciples, to the marriage And both Jesus was called,.... Or invited, as being a relation, according to the flesh: and his disciples, to the marriage; who were bidden, on his...

And both Jesus was called,.... Or invited, as being a relation, according to the flesh:

and his disciples, to the marriage; who were bidden, on his account; and they seem to be these, Andrew, and the other disciple, that followed Jesus, and Simon Peter, and Philip, and Nathanael, who was of this place; and accordingly they all went to it. Christ, and his five disciples, made six of the ten, which were always necessary to be present at, the benediction of bridegrooms: for so runs the canon m;

"they do not bless the blessing of bridegrooms, but with ten principal and free men; and the bridegroom may be one of the number.''

To attend a wedding, was reckoned, with the Jews, an act of beneficence and kindness n. Our Lord, being at this wedding, was acting like himself, and his general character, of being free, affable, and courteous; who accepted of every invitation, and refused not to be at any entertainment, made by who it would, or on whatever occasion: and particularly in this instance, it shows his humility in not disdaining his poor relations, but giving them his company at such a time; as also it was bearing a testimony to the institution of marriage, as honourable; and teaches us to rejoice with them that rejoice: and as this was, at the first of Christ's ministry and miracles, it is likely it might give the occasion of that calumny cast on him in Mat 11:19. The disciples of Christ followed the example of their master. According to the Jewish cations o, a disciple of a wise man might not partake of any feast, but what was according to the commandment, as the feast of espousals, and of marriage; and such a feast was this, which Christ and his disciples were at; and so not to be condemned for it, according to their own maxims.

Gill: Joh 2:3 - And when they wanted wine // the mother of Jesus saith unto him, they have no wine And when they wanted wine,.... Or wine was wanting; not through the intemperance of the guests, rather through the poverty of the family, who were not...

And when they wanted wine,.... Or wine was wanting; not through the intemperance of the guests, rather through the poverty of the family, who were not able to provide very largely; and it may be by reason of a larger number of guests than were expected; however, so it was ordered by Divine Providence, that there might be an opportunity for Christ to manifest forth his glory:

the mother of Jesus saith unto him, they have no wine; being concerned for the family, lest they should be put to shame and disgrace, and the entertainment should not proceed with becoming credit and honour; and knowing the power of Christ to help in this time of necessity, she modestly moves it to him, perhaps by a whisper, sitting next him; or, it may be, might call him out, and just drop the hint; being well persuaded of his power, as she might; not from any miracles wrought by him in her family for the support of it, when in distress; for as Christ wrought no miracle, in the time of his public ministry, for the support of himself, or his disciples, but for others, it is not likely he should do it for his family in private life; but from the wonderful things told her by the angel that brought the news of her conception, and by the shepherds, and by Simeon and Anna, which she had laid up in her heart; and from his being the Messiah, who, according to the general belief of the nation, was to work miracles; and particularly from the last words of the preceding chapter; See Gill on Joh 1:50, for she might be present at the delivery of them; and therefore might hope that as this was the first opportunity that offered after, that he would display his power in supplying the family with wine in this time of exigence.

Gill: Joh 2:4 - Jesus saith unto her, woman // what have I to do with thee // mine hour is not yet come Jesus saith unto her, woman,.... Calling her "woman", as it was no ways contrary to her being a virgin, Gal 4:4, so it was no mark of disrespect; it b...

Jesus saith unto her, woman,.... Calling her "woman", as it was no ways contrary to her being a virgin, Gal 4:4, so it was no mark of disrespect; it being an usual way of speaking with the Jews, when they showed the greatest respect to the person spoken to; and was used by our Lord when he addressed his mother with the greatest tenderness, and strongest affection, Joh 19:26. The Jews frequently object this passage to us Christians: one of their writers his objection in this manner p:

"they (the Christians) say, the mother of Jesus is never called a woman their law; but here her son himself calls her a man.''

Another puts it thus q:

"it is their (the Christians) belief, that Mary, even after she brought forth Jesus, was a virgin; but if she was, as they say, why does not her son call her by the name of virgin? but he calls her a woman, which signifies one known by man, as appears from Joh 2:4.''

To which may be replied, that the mother of Jesus is never called a woman in the New Testament, is not said by us Christians: it is certain she is so called, both here, and elsewhere; but then this is no contradiction to her being a virgin; one, and the same person, may be a virgin, and a woman: the Abraham's servant was sent to take for wife for his son Isaac, is called a woman, though a virgin that had never known any man, Gen 24:5. Besides, we do not think ourselves obliged to maintain the perpetual virginity of Mary, the mother of our Lord; it is enough that she was a virgin when she conceived, and when she brought forth her firstborn: and as the Jews endeavour to take an advantage of this against the character of Mary, the Papists are very solicitous about the manner in which these words are said, lest they should be thought to contain a reproof, which they cannot bear she should be judged worthy of; or suggest any thing to her dishonour, whom they magnify as equal to her son: but certain it is, that the following words,

what have I to do with thee? show resentment and reproof. Some render the words, "what is it to thee and me?" and give this as the sense; what concern is this of ours? what business have we with it? let them look to it, who are the principal in the feast, and have the management of it. The Jew r objects to this sense of the words, but gives a very weak reason for it:

"but I say, (says he,) who should be concerned but the master of the feast? and he was the master of the feast:''

whereas it is a clear case that he was one of the guests, one that was invited, Joh 2:2, and that there was a governor or ruler of the feast, who might be more properly called the master of it than Jesus, Joh 2:8. However, since Christ afterwards did concern himself in it, it looks as if this was not his meaning. Others render it to the sense we do, "what have I with thee?" as the Ethiopic version; or "what business hast thou with me?" as the Persic version; and is the same with, מה לי ולך, "what have I to do with thee?" used in 1Ki 17:18, where the Septuagint use the same phrase as here; and such a way of speaking is common with Jewish writers s: hereby signifying, that though, as man, and a son of hers, he had been subject to her, in which he had set an example of obedience to parents; yet, as God, he had a Father in heaven, whose business he came to do; and in that, and in his office, as Mediator, she had nothing to do with him; nor was he to be directed by her in that work; or to be told, or the least hint given when a miracle should be wrought, by him in confirmation of his mission and doctrine. Moreover, he adds,

mine hour is not yet come: meaning not the hour of his sufferings and death, in which sense he sometimes uses this phrase; as if the hint was, that it was not proper for him to work miracles as yet, lest it should provoke his enemies to seek his life before his time; but rather the time of his public ministry and miracles, which were to go together, and the one to be a proof of the other; though it seems to have a particular regard to the following miracle, the time of doing that was not yet come; the proper juncture, when all fit circumstances meeting together, it would be both the more useful, and the more illustrious: or his meaning is, that his time of doing miracles in public was not yet; and therefore, though he was willing to do this miracle, yet he chose to do it in the most private manner; so that only a few, and not the principal persons at the feast should know it: wherefore the reproof was not so much on the account of the motion itself, as the unseasonableness of it; and so his mother took it.

Gill: Joh 2:5 - His mother said unto the servants // whatsoever he saith unto you, do it His mother said unto the servants,.... She took the reproof in good part, and by the words he said, and the manner in which he spoke them, or by the l...

His mother said unto the servants,.... She took the reproof in good part, and by the words he said, and the manner in which he spoke them, or by the looks he gave, and the gestures he might use, she hoped, and even believed, that the thing she moved for would be done; and therefore went immediately to the servants, and gave them the following instructions:

whatsoever he saith unto you, do it; punctually observe and obey his orders in every circumstance.

Gill: Joh 2:6 - And there were set six water pots of stone // after the manner of the purifying of the Jews // containing two or three firkins apiece And there were set six water pots of stone,.... To distinguish them from other vessels made of different matter: for the Jews had "vessels made of ...

And there were set six water pots of stone,.... To distinguish them from other vessels made of different matter: for the Jews had

"vessels made of dust, and the dung of beasts, כלי אבנים, "vessels of stone", vessels of earth, vessels made of shells, vessels of nitre, vessels made of the bones and skins of fishes t.''

And as these vessels were very likely for washing of hands, such were used for that purpose: their rule is u,

"they may put water for the hands in all sorts of vessels; in vessels of dung, in stone vessels, and in vessels of earth.''

At a wedding were set vessels of various sizes to wash hands and feet in; there was one vessel called משיכלא, which the gloss says was a large pitcher, or basin, out of which the whole company washed their hands and their feet; and there was another called משיכלתא, which was a lesser and beautiful basin, which was set alone for the more honourable persons, as for the bride, and for any gentlewoman w; and such might be these six stone jars, or pots:

after the manner of the purifying of the Jews; or "for the purifying either Jews", as the Syriac, Arabic, and Persic versions render it; that is, for the washing of them, their hands and feet, and their vessels, pots, and cups, according to the traditions of the elders; see Mar 7:2;

containing two or three firkins apiece. The Ethiopic version reads, "some held two measures, and some three"; how large the "metreta", or "measure" was, which we render a "firkin", is not certain; it is most likely it answered to the "Hebrew bath", which was a common measure of liquids with the Jews, and held four gallons and a half, or more; See Gill on Luk 16:6; so that such of these vessels, that held two of these measures, contained nine gallons, and such as held three of them, thirteen gallons and a half; and six of these contained a large quantity of wine, one with another: and which makes the following miracle the greater; and shows the liberality of Christ the more, in providing for the following days of the feast, for a marriage was kept seven days x; and for the family, some time after it was over.

Gill: Joh 2:7 - Jesus saith unto them // fill the water pots with water // and they filled them up to the brim Jesus saith unto them,.... To the servants that waited at the feast, fill the water pots with water. The Ethiopic version adds, "to their brims", a...

Jesus saith unto them,.... To the servants that waited at the feast,

fill the water pots with water. The Ethiopic version adds, "to their brims", as they did. Christ chose the water pots, and not the vessel, or vessels, or bottles, now empty, out of which they had drank their wine; that it might not be said that there was any left therein, which gave colour and flavour to the water: and he ordered them to be filled with water by the servants, that they might take notice, and be witnesses, that that, and nothing else, was put into them; and up to the brims, so that they could not he capable of having any other liquor infused into them:

and they filled them up to the brim; strictly observing the orders of Christ, and the instructions of his mother.

Gill: Joh 2:8 - And he saith unto them, draw out now // and bear unto the governor of the feast // and they bore it And he saith unto them, draw out now,.... As soon as ever the vessels were filled with water, without any more delay, he ordered the servants to draw ...

And he saith unto them, draw out now,.... As soon as ever the vessels were filled with water, without any more delay, he ordered the servants to draw out of those larger, into lesser vessels; he does not say what, water or wine:

and bear unto the governor of the feast; who either had the ordering and management of the feast, and the command of the whole affair; hence the Ethiopic version calls him, "the master of the waiters", or servants: or he was the chief guest, as the word seems to import, who sat, or rather lay, on the chief couch at the table; and so a proper person to begin with, and put the cup round: or else he might be doctor or chaplain: for such an one was necessary at a marriage; since there were six or seven benedictions to be pronounced; and particularly a blessing was said over the cup of wine; for if there was any wine, a cup of it was brought, and he blessed over it first, and ordered every thing concerning the cup: and this made up seven blessings at such a time y; and therefore was a very fit person to bear the wine to first:

and they bore it; the servants having drawn out of the stone vessels, by cocks, into smaller ones, carried the liquor, as they were ordered, to the above person.

Gill: Joh 2:9 - When the ruler of the feast had tasted the water // was made wine // and knew not whence it was // But the servants which drew the water knew // the governor of the feast called the bridegroom to him When the ruler of the feast had tasted the water,.... The Persic version reads, "tasted of the wine", and adds, what is not in the text, "it was of a ...

When the ruler of the feast had tasted the water,.... The Persic version reads, "tasted of the wine", and adds, what is not in the text, "it was of a very grateful savour": but the sense is, he tasted of that which was before water, but now

was made wine; not in such sense as the Papists pretend that the bread and wine, in the Lord's supper, are transubstantiated into the body and blood of Christ, by the consecration of the priest; after which they appear to have the same properties of bread and wine as before; but this water, that was turned into wine, ceased to be what it was before, and became what it was not: it had no more the properties, the colour, and taste of water, but of wine; of which the whole company were judges:

and knew not whence it was; from whence it came, where it was had, nor any thing of the miracle that was wrought, and therefore was a proper person to have it put into his hands first; since it cannot be thought he should say what he does in the following verse, from any compact with Christ, or in favour of him.

But the servants which drew the water knew; they knew from whence they had it, out of the water pots; and they knew that they filled them with water; and that that liquor, which the ruler of the feast had in his hands, and commended as most excellent wine, was drawn out of them; and that there was no juggle, nor deceit in the case: and, upon tasting of it,

the governor of the feast called the bridegroom to him; out of the place where he sat, and which might not be far from him.

Gill: Joh 2:10 - And saith unto him // every man at the beginning doth set forth good wine // and when men have well drank // then that which is worse // But thou hast kept the good wine until now And saith unto him,.... The following words; expressing the common custom used at feasts: every man at the beginning doth set forth good wine; that...

And saith unto him,.... The following words; expressing the common custom used at feasts:

every man at the beginning doth set forth good wine; that is, it is usual with men, when they make entertainments, first to give the guests the best, the most generous, and strongest bodied wine; as being most suitable for them, and they being then better able to bear it, and it being most for the credit of the maker of the feast:

and when men have well drank; not to excess, but freely, so as that they are exhilarated; and their spirits cheerful, but their brains not intoxicated: so the word, as answering to the Hebrew word is שכר, used by the Septuagint in Gen 43:34,

then that which is worse; not bad wine, but τον ελασσω, "that which is lesser"; a weaker bodied wine, that is lowered, and of less strength, and not so intoxicating, and which is fittest for the guests. So Martial z advises Sextilianus, after he had drank the tenth cup, not to drink the best wine, but to ask his host for wine of Laletania, which was a weaker and lower sort of wine.

But thou hast kept the good wine until now; which shows he knew nothing of the miracle wrought. And as the bridegroom here did, in the apprehension of the ruler of the feast, at this his marriage, so does the Lord, the husband of the church, in the marriage feast of the Gospel; and so he will do at the marriage supper of the lamb. The Gospel, which may be compared to wine for its purity, pleasant taste, and generous effects in reviving drooping spirits, refreshing weary persons, and comforting distressed minds, as also for its antiquity, was published before the coming of Christ, in the times of Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, David, and the prophets, but in a lower and weaker way; at sundry times, here a little, and there a little, by piecemeals, as it were; and in divers manners, by promises, prophecies, types, shadows, and sacrifices; and was attended with much darkness and bondage: but under the Gospel dispensation, which is compared to a marriage feast, it is more fully dispensed, more clearly published, and more freely ministered. The whole of it is delivered, and with open face beheld; and saints are made free by it; it is set in the strongest and clearest light; the best wine is reserved till now; God has provided some better thing for us, Heb 11:40. And so with respect to the future state of the saints, their best things are kept for them till last. They have many good things now; as the Gospel, Gospel ordinances, the blessings, and promises of grace, the love of God shed abroad in their hearts, presence of God, and communion with Christ, at least at times; all which are better than wine: but then there is an alloy to these; they are lowered by other things, as the corruptions of the heart, the temptations of Satan, the hidings of God's face, and a variety of afflictions; but they shall have their good and best things hereafter, and drink new wine in Christ's Father's kingdom, without any thing to lower and weaken it: they will have full joys, and never fading pleasures, and shall be without sin and sorrow; no more deserted, nor afflicted, and shall be out of the reach of Satan's temptations, and with Christ for evermore. Happy are they that are called to the marriage supper of the Lamb.

Gill: Joh 2:11 - This beginning of miracles // did in Cana of Galilee // and manifested forth his glory // and his disciples believed on him This beginning of miracles,.... This miracle of turning water into wine, was the first miracle Christ ever wrought, either in public or private; for a...

This beginning of miracles,.... This miracle of turning water into wine, was the first miracle Christ ever wrought, either in public or private; for as for what miracles he is said to do in his infancy, there is no reason to give credit to them: and this he

did in Cana of Galilee; not that this was only the first he did in that place; he afterwards working another there, namely, the cure of a nobleman's son, Joh 4:46, but the first he did any where, and it was in this place; and which the Syriac and Persic versions again call Kotne of Galilee; See Gill on Joh 2:1;

and manifested forth his glory; the glory of his deity and divine sonship, which was hid by his assumption of human nature, but broke forth and showed itself in his miraculous operations, and particularly in this:

and his disciples believed on him; the above five disciples; see Joh 2:2; whom he had called, and who were with him at this marriage, and were made acquainted with this miracle: and though they believed in him before, and had declared, and professed him to be the Messiah, Moses and the prophets spoke of, and the Son of God, and King of Israel; yet they were, by this miracle, more and more confirmed in the faith of these things: besides, others might be made his disciples at this time, and be hereby brought to believe in him.

Gill: Joh 2:12 - After this he went down to Capernaum // he, and his mother // And his brethren // and his disciples // and they continued there not many days After this he went down to Capernaum,.... After he had been at Cana, and at the wedding there: after he had wrought the miracle of turning water into ...

After this he went down to Capernaum,.... After he had been at Cana, and at the wedding there: after he had wrought the miracle of turning water into wine; and after he had manifested forth the glory of his deity thereby, and had confirmed the faith of his disciples, he departed from thence, and went lower into the country of Galilee, to Capernaum, a city near the sea of Tiberias; and which, from henceforward, he made the more usual place of his residence, and whither he frequently resorted, and therefore it is called his city, Mat 9:1. This refers not to the same journey recorded in Mat 4:12, for that was after John was cast into prison, whereas this was before; see Joh 3:24; the company that went with him, are as follow,

he, and his mother; who had been with him at Cana, and was a principal person at the wedding: and she now returning home, he accompanies her, to see her to her own habitation; or to settle her in Capernaum, whilst he went about discharging his public ministry.

And his brethren; or near kinsmen, according to the flesh, the sons of Alphaeus, or Cleophas, and Mary, sister to the mother of our Lord; whose names were James, Joses, Simon, and Judas, three of which afterwards became his apostles:

and his disciples: as many as he had yet called, which were Andrew, and the disciple that followed Jesus with him, and Simon Peter, and Philip, and Nathanael,

and they continued there not many days; not because of the impenitence, unbelief, and wickedness of the place, but for the reason following.

Gill: Joh 2:13 - And the Jews' passover was at hand // And Jesus went up to Jerusalem And the Jews' passover was at hand,.... That feast which was kept on the fourteenth day of Nisan, in commemoration of the Lord's passing over, and by ...

And the Jews' passover was at hand,.... That feast which was kept on the fourteenth day of Nisan, in commemoration of the Lord's passing over, and by the houses of the Israelites, when he slew the firstborn in Egypt: and it is called the Jews' passover, because they only were obliged to keep it: nor was it obligatory upon the Gentiles; and, besides, was now abolished when John wrote this Gospel, though still retained by the Jews. And moreover, John was now among the Gentiles, and for whose sake he penned this Gospel; and therefore so distinguishes this feast, which was typical of the Christian passover, or of Christ our passover that is sacrificed for us. This was the first "passover" after Christ's baptism, which is generally thought to have been about half a year before; though so much time cannot be made out from the scriptural account; for from his baptism, to his return out of the wilderness to John, were forty days; and from thence, to his coming to Cana, four or, five days more; and perhaps he might be seven days in Cana; for so long a wedding was usually kept; and his stay at Capernaum was but a few days; all which do not amount to above eight or nine weeks at most: the second passover after this, is, by some, thought to be the feast mentioned in Joh 5:1, and the third in Joh 6:4, and the fourth and last, at which he suffered, in Joh 18:28. The Evangelist John is the only writer that gives an account of the passovers after Christ entered on his public ministry; by which is known the duration of it, which is generally thought to be about three years and a half. "Three years and a half", the Jews say a, the Shekinah sat upon the Mount of Olives, expecting that the Israelites would repent, but they did not; and this seems to be the term of time for disciples to learn of their masters: it is said b, one came from Athens to Jerusalem, and he served "three years and a half" to learn the doctrine of wisdom, and he learned it not.

And Jesus went up to Jerusalem; not alone, but his disciples with him, as appears from Joh 2:17, to keep the passover as he had been wont to do, and as the law required; and he being under the law, as a son of Abraham, and the surety of his people, it became him to fulfil all righteousness, ceremonial, as well as moral, and which he strictly observed. He is said to go up to Jerusalem, because that stood on higher ground than the low lands of Galilee, and was the only place where the passover might be kept; see Deu 16:2.

Gill: Joh 2:14 - And found in the temple // those that sold oxen, and sheep, and doves // and the changers of money sitting And found in the temple,.... Not in the holy place itself, nor in the court of the priests, where the sacrifices were offered, nor in the court of the...

And found in the temple,.... Not in the holy place itself, nor in the court of the priests, where the sacrifices were offered, nor in the court of the women, nor in the court of the Israelites, where the people worshipped; but in the court of the Gentiles, or the outward court, even all that space of ground which was between the wall which divided the whole from common ground, and the buildings of the temple, and which was open to the air; for the whole sacred enclosure, or all within the wall, went by the name of the temple. Into this all strangers might come; and the passover now being at hand, here were

those that sold oxen, and sheep, and doves: the oxen, or bullocks, were for the Chagigah, or feast kept on the second day of the passover; See Gill on Joh 18:28; and the sheep, or lambs, as the Persic version reads, for the passover supper; and the doves were for the offerings of the poorer sort of new mothers: with these they were supplied from the Mount of Olives. It is said c,

"there were two cedar trees on the Mount of Olives, and under one of them were four shops of them that sold things for purification; and out of one of them they brought forty bushels of young doves every month: and out of them the Israelites had enough for the nests, or the offerings of turtle doves;''

See Gill on Mat 21:12;

and the changers of money sitting: who changed foreign money into the current coin of the Jews, strangers coming, at this feast, from several parts of the world; and sometimes there was need of changing shekels into half shekels, which, at certain times, were paid for the ransom of Israelites; see the note on the place above mentioned.

Gill: Joh 2:15 - And when he had made a scourge of small cords // He drove them all out of the temple // and poured out the changers money // and overthrew the tables And when he had made a scourge of small cords,.... That is, Jesus, as the Persic version expresses it. This scourge might be made either of thongs cut...

And when he had made a scourge of small cords,.... That is, Jesus, as the Persic version expresses it. This scourge might be made either of thongs cut out of the hides of beasts slain in sacrifice; or of the cords, with which the owners of the cattle had brought them to this place; or with which they had fastened them in it. And it seems to be made, and used, not so much for force and terror, as to intimate, that these persons, the violators of the holy place, deserved the scourge of divine wrath and punishment; as well as to show the miraculous power of Christ in driving such a number of men before him, with so small and insignificant a weapon; for the phrase is diminutive. The reason given by Dr. Lightfoot, and others, why Christ made use of a whip, or scourge, rather than a staff, is, because it was contrary to a Jewish canon d to go into the mountain of the house, or temple, with a staff in the hand; and yet the man of the mountain of the house, or the master of it, who used to go about every ward with torches burning before him, if he found a Levite asleep in his ward e, struck him במקלו, with his staff, and had power to burn his clothes.

He drove them all out of the temple; that is, he drove out "the men", as the Persic version reads; the merchants, the sellers of oxen, sheep, and doves, and the money changers: "and the sheep, and the oxen" likewise; the Persic version adds, "doves"; but these are after mentioned:

and poured out the changers money; off of the tables, or out of the boxes, or dishes, or drawers, or purses, in which it was put:

and overthrew the tables; at which they sat, and on which they told their money.

Gill: Joh 2:16 - And said unto them that sold doves // take these things hence // make not my Father's house an house of merchandise And said unto them that sold doves,.... For as these were kept in coups, or cages, they could not be drove, as the sheep and oxen, nor could they be l...

And said unto them that sold doves,.... For as these were kept in coups, or cages, they could not be drove, as the sheep and oxen, nor could they be let out, and fly, without the loss of the owners: and therefore Christ said to them,

take these things hence; not only the doves, but the pens, coups, or cages, in which they were, and both together:

make not my Father's house an house of merchandise; so he calls the temple, which was built as an house for God, and where he took up his residence; where were the symbols of his presence; where his worship was kept, and sacrifices offered to him: and he asserts God, whose house this was, to be his Father, and himself to be his son, as none of the prophets that went before him did; and in such sense as neither men nor angels are; and which carries in it a reason why he was so much concerned for the honour of God, and so much resented the profanation of his house, because he was his Father. A like action with this, done by Christ at another time, is recorded in Mat 21:12. This was at the beginning of his ministry, that at the close of it, in which he expressed himself with more warmth and severity than here: here he only charges them with making his Father's house an house of merchandise, but there with making it a den of thieves; since they had not only slighted, and despised his first reproof, but had returned to their evil ways, and might grow more wicked and audacious. This instance of Christ now coming into the temple as a public minister, and which was the first time of his entrance into it, after he had taken this character, was a further accomplishment of Mal 3:1, for he now went into it, as the Lord and proprietor of it; and which this action of his in driving out the merchants, with their cattle, shows; and was a surprising instance of his divine power; and is equal to other miracles of his, that a single person, a stranger, one of no power and authority in the government, unassisted and unarmed, with only a scourge of small cords, should carry such awe and majesty with him, and inject such terror into, and drive such a number of men before him, who were selling things for religious uses, and were supported in it by the priests and sanhedrim of the nation.

Gill: Joh 2:17 - And his disciples remembered that it was written // the zeal of thine house hath eaten me up And his disciples remembered that it was written,.... In Psa 69:9, which Psalm belongs to the Messiah, as is manifest from the citations out of it in ...

And his disciples remembered that it was written,.... In Psa 69:9, which Psalm belongs to the Messiah, as is manifest from the citations out of it in the New Testament, and the application of them to Christ, as in Joh 15:25, compared with Psa 69:4. Christ is represented in it, as suffering for the sins of his people; for he himself was innocent; and was hated without a cause; but having the sins of his people imputed to him, he made satisfaction for them, and so restored what he took not away. His sufferings are spoken of in it as very great; and from it we learn, that they are fitly called, by himself, a baptism, which he desired to be baptized with, Luk 12:50, since the waters are said to come into his soul, and he to be in deep waters, where the floods overflowed him; so that he was as one immersed in them: it is not only prophesied of him in it, that he should be the object of the scorn and contempt of the Jewish nation, and be rejected by them, and treated with the utmost indignity, and loaded with reproaches; but it foretold, that they should give him gall to eat, and vinegar to drink, which were literally fulfilled in him: and even the Jews themselves seem to be under some conviction, that the Psalm has respect to him; for Aben Ezra, a noted commentator of theirs, on the last words of the Psalm, has this note;

"the sense is, they and their children shall inherit it in the days of David, or in the days of the Messiah.''

It appears from hence, that the disciples of Christ were acquainted with the sacred writings, and had diligently read them, and searched into them, and had made them their study; and upon this wonderful action of Christ, called to mind, and reflected upon the following passage of Scripture, which they judged very proper and pertinent to him:

the zeal of thine house hath eaten me up. This passage, so far as it is cited, agrees exactly, word for word, with the original text in Psa 69:9, wherefore it is very strange that Surenhusius f should remark a difference, and give himself a good deal of trouble to reconcile it: he observes, that in the Hebrew text, it is read, יהוה קנאת, "the zeal of the Lord", in the third person; whereas it is there, קנאת ביתך, "the zeal of thine house", as here, in the second person: indeed, the word כי, "for", is left out, as he remarks, there being no need of it in the citation; the evangelist only historically relating the accommodation of it to Christ, by the disciples; whereas in the original text, the words contain a reason of the reproach and shame which Christ endured, and was put to by the Jews on account of his zeal for the house, honour, and worship of God; and the latter part of the text is not produced at all, being not for the present purpose, though very applicable to Christ; and is cited, and applied to him by the apostle, in Rom 15:3. Such was Christ's regard to his Father's house, and which was typical of the church of God; and such his concern for his honour, ordinances, and worship, that when he saw the merchandise that was carried on in the temple, his zeal, which was a true and hearty affection for God, and was according to knowledge, was stirred up in him, and to such a degree, that it was like a consuming fire within him, that ate up his spirits; so that he could not forbear giving it vent, and expressing it in the manner he did, by driving those traders out of it. Phinehas and Elias were in their zeal, as well as other things, types of Christ; and in the Spirit and power of the latter he came; and Christ not only expressed a zeal for the house of God, the place of religious worship, but for the church and people of God, whose salvation he most earnestly desired, and most zealously pursued: he showed his strong, and affectionate regard to it, by his suretyship engagements for them, by his assumption of their nature, by his ardent desire to accomplish it, and by his voluntary and cheerful submission to death on account of it. And such was his zeal for it, that it eat him up, it inflamed his Spirit and affections, consumed his time and strength, and, at last, his life: and he also showed a zeal for the discipline of God's house, by his severe reflections on human traditions; by asserting the spirituality of worship; by commanding a strict regard to divine institutions; and by sharply inveighing against the sins of professors of religion: and he discovered a warm zeal for the truths of the Gospel, by a lively and powerful preaching of them; by his constancy and assiduity in it; by the many fatiguing journeys he took for that purpose; by the dangers he exposed himself to by it; and by the care he took to free the Gospel from prejudice and calumnies: and it becomes us, in imitation of our great master, to be zealous for his truths and ordinances, and for the discipline of his house, and not bear with either the erroneous principles, or the bad practices of wicked men.

Gill: Joh 2:18 - Then answered the Jews, and said unto him // what sign shewest thou unto us, seeing thou dost these things Then answered the Jews, and said unto him,.... They did not lay hands on him, or offer any violence to him; they did not, as the inhabitants of Nazare...

Then answered the Jews, and said unto him,.... They did not lay hands on him, or offer any violence to him; they did not, as the inhabitants of Nazareth did, thrust him out, and lead him to a precipice, to cast him down headlong; nor did they take up stones to stone him, as they afterwards did, when he asserted his deity: and it is surprising, that they did not rise up and destroy him at once, a single man, unarmed, and without assistance, having so highly provoked them; the restraint upon them must be his almighty power: nor do they deny what he suggested, that they had made his Father's house an house of merchandise; nor do they offer to vindicate their profanation of the temple, or object to the purging of it; only demand a proof of his right to do it: and which demand was made, not by the common people, or by the sellers of oxen, sheep, and doves, and the money changers, who were drove out, and had not spirit to rally again; but by the chief priests and elders, the sanhedrim of the nation, who had the care and government of the temple, and under whose authority the above persons acted; and whose gain and worldly interest were promoted hereby, as a like demand was afterwards made by the same persons; see Mat 21:23;

what sign shewest thou unto us, seeing thou dost these things? they argued, that either he did these things of himself, by his own authority, and then they must be deemed rash and unjustifiable; or he did it by the authority of others: they knew it was not by theirs, who were the great council of the nation, from whom he should have had his instructions and orders, if he acted by human authority; and if he pretended to a divine authority, as they supposed he did, then they insisted upon a sign or miracle to be wrought, to prove that God was his Father, as he suggested; and that he was the proprietor and owner of the temple, and had a right to purge it, as he had done; see 1Co 1:22.

Gill: Joh 2:19 - Jesus answered and said unto them // destroy this temple // in three days I will raise it again Jesus answered and said unto them,.... In a dark and enigmaticai way, though very properly and pertinently; since it was with respect to the temple, a...

Jesus answered and said unto them,.... In a dark and enigmaticai way, though very properly and pertinently; since it was with respect to the temple, and his power over it, and right to purge it, that a sign was required of him:

destroy this temple; pointing, as it were, with his finger to his body; for of that he spake, as appears from Joh 2:21, the dissolution of which, by death he means, the separation of his soul from his body, though not of either from his divine person: and it is to be understood, not as a command, or a grant, or as an exhortation, and advice to them, to kill his body; but rather as a prophecy of what they would do; or as putting the case, that should they, as he knew they would, destroy his body, then says he, as a sign of having a power to do what I have done,

in three days I will raise it again; by which he would appear to be the Son of God, with power, that had power of laying down his life, and taking it up again; and is the very sign, namely, his resurrection from the dead on the third day, he gives the Jews, when they sought one of him at another time, and upon another occasion.

Gill: Joh 2:20 - Then said the Jews // forty and six years was this temple in building // and wilt thou rear it up in three days Then said the Jews,.... Unto him, as read the Syriac, Arabic, Persic, and Ethiopic versions: forty and six years was this temple in building; which...

Then said the Jews,.... Unto him, as read the Syriac, Arabic, Persic, and Ethiopic versions:

forty and six years was this temple in building; which cannot be understood of the temple as built by Solomon, for that was but seven years in building, 1Ki 6:37. But rather of the temple, as built by Zorobabel, commonly called the second temple, and might be more properly said to be "this temple"; the calculations of this made by learned men, are various and endless to recite. Daniel's seven weeks, or forty nine days, which are so many years, can have nothing to do with this account; since they regard not the building of the temple, but the city of Jerusalem; though from the second year of Cyrus, in which the temple began to be built, to the thirty second of Darius exclusive, were just forty six years; Cyrus reigning three years, Artaxerxes Ahasuerus fourteen years, and Artaxerxes Darius thirty two; but their account is more likely, which begins at the first of Artaxerxes Longimanus, who reigned forty years, and ends in the sixth year of Darius, his successor, in which year the temple was finished, Ezr 6:15. But to me it seems rather, that Herod's temple, or the temple as rebuilt, or repaired by Herod, is here meant; and which the Jews call, בניין הורודוס, "the building of Herod" g; and say of it, that

"he who has not seen Herod's building, never saw a beautiful building.''

And this, according to Josephus h, was begun in the "eighteenth" year of his reign, in the "thirty fifth" of which Christ was born, who was now "thirty" years of age: so that reckoning either the eighteenth year of Herod, or the thirtieth of Christ, the present year exclusively, just forty six years had run out, since the rebuilding or reparations were first begun; and which were not yet finished; for some years after this, the above writer observes i, the temple was finished, even in the times of Nero and Agrippa: and agreeably to this, the words may be rendered, "forty six years has this temple been building"; and which still adds more force to the following reasoning of the Jews:

and wilt thou rear it up in three days? the thing is impossible and impracticable; it is madness to the last degree, to talk at this rate: thus from the length of time which had run out from Herod's first beginning to repair and beautify the temple, till now, and yet not finished, they argue the absurdity of his pretending to raise up such a fabric, should it be demolished, in three days time; they understanding him either ignorantly or wilfully, to speak of the material temple, when his sense was otherwise, as appears from the words of the evangelist, in the next verse. The Jew k objects to this account, of the temple being forty six years in building; he observes, that

"according to the sense of the Nazarenes, this was the building of king Herod, that was in the time of Jesus; and the whole time of his reign were but seven and thirty years, as is manifest from the book of Joseph ben Gorion, c. 65. Besides, that which Herod built, was built in eight years, as is evident from the same author, c. 55, wherefore the number of forty six years, in the words of the writer, (the evangelist,) is, a palpable error.''

To which may be replied, that admitting there is an error in this number, it is not the error of the evangelist, but of the Jews, whose words the evangelist relates; and supposing this was a mistake of theirs, either ignorantly or wilfully made, to aggravate the absurdity and impossibility of Christ's rebuilding the temple; and that even the evangelist knew it to be a mistake; yet he acts the most faithful and upright part, in repeating the words of the Jews, as they delivered them; and it lies upon the Jew to prove, that these words were not said by them, or that it is not credible that they should: that this was the building of Herod which is here referred to; and that he reigned but thirty seven years, will be granted; but this is no objection to its being forty six years in building, since in this account it is not said that it was forty six years in building by Herod; the sense is only, that such a number of years had passed, since it first began to be built by him: as for what Joseph ben Gorion says, of its being built by him in the space of eight years, it is not to be depended upon, since he is not the true Josephus, that wrote the history of the Jews, and is to be corrected by the genuine historian; and from what has been before observed, from the time which, according to the true Josephus, this building was begun, to this present year of Christ, when this discourse was had, were just forty six years; and admitting, that the main of the building was finished in eight years time, yet additions were continually made to it, so that it was not finished entirely, until many years after.

Gill: Joh 2:21 - But he spoke of the temple of his body. But he spoke of the temple of his body. Which was the antitype of the material temple; and might well be called so, since the bodies of the saints are...

But he spoke of the temple of his body. Which was the antitype of the material temple; and might well be called so, since the bodies of the saints are called temples, 1Co 3:16 2Co 6:16; and the human nature of Christ is called a tabernacle, Heb 8:2; and he himself, in prophecy, is said to be למקדש, "for a sanctuary", or temple, Isa 8:14, and that because the fulness of the Godhead dwelt in him bodily, the train of the divine perfections filled the temple of his human nature, Col 2:9. And because here, as in the temple, God grants his presence, and communes with his saints, accepts of their prayers and praises, and all their spiritual sacrifices through him; and who is the oracle, the true "Urim" and "Thummim", by whom he delivers his whole mind and will to his people.

Gill: Joh 2:22 - When therefore he was risen from the dead // his disciples remembered that he had said this unto them // and they believed the Scripture // And the word which Jesus had said When therefore he was risen from the dead,.... Which was three years after this: his disciples remembered that he had said this unto them; either t...

When therefore he was risen from the dead,.... Which was three years after this:

his disciples remembered that he had said this unto them; either to the Jews, or to them the disciples; though the phrase "to them", is not in the Vulgate Latin, nor in any of the Oriental versions. The disciples themselves were very dull of understanding the doctrine of Christ's resurrection; and so they continued, notwithstanding he gave them afterwards very full hints of it, until that he was actually risen; and then they called to mind these words of his, with others that dropped from him upon the same subject:

and they believed the Scripture; that spoke of his resurrection, Psa 16:10, and on the third day, Hos 6:2.

And the word which Jesus had said; concerning his rising again the third day at this time, and at others, as in Mat 16:21; and they believed his word equally with the Scripture, it agreeing to it, and being founded on it.

Gill: Joh 2:23 - Now when he was in Jerusalem at the passover // in the feast day // many believed in his name // when they saw the miracles which he did Now when he was in Jerusalem at the passover,.... Whither he went, in order to keep it, that being at hand, and now come; see Joh 2:13; in the feas...

Now when he was in Jerusalem at the passover,.... Whither he went, in order to keep it, that being at hand, and now come; see Joh 2:13;

in the feast day; either on the day the Chagigah was eaten, which was sometimes emphatically called "the feast", as in Num 28:16, "and in the fourteenth day of the first month, is the passover of the Lord; and in the fifteenth day of this month, is the feast"; the passover lamb was eaten on the fourteenth day of the month "Nisan", and the "Chagigah" was on the fifteenth; in the former only a lamb was eaten, in the other, cattle out of the herds; hence mention is made, both of flocks and herds, for the keeping the passover, Deu 16:2. Jarchi's note upon the place is, that the herds were for the Chagigah, with which the Talmud l agrees; and Jonathan ben Uzziel paraphrases the words thus,

"and ye shall slay the passover before the Lord your God, between the evenings, and the sheep and oxen on the morrow, in that very day, for the joy of the feast;''

for it was observed with great joy and mirth: and the rather this is here meant, since the "Chagigah" is not only called "the feast", but this here is distinguished from the passover, as that is in the passage above cited, Num 28:16. For the passover here, seems to be the general name for the whole seven days of the festival; and the feast to be the particular feast of the first day of it, which was the fifteenth; to which may be added, that on this day all the males made their appearance in court m; and so was a very proper time for Christ to work his miracles in, when there were so many spectators: though it may design the whole time of the feast, all the seven days of unleavened bread; during which time Christ was at Jerusalem, and wrought miracles, which had the following effect:

many believed in his name; that he was some great prophet, or the prophet, or the Messiah; they gave an historical assent unto him as such, at least for that time:

when they saw the miracles which he did; for as miracles, according to the prophecies of the Old Testament, were to be performed by the Messiah, such as giving sight to the blind, causing the deaf to hear, the dumb to speak, and the lame to walk, Isa 35:5; so they were expected by the ancient Jews, that they would be wrought by him, when he came; wherefore these Jews, seeing such like wonderful things wrought by Jesus, they concluded he must be the Messiah: though the modern ones, in order to shift off the evidence of Jesus being the Messiah, from his miracles, deny that miracles are the characteristic of the Messiah, or will be performed by him; at least, that there is no necessity of them to prove him to be the person. What miracles these were, which were now wrought by Christ, are not recorded by this, or any other evangelist; see Joh 20:30. However, being surprised at the marvellous things he did, and upon the evidence of these extraordinary works, there were many that concluded he must be come from God; among these it seems as if Nicodemus was one; see Joh 3:2; great part of these, at least some of them, were only nominal and temporary believers, who were not to be confided in as true disciples, and hearty followers of Christ; and who continued not long in the same mind and profession, as appears by what follows.

Gill: Joh 2:24 - But Jesus did not commit himself unto them // because he knew all men But Jesus did not commit himself unto them,.... The sense according to some of the ancients is, that he did not commit the whole of the Gospel to them...

But Jesus did not commit himself unto them,.... The sense according to some of the ancients is, that he did not commit the whole of the Gospel to them; he did not make known to them all his mind and will; this he only did to the twelve apostles, his special disciples and friends; nor was the time come, that he would make known, or have made known, the things concerning his person, office, obedience, sufferings, death, and resurrection from the dead: but rather the meaning is, that he did not trust himself with these persons, who believed in him, on the basis of his miracles; he did not take them into the number of his associates; he did not admit them to intimacy with him; nor did he freely converse with them, or make any long stay among them; but soon withdrew himself from hence, and went into other parts of Judea, and into Galilee:

because he knew all men: good and bad: all openly profane sinners, and all their actions; not only their more public ones, but those that are done in the dark, and which are the most secretly devised, and levelled against the saints; and he so knew them, as to bring them into judgment: and all good men, true believers; he knows their persons, as they are his Father's choice, his gift of them to him, his own purchase, and as called by his grace; and so as to distinguish them at the last day, and give up the full account of every one of them to his Father: he knows the worst of them, the sin that dwells in them, their daily infirmities, their secret personal sins; their family sins, both of omission and commission; and their church sins, or which are committed in the house of God; and takes notice of them, so as to resent them, and chastise them for them; he knows the best of them, their graces, their faith, hope, love, patience, humility, self-denial, &c; he knows their good works, and all their weaknesses and their wants: and he knows all nominal professors, on what basis they take up their profession, and what trust they place in it; he can distinguish between grace and mere profession, and discern the secret lusts which such indulge, and the springs and progress of their apostasy: he knew all these men, that upon seeing his miracles, professed at this time to believe in him; he knew the hypocrisy and dissimulation of some of them; and he knew the notions they had of a temporal Messiah, and the temporal views they had in believing in him; and their design to set him up as a temporal prince, as some afterwards would have done: knew the flashy affections of others, who were like John's hearers, that were pleased for a while; he knew what sort of faith it was they believed in him with, that it would not hold long, nor they continue with him; for he knew not only all persons, but παντα, "all things", as some copies read here; see Joh 21:17.

Gill: Joh 2:25 - And needed not that any should testify of man // for he knew what was in man And needed not that any should testify of man,.... Of this or the other man, that he was a good or a bad man; he needed no proofs to be made, or testi...

And needed not that any should testify of man,.... Of this or the other man, that he was a good or a bad man; he needed no proofs to be made, or testimonies bore, or evidence given of men's characters and actions; he was of quick understanding, and could distinguish at once between a wicked man and a good man; and so had the characteristic which the Jews require of the Messiah; for they rejected Bar Cozba from being the Messiah, and slew him, because he could not smell, referring to Isa 11:3, or discern a bad man from a good man n; but this Jesus could do, without any external evidence:

for he knew what was in man; which none but the spirit of a man can know; his inward thoughts, the secrets of the heart; thus Christ knew the thoughts of the Scribes and Pharisees, Mat 9:4, being a discerner of the thoughts, and intents of the heart, Heb 4:12. This Apollonius Tyaneus, the ape of Christ, ascribed to himself o; but is what is peculiar to God; and Christ being God, knows all that is in man; that there is no good in him naturally, nothing but what comes from his Father, is imparted by himself, or implanted by his Spirit; he knows the wickedness there is in man, that his heart is deceitful and desperately wicked, and full of all manner of iniquities; he knows in what condition all the and faculties of the souls of men are; what their affections are set upon, on earthly or heavenly things; whether there is any light in their understandings, or not; whether their wills are subdued and resigned to the will of God, or not; whether their minds and consciences are defiled, or their hearts are sprinkled from an evil conscience; in short, whether the internal good work of grace is begun upon their souls, or not; and he knows the secret springs of all actions, good and bad; all which prove his true and proper deity, and show him to be a suitable Saviour of sinners, and qualify him to be the Judge of the whole earth.

buka semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki

NET Notes: Joh 2:1 Grk “in Galilee, and Jesus’ mother.”

NET Notes: Joh 2:2 There is no clue to the identity of the bride and groom, but in all probability either relatives or friends of Jesus’ family were involved, sinc...

NET Notes: Joh 2:3 They have no wine left. On the backgrounds of this miracle J. D. M. Derrett pointed out among other things the strong element of reciprocity about wed...

NET Notes: Joh 2:4 The Greek word translated time (ὥρα, Jwra) occurs in John 2:4; 4:21, 23; 5:25, 28, 29; 7:30; 8:20; 12:23, 27; 13:1; 16:25; and 17:1. I...

NET Notes: Joh 2:5 The pronoun “it” is not in the Greek text, but has been supplied. Direct objects in Greek were often omitted when clear from the context.

NET Notes: Joh 2:6 Significantly, these jars held water for Jewish ceremonial washing (purification rituals). The water of Jewish ritual purification has become the wine...

NET Notes: Joh 2:7 Grk “them” (it is clear from the context that the servants are addressed).

NET Notes: Joh 2:8 Or “the master of ceremonies.”

NET Notes: Joh 2:9 Grk “the head steward”; here the repetition of the phrase is somewhat redundant in English and the pronoun (“he”) is substitut...

NET Notes: Joh 2:10 Grk “when they”; the referent (the guests) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

NET Notes: Joh 2:11 Or “his disciples trusted in him,” or “his disciples put their faith in him.”

NET Notes: Joh 2:12 With respect to Jesus’ brothers, the so-called Helvidian view is to be preferred (named after Helvidius, a 4th-century theologian). This view ho...

NET Notes: Joh 2:13 For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

NET Notes: Joh 2:14 Grk “the money changers sitting”; the words “at tables” are not in the Greek text, but are implied.

NET Notes: Joh 2:15 Because of the imperial Roman portraits they carried, Roman denarii and Attic drachmas were not permitted to be used in paying the half-shekel temple-...

NET Notes: Joh 2:16 A marketplace. Zech 14:20-21, in context, is clearly a picture of the messianic kingdom. The Hebrew word translated “Canaanite” may also b...

NET Notes: Joh 2:17 A quotation from Ps 69:9.

NET Notes: Joh 2:18 The request “What sign can you show us” by Jesus’ adversaries was a request for a defense of his actions – a mark of divine au...

NET Notes: Joh 2:19 The imperative here is really more than a simple conditional imperative (= “if you destroy”); its semantic force here is more like the iro...

NET Notes: Joh 2:20 According to Josephus (Ant. 15.11.1 [15.380]), work on this temple was begun in the 18th year of Herod the Great’s reign, which would have been ...

NET Notes: Joh 2:21 Jesus was speaking about the temple of his body. For the author, the temple is not just the building, it is Jesus’ resurrected body. Compare the...

NET Notes: Joh 2:22 Or “statement”; Grk “word.”

NET Notes: Joh 2:23 Because they saw the miraculous signs he was doing. The issue here is not whether their faith was genuine or not, but what its object was. These indiv...

NET Notes: Joh 2:24 Grk “all.” The word “people” has been supplied for clarity, since the Greek word πάντας (pantas)...

NET Notes: Joh 2:25 See previous note on “man” in this verse.

Geneva Bible: Joh 2:1 And ( 1 ) the ( a ) third day there was a marriage in Cana of Galilee; and the mother of Jesus was there: ( 1 ) Christ, declaring openly in an assemb...

Geneva Bible: Joh 2:3 ( 2 ) And when they wanted wine, the mother of Jesus saith unto him, They have no wine. ( 2 ) Christ takes good enough care of our salvation, and the...

Geneva Bible: Joh 2:4 Jesus saith unto her, Woman, what have I to do with thee? mine ( b ) hour is not yet come. ( b ) My appointed time.

Geneva Bible: Joh 2:6 And there were set there six ( c ) waterpots of stone, after the manner of the purifying of the Jews, containing two or three ( d ) firkins apiece. (...

Geneva Bible: Joh 2:10 And saith unto him, Every man at the beginning doth set forth good wine; and when men have ( e ) well drunk, then that which is worse: [but] thou hast...

Geneva Bible: Joh 2:12 After this he went down to Capernaum, he, and his mother, and his ( f ) brethren, and his disciples: and they continued there not many days. ( f ) Th...

Geneva Bible: Joh 2:13 ( 3 ) And the Jews' passover was at hand, and Jesus went up to Jerusalem, ( 3 ) Christ being made subject to the law for us, satisfies the law of the...

Geneva Bible: Joh 2:14 ( 4 ) And found in the temple those that sold oxen and sheep and doves, and the changers of money sitting: ( 4 ) Christ being ordained to purge the C...

Geneva Bible: Joh 2:17 And his disciples remembered that it was written, The ( g ) zeal of thine house hath eaten me up. ( g ) "Zeal" in this place is taken for a wrathful ...

Geneva Bible: Joh 2:18 ( 5 ) Then answered the Jews and said unto him, What ( h ) sign shewest thou unto us, seeing that thou doest these things? ( 5 ) Against those who so...

Geneva Bible: Joh 2:21 But he spake of the ( i ) temple of his body. ( i ) That is, of his body.

Geneva Bible: Joh 2:24 ( 6 ) But Jesus did not commit himself unto them, because he knew all [men], ( 6 ) It is not good giving credit to those who trust only because of mi...

Geneva Bible: Joh 2:25 ( 7 ) And needed not that any should testify of man: for he knew what was in man. ( 7 ) Christ is the searcher of hearts, and therefore truly God.

buka semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Rentang Ayat

Maclaren: Joh 2:1-11 - A Libation To Jehovah Jesus The Joy-Bringer And the third day there was a marriage in Cana of Galilee; and the mother of Jesus was there: 2. And both Jesus was called, and...

Maclaren: Joh 2:11 - A Libation To Jehovah The First Miracle In Cana--The Water Made Wine This beginning of miracles did Jesus in Cana of Galilee. and manifested forth His glory.'--John 2:11. ...

Maclaren: Joh 2:16 - A Libation To Jehovah Christ Cleansing The Temple Take these things hence; make not My Father's house an house of merchandise.'--John 2:16. THE other Evangelists do not re...

Maclaren: Joh 2:19 - A Libation To Jehovah The Destroyers And The Restorer Jesus answered and said unto them, Destroy this Temple, and in three days I will raise it up.'--John 2:19. This is ou...

MHCC: Joh 2:1-11 - --It is very desirable when there is a marriage, to have Christ own and bless it. Those that would have Christ with them at their marriage, must invite ...

MHCC: Joh 2:12-22 - --The first public work in which we find Christ engaged, was driving from the temple the traders whom the covetous priests and rulers encouraged to make...

MHCC: Joh 2:23-25 - --Our Lord knew all men, their nature, dispositions, affections, designs, so as we do not know any man, not even ourselves. He knows his crafty enemies,...

Matthew Henry: Joh 2:1-11 - -- We have here the story of Christ's miraculous conversion of water into wine at a marriage in Cana of Galilee. There were some few so well disposed a...