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Teks -- John 19:1-42 (NET)

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Konteks
Pilate Tries to Release Jesus
19:1 Then Pilate took Jesus and had him flogged severely. 19:2 The soldiers braided a crown of thorns and put it on his head, and they clothed him in a purple robe. 19:3 They came up to him again and again and said, “Hail, king of the Jews!” And they struck him repeatedly in the face. 19:4 Again Pilate went out and said to the Jewish leaders, “Look, I am bringing him out to you, so that you may know that I find no reason for an accusation against him.” 19:5 So Jesus came outside, wearing the crown of thorns and the purple robe. Pilate said to them, “Look, here is the man!” 19:6 When the chief priests and their officers saw him, they shouted out, “Crucify him! Crucify him!” Pilate said, “You take him and crucify him! Certainly I find no reason for an accusation against him!” 19:7 The Jewish leaders replied, “We have a law, and according to our law he ought to die, because he claimed to be the Son of God!” 19:8 When Pilate heard what they said, he was more afraid than ever, 19:9 and he went back into the governor’s residence and said to Jesus, “Where do you come from?” But Jesus gave him no answer. 19:10 So Pilate said, “Do you refuse to speak to me? Don’t you know I have the authority to release you, and to crucify you?” 19:11 Jesus replied, “You would have no authority over me at all, unless it was given to you from above. Therefore the one who handed me over to you is guilty of greater sin.” 19:12 From this point on, Pilate tried to release him. But the Jewish leaders shouted out, “If you release this man, you are no friend of Caesar! Everyone who claims to be a king opposes Caesar!” 19:13 When Pilate heard these words he brought Jesus outside and sat down on the judgment seat in the place called “The Stone Pavement” (Gabbatha in Aramaic). 19:14 (Now it was the day of preparation for the Passover, about noon.) Pilate said to the Jewish leaders, “Look, here is your king!” 19:15 Then they shouted out, “Away with him! Away with him! Crucify him!” Pilate asked, “Shall I crucify your king?” The high priests replied, “We have no king except Caesar!”
The Crucifixion
19:16 Then Pilate handed him over to them to be crucified. So they took Jesus, 19:17 and carrying his own cross he went out to the place called “The Place of the Skull” (called in Aramaic Golgotha). 19:18 There they crucified him along with two others, one on each side, with Jesus in the middle. 19:19 Pilate also had a notice written and fastened to the cross, which read: “Jesus the Nazarene, the king of the Jews.” 19:20 Thus many of the Jewish residents of Jerusalem read this notice, because the place where Jesus was crucified was near the city, and the notice was written in Aramaic, Latin, and Greek. 19:21 Then the chief priests of the Jews said to Pilate, “Do not write, ‘The king of the Jews,’ but rather, ‘This man said, I am king of the Jews.’” 19:22 Pilate answered, “What I have written, I have written.” 19:23 Now when the soldiers crucified Jesus, they took his clothes and made four shares, one for each soldier, and the tunic remained. (Now the tunic was seamless, woven from top to bottom as a single piece.) 19:24 So the soldiers said to one another, “Let’s not tear it, but throw dice to see who will get it.” This took place to fulfill the scripture that says, “They divided my garments among them, and for my clothing they threw dice.” So the soldiers did these things. 19:25 Now standing beside Jesus’ cross were his mother, his mother’s sister, Mary the wife of Clopas, and Mary Magdalene. 19:26 So when Jesus saw his mother and the disciple whom he loved standing there, he said to his mother, “Woman, look, here is your son!” 19:27 He then said to his disciple, “Look, here is your mother!” From that very time the disciple took her into his own home.
Jesus’ Death
19:28 After this Jesus, realizing that by this time everything was completed, said (in order to fulfill the scripture), “I am thirsty!” 19:29 A jar full of sour wine was there, so they put a sponge soaked in sour wine on a branch of hyssop and lifted it to his mouth. 19:30 When he had received the sour wine, Jesus said, “It is completed!” Then he bowed his head and gave up his spirit. 19:31 Then, because it was the day of preparation, so that the bodies should not stay on the crosses on the Sabbath (for that Sabbath was an especially important one), the Jewish leaders asked Pilate to have the victims’ legs broken and the bodies taken down. 19:32 So the soldiers came and broke the legs of the two men who had been crucified with Jesus, first the one and then the other. 19:33 But when they came to Jesus and saw that he was already dead, they did not break his legs. 19:34 But one of the soldiers pierced his side with a spear, and blood and water flowed out immediately. 19:35 And the person who saw it has testified (and his testimony is true, and he knows that he is telling the truth), so that you also may believe. 19:36 For these things happened so that the scripture would be fulfilled, “Not a bone of his will be broken.” 19:37 And again another scripture says, “They will look on the one whom they have pierced.”
Jesus’ Burial
19:38 After this, Joseph of Arimathea, a disciple of Jesus (but secretly, because he feared the Jewish leaders), asked Pilate if he could remove the body of Jesus. Pilate gave him permission, so he went and took the body away. 19:39 Nicodemus, the man who had previously come to Jesus at night, accompanied Joseph, carrying a mixture of myrrh and aloes weighing about seventy-five pounds. 19:40 Then they took Jesus’ body and wrapped it, with the aromatic spices, in strips of linen cloth according to Jewish burial customs. 19:41 Now at the place where Jesus was crucified there was a garden, and in the garden was a new tomb where no one had yet been buried. 19:42 And so, because it was the Jewish day of preparation and the tomb was nearby, they placed Jesus’ body there.
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Arimathea a city located 9 km. north of Jerusalem where Samuel lived
 · Caesar a title held by Roman emperors
 · Clopas the husband of Mary, who was the half sister of Mary the mother of Jesus
 · Gabbatha a platform in front of the praetorium or governor's palace in Jerusalem where individuals were judged
 · Golgotha the place where Jesus was crucified
 · Greek Language the language used by the people of Greece
 · Hebrew Language an ancient Jewish language used in the Old Testament
 · Jewish the people descended from Israel
 · Jews the people descended from Israel
 · Joseph the husband of Mary and foster-father of Jesus,a Jewish man from Arimathea in whose grave the body of Jesus was laid,two different men listed as ancestors of Jesus,a man nominated with Matthias to take the place of Judas Iscariot as apostle,a son of Jacob and Rachel; the father of Ephraim and Manasseh and ruler of Egypt,a brother of Jesus; a son of Mary,a man who was a companion of Paul,son of Jacob and Rachel; patriarch of the tribes of Ephraim and Manasseh,a tribe, actually two tribes named after Joseph's sons, Ephraim and Manasseh,father of Igal, of Issachar, who helped spy out Canaan,son of Asaph the Levite; worship leader under Asaph and King David,a man who put away his heathen wife; an Israelite descended from Binnui,priest and head of the house of Shebaniah under High Priest Joiakim in the time of Nehemiah
 · Latin the language of ancient Italy and the Roman empire
 · Magdalene a person (woman) from Magdala
 · Mary mother of Jesus and wife of Joseph,a woman from Magdala in Galilee,the mother of James and Joses,the wife of Cleophas,the sister of Lazarus and Martha in Bethany,the mother of John Mark who was a nephew of Barnabas,a Christian woman in Rome who helped Paul
 · Nazareth a town in lower Galilee about halfway between the Sea of Galilee and the Mediterranean Sea
 · Nicodemus a man who was a member of the Sanhedrin, and contributed aloes and spices for Jesus's burial
 · Passover a Jewish religious feast. It may also refer to the lamb sacrificed and eaten at the feast.
 · Pilate the Roman governor of Judea who allowed Jesus to be crucified
 · praetorium the large common room in the residence of the provincial governor (IBD)
 · Praetorium the large common room in the residence of the provincial governor (IBD)


Topik/Tema Kamus: JOHN, GOSPEL OF | Pilate, Pontius | Jesus, The Christ | Prisoners | JESUS CHRIST, 4E2 | Persecution | Humiliation of Christ | LORD'S SUPPER; (EUCHARIST) | PILATE; PONTIUS | Death | Opinion, Public | JESUS CHRIST, THE ARREST AND TRIAL OF | CRUCIFIXION | JOHANNINE THEOLOGY, 1 | Politics | Nicodemus | Burial | Dress | PASSOVER | King | selebihnya
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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per frasa)

Robertson: Joh 19:1 - Took and scourged Took and scourged ( elaben kai emastigōsen ). First aorist active indicative of lambanō and mastigoō (from mastix , whip). For this redunda...

Took and scourged ( elaben kai emastigōsen ).

First aorist active indicative of lambanō and mastigoō (from mastix , whip). For this redundant use of lambanō see also Joh 19:6. It is the causative use of mastigoō , for Pilate did not actually scourge Jesus. He simply ordered it done, perhaps to see if the mob would be satisfied with this penalty on the alleged pretender to royalty (Luk 23:22) whom Pilate had pronounced innocent (Joh 18:38), an illegal act therefore. It was a preliminary to crucifixion, but Jesus was not yet condemned. The Sanhedrin had previously mocked Jesus (Mar 14:65; Mat 26:67.; Luk 22:63.) as the soldiers will do later (Mar 15:16-19; Mat 27:27-30). This later mock coronation (Mark and Matthew) was after the condemnation.

Robertson: Joh 19:1 - Plaited a crown of thorns Plaited a crown of thorns ( plexantes stephanon ex akanthōn ). Old verb plekō , to weave, in the N.T. only here, Mar 15:17; Mat 27:19. Not imposs...

Plaited a crown of thorns ( plexantes stephanon ex akanthōn ).

Old verb plekō , to weave, in the N.T. only here, Mar 15:17; Mat 27:19. Not impossible for the mock coronation to be repeated.

Robertson: Joh 19:1 - Arrayed him Arrayed him ( periebalon auton ). "Placed around him"(second aorist active indicative of periballō ).

Arrayed him ( periebalon auton ).

"Placed around him"(second aorist active indicative of periballō ).

Robertson: Joh 19:1 - In a purple garment In a purple garment ( himation porphuroun ). Old adjective porphureos from porphura , purple cloth (Mar 15:17, Mar 15:20), dyed in purple, in the N...

In a purple garment ( himation porphuroun ).

Old adjective porphureos from porphura , purple cloth (Mar 15:17, Mar 15:20), dyed in purple, in the N.T. only here and Rev 18:16. Jesus had been stripped of his outer garment himation (Mat 27:28) and the scarlet cloak of one of the soldiers may have been put on him (Mat 27:28).

Robertson: Joh 19:3 - They came They came ( ērchonto ). Imperfect middle of repeated action, "they kept coming and saying"(elegon ) in derision and mock reverence with Ave (cha...

They came ( ērchonto ).

Imperfect middle of repeated action, "they kept coming and saying"(elegon ) in derision and mock reverence with Ave (chaire , Hail!) as if to Caesar. Note ho basileus (the king) in address.

Robertson: Joh 19:3 - They struck him with their hands They struck him with their hands ( edidosan autōi rapismata ). Imperfect of didōmi , repetition, "they kept on giving him slaps with their hands....

They struck him with their hands ( edidosan autōi rapismata ).

Imperfect of didōmi , repetition, "they kept on giving him slaps with their hands."See note on Joh 18:22 for this use of rapisma .

Robertson: Joh 19:4 - I bring him out to you I bring him out to you ( agō humin auton exō ). Vividly pictures Pilate leading Jesus out of the palace before the mob in front.

I bring him out to you ( agō humin auton exō ).

Vividly pictures Pilate leading Jesus out of the palace before the mob in front.

Robertson: Joh 19:4 - That ye may know That ye may know ( hina gnōte ). Final clause with hina and the second aorist active subjunctive of ginōskō , "that ye may come to know,"by t...

That ye may know ( hina gnōte ).

Final clause with hina and the second aorist active subjunctive of ginōskō , "that ye may come to know,"by this mockery the sincerity of Pilate’ s decision that Jesus is innocent (Joh 18:38). It is a travesty on justice and dignity, but Pilate is trying by a bit of humour to turn the mob from the grip of the Sanhedrin.

Robertson: Joh 19:5 - Wearing Wearing ( phorōn ). Present active participle of phoreō , an early frequentative of pherō , denoting a continual wearing, though not true here ...

Wearing ( phorōn ).

Present active participle of phoreō , an early frequentative of pherō , denoting a continual wearing, though not true here (only temporary). Jesus bore the mockery with kingly dignity as part of the shame of the Cross (Heb 12:2).

Robertson: Joh 19:5 - Behold, the man Behold, the man ( Idou ho anthrōpos ). Ecce Homo! by Pilate. This exclamatory introduction of Jesus in mock coronation robes to the mob was clea...

Behold, the man ( Idou ho anthrōpos ).

Ecce Homo! by Pilate. This exclamatory introduction of Jesus in mock coronation robes to the mob was clearly intended to excite pity and to show how absurd the charge of the Sanhedrin was that such a pitiable figure should be guilty of treason. Pilate failed utterly in this effort and did not dream that he was calling attention to the greatest figure of history, the Man of the ages.

Robertson: Joh 19:6 - Crucify him, crucify him Crucify him, crucify him ( staurōson ,staurōson ). First aorist active imperative of stauroō for which verb see Mat 20:19, etc. Here the not...

Crucify him, crucify him ( staurōson ,staurōson ).

First aorist active imperative of stauroō for which verb see Mat 20:19, etc. Here the note of urgency (aorist imperative) with no word for "him,"as they were led by the chief priests and the temple police till the whole mob takes it up (Mat 27:22).

Robertson: Joh 19:6 - For I find no crime in him For I find no crime in him ( egō gar ouch heuriskō ). This is the third time Pilate has rendered his opinion of Christ’ s innocence (Joh 18:...

For I find no crime in him ( egō gar ouch heuriskō ).

This is the third time Pilate has rendered his opinion of Christ’ s innocence (Joh 18:38; Joh 19:4). And here he surrenders in a fret to the mob and gives as his reason (gar , for) for his surrender the innocence of Jesus (the strangest judicial decision ever rendered). Perhaps Pilate was only franker than some judges!

Robertson: Joh 19:7 - Because he made himself the Son of God Because he made himself the Son of God ( hoti huion theou heauton epoiēsen ). Here at last the Sanhedrin give the real ground for their hostility t...

Because he made himself the Son of God ( hoti huion theou heauton epoiēsen ).

Here at last the Sanhedrin give the real ground for their hostility to Jesus, one of long standing for probably three years (Joh 5:18) and the one on which the Sanhedrin voted the condemnation of Jesus (Mar 14:61-64; Matt 27:23-66), but even now they do not mention their own decision to Pilate, for they had no legal right to vote Christ’ s death before Pilate’ s consent which they now have secured.

Robertson: Joh 19:8 - He was the more afraid He was the more afraid ( mallon ephobēthē ). First aorist passive indicative of phobeomai . He was already afraid because of his wife’ s mes...

He was the more afraid ( mallon ephobēthē ).

First aorist passive indicative of phobeomai . He was already afraid because of his wife’ s message (Mat 27:19). The claim of Jesus to deity excited Pilate’ s superstitious fears.

Robertson: Joh 19:9 - Whence art thou? Whence art thou? ( pothen ei su ). Pilate knew that Jesus was from Galilee (Luk 23:6.). He is really alarmed. See a like question by the Jews in Joh ...

Whence art thou? ( pothen ei su ).

Pilate knew that Jesus was from Galilee (Luk 23:6.). He is really alarmed. See a like question by the Jews in Joh 8:25.

Robertson: Joh 19:9 - Gave him no answer Gave him no answer ( apokrisin ouk edōken autōi ). See same idiom in Joh 1:22. Apokrisis (old word from apokrinomai ) occurs also in Luk 2:47;...

Gave him no answer ( apokrisin ouk edōken autōi ).

See same idiom in Joh 1:22. Apokrisis (old word from apokrinomai ) occurs also in Luk 2:47; Luk 20:26. The silence of Jesus, like that before Caiaphas (Mar 14:61; Mat 26:63) and Herod (Luk 23:9), irritates the dignity of Pilate in spite of his fears.

Robertson: Joh 19:10 - Unto me Unto me ( emoi ). Emphatic position for this dative. It amounted to contempt of court with all of Pilate’ s real "authority"(exousia ), better ...

Unto me ( emoi ).

Emphatic position for this dative. It amounted to contempt of court with all of Pilate’ s real "authority"(exousia ), better here than "power."

Robertson: Joh 19:11 - Thou wouldest have Thou wouldest have ( ouk eiches ). Imperfect active indicative without an , but apodosis of second-class condition as in Joh 15:22, Joh 15:24.

Thou wouldest have ( ouk eiches ).

Imperfect active indicative without an , but apodosis of second-class condition as in Joh 15:22, Joh 15:24.

Robertson: Joh 19:11 - Except it were given thee Except it were given thee ( ei mē ēn dedomenon ). Periphrastic past perfect indicative of didōmi (a permanent possession).

Except it were given thee ( ei mē ēn dedomenon ).

Periphrastic past perfect indicative of didōmi (a permanent possession).

Robertson: Joh 19:11 - From above From above ( anōthen ). From God (cf. Joh 3:3), the same doctrine of government stated by Paul in Rom 13:1. Pilate did not get his "authority"from ...

From above ( anōthen ).

From God (cf. Joh 3:3), the same doctrine of government stated by Paul in Rom 13:1. Pilate did not get his "authority"from the Sanhedrin, but from Caesar. Jesus makes God the source of all real "authority."

Robertson: Joh 19:11 - Hath greater sin Hath greater sin ( meizona hamartian echei ). The same idiom in Joh 9:41. Caiaphas has his authority from God also and has used Pilate for his own ba...

Hath greater sin ( meizona hamartian echei ).

The same idiom in Joh 9:41. Caiaphas has his authority from God also and has used Pilate for his own base end.

Robertson: Joh 19:12 - Sought Sought ( ezētei ). Imperfect active, "kept on seeking,""made renewed efforts to release him."He was afraid to act boldly against the will of the Je...

Sought ( ezētei ).

Imperfect active, "kept on seeking,""made renewed efforts to release him."He was afraid to act boldly against the will of the Jews.

Robertson: Joh 19:12 - If thou release this man If thou release this man ( ean touton apolusēis ). Condition of third class, a direct threat to Pilate. He knew all the time that the Sanhedrin mig...

If thou release this man ( ean touton apolusēis ).

Condition of third class, a direct threat to Pilate. He knew all the time that the Sanhedrin might tell Caesar on him.

Robertson: Joh 19:12 - Thou art not Caesar’ s friend Thou art not Caesar’ s friend ( ouk ei philos tou kaisaros ). Later to Vespasian this was an official title, here simply a daring threat to Pila...

Thou art not Caesar’ s friend ( ouk ei philos tou kaisaros ).

Later to Vespasian this was an official title, here simply a daring threat to Pilate.

Robertson: Joh 19:12 - Speaketh against Caesar Speaketh against Caesar ( antilegei tōi kaisari ). Caesar brooks no rival. Jesus had allowed himself to be acclaimed king of Israel in the Triumpha...

Speaketh against Caesar ( antilegei tōi kaisari ).

Caesar brooks no rival. Jesus had allowed himself to be acclaimed king of Israel in the Triumphal Entry (Joh 12:13; Mar 11:10; Luk 19:38). The Sanhedrin have caught Pilate in their toils.

Robertson: Joh 19:13 - Sat down on the judgment seat Sat down on the judgment seat ( ekathisen epi bēmatos ). "Took his seat upon the bēma "(the raised platform for the judge outside the palace as ...

Sat down on the judgment seat ( ekathisen epi bēmatos ).

"Took his seat upon the bēma "(the raised platform for the judge outside the palace as in Act 7:5). The examination is over and Pilate is now ready for the final stage.

Robertson: Joh 19:13 - The Pavement The Pavement ( Lithostrōton ). Late compound from lithos , stone, and the verbal adjective strōtos form strōnnumi , to speak, a mosaic or tes...

The Pavement ( Lithostrōton ).

Late compound from lithos , stone, and the verbal adjective strōtos form strōnnumi , to speak, a mosaic or tesselated pavement, spread with stones, in 2Ch 7:3, Josephus, Epictetus, papyri. The Chaldean name Gabbathā , an elevation, was apparently given because of the shape.

Robertson: Joh 19:14 - The Preparation of the passover The Preparation of the passover ( paraskeuē tou pascha ). That is, Friday of passover week, the preparation day before the Sabbath of passover week...

The Preparation of the passover ( paraskeuē tou pascha ).

That is, Friday of passover week, the preparation day before the Sabbath of passover week (or feast). See also Joh 19:31, Joh 19:42; Mar 15:42; Mat 27:62; Luk 23:54 for this same use of paraskeuē for Friday. It is the name for Friday today in Greece.

Robertson: Joh 19:14 - About the sixth hour About the sixth hour ( hōs hektē ). Roman time, about 6 a.m. (a little after 6 no doubt) when Pilate rendered his final decision. Mar 15:25 notes...

About the sixth hour ( hōs hektē ).

Roman time, about 6 a.m. (a little after 6 no doubt) when Pilate rendered his final decision. Mar 15:25 notes that it was the third hour (Jewish time), which is 9 a.m. Roman time, when the crucifixion began. Why should John give Jewish time writing at the close of the first century when Jerusalem and the Jewish state passed away in a.d. 70? He is writing for Greek and Roman readers.

Robertson: Joh 19:14 - Behold your king Behold your king ( Ide ho basileus humōn ). Ide is here an exclamation with no effect on the case of basileus just as in Joh 1:29. The sarcasm ...

Behold your king ( Ide ho basileus humōn ).

Ide is here an exclamation with no effect on the case of basileus just as in Joh 1:29. The sarcasm of Pilate is aimed at the Jews, not at Jesus.

Robertson: Joh 19:15 - Away with him, away with him Away with him, away with him ( āron ,āron ). First aorist active imperative of airō . See aire in Luk 23:18. This thing has gotten on the ne...

Away with him, away with him ( āron ,āron ).

First aorist active imperative of airō . See aire in Luk 23:18. This thing has gotten on the nerves of the crowd. Note the repetition. In a second-century papyrus letter (Moulton and Milligan’ s Vocabulary ) a nervous mother cries "He upsets me; away with him"(arron auton ). Pilate weakly repeats his sarcasm: " Your king shall I crucify? "(Ton basilea humōn staurōsō ).

Robertson: Joh 19:15 - But Caesar But Caesar ( ei mē kaisara ). The chief priests (hoi archiereis ) were Sadducees, who had no Messianic hope like that of the Pharisees. So to carr...

But Caesar ( ei mē kaisara ).

The chief priests (hoi archiereis ) were Sadducees, who had no Messianic hope like that of the Pharisees. So to carry their point against Jesus they renounce the principle of the theocracy that God was their King (1Sa 12:12).

Robertson: Joh 19:16 - He delivered He delivered ( paredōken ). Kappa aorist active of paradidōmi , the very verb used of the Sanhedrin when they handed Jesus over to Pilate (Joh 18...

He delivered ( paredōken ).

Kappa aorist active of paradidōmi , the very verb used of the Sanhedrin when they handed Jesus over to Pilate (Joh 18:30, Joh 18:35). Now Pilate hands Jesus back to the Sanhedrin with full consent for his death (Luk 23:25).

Robertson: Joh 19:16 - To be crucified To be crucified ( hina staurōthēi ). Purpose clause with hina and the first aorist passive subjunctive of stauroō . John does not give the dr...

To be crucified ( hina staurōthēi ).

Purpose clause with hina and the first aorist passive subjunctive of stauroō . John does not give the dramatic episode in Mat 27:24. when Pilate washed his hands and the Jews took Christ’ s blood on themselves and their children. But it is on Pilate also.

Robertson: Joh 19:17 - They took They took ( parelabon ). Second aorist active indicative of paralambanō , they took Jesus from Pilate. Cf. Joh 1:11; Joh 14:3. This is after the sh...

They took ( parelabon ).

Second aorist active indicative of paralambanō , they took Jesus from Pilate. Cf. Joh 1:11; Joh 14:3. This is after the shameful scourging between 6 a.m. and 9 a.m. when the soldiers insult Jesus ad libitum (Mar 15:16-19; Mat 27:27-30).

Robertson: Joh 19:17 - Bearing the cross for himself Bearing the cross for himself ( bastazōn hautōi ton stauron ). Cf. Luk 14:27 for this very picture in the words of Jesus. The dative case of the ...

Bearing the cross for himself ( bastazōn hautōi ton stauron ).

Cf. Luk 14:27 for this very picture in the words of Jesus. The dative case of the reflexive pronoun hautōi "for himself"is in strict accord with Roman custom. "A criminal condemned to be crucified was required to carry his own cross"(Bernard). But apparently Jesus under the strain of the night before and the anguish of heart within him gave out so that Simon of Cyrene was impressed to carry it for Jesus (Mar 15:21.; Mat 27:32.; Luk 23:26). See Mar 15:22.; Mat 27:33.; Luk 23:33 for the meaning of "place of a skull"or Calvary and Golgotha in Hebrew (Aramaic). Luke has simply Kranion (Skull), a skull-looking place.

Robertson: Joh 19:18 - They crucified They crucified ( estaurōsan ). The soldiers just as in Act 22:24.; the scourging of Paul was to be done by the soldiers.

They crucified ( estaurōsan ).

The soldiers just as in Act 22:24.; the scourging of Paul was to be done by the soldiers.

Robertson: Joh 19:18 - And Jesus in the midst And Jesus in the midst ( meson de ton Iēsoun ). Predicate adjective meson . A robber (lēistēs , not a thief, kleptēs ) was on each side of J...

And Jesus in the midst ( meson de ton Iēsoun ).

Predicate adjective meson . A robber (lēistēs , not a thief, kleptēs ) was on each side of Jesus (Mar 15:27; Mat 27:38) like Barabbas (Joh 18:40) and probably members of his band, malefactors (kakourgoi ) Luke terms them (Luk 23:32).

Robertson: Joh 19:19 - Pilate wrote a title also Pilate wrote a title also ( egrapsen kai titlon ho Peilatos ). Only John tells us that Pilate himself wrote it and John alone uses the technical Lati...

Pilate wrote a title also ( egrapsen kai titlon ho Peilatos ).

Only John tells us that Pilate himself wrote it and John alone uses the technical Latin word titlon (several times in inscriptions), for the board with the name of the criminal and the crime in which he is condemned; Mark (Mar 15:26) and Luke (Luk 23:28) use epigraphē (superscription). Matthew (Mat 27:37) has simply aitian (accusation). The inscription in John is the fullest of the four and has all in any of them save the words "this is"(houtos estin ) in Mat 27:37.

Robertson: Joh 19:20 - Read Read ( anegnōsan ). Second aorist active indicative of anaginōskō . It was meant to be read. Latin was the legal and official language; Aramaic...

Read ( anegnōsan ).

Second aorist active indicative of anaginōskō . It was meant to be read. Latin was the legal and official language; Aramaic (Hebrew) was for the benefit of the people of Jerusalem; Greek was for everybody who passed by who did not know Aramaic. Many of the Jews mocked as they read the accusation. This item alone in John.

Robertson: Joh 19:21 - But that he said But that he said ( all' hoti ekeinos eipen ). The chief priests were uneasy for fear that the joke in the mock title was on them instead of on Jesus....

But that he said ( all' hoti ekeinos eipen ).

The chief priests were uneasy for fear that the joke in the mock title was on them instead of on Jesus. They were right in their fear.

Robertson: Joh 19:22 - What I have written I have written What I have written I have written ( ho gegrapha gegrapha ). With emphasis on the permanence of the accusation on the board. Pilate has a sudden spir...

What I have written I have written ( ho gegrapha gegrapha ).

With emphasis on the permanence of the accusation on the board. Pilate has a sudden spirit of stubbornness in this detail to the surprise of the chief priests. Technically he was correct, for he had condemned Jesus on this charge made by the chief priests.

Robertson: Joh 19:23 - Four parts Four parts ( tessera merē ). There were four soldiers, the usual quaternion (tetradion , Act 12:9) besides the centurion (Mar 15:39; Mat 27:54; Luk...

Four parts ( tessera merē ).

There were four soldiers, the usual quaternion (tetradion , Act 12:9) besides the centurion (Mar 15:39; Mat 27:54; Luk 23:47). The clothes (himatia , outer clothes) of the criminal were removed before the crucifixion and belonged to the soldiers. Luke (Luk 23:34) mentions the division of the garments, but not the number four. The four pieces would be the head gear, the sandals, the girdle, the tallith (outer garment with fringes).

Robertson: Joh 19:23 - The coat was without seam The coat was without seam ( ho chitōn araphos ). For chitōn (the inner garment) see Mat 5:40. Araphos is compound of a privative and rapto...

The coat was without seam ( ho chitōn araphos ).

For chitōn (the inner garment) see Mat 5:40. Araphos is compound of a privative and raptō , to sew together, and so seamless (unsewed together), only here in N.T. It occurs elsewhere in Josephus, Ant. III. 6, 4.

Robertson: Joh 19:23 - Woven Woven ( huphantos ). Verbal (old word) from huphainō (some MSS. in Luk 12:27), only here in N.T.

Woven ( huphantos ).

Verbal (old word) from huphainō (some MSS. in Luk 12:27), only here in N.T.

Robertson: Joh 19:24 - Let us not rend it Let us not rend it ( mē schisōmen auton ). Mē with first aorist active volitive subjunctive of schizō , to split. It was too valuable to ru...

Let us not rend it ( mē schisōmen auton ).

Mē with first aorist active volitive subjunctive of schizō , to split. It was too valuable to ruin.

Robertson: Joh 19:24 - Cast lots Cast lots ( lachōmen ). Second aorist active volitive subjunctive of lagchanō . The usual meaning is to obtain by lot (Luk 1:9; Act 1:17). Field ...

Cast lots ( lachōmen ).

Second aorist active volitive subjunctive of lagchanō . The usual meaning is to obtain by lot (Luk 1:9; Act 1:17). Field ( Ot. Norv. 72) holds that no example has been found where it means "cast lots"as here, but Thayer cites Isocrates , p. 144b and Diod. 4, 63. John here quotes with the usual formula Psa 22:18 (lxx verbatim) and finds a fulfilment here. The enemies of the Lord’ s Anointed treated him as already dead (Westcott) and so cast lots (elabon klēron , the common phrase as in Mat 27:35).

Robertson: Joh 19:25 - Were standing by the cross of Jesus Were standing by the cross of Jesus ( histēkeisan para tōi staurōi tou Iēsou ). Perfect of histēmi , to place, used as imperfect (intransit...

Were standing by the cross of Jesus ( histēkeisan para tōi staurōi tou Iēsou ).

Perfect of histēmi , to place, used as imperfect (intransitive) with para (beside) and the locative case. Vivid contrast this to the rude gambling of the soldiers. This group of four (or three) women interests us more. Matthew (Mat 27:55.) spoke of women beholding from afar and names three (Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James the less and of Joses, and the mother of the sons of Zebedee). Mark also (Mar 15:40) names three (Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James the less and of Joses, and Salome). They have clearly drawn near the Cross by now. John alone mentions the mother of Jesus in the group. It is not clear whether the sister of the mother of Jesus is Salome the mother of the sons of Zebedee or the wife of Clopas. If so, two sisters have the name Mary and James and John are cousins of Jesus. The point cannot be settled with our present knowledge.

Robertson: Joh 19:26 - His mother His mother ( tēn mētera ). Common Greek idiom, the article as possessive.

His mother ( tēn mētera ).

Common Greek idiom, the article as possessive.

Robertson: Joh 19:26 - Standing by Standing by ( parestōta ). Perfect active (intransitive) participle of paristēmi , vivid and picturesque scene. The dying Saviour thinks of the c...

Standing by ( parestōta ).

Perfect active (intransitive) participle of paristēmi , vivid and picturesque scene. The dying Saviour thinks of the comfort of his mother.

Robertson: Joh 19:26 - Whom he loved Whom he loved ( hon ēgapa ). Imperfect active. Surely John is justified in inserting this phrase here. If John were his cousin, that helps explain ...

Whom he loved ( hon ēgapa ).

Imperfect active. Surely John is justified in inserting this phrase here. If John were his cousin, that helps explain why Jesus turns the care of his mother over to him. But the brothers of Jesus are not present and disbelieved his claims. John is the only one of the apostles with courage enough to take his stand with the women by the Cross. There is no disrespect in the use of "Woman"(Gunai ) here as there was not in Joh 2:4. This trust is to John, though Salome, John’ s own mother, was standing there.

Robertson: Joh 19:27 - Unto his own home Unto his own home ( eis ta idia ). See this same idiom and sense in Joh 1:11; Joh 16:32; Act 21:6. John had a lodging in Jerusalem, whether a house o...

Unto his own home ( eis ta idia ).

See this same idiom and sense in Joh 1:11; Joh 16:32; Act 21:6. John had a lodging in Jerusalem, whether a house or not, and the mother of Jesus lived with him there.

Robertson: Joh 19:28 - Are now finished Are now finished ( ēdē tetelestai ). Perfect passive indicative of teleō . See same form in Joh 19:30. As in Joh 13:1, where Jesus is fully con...

Are now finished ( ēdē tetelestai ).

Perfect passive indicative of teleō . See same form in Joh 19:30. As in Joh 13:1, where Jesus is fully conscious (knowing, eidōs ) of the meaning of his atoning death.

Robertson: Joh 19:28 - Might be accomplished Might be accomplished ( teleiōthēi ). First aorist passive subjunctive of teleioō rather than the usual plērōthēi (Joh 19:24) with hi...

Might be accomplished ( teleiōthēi ).

First aorist passive subjunctive of teleioō rather than the usual plērōthēi (Joh 19:24) with hina . John sees the thirst of Jesus in Psa 69:21. Jesus, of course, did not make the outcry in any mechanical way. Thirst is one of the severest agonies of crucifixion. For the "perfecting"of the Messiah by physical suffering see Heb 2:10; Heb 5:7.

Robertson: Joh 19:29 - Was set Was set ( ekeito ). Imperfect middle. John, as eyewitness, had noticed it there.

Was set ( ekeito ).

Imperfect middle. John, as eyewitness, had noticed it there.

Robertson: Joh 19:29 - Of vinegar Of vinegar ( oxous ). Not vinegar drugged with myrrh (Mar 15:23) and gall (Mat 27:34) which Jesus had refused just before the crucifixion.

Of vinegar ( oxous ).

Not vinegar drugged with myrrh (Mar 15:23) and gall (Mat 27:34) which Jesus had refused just before the crucifixion.

Robertson: Joh 19:29 - Sponge Sponge ( spoggon ). Old word, in N.T. only here, Mar 15:36; Mat 27:48, our "sponge."

Sponge ( spoggon ).

Old word, in N.T. only here, Mar 15:36; Mat 27:48, our "sponge."

Robertson: Joh 19:29 - They put They put ( perithentes ). Second aorist active participle of peritithēmi , to place around.

They put ( perithentes ).

Second aorist active participle of peritithēmi , to place around.

Robertson: Joh 19:29 - Upon hyssop Upon hyssop ( hussōpōi ).

Upon hyssop ( hussōpōi ).

Robertson: Joh 19:29 - A reed A reed ( kalamōi ) as Mark and Matthew have it. The reed of the hyssop bush was only three or four feet long.

A reed ( kalamōi )

as Mark and Matthew have it. The reed of the hyssop bush was only three or four feet long.

Robertson: Joh 19:30 - Had received Had received ( elaben ). Second aorist active indicative of lambanō . Jesus took the vinegar (a stimulant), though he had refused the drugged vineg...

Had received ( elaben ).

Second aorist active indicative of lambanō . Jesus took the vinegar (a stimulant), though he had refused the drugged vinegar. It is finished (tetelestai ). Same for as in Joh 19:28. A cry of victory in the hour of defeat like nenikēka in Joh 16:33. Jesus knew the relation of his death to redemption for us (Mar 10:45; Mat 20:28; Mat 26:28).

Robertson: Joh 19:30 - Bowed his head Bowed his head ( klinas tēn kephalēn ). First aorist active participle of klinō . This vivid detail only in John.

Bowed his head ( klinas tēn kephalēn ).

First aorist active participle of klinō . This vivid detail only in John.

Robertson: Joh 19:30 - Gave up his spirit Gave up his spirit ( paredōken to pneuma ). With the quotation of Psa 31:5 according to Luk 23:46, "Father, into thy hands I commend my spirit"(the...

Gave up his spirit ( paredōken to pneuma ).

With the quotation of Psa 31:5 according to Luk 23:46, "Father, into thy hands I commend my spirit"(the last of the seven sayings of Jesus on the Cross that are preserved for us). Jesus died with the words of this Psalm upon his lips. The apostle John had come back to the Cross.

Robertson: Joh 19:31 - The Preparation The Preparation ( paraskeuē ). Friday. See Joh 19:14.

The Preparation ( paraskeuē ).

Friday. See Joh 19:14.

Robertson: Joh 19:31 - Might not remain Might not remain ( mē meinēi ). Negative final clause with hina mē and first aorist active (constative) subjunctive of menō .

Might not remain ( mē meinēi ).

Negative final clause with hina mē and first aorist active (constative) subjunctive of menō .

Robertson: Joh 19:31 - A high day A high day ( megalē ). A "great"day, since "the sabbath day following synchronized with the first day of unleavened bread which was a ‘ great&...

A high day ( megalē ).

A "great"day, since "the sabbath day following synchronized with the first day of unleavened bread which was a ‘ great’ day"(Bernard). A double reason therefore for wanting the bodies removed before sunset when the Sabbath began.

Robertson: Joh 19:31 - That their legs might be broken That their legs might be broken ( hina kateagōsin auton ta skelē ). Purpose clause with hina and the second aorist passive subjunctive of katag...

That their legs might be broken ( hina kateagōsin auton ta skelē ).

Purpose clause with hina and the second aorist passive subjunctive of katagnumi with the augment retained in the subjunctive, a "false augment"common in later Greek as in the future in Mat 12:20 with this verb (Robertson, Grammar , p. 365). This crurifragium was done with a heavy mallet and ended the sufferings of the victim.

Robertson: Joh 19:31 - Legs Legs ( skelē ). Old word, here only in N.T.

Legs ( skelē ).

Old word, here only in N.T.

Robertson: Joh 19:31 - Might be taken away Might be taken away ( arthōsin ). First aorist passive subjunctive of airō with hina also.

Might be taken away ( arthōsin ).

First aorist passive subjunctive of airō with hina also.

Robertson: Joh 19:32 - Which was crucified with him Which was crucified with him ( tou sunstaurōthentos autōi ). First aorist passive articular participle of sunstauroō with associative instrum...

Which was crucified with him ( tou sunstaurōthentos autōi ).

First aorist passive articular participle of sunstauroō with associative instrumental case. Cf. Paul’ s Christōi sunestaurōmai (Gal 2:19).

Robertson: Joh 19:33 - Already dead Already dead ( ēdē tethnēkota ). Perfect active participle of thnēskō . So then Jesus died before the robbers, died of a broken heart.

Already dead ( ēdē tethnēkota ).

Perfect active participle of thnēskō . So then Jesus died before the robbers, died of a broken heart.

Robertson: Joh 19:33 - They brake not They brake not ( ou kateaxan ). The augment is proper here (see Joh 19:32).

They brake not ( ou kateaxan ).

The augment is proper here (see Joh 19:32).

Robertson: Joh 19:34 - With a spear With a spear ( logchēi ). Instrumental case of this old word, here only in the N.T.

With a spear ( logchēi ).

Instrumental case of this old word, here only in the N.T.

Robertson: Joh 19:34 - Pierced his side Pierced his side ( autou tēn pleuran enuxen ). First aorist active indicative of nussō , old word to pierce, here only in N.T., and pleuran (si...

Pierced his side ( autou tēn pleuran enuxen ).

First aorist active indicative of nussō , old word to pierce, here only in N.T., and pleuran (side), another old word, occurs in N.T. only here and Joh 20:20, Joh 20:25, Joh 20:27.

Robertson: Joh 19:34 - Blood and water Blood and water ( haima kai hudōr ). Dr. W. Stroud ( Physical Cause of the Death of Christ ) argues that this fact proves that the spear pierced th...

Blood and water ( haima kai hudōr ).

Dr. W. Stroud ( Physical Cause of the Death of Christ ) argues that this fact proves that the spear pierced the left side of Jesus near the heart and that Jesus had died literally of a broken heart since blood was mixed with water.

Robertson: Joh 19:35 - He that hath seen He that hath seen ( ho heōrakōs ). Perfect active articular participle of horaō . John the Apostle was there and saw this fact (still sees it, ...

He that hath seen ( ho heōrakōs ).

Perfect active articular participle of horaō . John the Apostle was there and saw this fact (still sees it, in fact). This personal witness disproves the theory of the Docetic Gnostics that Jesus did not have a real human body.

Robertson: Joh 19:35 - He knoweth He knoweth ( ekeinos oiden ). That is John does like Joh 9:37. It is possible that ekeinos may be a solemn appeal to God as in Joh 1:33 or Christ a...

He knoweth ( ekeinos oiden ).

That is John does like Joh 9:37. It is possible that ekeinos may be a solemn appeal to God as in Joh 1:33 or Christ as in 1Jo 3:5. Bernard argues that the final editor is distinguishing the Beloved Disciple from himself and is endorsing him. But the example of Josephus ( War. III. 7, 16) is against this use of ekeinos . John is rather referring to himself as still alive.

Robertson: Joh 19:36 - Be broken Be broken ( suntribēsetai ). Second future passive of suntribō , to crush together. A free quotation of Exo 12:46 about the paschal lamb.

Be broken ( suntribēsetai ).

Second future passive of suntribō , to crush together. A free quotation of Exo 12:46 about the paschal lamb.

Robertson: Joh 19:37 - They pierced They pierced ( exekentēsan ). First aorist active of ekkenteō , late verb, correct translation of the Hebrew of Zec 12:10, but not like the lxx, ...

They pierced ( exekentēsan ).

First aorist active of ekkenteō , late verb, correct translation of the Hebrew of Zec 12:10, but not like the lxx, in N.T. only here and Rev 1:7.

Robertson: Joh 19:38 - But secretly for fear of the Jews But secretly for fear of the Jews ( kekrummenos de dia ton phobon tōn Ioudaiōn ). Perfect passive participle of kruptō . An example of the rule...

But secretly for fear of the Jews ( kekrummenos de dia ton phobon tōn Ioudaiōn ).

Perfect passive participle of kruptō . An example of the rulers described in Joh 12:41-43 who through cowardice feared to own their faith in Jesus as the Messiah. But it must be put down to the credit of Joseph that he showed courage in this darkest hour when the majority had lost heart.

Robertson: Joh 19:38 - That he might take away That he might take away ( hina arēi ). Final clause with hina and the first aorist active subjunctive of airō . Else the body of Jesus might ha...

That he might take away ( hina arēi ).

Final clause with hina and the first aorist active subjunctive of airō . Else the body of Jesus might have gone to the potter’ s field. Pilate gladly consented.

Robertson: Joh 19:39 - Nicodemus also Nicodemus also ( kai Nikodēmos ). The Synoptics tell about Joseph of Arimathea, but only John adds the help that Nicodemus gave him in the burial o...

Nicodemus also ( kai Nikodēmos ).

The Synoptics tell about Joseph of Arimathea, but only John adds the help that Nicodemus gave him in the burial of Jesus, these two timid disciples, Nicodemus now at last taking an open stand.

Robertson: Joh 19:39 - At the first At the first ( to prōton ). Adverbial accusative and reference to Joh 3:1.

At the first ( to prōton ).

Adverbial accusative and reference to Joh 3:1.

Robertson: Joh 19:39 - Mixture Mixture ( migma ). Late word from mignumi , to mix, only here in the N.T. Many old MSS. have here heligma (roll), from helissō (Heb 1:12), anot...

Mixture ( migma ).

Late word from mignumi , to mix, only here in the N.T. Many old MSS. have here heligma (roll), from helissō (Heb 1:12), another late word here only in N.T. It was common to use sweet-smelling spices in the burial (2Ch 16:14).

Robertson: Joh 19:39 - Pound Pound ( litras ). Late word for twelve ounces, in N.T. only here and Joh 12:3. Nicodemus was a rich man and probably covered the entire body with the...

Pound ( litras ).

Late word for twelve ounces, in N.T. only here and Joh 12:3. Nicodemus was a rich man and probably covered the entire body with the spices.

Robertson: Joh 19:40 - In linen cloths In linen cloths ( othoniois ). Late diminutive for the old othonē , used for ships’ sails, in N.T. here and Luk 24:12. Case here either locat...

In linen cloths ( othoniois ).

Late diminutive for the old othonē , used for ships’ sails, in N.T. here and Luk 24:12. Case here either locative or instrumental.

Robertson: Joh 19:40 - With the spices With the spices ( meta tōn arōmatōn ). Late word arōma for spices, from fumes.

With the spices ( meta tōn arōmatōn ).

Late word arōma for spices, from fumes.

Robertson: Joh 19:40 - To bury To bury ( entaphiazein ). Late verb, from entaphia (en ,taphos ) the burial preparations of all sorts (flowers, perfumes, etc.), in N.T. only her...

To bury ( entaphiazein ).

Late verb, from entaphia (en ,taphos ) the burial preparations of all sorts (flowers, perfumes, etc.), in N.T. only here and Mat 26:12.

Robertson: Joh 19:41 - A garden A garden ( kēpos ). See Joh 18:1, Joh 18:26.

A garden ( kēpos ).

See Joh 18:1, Joh 18:26.

Robertson: Joh 19:41 - New New ( kainon ). Fresh, unused.

New ( kainon ).

Fresh, unused.

Robertson: Joh 19:41 - Was never yet laid Was never yet laid ( oudepō ēn tetheimenos ). Periphrastic past perfect passive of tithēmi . It was Joseph’ s mausoleum, a rock tomb hewn ...

Was never yet laid ( oudepō ēn tetheimenos ).

Periphrastic past perfect passive of tithēmi . It was Joseph’ s mausoleum, a rock tomb hewn out of the mountain side (Mar 15:46; Mat 27:60; Luk 23:53), a custom common with the rich then and now. For royal tombs in gardens see 2Ki 21:18, 2Ki 21:26; Neh 3:16.

Robertson: Joh 19:42 - Was nigh at hand Was nigh at hand ( eggus ēn ). This tomb was outside of the city, near a road as the Cross was, and in a garden. The hill looked like a skull and w...

Was nigh at hand ( eggus ēn ).

This tomb was outside of the city, near a road as the Cross was, and in a garden. The hill looked like a skull and was probably Gordon’ s Calvary seen from the Mount of Olives today.

Vincent: Joh 19:1 - Scourged Scourged ( ἐμαστίγωσεν ) Matthew and Mark use the Greek form of the Latin word flagellare , φραγελλόω , which occurs o...

Scourged ( ἐμαστίγωσεν )

Matthew and Mark use the Greek form of the Latin word flagellare , φραγελλόω , which occurs only in those two instances in the New Testament. John uses the more common Greek word, though he has φραγελλίον ( flagellum ), scourge , at Joh 2:15. Matthew and Mark, however, both use μαστιγόω elsewhere (Mat 10:17; Mat 20:29; Mar 10:34). Its kindred noun, μάστιξ , occurs several times in the metaphorical sense of a plague . See on Mar 3:10, and compare Mar 5:29, Mar 5:34; Luk 7:21. The verb is used metaphorically only once, Heb 12:6. Scourging was the legal preliminary to crucifixion, but, in this case, was inflicted illegally before the sentence of crucifixion was pronounced, with a view of averting the extreme punishment, and of satisfying the Jews. (Luk 23:22). The punishment was horrible, the victim being bound to a low pillar or stake, and beaten, either with rods, or, in the case of slaves and provincials, with scourges, called scorpions , leather thongs tipped with leaden balls or sharp spikes. The severity of the infliction in Jesus' case is evident from His inability to bear His cross.

Vincent: Joh 19:2 - Crown Crown ( στέφανον ) So Matthew and Mark. Luke does not mention the crown of thorns. See on 1Pe 5:4.

Crown ( στέφανον )

So Matthew and Mark. Luke does not mention the crown of thorns. See on 1Pe 5:4.

Vincent: Joh 19:2 - Of thorns Of thorns ( ἐξ ἀκανθῶν ) So Matthew. Mark has ἀκάνθινον , the adjective, made of thorns , which John also uses i...

Of thorns ( ἐξ ἀκανθῶν )

So Matthew. Mark has ἀκάνθινον , the adjective, made of thorns , which John also uses in Joh 19:5. All attempts to define the botanical character of the thorns used for Christ's crown are guesses. The word for thorns used here is the only one that occurs in the New Testament; the σκόλοψ ( thorn in the flesh) of 2Co 12:7, being properly an impaling-stake .

Both the crowning with thorns and the flagellation are favorite subjects in Christian art. Some of the earliest representations of the latter depict the figure of the Lord as fully draped, and standing unbound at the column, thus illustrating the voluntariness of His sacrifice. In a MS. of the fourteenth century, in the British Museum, He stands, wholly clothed, holding a book in one hand, and blessing with the other. The more devout feeling which predominated in such representations was gradually overpowered by the sense of physical suffering. The earlier paintings represented the back turned toward the spectator, and the face, turned in a forced attitude, exhibited in profile. Later, the face and figure are turned full to the front, and the strokes fall upon the chest. Hence Jerome, in his commentary on Matthew, says that the capacious chest of God ( ! ) was torn with strokes. The standing position is the accepted one, but instances occur in which the Savior is on the ground attached to the column by one hand. Such is the revolting picture by L. Caracci in the Bologna gallery, in which the soldier clutches Jesus by the hair as he plies the bundle of twigs. In a Psalter of the fifteenth century the Savior stands in front of the column, covering His face with His hands.

According to the later type, the moment chosen is when the execution of the sentence is just beginning. One man is binding the hands to the pillar, another is binding together a bundle of loose switches. The German representations are coarser than the Italian, but with more incident. They lack the spiritual feeling which appears in the best Italian specimens.

A field for a higher feeling and for more subtle treatment is opened in the moments succeeding the scourging. One of the very finest examples of this is the picture of Velasquez, " Christ at the Column," in the National Gallery of London. The real grandeur and pathos of the conception assert themselves above certain prosaic and realistic details. The Savior sits upon the ground, His arms extended, and leaning backward to the full stretch of the cord which binds His crossed hands. The face is turned over the left shoulder full upon the spectator. Rods, ropes, and broken twigs lie upon the ground, and slender streams of blood appear upon the body. A guardian angel behind the figure of the Lord, stands bending slightly over a child kneeling with clasped hands, and points to the sufferer, from whose head a ray of light passes to the child's heart. The angel is a Spanish nursery-maid with wings, and the face of the child is of the lower Spanish type, and is in striking contrast with the exquisite countenance of Murillo's Christ-child, which hangs next to this picture, and which is of the sweetest type of Andalusian beauty. The Savior's face is of a thoroughly manly, indeed, of a robust type, expressing intense suffering, but without contortion. The large, dark eyes are ineffably sad. The strong light on the right arm merges into the deep shadow of the bound hands, and the same shadow falls with startling effect across the full light on the left arm, marked at the wrist by a slight bloody line.

In the portrayal of the crowning with thorns, in a few instances, the moment is chosen after the crown has been placed, the action being in the mock-worship; but the prevailing conception is that of the act of crowning, which consists in pressing the crown upon the brow by means of two long staves. A magnificent specimen is Luini's fresco in the Ambrosian Library at Milan. Christ sits upon a tribune, clad in a scarlet robe, His face wearing an expression of infinite sweetness and dignity, while a soldier on either side crowds down the crown with a staff. The Italian artists represent the crown as consisting of pliable twigs with small thorns; but the northern artists " have conceived," to quote Mrs. Jameson, " an awful structure of the most unbending, knotted boughs, with tremendous spikes half a foot long, which no human hands could have forced into such a form." In a few later instances the staves are omitted, and the crown is placed on the head by the mailed hand of a soldier.

Vincent: Joh 19:2 - Put on Put on ( περιέβαλον ) Literally, threw about . Rev., arrayed .

Put on ( περιέβαλον )

Literally, threw about . Rev., arrayed .

Vincent: Joh 19:2 - Purple Purple ( πορφυροῦν ) An adjective. Found only here, Joh 19:5, and Rev 18:16. Mark uses the noun πορφύρα , purple , which als...

Purple ( πορφυροῦν )

An adjective. Found only here, Joh 19:5, and Rev 18:16. Mark uses the noun πορφύρα , purple , which also occurs in Rev 17:4; Rev 18:12. See on Luk 16:19. Matthew has κοκκίνην , scarlet .

Vincent: Joh 19:2 - Robe Robe ( ἱμάτιον ) Better, as Rev., garment , since robe gives the impression of a trailing garment. See on Mat 5:40. Matthew has χ...

Robe ( ἱμάτιον )

Better, as Rev., garment , since robe gives the impression of a trailing garment. See on Mat 5:40. Matthew has χλαμύδα , a short military cloak (Mat 27:28). Luke describes the garment as λαμπρὰν , gorgeous , bright or brilliant (Luk 23:11).

Vincent: Joh 19:3 - And said And said Add καὶ ἤρχοντο πρὸς αὐτόν , and kept coming unto Him , before and said or kept saying . ...

And said

Add καὶ ἤρχοντο πρὸς αὐτόν , and kept coming unto Him , before and said or kept saying . The imperfect denotes the successive acts of homage of the soldiers as they came up one after the other.

Vincent: Joh 19:3 - They smote Him with their hands They smote Him with their hands ( ἐδίδουν αὐτῷ ῥαπίσματα ). Literally, kept giving Him blows with th...

They smote Him with their hands ( ἐδίδουν αὐτῷ ῥαπίσματα ).

Literally, kept giving Him blows with their hands . See on Joh 18:22.

Vincent: Joh 19:5 - Came Jesus forth Came Jesus forth From the Praetorium.

Came Jesus forth

From the Praetorium.

Vincent: Joh 19:5 - Wearing Wearing ( φορῶν ) Not φέρων , bearing , but the frequentative form of that verb, denoting an habitual or continuous bearing; h...

Wearing ( φορῶν )

Not φέρων , bearing , but the frequentative form of that verb, denoting an habitual or continuous bearing; hence, wearing , as though it were His natural dress.

Vincent: Joh 19:6 - They cried out They cried out See on Joh 18:40.

They cried out

See on Joh 18:40.

Vincent: Joh 19:6 - Crucify Crucify The best texts omit Him .

Crucify

The best texts omit Him .

Vincent: Joh 19:6 - Take ye Him Take ye Him ( λάβετε αὐτὸν ὑμεῖς ) According to the Greek order, " take Him ye ." Rev., take Him yourselves . Se...

Take ye Him ( λάβετε αὐτὸν ὑμεῖς )

According to the Greek order, " take Him ye ." Rev., take Him yourselves . See on Joh 18:31.

Vincent: Joh 19:7 - We have a law We have a law We , emphatic. Whatever your decision may be, we have a law, etc.

We have a law

We , emphatic. Whatever your decision may be, we have a law, etc.

Vincent: Joh 19:7 - By our law By our law The best texts omit our: Read by that law , as Rev.

By our law

The best texts omit our: Read by that law , as Rev.

Vincent: Joh 19:8 - The more afraid The more afraid " These words of the Jews produced an effect on Pilate for which they were not prepared. The saying gives strength to a dreadful ...

The more afraid

" These words of the Jews produced an effect on Pilate for which they were not prepared. The saying gives strength to a dreadful presentiment which was gradually forming within him. All that he had heard related of the miracles of Jesus, the mysterious character of His person, of His words and of His conduct, the strange message which he had just received from his wife - all is suddenly explained by the term " Son of God." Was this extraordinary man truly a divine being who had appeared on the earth? The truth naturally presents itself to his mind in the form of pagan superstitions and mythological legends" (Godet).

Vincent: Joh 19:11 - He that delivered He that delivered Caiaphas.

He that delivered

Caiaphas.

Vincent: Joh 19:12 - From thenceforth From thenceforth ( ἐκ τούτου ) Incorrect. Rev., rightly, upon this .

From thenceforth ( ἐκ τούτου )

Incorrect. Rev., rightly, upon this .

Vincent: Joh 19:12 - Sought Sought ( ἐζήτει ) Imperfect tense. Made repeated attempts.

Sought ( ἐζήτει )

Imperfect tense. Made repeated attempts.

Vincent: Joh 19:12 - Caesar's friend Caesar's friend A title conferred, since the time of Augustus, upon provincial governors. Probably, however, not used by the Jews in this technic...

Caesar's friend

A title conferred, since the time of Augustus, upon provincial governors. Probably, however, not used by the Jews in this technical sense, but merely as a way of saying " Thou art not true to the emperor."

Vincent: Joh 19:12 - Caesar Caesar ( τῷ Καίσαρι ) Literally, the Caesar. The term, which was at first a proper name, the surname of Julius Caesar, adopted b...

Caesar ( τῷ Καίσαρι )

Literally, the Caesar. The term, which was at first a proper name, the surname of Julius Caesar, adopted by Augustus and his successors, became an appellative, appropriated by all the emperors as a title. Thus the emperor at this time was Tiberius Caesar . A distinction was, however, introduced between this title and that of Augustus, which was first given to Octavianus the first emperor. The title " Augustus" was always reserved for the monarch, while " Caesar" was more freely communicated to his relations; and from the reign of Hadrian at least (a.d. 117-138) was appropriated to the second person in the state, who was considered as the presumptive heir of the empire.

Vincent: Joh 19:13 - That saying That saying ( τοῦτον τὸν λόγον ) The best texts read τῶν λόγων τούτων , these words . He was afraid of...

That saying ( τοῦτον τὸν λόγον )

The best texts read τῶν λόγων τούτων , these words . He was afraid of an accusation at Rome before Tiberius, an accusation which could be justified by his misrule.

Vincent: Joh 19:13 - Judgment-seat Judgment-seat ( βήματος ) See on Act 7:5. The best texts omit the article, which may indicate that the tribunal was an improvised one.

Judgment-seat ( βήματος )

See on Act 7:5. The best texts omit the article, which may indicate that the tribunal was an improvised one.

Vincent: Joh 19:13 - The Pavement The Pavement ( Λιθόστρωτον ) From λίθος , stone , and στρωτός , strewn or spread .

The Pavement ( Λιθόστρωτον )

From λίθος , stone , and στρωτός , strewn or spread .

Vincent: Joh 19:13 - Gabbatha Gabbatha From the Hebrew gab , " back," and meaning, therefore, a raised place . Thus the Aramaic term is not a translation of the Greek t...

Gabbatha

From the Hebrew gab , " back," and meaning, therefore, a raised place . Thus the Aramaic term is not a translation of the Greek term, which indicates that the place, wherever it was, was distinguished by a mosaic or tessellated pavement. Suetonius relates that Julius Caesar used to carry about with him on his expeditions a portable tessellated pavement for his tribunal. It is not likely, however, that there is any allusion to such a practice here. Westcott explains Gabbatha as the ridge of the house .

Vincent: Joh 19:14 - Sixth hour Sixth hour See on Joh 1:39.

Sixth hour

See on Joh 1:39.

Vincent: Joh 19:15 - They They ( οἱ ) The best texts read ἐκεῖνοι , those (people). The pronoun of remote reference isolates and sharply distinguishes the...

They ( οἱ )

The best texts read ἐκεῖνοι , those (people). The pronoun of remote reference isolates and sharply distinguishes them from Jesus. See on Joh 13:27.

Vincent: Joh 19:15 - Away with him Away with him ( ἆρον ) Literally, take away .

Away with him ( ἆρον )

Literally, take away .

Vincent: Joh 19:15 - We have no king but Caesar We have no king but Caesar These words, uttered by the chief priests, are very significant. These chief representatives of the theocratic governm...

We have no king but Caesar

These words, uttered by the chief priests, are very significant. These chief representatives of the theocratic government of Israel thus formally and expressly renounce it, and declare their allegiance to a temporal and pagan power. This utterance is " the formal abdication of the Messianic hope."

Vincent: Joh 19:16 - Delivered Delivered Luke says, delivered to their will (Luk 23:25). Pilate pronounced no sentence, but disclaimed all responsibility for the act, a...

Delivered

Luke says, delivered to their will (Luk 23:25). Pilate pronounced no sentence, but disclaimed all responsibility for the act, and delivered Christ up to them (αὐτοῖς ), they having invoked the responsibility upon themselves. See Mat 27:24, Mat 27:25.

Vincent: Joh 19:16 - And led Him away And led Him away The best texts omit.

And led Him away

The best texts omit.

Vincent: Joh 19:17 - Bearing Bearing ( βαστάζων ) See on Joh 12:6; see on Joh 10:31.

Bearing ( βαστάζων )

See on Joh 12:6; see on Joh 10:31.

Vincent: Joh 19:17 - His cross His cross ( τὸν σταυρὸν αὑτοῦ ) The best texts read αὑτῷ or ἑαυτῷ , " bearing the cross for Himse...

His cross ( τὸν σταυρὸν αὑτοῦ )

The best texts read αὑτῷ or ἑαυτῷ , " bearing the cross for Himself ." John does not mention the impressment of Simon of Cyrene for this service. Compare Mat 27:32; Mar 15:21; Luk 23:26.

Vincent: Joh 19:17 - Skull Skull See on Mat 27:33.

Skull

See on Mat 27:33.

Vincent: Joh 19:18 - In the midst In the midst All the Synoptists describe the character of the two who were crucified with Jesus. Matthew and Mark, robbers; Luke, malefactors ...

In the midst

All the Synoptists describe the character of the two who were crucified with Jesus. Matthew and Mark, robbers; Luke, malefactors (κακούργους ). All three use the phrase, one on the right , the other on the left , and so, substantially, John: on either side one . John says nothing about the character of these two, but simply describes them as two others .

Vincent: Joh 19:19 - Title Title ( τίτλον ) Only here and Joh 19:20, in the New Testament. John uses the technical Roman term titulus , a placard or notice . ...

Title ( τίτλον )

Only here and Joh 19:20, in the New Testament. John uses the technical Roman term titulus , a placard or notice . Used for a bill or notice of sale affixed to a house. Thus Ovid, of a heartless creditor: " She sent our household goods under the placard ( sub-titulum ) ; " i.e., put the house and furniture up for sale (" Remedia Amoris," 302). Meaning also the title of a book; an epitaph . Matthew has αἰτίαν , accusation; Mark, ἐπιγραφὴ τῆς αἰτίας superscription of the accusation; Luke, ἐπιγραφὴ superscription . John alone mentions the fact that Pilate wrote the inscription.

Vincent: Joh 19:19 - Jesus of Nazareth the King of the Jews Jesus of Nazareth the King of the Jews The wording of the title is differently given by each Evangelist.

Jesus of Nazareth the King of the Jews

The wording of the title is differently given by each Evangelist.

Vincent: Joh 19:19 - Matthew Matthew : This is Jesus the King of the Jews.

Matthew : This is Jesus the King of the Jews.

Vincent: Joh 19:19 - Mark Mark : The King of the Jews.

Mark : The King of the Jews.

Vincent: Joh 19:19 - Luke Luke : This is the King of the Jews.

Luke : This is the King of the Jews.

Vincent: Joh 19:19 - John John : Jesus the Nazarene the King of the Jews. The essential element of the superscription, King of the Jews , is common to all. It expresse...

John : Jesus the Nazarene the King of the Jews.

The essential element of the superscription, King of the Jews , is common to all. It expressed, on its face, the main intent of Pilate, which was to cast contempt on the Jews. " In the sense of the man Pilate, it meant: Jesus, the King of the Jewish fanatics, crucified in the midst of Jews, who should all be thus executed. In the sense of the Jews: Jesus, the seditionary, the King of the rebels. In the sense of the political judge: Jesus, for whose accusation the Jews, with their ambiguous accusation, may answer. In the sense of the divine irony which ruled over the expression: Jesus, the Messiah, by the crucifixion become in very truth the King of the people of God" (Lange).

Vincent: Joh 19:20 - Hebrew, Greek, Latin Hebrew, Greek, Latin Some editors vary the order. Rev., Latin , Greek . Such inscriptions in different languages were not uncommon. Julius Capi...

Hebrew, Greek, Latin

Some editors vary the order. Rev., Latin , Greek . Such inscriptions in different languages were not uncommon. Julius Capitolinus, a biographer (a.d. 320), in his life of the third Gordian, says that the soldiers erected his tomb on the Persian borders, and added an epitaph ( titulum ) in Latin, Persian, Hebrew, and Egyptian characters, in order that it might be read by all. Hebrew was the rational dialect, Latin the official , and Greek the common dialect. As the national Hebrew, King of the Jews was translated into Latin and Greek, so the inscription was prophetic that Christ should pass into civil administration and common speech: that the Hebrew Messiah should become equally the deliverer of Greek and Roman: that as Christ was the real center of the religious civilization of Judaism, so He should become the real center of the world's intellectual movement as represented by Greece, and of its legal and material civilization as represented by Rome. The three civilizations which had prepared the way for Christ thus concentrated at His cross. The cross is the real center of the world's history.

Vincent: Joh 19:21 - The chief priests of the Jews The chief priests of the Jews A unique expression, possibly by way of contrast with the King of the Jews .

The chief priests of the Jews

A unique expression, possibly by way of contrast with the King of the Jews .

Vincent: Joh 19:23 - Four parts Four parts All the Synoptists relate the parting of the garments. The four pieces to be divided would be, the head-gear, the sandals, the girdle,...

Four parts

All the Synoptists relate the parting of the garments. The four pieces to be divided would be, the head-gear, the sandals, the girdle, and the tallith or square outer garment with fringes. Delitzsch thus describes the dress of our Lord: " On His head He wore a white sudar , fastened under the chin and hanging down from the shoulders behind. Over the tunic which covered the body to the hands and feet, a blue tallith with the blue and white fringes on the four ends, so thrown over and gathered together that the gray, red-striped undergarment was scarcely noticeable, except when the sandal-shod feet came into view" (" A Day in Capernaum" ).

Vincent: Joh 19:23 - Coat Coat ( χιτῶνα ) Or tunic . See on Mat 5:40.

Coat ( χιτῶνα )

Or tunic . See on Mat 5:40.

Vincent: Joh 19:23 - Without seam Without seam ( ἄῤῥαφος, or ἄραφος ) Only here in the New Testament. From ἀ , not , and ῥάπτω , to sew ...

Without seam ( ἄῤῥαφος, or ἄραφος )

Only here in the New Testament. From ἀ , not , and ῥάπτω , to sew together . Like the tunic of the High-Priest. Only John records this detail.

Vincent: Joh 19:23 - Woven Woven ( ὑφαντὸς ) Only here in the New Testament.

Woven ( ὑφαντὸς )

Only here in the New Testament.

Vincent: Joh 19:24 - Vesture Vesture ( ἱματισμόν ) Clothing, collectively. Rev., garments , for ἱμάτια , is better than raiment , which is collecti...

Vesture ( ἱματισμόν )

Clothing, collectively. Rev., garments , for ἱμάτια , is better than raiment , which is collective, while the word is used of the separate pieces of clothing.

Vincent: Joh 19:25 - There stood There stood Imperfect tense, were standing .

There stood

Imperfect tense, were standing .

Vincent: Joh 19:25 - Mary Magdalene Mary Magdalene Strictly, the (ἡ ) Magdalene. She is introduced abruptly, as well known.

Mary Magdalene

Strictly, the (ἡ ) Magdalene. She is introduced abruptly, as well known.

Vincent: Joh 19:26 - Woman Woman See on Joh 2:4.

Woman

See on Joh 2:4.

Vincent: Joh 19:26 - Behold Behold Canon Westcott remarks upon the four exclamations in this chapter - Behold the man! Behold your King! Behold thy son! B...

Behold

Canon Westcott remarks upon the four exclamations in this chapter - Behold the man! Behold your King! Behold thy son! Behold thy mother! as a remarkable picture of what Christ is, and what He reveals men to be.

Vincent: Joh 19:27 - His own home His own home ( τὰ ἴδια ) See on Joh 1:11.

His own home ( τὰ ἴδια )

See on Joh 1:11.

Vincent: Joh 19:28 - Were accomplished Were accomplished ( τετέλεσται ) Rev., with stricter rendering of the perfect tense, are finished . Finished corresponds better ...

Were accomplished ( τετέλεσται )

Rev., with stricter rendering of the perfect tense, are finished . Finished corresponds better with it is finished , Joh 19:30. This sentence may be taken with the preceding one, or with that which follows.

Vincent: Joh 19:29 - Vinegar Vinegar See on Mat 27:48.

Vinegar

See on Mat 27:48.

Vincent: Joh 19:29 - Hyssop Hyssop Matthew and Mark have καλάμῳ , a reed . Luke says merely that they offered Him vinegar. The vinegar mingled with gall ...

Hyssop

Matthew and Mark have καλάμῳ , a reed . Luke says merely that they offered Him vinegar. The vinegar mingled with gall (Mat 27:34), or the wine mingled with myrrh (Mar 15:23) was offered to Jesus before his crucifixion as a stupefying draught. The hyssop gives a hint of the height of the cross, as the greatest length of the hyssop reed was not more than three or four feet. The vinegar in this case was offered in order to revive Christ. John does not mention the stupefying draught.

Vincent: Joh 19:30 - Gave up the ghost Gave up the ghost ( παρέδωκε τὸ πνεῦμα ) Rev., his spirit . Matthew, ἀφῆκεν dismissed . Mark, ἐξέπν...

Gave up the ghost ( παρέδωκε τὸ πνεῦμα )

Rev., his spirit . Matthew, ἀφῆκεν dismissed . Mark, ἐξέπνευσεν , breathed forth (his life). So Luke, who adds, " Father, into thy hands I commend (παρατίθεμαι , see on Luk 9:16) my spirit."

Vincent: Joh 19:31 - The Jews - Sabbath The Jews - Sabbath The Jews, who had so recently asserted their sole allegiance to Caesar, are now scrupulous about observing the letter of the l...

The Jews - Sabbath

The Jews, who had so recently asserted their sole allegiance to Caesar, are now scrupulous about observing the letter of the law.

Vincent: Joh 19:32 - Brake the legs Brake the legs A detail recorded only by John. This crurifragium , leg-breaking , consisted in striking the legs with a heavy mallet in order t...

Brake the legs

A detail recorded only by John. This crurifragium , leg-breaking , consisted in striking the legs with a heavy mallet in order to expedite death. It was sometimes inflicted as a punishment upon slaves. Some horrible illustrations are furnished by Suetonius, in his lives of Augustus and Tiberius.

Vincent: Joh 19:34 - With a spear With a spear ( λόγχῃ ) Only here in the New Testament. Properly, the head of a spear. So Herodotus, of the Arabians: " They also had...

With a spear ( λόγχῃ )

Only here in the New Testament. Properly, the head of a spear. So Herodotus, of the Arabians: " They also had spears (αἰχμὰς ) tipped with an antelope's horn sharpened like a spear-point (λόγχης )" (vii., 96). Used also, as here, for the spear itself.

Vincent: Joh 19:34 - Pierced Pierced ( ἔνυξεν ) Only here in the New Testament. The question has been raised whether the Evangelist means to describe a gash or a ...

Pierced ( ἔνυξεν )

Only here in the New Testament. The question has been raised whether the Evangelist means to describe a gash or a prick . Another verb is rendered pierced in Joh 19:37, the quotation from Zec 12:10, ἐξεκέντησαν , which occurs also at Rev 1:7, with reference to Christ's crucifixion, and is used in classical Greek of putting out the eyes , or stabbing , and in the Septuagint of Saul's request to his armor-bearer: " Draw thy sword and thrust me through therewith" (1Ch 10:4). The verb used here, however, νύσσω , is also used to describe severe and deadly wounds, as in Homer:

" As he sprang

Into his car, Idomeneus, expert

To wield the ponderous javelin, thrust (νύξ ) its blade

Through his right shoulder. From the car he fell,

And the dark night of death came over him."

" Iliad ," v . 45-47 .

It has been suggested that the body was merely pricked with the spear to ascertain if it were yet alive. There seems, on the whole, no reason for departing from the ordinary understanding of the narrative, that the soldier inflicted a deep thrust on the side of Jesus (compare Joh 20:25, Joh 20:27); nor is it quite apparent why, as Mr. Field urges, a distinction should be kept up between the two verbs in Joh 19:34 and Joh 19:37.

Vincent: Joh 19:34 - Blood and water Blood and water It has been argued very plausibly that this was a natural phenomenon, the result of a rupture of the heart which, it is assumed, ...

Blood and water

It has been argued very plausibly that this was a natural phenomenon, the result of a rupture of the heart which, it is assumed, was the immediate cause of death, and which was followed by an effusion of blood into the pericardium . This blood, separated into its thicker and more liquid parts, flowed forth when the pericardium was pierced by the spear. I think, however, with Meyer, that John evidently intends to describe the incident as something entirely unexpected and marvelous, and that this explanation better suits the solemn asseveration of Joh 19:35. That the fact had a symbolic meaning to the Evangelist is evident from 1Jo 5:6.

Vincent: Joh 19:35 - He that saw it bare record He that saw it bare record ( ὁ ἑωρακῶς μεμαρτύρηκεν ) Rev., rendering the perfect tense in both verbs, he that h...

He that saw it bare record ( ὁ ἑωρακῶς μεμαρτύρηκεν )

Rev., rendering the perfect tense in both verbs, he that hath seen hath born witness . This can refer only to the writer of this Gospel. Compare 1Jo 1:1.

Vincent: Joh 19:35 - True True ( ἀληθινὴ ) Genuine , according to the true ideal of what testimony should be. See on Joh 1:9.

True ( ἀληθινὴ )

Genuine , according to the true ideal of what testimony should be. See on Joh 1:9.

Vincent: Joh 19:35 - And he And he ( κακεῖνος ) This pronoun is urged by some as a reason for regarding the witness as some other than John, because it is the pron...

And he ( κακεῖνος )

This pronoun is urged by some as a reason for regarding the witness as some other than John, because it is the pronoun of remote reference. But Joh 9:37 shows clearly that a speaker can use this pronoun of himself; and it is, further, employed in this Gospel to indicate a person " as possessing the quality which is the point in question in an eminent or even exclusive degree" (Godet). See Joh 1:18; Joh 5:39.

Vincent: Joh 19:35 - True True ( ἀληθῆ ) Literally, true things . As distinguished from false. Thus, by the use of the two words for true , there are brought ...

True ( ἀληθῆ )

Literally, true things . As distinguished from false. Thus, by the use of the two words for true , there are brought out, as Westcott remarks, " the two conditions which testimony ought to satisfy; the first, that he who gives it should be competent to speak with authority; and the second, that the account of his experience should be exact."

Vincent: Joh 19:38 - A disciple of Jesus A disciple of Jesus Matthew calls him a rich man; Mark, an honorable counselor , i.e., a member of the Sanhedrim; and Luke, a couns...

A disciple of Jesus

Matthew calls him a rich man; Mark, an honorable counselor , i.e., a member of the Sanhedrim; and Luke, a counselor , good and just .

Vincent: Joh 19:38 - Besought Besought ( ἠρωτησε ) Better, as Rev., asked . See on Joh 11:22; see on Joh 16:23. Mark adds that he went in boldly , which is su...

Besought ( ἠρωτησε )

Better, as Rev., asked . See on Joh 11:22; see on Joh 16:23. Mark adds that he went in boldly , which is suggestive in view of John's statement of his secret discipleship, a fact which is passed over by the Synoptists.

Vincent: Joh 19:38 - Gave him leave Gave him leave According to Roman law. Ulpian, a Roman jurist of the third century, says: " The bodies of those who are capitally punished cannot...

Gave him leave

According to Roman law. Ulpian, a Roman jurist of the third century, says: " The bodies of those who are capitally punished cannot be denied to their relatives. At this day, however, the bodies of those who are executed are buried only in case permission is asked and granted; and sometimes permission is not given, especially in the cases of those who are punished for high treason. The bodies of the executed are to be given for burial to any one who asks for them." Avaricious governors sometimes sold this privilege. Cicero, in one of his orations against Verres, has a terribly graphic passage describing such extortions. After dwelling upon the tortures inflicted upon the condemned, he says: " Yet death is the end. It shall not be. Can cruelty go further? A way shall be found. For the bodies of the beheaded shall be thrown to the beasts. If this is grievous to parents, they may buy the liberty of burial" (v., 45). Compare Mat 14:12; Act 8:2.

Vincent: Joh 19:39 - Came Nicodemus - came by night Came Nicodemus - came by night The contrast is marked between his first and his second coming.

Came Nicodemus - came by night

The contrast is marked between his first and his second coming.

Vincent: Joh 19:39 - Mixture Mixture ( μίγμα ) Only here in the New Testament. Some authorities read ἕλιγμα , a roll .

Mixture ( μίγμα )

Only here in the New Testament. Some authorities read ἕλιγμα , a roll .

Vincent: Joh 19:39 - Pounds Pounds Roman pounds, of nearly twelve ounces. The large quantity may be explained by the intention of covering the entire body with the preparati...

Pounds

Roman pounds, of nearly twelve ounces. The large quantity may be explained by the intention of covering the entire body with the preparation, and by the fact that a portion was designed for the couch of the body in the grave. Compare the account of the burial of Asa, 2Ch 16:14. " Extraordinary reverence in its sorrowful excitement does not easily satisfy itself" (Meyer).

Vincent: Joh 19:40 - Linen cloths Linen cloths ( ὀθονίοις ) Used only by John, if Luk 24:12 is rejected, as by some editors. The Synoptists all have σινδών , ...

Linen cloths ( ὀθονίοις )

Used only by John, if Luk 24:12 is rejected, as by some editors. The Synoptists all have σινδών , linen cloth . See on Mar 14:51. Matthew and Luke have ἐντύλιξεν , rolled or wrapped , and Mark ἐνείλησεν , wound , instead of John's ἔδησαν bound .

Vincent: Joh 19:40 - With the spices With the spices Spread over the sheet or bandages in which the body was wrapped.

With the spices

Spread over the sheet or bandages in which the body was wrapped.

Vincent: Joh 19:40 - The manner of the Jews The manner of the Jews As contrasted with that of the Egyptians, for instance, which is thus described by Herodotus: " They take first a crooked ...

The manner of the Jews

As contrasted with that of the Egyptians, for instance, which is thus described by Herodotus: " They take first a crooked piece of iron, and with it draw out the brains through the nostrils, thus getting rid of a portion, while the skull is cleared of the rest by rinsing with drugs; next they make a cut along the flank with a sharp Ethiopian stone, and take out the whole contents of the abdomen, which they then cleanse, washing it thoroughly with palm-wine, and again, frequently with an infusion of pounded aromatics. After this they fill the cavity with the purest bruised myrrh, with cassia, and every other sort of spicery except frankincense, and sew up the opening. Then the body is placed in natrum (subcarbonate of soda) for seventy days, and covered entirely over. After the expiration of that space of time, which must not be exceeded, the body is washed, and wrapped round, from head to foot, with bandages of fine linen cloth, smeared over with gum" (ii., 86). Or, possibly, a contrast may be implied with the Roman custom of burning the bodies of the dead. Tacitus says of the Jews: " The bodies of the deceased they choose rather to bury than burn, following in this the Egyptian custom; with whom also they agree in their attention to the dead" (" History," v., 5).

Vincent: Joh 19:40 - To bury To bury ( ἐνταφιάζειν ) Properly, to prepare for burial . See on Joh 12:7. Compare Septuagint, Gen 1:2, where the same word...

To bury ( ἐνταφιάζειν )

Properly, to prepare for burial . See on Joh 12:7. Compare Septuagint, Gen 1:2, where the same word is used for embalming the body of Joseph.

Vincent: Joh 19:41 - A garden A garden Mentioned by John only.

A garden

Mentioned by John only.

Vincent: Joh 19:41 - New New ( καινὸν ) See on Mat 26:29. John omits the detail of the tomb being hewn in the rock, which is common to all the Synoptists.

New ( καινὸν )

See on Mat 26:29. John omits the detail of the tomb being hewn in the rock, which is common to all the Synoptists.

Wesley: Joh 19:1 - -- Mat 27:26; Mar 15:15.

Wesley: Joh 19:7 - By our law he ought to die, because he made himself the Son of God Which they understood in the highest sense, and therefore accounted blasphemy.

Which they understood in the highest sense, and therefore accounted blasphemy.

Wesley: Joh 19:8 - He was the more afraid He seems to have been afraid before of shedding innocent blood.

He seems to have been afraid before of shedding innocent blood.

Wesley: Joh 19:9 - Whence art thou? That is, whose son art thou?

That is, whose son art thou?

Wesley: Joh 19:11 - Thou couldst have no power over me For I have done nothing to expose me to the power of any magistrate. Therefore he that delivered me to thee, namely, Caiaphas, knowing this, is more b...

For I have done nothing to expose me to the power of any magistrate. Therefore he that delivered me to thee, namely, Caiaphas, knowing this, is more blamable than thou.

Wesley: Joh 19:13 - Pilate sat down on the judgment seat Which was then without the palace, in a place called, in Greek, the pavement, on account of a beautiful piece of Mosaic work, with which the floor was...

Which was then without the palace, in a place called, in Greek, the pavement, on account of a beautiful piece of Mosaic work, with which the floor was adorned: but in Hebrew, Gabbatha - Or the high place, because it stood on an eminence, so that the judge sitting on his throne might be seen and heard by a considerable number of people.

Wesley: Joh 19:14 - It was the preparation of the passover For this reason both the Jews and Pilate were desirous to bring the matter to a conclusion. Every Friday was called the preparation, (namely, for the ...

For this reason both the Jews and Pilate were desirous to bring the matter to a conclusion. Every Friday was called the preparation, (namely, for the Sabbath.) And as often as the passover fell on a Friday, that day was called the preparation of the passover.

Wesley: Joh 19:17 - Bearing his cross Not the whole cross, (for that was too large and heavy,) but the transverse beam of it, to which his hands were afterward fastened. This they used to ...

Not the whole cross, (for that was too large and heavy,) but the transverse beam of it, to which his hands were afterward fastened. This they used to make the person to be executed carry. Mat 27:31; Mar 15:20; Luk 23:26.

Wesley: Joh 19:19 - Jesus of Nazareth, the king of the Jews Undoubtedly these were the very words, although the other evangelists do not express them at large.

Undoubtedly these were the very words, although the other evangelists do not express them at large.

Wesley: Joh 19:20 - It was written in Latin For the majesty of the Roman empire; in Hebrew - Because it was the language of the nation; and in Greek - For the information of the Hellenists, who ...

For the majesty of the Roman empire; in Hebrew - Because it was the language of the nation; and in Greek - For the information of the Hellenists, who spoke that language, and came in great numbers to the feast.

Wesley: Joh 19:22 - What I have written, I have written That shall stand.

That shall stand.

Wesley: Joh 19:23 - The vesture The upper garment.

The upper garment.

Wesley: Joh 19:24 - They parted my garments among them No circumstance of David's life bore any resemblance to this, or to several other passages in the 22d Psalm. So that in this scripture, as in some oth...

No circumstance of David's life bore any resemblance to this, or to several other passages in the 22d Psalm. So that in this scripture, as in some others, the prophet seems to have been thrown into a preternatural ecstacy, wherein, personating the Messiah, he spoke barely what the Spirit dictated, without any regard to himself. Psa 22:18.

Wesley: Joh 19:25 - His mother's sister But we do not read she had any brother. She was her father's heir, and as such transmitted the right of the kingdom of David to Jesus: Mary, the wife ...

But we do not read she had any brother. She was her father's heir, and as such transmitted the right of the kingdom of David to Jesus: Mary, the wife of Cleopas - Called likewise Alpheus, the father, as Mary was the mother of James, and Joses, and Simon, and Judas.

Wesley: Joh 19:27 - Behold thy mother To whom thou art now to perform the part of a son in my place, a peculiar honour which Christ conferred on him.

To whom thou art now to perform the part of a son in my place, a peculiar honour which Christ conferred on him.

Wesley: Joh 19:27 - From that hour From the time of our Lord's death.

From the time of our Lord's death.

Wesley: Joh 19:29 - A stalk of hyssop Which in those countries grows exceeding large and strong. Psa 69:21.

Which in those countries grows exceeding large and strong. Psa 69:21.

Wesley: Joh 19:30 - It is finished My suffering: the purchase of man's redemption.

My suffering: the purchase of man's redemption.

Wesley: Joh 19:30 - He delivered up his spirit To God, Mat 27:50.

To God, Mat 27:50.

Wesley: Joh 19:31 - Lest the bodies should remain on the cross on the Sabbath Which they would have accounted a profanation of any Sabbath, but of that in particular.

Which they would have accounted a profanation of any Sabbath, but of that in particular.

Wesley: Joh 19:31 - For that Sabbath was a great day Being not only a Sabbath, but the second day of the feast of unleavened bread (from whence they reckoned the weeks to pentecost:) and also the day for...

Being not only a Sabbath, but the second day of the feast of unleavened bread (from whence they reckoned the weeks to pentecost:) and also the day for presenting and offering the sheaf of new corn: so that it was a treble solemnity.

Wesley: Joh 19:34 - Forthwith there came out blood and water It was strange, seeing he was dead, that blood should come out; more strange, that water also; and most strange of all, that both should come out imme...

It was strange, seeing he was dead, that blood should come out; more strange, that water also; and most strange of all, that both should come out immediately, at one time, and yet distinctly. It was pure and true water, as well as pure and true blood. The asseveration of the beholder and testifier of it, shows both the truth and greatness of the miracle and mystery.

Wesley: Joh 19:35 - His testimony is true Valid, unexceptionable.

Valid, unexceptionable.

Wesley: Joh 19:35 - And he knoweth And his conscience beareth him witness, that he testifieth this for no other end, than that ye may believe.

And his conscience beareth him witness, that he testifieth this for no other end, than that ye may believe.

Wesley: Joh 19:36 - A bone of it shall not be broken This was originally spoken of the paschal lamb, an eminent type of Christ. Exo 12:46.

This was originally spoken of the paschal lamb, an eminent type of Christ. Exo 12:46.

Wesley: Joh 19:37 - They shall look on him whom they have pierced He was pierced by the soldier's spear. They who have occasioned his sufferings by their sins (and who has not?) shall either look upon him in this wor...

He was pierced by the soldier's spear. They who have occasioned his sufferings by their sins (and who has not?) shall either look upon him in this world with penitential sorrow: or with terror, when he cometh in the clouds of heaven, Rev 1:7. Zec 12:10.

Wesley: Joh 19:38 - Joseph of Arimathea asked Pilate And Nicodemus also came - Acknowledging Christ, when even his chosen disciples forsook him. In that extremity Joseph was no longer afraid, Nicodemus n...

And Nicodemus also came - Acknowledging Christ, when even his chosen disciples forsook him. In that extremity Joseph was no longer afraid, Nicodemus no longer ashamed.

Wesley: Joh 19:41 - In the place where he was crucified There was a garden in the same tract of land: but the cross did not stand in the garden.

There was a garden in the same tract of land: but the cross did not stand in the garden.

Wesley: Joh 19:42 - Because of the preparation That is, they chose the rather to lay him in that sepulchre which was nigh, because it was the day before the Sabbath, which also was drawing to an en...

That is, they chose the rather to lay him in that sepulchre which was nigh, because it was the day before the Sabbath, which also was drawing to an end, so that they had no time to carry him far.

JFB: Joh 19:1-3 - Pilate took Jesus and scourged him In hope of appeasing them. (See Mar 15:15). "And the soldiers led Him away into the palace, and they call the whole band" (Mar 15:16) --the body of th...

In hope of appeasing them. (See Mar 15:15). "And the soldiers led Him away into the palace, and they call the whole band" (Mar 15:16) --the body of the military cohort stationed there--to take part in the mock coronation now to be enacted.

JFB: Joh 19:2 - the soldiers platted a crown of thorns, and put it on his head In mockery of a regal crown.

In mockery of a regal crown.

JFB: Joh 19:2 - and they put on him a purple robe In mockery of the imperial purple; first "stripping him" (Mat 27:28) of His own outer garment. The robe may have been the "gorgeous" one in which Hero...

In mockery of the imperial purple; first "stripping him" (Mat 27:28) of His own outer garment. The robe may have been the "gorgeous" one in which Herod arrayed and sent Him back to Pilate (Luk 23:11). "And they put a reed into His right hand" (Mat 27:29) --in mockery of the regal scepter. "And they bowed the knee before Him" (Mat 27:29).

JFB: Joh 19:3 - And said, Hail, King of the Jews! Doing Him derisive homage, in the form used on approaching the emperors. "And they spit upon Him, and took the reed and smote Him on the head" (Mat 27...

Doing Him derisive homage, in the form used on approaching the emperors. "And they spit upon Him, and took the reed and smote Him on the head" (Mat 27:30). The best comment on these affecting details is to cover the face.

JFB: Joh 19:4-5 - Pilate . . . went forth again, and saith . . . Behold, I bring him forth to you Am bringing, that is, going to bring him forth to you.

Am bringing, that is, going to bring him forth to you.

JFB: Joh 19:4-5 - that ye may know I find no fault in him And, by scourging Him and allowing the soldiers to make sport of Him, have gone as far to meet your exasperation as can be expected from a judge.

And, by scourging Him and allowing the soldiers to make sport of Him, have gone as far to meet your exasperation as can be expected from a judge.

JFB: Joh 19:5 - Then Jesus came forth, wearing the crown of thorns, and the purple robe. And Pilate saith unto them, Behold the man! There is no reason to think that contempt dictated this speech. There was clearly a struggle in the breast of this wretched man. Not only was he reluc...

There is no reason to think that contempt dictated this speech. There was clearly a struggle in the breast of this wretched man. Not only was he reluctant to surrender to mere clamor an innocent man, but a feeling of anxiety about His mysterious claims, as is plain from what follows, was beginning to rack his breast, and the object of his exclamation seems to have been to move their pity. But, be his meaning what it may, those three words have been eagerly appropriated by all Christendom, and enshrined for ever in its heart as a sublime expression of its calm, rapt admiration of its suffering Lord.

JFB: Joh 19:6-7 - When the chief priests . . . saw him, they cried out Their fiendish rage kindling afresh at the sight of Him.

Their fiendish rage kindling afresh at the sight of Him.

JFB: Joh 19:6-7 - Crucify him, crucify him (See Mar 15:14).

(See Mar 15:14).

JFB: Joh 19:6-7 - Pilate saith unto them, Take ye him, and crucify him; for I find no fault in him As if this would relieve him of the responsibility of the deed, who, by surrendering Him, incurred it all!

As if this would relieve him of the responsibility of the deed, who, by surrendering Him, incurred it all!

JFB: Joh 19:7 - The Jews answered him, We have a law, and by oar law he ought to die, because he made himself the Son of God Their criminal charges having come to nothing, they give up that point, and as Pilate was throwing the whole responsibility upon them, they retreat in...

Their criminal charges having come to nothing, they give up that point, and as Pilate was throwing the whole responsibility upon them, they retreat into their own Jewish law, by which, as claiming equality with God (see Joh 5:18 and Joh 8:59), He ought to die; insinuating that it was Pilate's duty, even as civil governor, to protect their law from such insult.

JFB: Joh 19:8-11 - When Pilate . . . heard this saying, he was the more afraid The name "SON OF GOD," the lofty sense evidently attached to it by His Jewish accusers, the dialogue he had already held with Him, and the dream of hi...

The name "SON OF GOD," the lofty sense evidently attached to it by His Jewish accusers, the dialogue he had already held with Him, and the dream of his wife (Mat 27:19), all working together in the breast of the wretched man.

JFB: Joh 19:9 - and went again into the judgment hall, and saith to Jesus, Whence art thou? Beyond all doubt a question relating not to His mission but to His personal origin.

Beyond all doubt a question relating not to His mission but to His personal origin.

JFB: Joh 19:9 - Jesus gave him no answer He had said enough; the time for answering such a question was past; the weak and wavering governor is already on the point of giving way.

He had said enough; the time for answering such a question was past; the weak and wavering governor is already on the point of giving way.

JFB: Joh 19:10 - Then saith Pilate unto him, Speakest thou not to me? The "me" is the emphatic word in the question. He falls back upon the pride of office, which doubtless tended to blunt the workings of his conscience.

The "me" is the emphatic word in the question. He falls back upon the pride of office, which doubtless tended to blunt the workings of his conscience.

JFB: Joh 19:10 - knowest thou not that I have power to crucify thee, and have power to release thee? Said to work upon Him at once by fear and by hope.

Said to work upon Him at once by fear and by hope.

JFB: Joh 19:11 - Thou couldest Rather, "shouldst."

Rather, "shouldst."

JFB: Joh 19:11 - have no power at all against me Neither to crucify nor to release, nor to do anything whatever against Me [BENGEL].

Neither to crucify nor to release, nor to do anything whatever against Me [BENGEL].

JFB: Joh 19:11 - except it were "unless it had been."

"unless it had been."

JFB: Joh 19:11 - given thee from above That is, "Thou thinkest too much of thy power, Pilate: against Me that power is none, save what is meted out to thee by special divine appointment, fo...

That is, "Thou thinkest too much of thy power, Pilate: against Me that power is none, save what is meted out to thee by special divine appointment, for a special end."

JFB: Joh 19:11 - therefore he that delivered me unto thee Caiaphas, too wit--but he only as representing the Jewish authorities as a body.

Caiaphas, too wit--but he only as representing the Jewish authorities as a body.

JFB: Joh 19:11 - hath the greater sin As having better opportunities and more knowledge of such matters.

As having better opportunities and more knowledge of such matters.

JFB: Joh 19:12-16 - And from thenceforth Particularly this speech, which seems to have filled him with awe, and redoubled his anxiety.

Particularly this speech, which seems to have filled him with awe, and redoubled his anxiety.

JFB: Joh 19:12-16 - Pilate sought to release him That is, to gain their consent to it, for he could have done it at once on his authority.

That is, to gain their consent to it, for he could have done it at once on his authority.

JFB: Joh 19:12-16 - but the Jews cried Seeing their advantage, and not slow to profit by it. If thou let this man go, thou art not Cæsar's friend, &c.--"This was equivalent to a threat of ...

Seeing their advantage, and not slow to profit by it. If thou let this man go, thou art not Cæsar's friend, &c.--"This was equivalent to a threat of impeachment, which we know was much dreaded by such officers as the procurators, especially of the character of Pilate or Felix. It also consummates the treachery and disgrace of the Jewish rulers, who were willing, for the purpose of destroying Jesus, to affect a zeal for the supremacy of a foreign prince" [WEBSTER and WILKINSON]. (See Joh 19:15).

JFB: Joh 19:12-16 - When Pilate . . . heard that, . . . he brought Jesus forth, and sat down in "upon"

"upon"

JFB: Joh 19:12-16 - the judgment seat That he might pronounce sentence against the Prisoner, on this charge, the more solemnly.

That he might pronounce sentence against the Prisoner, on this charge, the more solemnly.

JFB: Joh 19:12-16 - in a place called the Pavement A tesselated pavement, much used by the Romans.

A tesselated pavement, much used by the Romans.

JFB: Joh 19:12-16 - in the Hebrew, Gabbatha From its being raised.

From its being raised.

JFB: Joh 19:14 - It was the preparation That is, the day before the Jewish sabbath.

That is, the day before the Jewish sabbath.

JFB: Joh 19:14 - and about the sixth hour The true reading here is probably, "the third hour"--or nine A.M.--which agrees best with the whole series of events, as well as with the other Evange...

The true reading here is probably, "the third hour"--or nine A.M.--which agrees best with the whole series of events, as well as with the other Evangelists.

JFB: Joh 19:14 - he saith to the Jews, Behold your King! Having now made up his mind to yield to them, he takes a sort of quiet revenge on them by this irony, which he knew would sting them. This only reawak...

Having now made up his mind to yield to them, he takes a sort of quiet revenge on them by this irony, which he knew would sting them. This only reawakens their cry to despatch Him.

JFB: Joh 19:15 - crucify your King? . . . We have no king but Cæsar "Some of those who thus cried died miserably in rebellion against Cæsar forty years afterwards. But it suited their present purpose" [ALFORD].

"Some of those who thus cried died miserably in rebellion against Cæsar forty years afterwards. But it suited their present purpose" [ALFORD].

JFB: Joh 19:16 - Then delivered he him therefore unto them to be crucified, &c. (See Mar 15:15).

(See Mar 15:15).

JFB: Joh 19:17 - And he bearing his cross (See on Luk 23:26).

(See on Luk 23:26).

JFB: Joh 19:17 - went forth Compare Heb 13:11-13, "without the camp"; "without the gate." On arriving at the place, "they gave Him vinegar to drink mingled with gall [wine mingle...

Compare Heb 13:11-13, "without the camp"; "without the gate." On arriving at the place, "they gave Him vinegar to drink mingled with gall [wine mingled with myrrh, Mar 15:23], and when He had tasted thereof, He would not drink" (Mat 27:34). This potion was stupefying, and given to criminals just before execution, to deaden the sense of pain.

Fill high the bowl, and spice it well, and pour

The dews oblivious: for the Cross is sharp,

The Cross is sharp, and He

Is tenderer than a lamb.

KEBLE.

But our Lord would die with every faculty clear, and in full sensibility to all His sufferings.

Thou wilt feel all, that Thou may'st pity all;

And rather would'st Thou wrestle with strong pain

Than overcloud Thy soul,

So clear in agony,

Or lose one glimpse of Heaven before the time,

O most entire and perfect Sacrifice,

Renewed in every pulse.

KEBLE.

JFB: Joh 19:18 - they crucified him, and two others with him "malefactors" (Luk 23:33), "thieves" (rather "robbers," Mat 27:38; Mar 15:27).

"malefactors" (Luk 23:33), "thieves" (rather "robbers," Mat 27:38; Mar 15:27).

JFB: Joh 19:18 - on either side one and Jesus in the midst A hellish expedient, to hold Him up as the worst of the three. But in this, as in many other of their doings, "the scripture was fulfilled, which sait...

A hellish expedient, to hold Him up as the worst of the three. But in this, as in many other of their doings, "the scripture was fulfilled, which saith (Isa 53:12), And he was numbered with the transgressors"-- (Mar 15:28) --though the prediction reaches deeper. "Then said Jesus"--["probably while being nailed to the CROSS,"] [OLSHAUSEN], "FATHER, FORGIVE THEM, FOR THEY KNOW NOT WHAT THEY DO" (Luk 23:34) --and again the Scripture was fulfilled which said, "And He made intercession for the transgressors" (Isa 53:12), though this also reaches deeper. (See Act 3:17; Act 13:27; and compare 1Ti 1:13). Often have we occasion to observe how our Lord is the first to fulfil His own precepts--thus furnishing the right interpretation and the perfect Model of them. (See on Mat 5:44). How quickly was it seen in "His martyr Stephen," that though He had left the earth in Person, His Spirit remained behind, and Himself could, in some of His brightest lineaments, be reproduced in His disciples! (Act 7:60). And what does the world in every age owe to these few words, spoken where and as they were spoken!

JFB: Joh 19:19-22 - Pilate wrote a title, and put it on the cross . . . Jesus of Nazareth, the King of the Jews . . . and it was written in Hebrew Or Syro-Chaldaic, the language of the country.

Or Syro-Chaldaic, the language of the country.

JFB: Joh 19:19-22 - and Greek The current language.

The current language.

JFB: Joh 19:19-22 - and Latin The official language. These were the chief languages of the earth, and this secured that all spectators should be able to read it. Stung by this, the...

The official language. These were the chief languages of the earth, and this secured that all spectators should be able to read it. Stung by this, the Jewish ecclesiastics entreat that it may be so altered as to express, not His real dignity, but His false claim to it. But Pilate thought he had yielded quite enough to them; and having intended expressly to spite and insult them by this title, for having got him to act against his own sense of justice, he peremptorily refused them. And thus, amidst the conflicting passions of men, was proclaimed, in the chief tongues of mankind, from the Cross itself and in circumstances which threw upon it a lurid yet grand light, the truth which drew the Magi to His manger, and will yet be owned by all the world!

JFB: Joh 19:23-24 - Then the soldiers, when they had crucified Jesus, took his garments, and made four parts; to every soldier The four who nailed Him to the cross, and whose perquisite they were.

The four who nailed Him to the cross, and whose perquisite they were.

JFB: Joh 19:23-24 - a part, and also his coat The Roman tunic, or close-fitting vest.

The Roman tunic, or close-fitting vest.

JFB: Joh 19:23-24 - without seam, woven from the top throughout "perhaps denoting considerable skill and labor as necessary to produce such a garment, the work probably of one or more of the women who ministered in...

"perhaps denoting considerable skill and labor as necessary to produce such a garment, the work probably of one or more of the women who ministered in such things unto Him, Luk 8:3" [WEBSTER and WILKINSON].

JFB: Joh 19:24 - Let us not rend it, but cast lots . . . whose it shall be, that the scripture might be fulfilled which saith, They parted my raiment among them; and for my vesture they did cast lots (Psa 22:18). That a prediction so exceedingly specific--distinguishing one piece of dress from others, and announcing that while those should be part...

(Psa 22:18). That a prediction so exceedingly specific--distinguishing one piece of dress from others, and announcing that while those should be parted amongst several, that should be given by lot to one person--that such a prediction should not only be fulfilled to the letter, but by a party of heathen military, without interference from either the friends of the enemies of the Crucified One, is surely worthy to be ranked among the wonders of this all-wonderful scene. Now come the mockeries, and from four different quarters:--(1) "And they that passed by reviled Him, wagging their heads" in ridicule (Psa 22:7; Psa 109:25; compare Jer 18:16; Lam 2:15). "Ah!"--"Ha," an exclamation here of derision. "Thou that destroyest the temple, and buildest it in three days, save Thyself and come down from the cross" (Mat 27:39-40; Mar 15:29-30). "It is evident that our Lord's saying, or rather this perversion of it (for He claimed not to destroy, but to rebuild the temple destroyed by them) had greatly exasperated the feeling which the priests and Pharisees had contrived to excite against Him. It is referred to as the principal fact brought out in evidence against Him on the trial (compare Act 6:13-14), as an offense for which He deserved to suffer. And it is very remarkable that now while it was receiving its real fulfilment, it should be made more public and more impressive by the insulting proclamation of His enemies. Hence the importance attached to it after the resurrection, Joh 2:22" [WEBSTER and WILKINSON]. (2) "Likewise also the chief priests, mocking Him, with the scribes and elders, said, He saved others, Himself He cannot save" (Mat 27:41-42). There was a deep truth in this, as in other taunts; for both He could not do, having "come to give His life a ransom for many" (Mat 20:28; Mar 10:45). No doubt this added an unknown sting to the reproach. "If He be the king of Israel, let Him now come down from the cross, and we will believe Him" (Mat 27:42). No, they would not; for those who resisted the evidence from the resurrection of Lazarus, and from His own resurrection, were beyond the reach of any amount of merely external evidence. "He trusted in God that He would deliver him; let Him deliver Him now if He will have Him [or 'delight in Him,' compare Psa 18:19; Deu 21:14]; for He said, I am the Son of God" (Mat 27:41-43). We thank you, O ye chief priests, scribes, and elders, for this triple testimony, unconsciously borne by you, to our Christ: first to His habitual trust in God, as a feature in His character so marked and palpable that even ye found upon it your impotent taunt; next, to His identity with the Sufferer of the twenty-second Psalm, whose very words (Psa 22:8) ye unwittingly appropriate, thus serving yourselves heirs to the dark office and impotent malignity of Messiah's enemies; and again, to the true sense of that august title which He took to Himself, "THE SON OF GOD," which He rightly interpreted at the very first (see Joh 5:18) as a claim to that oneness of nature with Him, and dearness to Him, which a son has to his father. (3) "And the soldiers also mocked Him, coming to Him and offering Him vinegar, and saying, If thou be the king of the Jews, save Thyself" (Luk 23:36-37). They insultingly offer to share with Him their own vinegar, or sour wine, the usual drink of Roman soldiers, it being about the time of their midday meal. In the taunt of the soldiers we have one of those undesigned coincidences which so strikingly verify these historical records. While the ecclesiastics deride Him for calling Himself, "the Christ, the King of Israel, the Chosen, the Son of God," the soldiers, to whom all such phraseology was mere Jewish jargon, make sport of Him as a pretender to royalty ("KING of the Jews"), an office and dignity which it belonged to them to comprehend. "The thieves also, which were crucified with Him, cast the same in His teeth" (Mat 27:44; Mar 15:32). Not both of them, however, as some commentators unnaturally think we must understand these words; as if some sudden change came over the penitent one, which turned him from an unfeeling railer into a trembling petitioner. The plural "thieves" need not denote more than the quarter or class whence came this last and cruelest taunt--that is, "Not only did scoffs proceed from the passers-by, the ecclesiastics, the soldiery, but even from His fellow-sufferers," a mode of speaking which no one would think necessarily meant both of them. Compare Mat 2:20, "They are dead which sought the child's life," meaning Herod; and Mar 9:1, "There be some standing here," where it is next to certain that only John, the youngest and last survivor of the apostles, is meant. And is it conceivable that this penitent thief should have first himself reviled the Saviour, and then, on his views of Christ suddenly changing, he should have turned upon his fellow sufferer and fellow reviler, and rebuked him not only with dignified sharpness, but in the language of astonishment that he should be capable of such conduct? Besides, there is a deep calmness in all that he utters, extremely unlike what we should expect from one who was the subject of a mental revolution so sudden and total. On the scene itself, see on Luk 23:29-43.

JFB: Joh 19:25-27 - Now there stood by the cross of Jesus his mother, and his mother's sister, Mary, wife of Cleophas This should be read, as in the Margin, "Clopas," the same as "Alpheus" (Mat 10:3). The "Cleopas" of Luk 24:18 was a different person.

This should be read, as in the Margin, "Clopas," the same as "Alpheus" (Mat 10:3). The "Cleopas" of Luk 24:18 was a different person.

JFB: Joh 19:26-27 - When Jesus . . . saw his mother, and the disciple whom he loved, standing by, he saith to his mother, WOMAN, BEHOLD THY SON! Then saith he to the disciple, BEHOLD THY MOTHER! What forgetfulness of self, what filial love, and to the "mother" and "son" what parting words!

What forgetfulness of self, what filial love, and to the "mother" and "son" what parting words!

JFB: Joh 19:26-27 - from that hour . . . took her to his own home Or, home with him; for his father Zebedee and his mother Salome were both alive, and the latter here present (Mar 15:40). See on Mat 13:55. Now occurr...

Or, home with him; for his father Zebedee and his mother Salome were both alive, and the latter here present (Mar 15:40). See on Mat 13:55. Now occurred the supernatural darkness, recorded by all the other Evangelists, but not here. "Now from the sixth hour (twelve o'clock, noon) there was darkness over all the land unto the ninth hour" (Mat 27:45). No ordinary eclipse of the sun could have occurred at this time, it being then full moon, and this obscuration lasted about twelve times the length of any ordinary eclipse. (Compare Exo 10:21, Exo 10:23). Beyond doubt, the divine intention of the portent was to invest this darkest of all tragedies with a gloom expressive of its real character. "And about the ninth hour Jesus cried, ELI, ELI, LAMA SABACHTHANI . . . My God, My God, why hast Thou forsaken Me?" (Mat 27:46). As the darkness commenced at the sixth hour, the second of the Jewish hours of prayer, so it continued till the ninth hour, the hour of the evening sacrifice, increasing probably in depth, and reaching its deepest gloom at the moment of this mysterious cry, when the flame of the one great "Evening Sacrifice" was burning fiercest. The words were made to His hand. They are the opening words of a Psalm (Psa 22:1) full of the last "sufferings of Christ and the following glories" (1Pe 1:11). "FATHER," was the cry in the first prayer which He uttered on the cross, for matters had not then come to the worst. "Father" was the cry of His last prayer, for matters had then passed their worst. But at this crisis of His sufferings, "Father" does not issue from His lips, for the light of a Father's countenance was then mysteriously eclipsed. He falls back, however, on a title expressive of His official relation, which, though lower and more distant in itself, yet when grasped in pure and naked faith was mighty in its claims, and rich in psalmodic associations. And what deep earnestness is conveyed by the redoubling of this title! But as for the cry itself, it will never be fully comprehended. An absolute desertion is not indeed to be thought of; but a total eclipse of the felt sense of God's presence it certainly expresses. It expre'sses surprise, as under the experience of something not only never before known, but inexplicable on the footing which had till then subsisted between Him and God. It is a question which the lost cannot utter. They are forsaken, but they know why. Jesus is forsaken, but does not know and demands to know why. It is thus the cry of conscious innocence, but of innocence unavailing to draw down, at that moment, the least token of approval from the unseen Judge--innocence whose only recognition at that moment lay in the thick surrounding gloom which but reflected the horror of great darkness that invested His own spirit. There was indeed a cause for it, and He knew it too--the "why" must not be pressed so far as to exclude this. He must taste this bitterest of the wages of sin "who did no sin" (1Pe 2:22). But that is not the point now. In Him there was no cause at all (Joh 14:30) and He takes refuge in the glorious fact. When no ray from above shines in upon Him, He strikes a light out of His own breast. If God will not own Him, He shall own Himself. On the rock of His unsullied allegiance to Heaven He will stand, till the light of Heaven returns to His spirit. And it is near to come. While He is yet speaking, the fierceness of the flame is beginning to abate. One incident and insult more, and the experience of one other predicted element of suffering, and the victory is His. The incident, and the insult springing out of it, is the misunderstanding of the cry, for we can hardly suppose that it was anything else. "Some of them that stood there, when they heard that, said, This man calleth for Elias" (Mat 27:47).

JFB: Joh 19:28-30 - After this, Jesus knowing that all things were now accomplished That is, the moment for the fulfilment of the last of them; for there was one other small particular, and the time was come for that too, in consequen...

That is, the moment for the fulfilment of the last of them; for there was one other small particular, and the time was come for that too, in consequence of the burning thirst which the fevered state of His frame occasioned (Psa 22:15).

JFB: Joh 19:28-30 - that the scripture (Psa 69:21).

JFB: Joh 19:28-30 - might be fulfilled saith, I thirst. Now there was set a vessel full of vinegar On the offer of the soldiers' vinegar, see on Joh 19:24.

On the offer of the soldiers' vinegar, see on Joh 19:24.

JFB: Joh 19:28-30 - and they "one of them," (Mat 27:48).

"one of them," (Mat 27:48).

JFB: Joh 19:29 - filled a sponge with vinegar, and put it upon A stalk of

A stalk of

JFB: Joh 19:29 - hyssop, and put it to his mouth Though a stalk of this plant does not exceed eighteen inches in length, it would suffice, as the feet of crucified persons were not raised high. "The ...

Though a stalk of this plant does not exceed eighteen inches in length, it would suffice, as the feet of crucified persons were not raised high. "The rest said, Let be"--[that is, as would seem, 'Stop that officious service'] "let us see whether Elias will come to save Him" (Mat 27:49). This was the last cruelty He was to suffer, but it was one of the most unfeeling. "And when Jesus had cried with a loud voice" (Luk 23:46). This "loud voice," noticed by three of the Evangelists, does not imply, as some able interpreters contend, that our Lord's strength was so far from being exhausted that He needed not to die then, and surrendered up His life sooner than Nature required, merely because it was the appointed time. It was indeed the appointed time, but time that He should be "crucified through weakness" (1Co 13:4), and Nature was now reaching its utmost exhaustion. But just as even His own dying saints, particularly the martyrs of Jesus, have sometimes had such gleams of coming glory immediately before breathing their last, as to impart to them a strength to utter their feelings which has amazed the by-standers, so this mighty voice of the expiring Redeemer was nothing else but the exultant spirit of the Dying Victor, receiving the fruit of His travail just about to be embraced, and nerving the organs of utterance to an ecstatic expression of its sublime feelings (not so much in the immediately following words of tranquil surrender, in Luke, as in the final shout, recorded only by John): "FATHER, INTO THY HANDS I COMMEND MY SPIRIT!" (Luk 23:46). Yes, the darkness is past, and the true light now shineth. His soul has emerged from its mysterious horrors; "My God" is heard no more, but in unclouded light He yields sublime into His Father's hands the infinitely precious spirit--using here also the words of those matchless Psalms (Psa 31:5) which were ever on His lips. "As the Father receives the spirit of Jesus, so Jesus receives those of the faithful" (Act 7:59) [BENGEL]. And now comes the expiring mighty shout.

JFB: Joh 19:30 - It is finished! and he bowed his head and gave up the ghost What is finished? The Law is fulfilled as never before, nor since, in His "obedience unto death, even the death of the cross"; Messianic prophecy is a...

What is finished? The Law is fulfilled as never before, nor since, in His "obedience unto death, even the death of the cross"; Messianic prophecy is accomplished; Redemption is completed; "He hath finished the transgression, and made reconciliation for iniquity, and brought in everlasting righteousness, and sealed up the vision and prophecy, and anointed a holy of holies"; He has inaugurated the kingdom of God and given birth to a new world.

JFB: Joh 19:31-37 - the preparation Sabbath eve.

Sabbath eve.

JFB: Joh 19:31-37 - that the bodies should not remain Over night, against the Mosaic law (Deu 21:22-23).

Over night, against the Mosaic law (Deu 21:22-23).

JFB: Joh 19:31-37 - on the sabbath day, for that sabbath day was an high day Or "great" day--the first day of unleavened bread, and, as concurring with an ordinary sabbath, the most solemn season of the ecclesiastical year. Hen...

Or "great" day--the first day of unleavened bread, and, as concurring with an ordinary sabbath, the most solemn season of the ecclesiastical year. Hence their peculiar jealousy lest the law should be infringed.

JFB: Joh 19:31-37 - besought Pilate that their legs might be broken To hasten their death, which was done in such cases with clubs.

To hasten their death, which was done in such cases with clubs.

JFB: Joh 19:33 - But when they came to Jesus, and saw that he was dead already There being in His case elements of suffering, unknown to the malefactors, which might naturally hasten His death, lingering though it always was in s...

There being in His case elements of suffering, unknown to the malefactors, which might naturally hasten His death, lingering though it always was in such cases, not to speak of His previous sufferings.

JFB: Joh 19:33 - they brake not his legs A fact of vast importance, as showing that the reality of His death was visible to those whose business it was to see to it. The other divine purpose ...

A fact of vast importance, as showing that the reality of His death was visible to those whose business it was to see to it. The other divine purpose served by it will appear presently.

JFB: Joh 19:34 - But one of the soldiers To make assurance of the fact doubly sure.

To make assurance of the fact doubly sure.

JFB: Joh 19:34 - with a spear pierced his side Making a wound deep and wide, as indeed is plain from Joh 20:27, Joh 20:29. Had life still remained, it must have fled now.

Making a wound deep and wide, as indeed is plain from Joh 20:27, Joh 20:29. Had life still remained, it must have fled now.

JFB: Joh 19:34 - and forthwith came thereout blood and water "It is now well known that the effect of long-continued and intense agony is frequently to produce a secretion of a colorless lymph within the pericar...

"It is now well known that the effect of long-continued and intense agony is frequently to produce a secretion of a colorless lymph within the pericardium (the membrane enveloping the heart), amounting in many cases to a very considerable quantity" [WEBSTER and WILKINSON].

JFB: Joh 19:35 - And he that saw it bare record Hath borne witness.

Hath borne witness.

JFB: Joh 19:35 - and his witness is true, and he knoweth that he saith true, that ye might believe This solemn way of referring to his own testimony in this matter has no reference to what he says in his Epistle about Christ's "coming by water and b...

This solemn way of referring to his own testimony in this matter has no reference to what he says in his Epistle about Christ's "coming by water and blood" (see on 1Jo 5:6), but is intended to call attention both to the fulfilment of Scripture in these particulars, and to the undeniable evidence he was thus furnishing of the reality of Christ's death, and consequently of His resurrection; perhaps also to meet the growing tendency, in the Asiatic churches, to deny the reality of our Lord's body, or that "Jesus Christ is come in the flesh" (1Jo 4:1-3).

JFB: Joh 19:36 - that the scripture should be fulfilled, A bone of him shall not be broken The reference is to the paschal lamb, as to which this ordinance was stringent (Exo 12:46; Num 9:12. Compare 1Co 5:7). But though we are to see here t...

The reference is to the paschal lamb, as to which this ordinance was stringent (Exo 12:46; Num 9:12. Compare 1Co 5:7). But though we are to see here the fulfilment of a very definite typical ordinance, we shall, on searching deeper, see in it a remarkable divine interposition to protect the sacred body of Christ from the last indignity after He had finished the work given Him to do. Every imaginable indignity had been permitted before that, up to the moment of His death. But no sooner is that over than an Unseen hand is found to have provided against the clubs of the rude soldiers coming in contact with that temple of the Godhead. Very different from such violence was that spear-thrust, for which not only doubting Thomas would thank the soldier, but intelligent believers in every age, to whom the certainty of their Lord's death and resurrection is the life of their whole Christianity.

JFB: Joh 19:37 - And again another scripture saith, They shall look on him whom they pierced The quotation is from Zec 12:10; not taken as usual from the Septuagint (the current Greek version), which here is all wrong, but direct from the Hebr...

The quotation is from Zec 12:10; not taken as usual from the Septuagint (the current Greek version), which here is all wrong, but direct from the Hebrew. And there is a remarkable nicety in the choice of the words employed both by the prophet and the Evangelist for "piercing." The word in Zechariah means to thrust through with spear, javelin, sword, or any such weapon. In that sense it is used in all the ten places, besides this, where it is found. How suitable this was to express the action of the Roman soldier, is manifest; and our Evangelist uses the exactly corresponding word, which the Septuagint certainly does not. Very different is the other word for "pierce" in Psa 22:16, "They pierced my hands and my feet." The word there used is one signifying to bore as with an awl or hammer. How striking are these small niceties!

JFB: Joh 19:38-40 - Joseph of Arimathea "a rich man" (Mat 27:57), thus fulfilling Isa 53:9; "an honorable counsellor," a member of the Sanhedrim, and of good condition, "which also waited fo...

"a rich man" (Mat 27:57), thus fulfilling Isa 53:9; "an honorable counsellor," a member of the Sanhedrim, and of good condition, "which also waited for the kingdom of God" (Mar 15:43), a devout expectant of Messiah's kingdom; "a good man and a just, the same had not consented to the counsel and deed of them" (Luk 23:50-51 --he had gone the length, perhaps, of dissenting and protesting in open council against the condemnation of our Lord); "who also himself was Jesus' disciple," (Mat 27:57).

JFB: Joh 19:38-40 - being a disciple of Jesus, but secretly, for fear of the Jews "He went in boldly unto Pilate" (Mar 15:43) --literally, "having taken courage went in," or "had the boldness to go in." Mark alone, as his manner is,...

"He went in boldly unto Pilate" (Mar 15:43) --literally, "having taken courage went in," or "had the boldness to go in." Mark alone, as his manner is, notices the boldness which this required. The act would without doubt identify him for the first time with the disciples of Christ. Marvellous it certainly is, that one who while Jesus was yet alive merely refrained from condemning Him, not having the courage to espouse His cause by one positive act, should, now that He was dead, and His cause apparently dead with Him, summon up courage to go in personally to the Roman governor and ask permission to take down and inter the body. But if this be the first instance, it is not the last, that a seemingly dead Christ has wakened a sympathy which a living one had failed to evoke. The heroism of faith is usually kindled by desperate circumstances, and is not seldom displayed by those who before were the most timid, and scarce known as disciples at all. "And Pilate marvelled if he were already dead" (Mar 15:44) --rather "wondered that he was already dead." "And calling the centurion, he asked him whether He had been any while dead" (Mar 15:44) --Pilate could hardly credit what Joseph had told him, that He had been dead "some time," and, before giving up the body to His friends, would learn how the fact stood from the centurion, whose business it was to oversee the execution. "And when he knew it of the centurion" (Mar 15:45), that it was as Joseph had said, "he gave"--rather "made a gift of"--"the body to Joseph"; struck, possibly, with the rank of the petitioner and the dignified boldness of the petition, in contrast with the spirit of the other party and the low rank to which he had been led to believe all the followers of Christ belonged. Nor would he be unwilling to Show that he was not going to carry this black affair any farther. But, whatever were Pilate's motives, two most blessed objects were thus secured: (1) The reality of our Lords death was attested by the party of all others most competent to decide on it, and certainly free from all bias--the officer in attendance--in full reliance on whose testimony Pilate surrendered the body: (2) The dead Redeemer, thus delivered out of the hands of His enemies, and committed by the supreme political authority to the care of His friends, was thereby protected from all further indignities; a thing most befitting indeed, now that His work was done, but impossible, so far as we can see, if His enemies had been at liberty to do with Him as they pleased. How wonderful are even the minutest features of this matchless History!

JFB: Joh 19:39 - also Nicodemus, which at the first came to Jesus by night "This remark corresponds to the secrecy of Joseph's discipleship, just noticed, and calls attention to the similarity of their previous character and ...

"This remark corresponds to the secrecy of Joseph's discipleship, just noticed, and calls attention to the similarity of their previous character and conduct, and the remarkable change which had now taken place" [WEBSTER and WILKINSON].

JFB: Joh 19:39 - brought . . . myrrh and aloes, about an hundred pounds weight An immense quantity, betokening the greatness of their love, but part of it probably intended as a layer for the spot on which the body was to lie. (S...

An immense quantity, betokening the greatness of their love, but part of it probably intended as a layer for the spot on which the body was to lie. (See 2Ch 16:14) [MEYER].

JFB: Joh 19:40 - Then took they the body of Jesus, and wound it in linen clothes with the spices, as the manner of the Jews is to bury The mixed and pulverized myrrh and aloes shaken into the folds, and the entire body, thus swathed, wrapt in an outer covering of "clean linen cloth" (...

The mixed and pulverized myrrh and aloes shaken into the folds, and the entire body, thus swathed, wrapt in an outer covering of "clean linen cloth" (Mat 27:59). Had the Lord's own friends had the least reason to think that the spark of life was still in Him, would they have done this? But even if one could conceive them mistaken, could anyone have lain thus enveloped for the period during which He was in the grave, and life still remained? Impossible. When, therefore, He walked forth from the tomb, we can say with the most absolute certainty, "Now is Christ risen from the dead, and become the first-fruits of them that slept" (1Co 15:20). No wonder that the learned and the barbarians alike were prepared to die for the name of the Lord Jesus; for such evidence was to the unsophisticated resistless. (No mention is made of anointing in this operation. No doubt it was a hurried proceeding, for fear of interruption, and because it was close on the sabbath, the women seem to have set this as their proper task "as soon as the sabbath should be past" [Mar 16:1]. But as the Lord graciously held it as undesignedly anticipated by Mary at Bethany [Mar 14:8], so this was probably all the anointing, in the strict sense of it, which He received.)

JFB: Joh 19:41-42 - Now in the place where he was crucified there was a garden, and in the garden a new sepulchre The choice of this tomb was, on their part, dictated by the double circumstance that it was so near at hand, and by its belonging to a friend of the L...

The choice of this tomb was, on their part, dictated by the double circumstance that it was so near at hand, and by its belonging to a friend of the Lord; and as there was need of haste, even they would be struck with the providence which thus supplied it. "There laid they Jesus therefore, because of the Jew's preparation day, for the sepulchre was nigh at hand." But there was one recommendation of it which probably would not strike them; but God had it in view. Not its being "hewn out of a rock" (Mar 15:46), accessible only at the entrance, which doubtless would impress them with its security and suitableness. But it was "a new sepulchre" (Joh 19:41), "wherein never man before was laid" (Luk 23:53): and Matthew (Mat 27:60) says that Joseph laid Him "in his own new tomb, which he had hewn out in the rock"--doubtless for his own use, though the Lord had higher use for it. Thus as He rode into Jerusalem on an ass "whereon never man before had sat" (Mar 11:2), so now He shall lie in a tomb wherein never man before had lain, that from these specimens it may be seen that in all things He was "SEPARATE FROM SINNERS" (Heb 7:26).

Clarke: Joh 19:1 - Pilate took Jesus, and scourged him Pilate took Jesus, and scourged him - That is, caused him to be scourged: for we cannot with Bede suppose that he scourged him with his own hand As ...

Pilate took Jesus, and scourged him - That is, caused him to be scourged: for we cannot with Bede suppose that he scourged him with his own hand

As our Lord was scourged by order of Pilate, it is probable he was scourged in the Roman manner, which was much more severe than that of the Jews. The latter never gave more than thirty-nine blows; for the law had absolutely forbidden a man to be abused, or his flesh cut in this chastisement, Deu 25:3. The common method of whipping or flogging in some places, especially that of a military kind, is a disgrace to the nation where it is done, to the laws, and to humanity. See Mat 27:26, and the note there. Though it was customary to scourge the person who was to be crucified, yet it appears that Pilate had another end in view by scourging our Lord. He hoped that this would have satisfied the Jews, and that he might then have dismissed Jesus. This appears from Luk 23:16.

Clarke: Joh 19:2 - Platted a crown of thorns Platted a crown of thorns - See on Mat 27:29 (note).

Platted a crown of thorns - See on Mat 27:29 (note).

Clarke: Joh 19:5 - And Pilate saith And Pilate saith - The word Pilate, which we supply in our version, is added by one MS., the later Syriac, later Arabic, and the Coptic

And Pilate saith - The word Pilate, which we supply in our version, is added by one MS., the later Syriac, later Arabic, and the Coptic

Clarke: Joh 19:5 - Behold the man! Behold the man! - The man who, according to you, affects the government, and threatens to take away the empire from the Romans. Behold the man whom ...

Behold the man! - The man who, according to you, affects the government, and threatens to take away the empire from the Romans. Behold the man whom ye have brought unto me as an enemy to Caesar, and as a sower of the seeds of sedition in the land! In him I find no guilt; and from him ye have no occasion to fear any evil.

Clarke: Joh 19:6 - Crucify Him Crucify Him - Αυτον, which is necessary to the text, and which is wanting in the common editions, and is supplied by our version in Italics, i...

Crucify Him - Αυτον, which is necessary to the text, and which is wanting in the common editions, and is supplied by our version in Italics, is added here on the authority of almost every MS. and version of importance. As it is omitted in the common editions, it affords another proof, that they were not taken from the best MSS.

Clarke: Joh 19:7 - We have a law We have a law - In Lev 24:14-16, we find that blasphemers of God were to be put to death; and the chief priests having charged Jesus with blasphemy,...

We have a law - In Lev 24:14-16, we find that blasphemers of God were to be put to death; and the chief priests having charged Jesus with blasphemy, they therefore voted that he deserved to die. See Mat 26:65, Mat 26:66. They might refer also to the law against false prophets, Deu 18:20

Clarke: Joh 19:7 - The Son of God The Son of God - It is certain that the Jews understood this in a very peculiar sense. When Christ called himself the Son of God, they understood it...

The Son of God - It is certain that the Jews understood this in a very peculiar sense. When Christ called himself the Son of God, they understood it to imply positive equality to the Supreme Being: and, if they were wrong, our Lord never attempted to correct them.

Clarke: Joh 19:8 - He was the more afraid He was the more afraid - While Jesus was accused only as a disturber of the peace of the nation, which accusation Pilate knew to be false, he knew h...

He was the more afraid - While Jesus was accused only as a disturber of the peace of the nation, which accusation Pilate knew to be false, he knew he could deliver him, because the judgment in that case belonged to himself; but when the Jews brought a charge against him of the most capital nature, from their own laws, he then saw that he had every thing to fear, if he did not deliver Jesus to their will. The Sanhedrin must not be offended - the populace must not be irritated: from the former a complaint might be sent against him to Caesar; the latter might revolt, or proceed to some acts of violence, the end of which could not be foreseen. Pilate was certainly to be pitied: he saw what was right, and he wished to do it; but he had not sufficient firmness of mind. He did not attend to that important maxim, Fiat justitia: ruat caelum . Let justice be done, though the heavens should be dissolved. He had a vile people to govern, and it was not an easy matter to keep them quiet. Some suppose that Pilate’ s fear arose from hearing that Jesus had said he was the Son of God; because Pilate, who was a polytheist, believed that it was possible for the offspring of the gods to visit mortals; and he was afraid to condemn Jesus, for fear of offending some of the supreme deities. Perhaps the question in the succeeding verse refers to this.

Clarke: Joh 19:9 - Whence art thou? Whence art thou? - This certainly does not mean, From what country art thou? for Pilate knew this well enough; but it appears he made this inquiry t...

Whence art thou? - This certainly does not mean, From what country art thou? for Pilate knew this well enough; but it appears he made this inquiry to know who were the parents of Christ; what were his pretensions, and whether he really were a demigod, such as the heathens believed in. To this question we find our Lord gave no answer. He had already told him that his kingdom was not of this world; and that he came to erect a spiritual kingdom, not a temporal one: Joh 18:36, Joh 18:37. This answer he deemed sufficient; and he did not choose to satisfy a criminal curiosity, nor to enter then into any debate concerning the absurdity of the heathen worship.

Clarke: Joh 19:11 - Hath the greater sin Hath the greater sin - It is a sin in thee to condemn me, while thou art convinced in thy conscience that I am innocent: but the Jews who delivered ...

Hath the greater sin - It is a sin in thee to condemn me, while thou art convinced in thy conscience that I am innocent: but the Jews who delivered me to thee, and Judas who delivered me to the Jews, have the greater crime to answer for. Thy ignorance in some measure excuses thee; but the rage and malice of the Jews put them at present out of the reach of mercy.

Clarke: Joh 19:12 - Pilate sought to release him Pilate sought to release him - Pilate made five several attempts to release our Lord; as we may learn from Luk 23:4, Luk 23:15, Luk 23:20, Luk 23:22...

Pilate sought to release him - Pilate made five several attempts to release our Lord; as we may learn from Luk 23:4, Luk 23:15, Luk 23:20, Luk 23:22; Joh 19:4, Joh 19:12, Joh 19:13

Clarke: Joh 19:12 - Thou art not Caesar’ s friend Thou art not Caesar’ s friend - Thou dost not act like a person who has the interest of the emperor at heart. Ambassadors, prefects, counsellor...

Thou art not Caesar’ s friend - Thou dost not act like a person who has the interest of the emperor at heart. Ambassadors, prefects, counsellors, etc., were generally termed the friends of the emperor. This insinuation determined Pilate to make no longer resistance: he was afraid of being accused, and he knew Tiberius was one of the most jealous and distrustful princes in the world. During his reign, accusations of conspiracies were much in fashion; they were founded on the silliest pretenses, and punished with excessive rigour. See Calmet, Tacit. An. l. i. c. 72, 73, 74. Sueton. in Tiber. c. 58.

Clarke: Joh 19:13 - The Pavement The Pavement - Λιθοστρωτον, literally, a stone pavement: probably it was that place in the open court where the chair of justice was set...

The Pavement - Λιθοστρωτον, literally, a stone pavement: probably it was that place in the open court where the chair of justice was set, for the prefects of provinces always held their courts of justice in the open air, and which was paved with stones of various colors, like that of Ahasuerus, Est 1:6, of red, blue, white, and black marble; what we still term Mosaic work, or something in imitation of it; such as the Roman pavements frequently dug up in this and other countries, where the Romans have had military stations

Clarke: Joh 19:13 - Gabbatha Gabbatha - That is, an elevated place; from גבה gabah , high, raised up; and it is very likely that the judgment seat was considerably elevated ...

Gabbatha - That is, an elevated place; from גבה gabah , high, raised up; and it is very likely that the judgment seat was considerably elevated in the court, and that the governor went up to it by steps; and perhaps these very steps were what was called the Pavement. John does not say that Lithostroton, or the Pavement, is the meaning of the word Gabbatha; but that the place was called so in the Hebrew. The place was probably called Lithostroton, or the Pavement: the seat of judgment, Gabbatha, the raised or elevated place

In several MSS. and versions, the scribes not understanding the Hebrew word, wrote it variously, Gabbatha, Gabatha, Kapphatha, Kappata, Gennetha, Gennaesa, and Gennesar. Lightfoot conjectures that the pavement here means the room Gazith in the temple, in which the grand council, called the Sanhedrin, held their meetings.

Clarke: Joh 19:14 - It was the preparation of the Passover It was the preparation of the Passover - That is, the time in which they were just preparing to kill the paschal lamb. Critics differ widely concern...

It was the preparation of the Passover - That is, the time in which they were just preparing to kill the paschal lamb. Critics differ widely concerning the time of our Lord’ s crucifixion; and this verse is variously understood. Some think it signifies merely the preparation of the Sabbath; and that it is called the preparation of the passover, because the preparation of the Sabbath happened that year on the eve of the Passover. Others think that the preparation of the Sabbath is distinctly spoken of in Joh 19:31, and was different from what is here mentioned. Contending nations may be more easily reconciled than contending critics

Clarke: Joh 19:14 - The sixth hour The sixth hour - Mark says, Mar 15:25, that it was the third hour. Τριτη, the third, is the reading of DL, four others, the Chron. Alex., Seue...

The sixth hour - Mark says, Mar 15:25, that it was the third hour. Τριτη, the third, is the reading of DL, four others, the Chron. Alex., Seuerus Antiochen., Ammonius, with others mentioned by Theophylact. Nonnus, who wrote in the fifth century, reads τριτη, the third. As in ancient times all the numbers were written in the manuscripts not at large but in numeral letters, it was easy for Γ three, to be mistaken for Ϛ six. The Codex Bezae has generally numeral letters instead of words. Bengel observes that he has found the letter Γ gamma , Three, exceedingly like the Ϛ episemon , Six, in some MSS. The major part of the best critics think that τριτη, the third, is the genuine reading. See the note on Mar 15:25

Clarke: Joh 19:14 - Behold your king! Behold your king! - This was probably intended as an irony; and, by thus turning their pretended serious apprehensions into ridicule, he hoped still...

Behold your king! - This was probably intended as an irony; and, by thus turning their pretended serious apprehensions into ridicule, he hoped still to release him.

Clarke: Joh 19:15 - Away with him Away with him - Αρον : probably this means, kill him. In Isa 57:1, it is said, και ανδρες, δικαιοι αιρονται, and just ...

Away with him - Αρον : probably this means, kill him. In Isa 57:1, it is said, και ανδρες, δικαιοι αιρονται, and just men are taken away; that is, according to some, by a violent death.

Clarke: Joh 19:16 - Then delivered he him Then delivered he him - This was not till after he had washed his hands, Mat 27:24, to show, by that symbolical action, that he was innocent of the ...

Then delivered he him - This was not till after he had washed his hands, Mat 27:24, to show, by that symbolical action, that he was innocent of the death of Christ. John omits this circumstance, together with the insults which Christ received from the soldiers. See Mat 27:26, etc.; Mar 15:16, etc.

Clarke: Joh 19:17 - Bearing his cross Bearing his cross - He bore it all alone first; when he could no longer carry the whole through weakness, occasioned by the ill usage he had receive...

Bearing his cross - He bore it all alone first; when he could no longer carry the whole through weakness, occasioned by the ill usage he had received, Simon, a Cyrenian, helped him to carry it: see the note on Mat 27:32

Clarke: Joh 19:17 - Golgotha Golgotha - See on Mat 27:33 (note).

Golgotha - See on Mat 27:33 (note).

Clarke: Joh 19:18 - Two other Two other - Matthew and Mark in the parallel places calls them robbers or murderers; they probably belonged to the gang of Barabbas. See about the f...

Two other - Matthew and Mark in the parallel places calls them robbers or murderers; they probably belonged to the gang of Barabbas. See about the figure of the cross, and the nature of crucifixion, on Mat 27:35 (note).

Clarke: Joh 19:19 - Pilate wrote a title Pilate wrote a title - See on Mat 27:37 (note).

Pilate wrote a title - See on Mat 27:37 (note).

Clarke: Joh 19:20 - Hebrew,... Greek,... Latin Hebrew,... Greek,... Latin - See on Luk 23:38 (note) On Mat 27:37 (note), I have given this title in Hebrew, Greek, and Latin, as mentioned by this ...

Hebrew,... Greek,... Latin - See on Luk 23:38 (note)

On Mat 27:37 (note), I have given this title in Hebrew, Greek, and Latin, as mentioned by this evangelist. The reader, however, will not be displeased to find the same title repeated here in a character which was written in the fourth century, and is probably nearly resembling that used in the earliest ages of Christianity. The Greek and Latin character, which is inserted here, is an exact fac-simile of that in the Codex Bezae, cut and cast at the expense of the University of Cambridge, for Dr. Kipling’ s edition of that most venerable MS. which contains the Greek text of the four evangelists and Acts; and the Latin text of the same, as it existed before the time of St. Jerome. Having examined the MS. myself, I can say that these types are a very faithful representation of the original

In Hebrew, Ἑβραιστι

יסוע נצריא מלכא דיהודיא

In Greek, ἙλληνιϚι

ΙΗΣΟΥΣ Ο ΝΑΖΩΡΕΟΣ Ο ΒΑΣΙΛΕΥΣ ΤΩΝ ΙΟΥΔΑΙΩΝ

In Latin, ῬωμαΐϚι

IEHSUS NAZARENUS REX IUDAEORUM

Clarke: Joh 19:22 - What I have written, I have written What I have written, I have written - That is, I will not alter what I have written. The Roman laws forbad the sentence to be altered when once pron...

What I have written, I have written - That is, I will not alter what I have written. The Roman laws forbad the sentence to be altered when once pronounced; and as this inscription was considered as the sentence pronounced against our Lord, therefore, it could not be changed: but this form of speech is common in the Jewish writings, and means simply, what is done shall continue. Pilate seems to speak prophetically. This is the king of the Jews: they shall have no other Messiah for ever.

Clarke: Joh 19:23 - To every soldier a part To every soldier a part - So it appears there were four soldiers employed in nailing him to and rearing up the cross

To every soldier a part - So it appears there were four soldiers employed in nailing him to and rearing up the cross

Clarke: Joh 19:23 - The coat was without seam The coat was without seam - Several have seriously doubted whether this can be literally understood, as they imagine that nothing with sleeves, etc....

The coat was without seam - Several have seriously doubted whether this can be literally understood, as they imagine that nothing with sleeves, etc. can be woven without a seam. But Baun, de Vest. Sacer. Heb. l. 1, c. 16, has proved, not only that such things were done by the ancients, and are still done in the east, but himself got a loom made, on which these kinds of tunics, vents, sleeves, and all, were woven in one piece. See much on this subject in Calmet. The clothes of a Hindoo are always without a seam; and the Brahmins would not wear clothes that were otherwise made. Besides, the Hindoos have no regular tailors

Our Lord was now in the grand office of high priest, and was about to offer the expiatory victim for the sin of the world. And it is worthy of remark that the very dress he was in was similar to that of the Jewish high priest. The following is the description given of his dress by Josephus, Ant. b. iii. c. 7, s. 4: "Now this coat ( χιτων ) was not composed of two pieces, nor was it sewed together upon the shoulders and sides, but it was one long vestment, so woven as to have an opening for the neck; not an oblique one, but parted all along the back and breast; it was also parted where the hands were to come out."A little before, the same author says, that "the high priest had a long robe of a blue color, which hung down to the feet, and was put over all the rest."It is likely that this was the same with that upper garment which the soldiers divided among them, it being probably of a costly stuff. I may just add here, that I knew a woman who knit all kinds of clothes, even to the sleeves and button holes, without a seam; and have seen some of the garments which she made; that the thing is possible I have the fullest proof. For an explanation of χιτων and ἱματιον which we translate cloak, and coat, see the note on Luk 6:29.

Clarke: Joh 19:24 - That the scripture might be fulfilled That the scripture might be fulfilled - These words are found in the common printed text, in Mat 27:35; but they are omitted by ABDEFGHKLMSU, Mt. BH...

That the scripture might be fulfilled - These words are found in the common printed text, in Mat 27:35; but they are omitted by ABDEFGHKLMSU, Mt. BHV, 150 others; the principal versions, Chrysostom, Titus Bost., Euthymius, Theophylact, Origen, Hilary, Augustin, Juven. See Griesbach’ s second edition. But in the text of John they are not omitted by one MS., version, or ancient commentator

The words are taken from Psa 22:18, where it appears they were spoken prophetically of this treatment which Jesus received, upwards of a thousand years before it took place

But it should be remarked that this form of speech, which frequently occurs, often means no more than that the thing so fell out that such a portion of Scripture may be exactly applied to it.

Clarke: Joh 19:25 - Mary the wife of Cleophas Mary the wife of Cleophas - She is said, in Mat 27:56, (see the note there), and Mar 15:40, to have been the mother of James the Less, and of Joses;...

Mary the wife of Cleophas - She is said, in Mat 27:56, (see the note there), and Mar 15:40, to have been the mother of James the Less, and of Joses; and this James her son is said, in Mat 10:3, to have been the son of Alpheus; hence it seems that Alpheus and Cleopas were the same person. To which may be added, that Hegesippus is quoted by Eusebius, Hist. Eccl. l. iii. c. 11, as saying that Cleopas was the brother of Joseph, the husband of the virgin. Theophylact says that Cleopas, (brother of Joseph, the husband of the virgin), having died childless, his brother Joseph married his widow, by whom he had four sons, called by the evangelists the brothers of our Lord, and two daughters, the one named Salome, the other Mary, the daughter of Cleopas, because she was his daughter according to law, though she was the daughter of Joseph according to nature. There are several conjectures equally well founded with this last to be met with in the ancient commentators; but, in many cases, it is very difficult to distinguish the different Marys mentioned by the evangelists.

Clarke: Joh 19:26 - The disciple - whom he loved The disciple - whom he loved - John, the writer of this Gospel

The disciple - whom he loved - John, the writer of this Gospel

Clarke: Joh 19:26 - Woman, behold thy son! Woman, behold thy son! - This is a remarkable expression, and has been much misunderstood. It conveys no idea of disrespect, nor of unconcern, as ha...

Woman, behold thy son! - This is a remarkable expression, and has been much misunderstood. It conveys no idea of disrespect, nor of unconcern, as has been commonly supposed. In the way of compellation, man! and woman! were titles of as much respect among the Hebrews as sir! and madam! are among us. But why does not Jesus call her mother? Probably because he wished to spare her feelings; he would not mention a name, the very sound of which must have wrung her heart with additional sorrow. On this account he says, Behold thy son! this was the language of pure natural affection: "Consider this crucified man no longer at present as any relative of thine; but take that disciple whom my power shall preserve from evil for thy son; and, while he considers thee as his mother, account him for thy child."It is probable that it was because the keeping of the blessed virgin was entrusted to him that he was the only disciple of our Lord who died a natural death, God having preserved him for the sake of the person whom he gave him in charge. Many children are not only preserved alive, but abundantly prospered in temporal things, for the sake of the desolate parents whom God hast cast upon their care. It is very likely that Joseph was dead previously to this; and that this was the reason why the desolate virgin is committed to the care of the beloved disciple.

Clarke: Joh 19:28 - I thirst I thirst - The scripture that referred to his drinking the vinegar is Psa 69:21. The fatigue which he had undergone, the grief he had felt, the heat...

I thirst - The scripture that referred to his drinking the vinegar is Psa 69:21. The fatigue which he had undergone, the grief he had felt, the heat of the day, and the loss of blood, were the natural causes of this thirst. This he would have borne without complaint; but he wished to give them the fullest proof of his being the Messiah, by distinctly marking how every thing relative to the Messiah, which had been written in the prophets, had its complete fulfillment in him.

Clarke: Joh 19:29 - A vessel full of vinegar A vessel full of vinegar - This was probably that tart small wine which we are assured was the common drink of the Roman soldiers. Our word vinegar ...

A vessel full of vinegar - This was probably that tart small wine which we are assured was the common drink of the Roman soldiers. Our word vinegar comes from the French vin aigre , sour or tart wine; and, although it is probable that it was brought at this time for the use of the four Roman soldiers who were employed in the crucifixion of our Lord, yet it is as probable that it might have been furnished for the use of the persons crucified; who, in that lingering kind of death, must necessarily be grievously tormented with thirst. This vinegar must not be confounded with the vinegar and gall mentioned Mat 27:34, and Mar 15:23. That, being a stupifying potion, intended to alleviate his pain, he refused to drink; but of this he took a little, and then expired, Joh 19:30

Clarke: Joh 19:29 - And put it upon hyssop And put it upon hyssop - Or, according to others, putting hyssop about it. A great variety of conjectures have been produced to solve the difficulty...

And put it upon hyssop - Or, according to others, putting hyssop about it. A great variety of conjectures have been produced to solve the difficulty in this text, which is occasioned by supposing that the sponge was put on a stalk of hyssop, and that this is the reed mentioned by Matthew and Mark. It is possible that the hyssop might grow to such a size in Judea as that a stalk of it might answer the end of a reed or cane in the case mentioned here; but still it appears to me more natural to suppose that the reed was a distinct thing and that the hyssop was used only to bind the sponge fast to the reed; unless we may suppose it was added for some mystical purpose, as we find it frequently used in the Old Testament in rites of purification. The various conjectures on this point may be seen in Bowyer’ s Conject. and in Calmet.

Clarke: Joh 19:30 - It is finished It is finished - As if he had said: "I have executed the great designs of the Almighty - I have satisfied the demands of his justice - I have accomp...

It is finished - As if he had said: "I have executed the great designs of the Almighty - I have satisfied the demands of his justice - I have accomplished all that was written in the prophets, and suffered the utmost malice of my enemies; and now the way to the holy of holies is made manifest through my blood."An awful, yet a glorious finish. Through this tragical death God is reconciled to man, and the kingdom of heaven opened to every believing soul

"Shout heaven and earth, this Sum of good to Man!

See the note on Mat 27:50

The prodigies which happened at our Lord’ s death, and which are mentioned by the other three evangelists, are omitted by John, because he found the others had sufficiently stated them, and it appears he had nothing new to add.

Clarke: Joh 19:31 - It was the preparation It was the preparation - Every Sabbath had a preparation which began at the ninth hour (that is, three o’ clock) the preceding evening. Josephu...

It was the preparation - Every Sabbath had a preparation which began at the ninth hour (that is, three o’ clock) the preceding evening. Josephus, Ant. b. xvi. c. 6, s. 2, recites an edict of the Emperor Augustus in favor of the Jews, which orders, "that no one shall be obliged to give bail or surety on the Sabbath day, nor on the preparation before it, after the ninth hour."The time fixed here was undoubtedly in conformity to the Jewish custom, as they began their preparation at three o’ clock on the Friday evening

Clarke: Joh 19:31 - That the bodies should not remain That the bodies should not remain - For the law, Deu 21:22, Deu 21:23, ordered that the bodies of criminals should not hang all night; and they did ...

That the bodies should not remain - For the law, Deu 21:22, Deu 21:23, ordered that the bodies of criminals should not hang all night; and they did not wish to have the Sabbath profaned by either taking them down on that day, or letting them hang to disturb the joy of that holy time. Probably their consciences began to sting them for what they had done, and they wished to remove the victim of their malice out of their sight

Clarke: Joh 19:31 - For that Sabbath day was a high day For that Sabbath day was a high day - 1.    Because it was the Sabbath 2.    Because it was the day on which all the p...

For that Sabbath day was a high day -

1.    Because it was the Sabbath

2.    Because it was the day on which all the people presented themselves in the temple according to the command, Exo 23:17

3.    Because that was the day on which the sheaf of the first fruits was offered, according to the command, Lev 23:10, Lev 23:11. So that upon this day there happened to be three solemnities in one. - Lightfoot. It might be properly called a high day, because the passover fell on that Sabbath

Clarke: Joh 19:31 - Their legs might be broken Their legs might be broken - Lactantius says. l. iv. c. 26, that it was a common custom to break the legs or other bones of criminals upon the cross...

Their legs might be broken - Lactantius says. l. iv. c. 26, that it was a common custom to break the legs or other bones of criminals upon the cross; and this appears to have been a kind of coup de grace, the sooner to put them out of pain.

Clarke: Joh 19:34 - With a spear pierced his side With a spear pierced his side - The soldier who pierced our Lord’ s side has been called by the Roman Catholic writers Longinus, which seems to...

With a spear pierced his side - The soldier who pierced our Lord’ s side has been called by the Roman Catholic writers Longinus, which seems to be a corruption of λογχη, lonche , a spear or dart, the word in the text. They moreover tell us that this man was converted - that it was he who said, Truly this was the Son of God - that he traveled into Cappadocia, and there preached the Gospel of Christ, and received the crown of martyrdom. But this deserves the same credit as the other legends of the Popish Church

Whether it was the right or the left side of Christ that was pierced has been a matter of serious discussion among divines and physicians; and on this subject they are not yet agreed. That it is of no importance we are sure, because the Holy Ghost has not revealed it. Luke Cranache, a famous painter, whose piece of the crucifixion is at Augsburg, has put no wound on either side: when he was asked the reason of this - I will do it, said he, when I am informed Which side was pierced

Clarke: Joh 19:34 - Blood and water Blood and water - It may be naturally supposed that the spear went through the pericardium and pierced the heart; that the water proceeded from the ...

Blood and water - It may be naturally supposed that the spear went through the pericardium and pierced the heart; that the water proceeded from the former, and the blood from the latter. Ambrose, Augustin, and Chrysostom, make the blood an emblem of the eucharist, and the water an emblem of baptism. Others represent them as the emblems of the old and new covenants. Protestants have thought them the emblems of justification, which is through the blood of the Lamb, and sanctification, which is through the washing of regeneration; and it is in reference to the first notion that they mingle the wine with water in the sacrament of the Lord’ s supper. The piercing appears to have taken place because his legs were not broken; and, as the law in this case stated that the criminals were to continue on the cross till they died, the side of our Lord was pierced to secure the accomplishment of the law; and the issuing of the blood and water appears to be only a natural effect of the above cause, and probably nothing mystical or spiritual was intended by it. However, it affords the fullest proof that Jesus died for our sins. Dr. Lightfoot thinks that there is a reference here to the rock in the wilderness which Moses smote twice, and which, according to the Jews, Shemoth Rabba, fol. 122, "poured out blood at the first stroke, and water at the second."Now St. Paul says, 1Co 10:4, That rock was Christ; and here the evangelist says, the soldier pierced his side, and there came out blood and water. St. John therefore, in what he asserts in the 35th and 36th verses, wishes to call the attention of the Jews to this point, in order to show them that this Jesus was the true Messiah, who was typified by the rock in the wilderness. He knoweth that he saith true, that ye might believe.

Clarke: Joh 19:35 - He that saw it He that saw it - Most probably John himself, who must have been pretty near the cross to have been able to distinguish between the blood and the wat...

He that saw it - Most probably John himself, who must have been pretty near the cross to have been able to distinguish between the blood and the water, as they issued from the side of our blessed Lord

Clarke: Joh 19:35 - And he knoweth And he knoweth - This appears to be an appeal to the Lord Jesus, for the truth of the testimony which he had now delivered. But why such a solemn ap...

And he knoweth - This appears to be an appeal to the Lord Jesus, for the truth of the testimony which he had now delivered. But why such a solemn appeal, unless there was something miraculous in this matter? It might appear to him necessary

1.    Because the other evangelists had not noticed it

2.    Because it contained the most decisive proof of the death of Christ: as a wound such as this was could not have been inflicted, (though other causes had been wanting), without occasioning the death of the person; and on his dying for men depended the salvation of the world. And

3.    Because two important prophecies were fulfilled by this very circumstance, both of which designated more particularly the person of the Messiah. A bone of him shall not be broken, Exo 12:46; Num 9:12; Psa 34:20. They shall look upon him whom they pierced, Zec 12:10; Psa 22:16.

Clarke: Joh 19:38 - Joseph of Arimathea Joseph of Arimathea - See on Mat 27:57-60 (note); and particularly Mar 15:42, Mar 15:43 (note).

Joseph of Arimathea - See on Mat 27:57-60 (note); and particularly Mar 15:42, Mar 15:43 (note).

Clarke: Joh 19:39 - Nicodemus Nicodemus - See on Joh 3:1 (note), etc

Nicodemus - See on Joh 3:1 (note), etc

Clarke: Joh 19:39 - Myrrh and aloes Myrrh and aloes - Which drugs were used to preserve bodies from putrefaction. Calmet says that the aloes mentioned here is a liquor which runs from ...

Myrrh and aloes - Which drugs were used to preserve bodies from putrefaction. Calmet says that the aloes mentioned here is a liquor which runs from an aromatic tree, and is widely different from that called aloes among us

Some have objected that a hundred pounds’ weight of myrrh and aloes was enough to embalm two hundred dead bodies; and instead of ἑκατον, a hundred, some critics have proposed to read ἑκατερων - a mixture of myrrh and aloes, of about a pound Each. See Bowyer’ s Conjectures. But it may be observed that great quantities of spices were used for embalming dead bodies, when they intended to show peculiar marks of respect to the deceased. A great quantity was used at the funeral of Aristobulus; and it is said that five hundred servants bearing aromatics attended the funeral of Herod: see Josephus, Ant. b. xv. c. 3, s. 4; and b. xvii. c. 8, s. 3: and fourscore pounds of spices were used at the funeral of R. Gamaliel the elder. See Wetstein in loc.

Clarke: Joh 19:40 - Wound it in linen Wound it in linen - See on Joh 11:44 (note).

Wound it in linen - See on Joh 11:44 (note).

Clarke: Joh 19:41 - There was a garden There was a garden - It was an ancient custom for particular families to have burying places in their gardens. See 2Ki 21:18, 2Ki 21:26

There was a garden - It was an ancient custom for particular families to have burying places in their gardens. See 2Ki 21:18, 2Ki 21:26

Clarke: Joh 19:41 - New sepulchre New sepulchre - See on Mat 27:60 (note).

New sepulchre - See on Mat 27:60 (note).

Clarke: Joh 19:42 - Because of the Jews’ preparation Because of the Jews’ preparation - From this it may be conjectured that they had designed to have put him in a more magnificent tomb; or, that...

Because of the Jews’ preparation - From this it may be conjectured that they had designed to have put him in a more magnificent tomb; or, that they intended to make one expressly for himself after the passover: or, that they had designed to have put him somewhere else, but could not do it for want of time; and that they put him here because the tomb was nigh. It appears plainly, from embalming, etc., that none of these persons had any hope of the resurrection of Christ. They considered him as a great and eminent prophet, and treated him as such

1.    In the burial of our Lord, a remarkable prophecy was fulfilled: His death was appointed with the wicked; and with a rich man was his tomb. See Lowth on Isa 53:9. Every thing attending his mock trial, his passion, his death, his burial, etc., afforded the fullest proof of his innocence. In still continuing to reject him, the Jews seem to have exceeded the ordinary bounds of incredulity and callousness of heart. One might imagine that a candid attention to the Gospel facts, collated with those passages in the law and in the prophets which they acknowledge to speak of the Messiah, would be sufficient to furnish them with the utmost evidence and fullest conviction that he is the Christ, and that they are to expect none other. But where people once make a covenant with unbelief, argument, reason, demonstration, and miracles themselves, fail to convince them. As their conviction, through this obstinacy, is rendered impossible, it belongs to God’ s justice to confound them. At present they have scarcely any correct knowledge of the true God; and, while they continue to reject the genuine faith, they are capable of crediting the most degrading absurdities

2.    The holy sepulchre, or what has long passed for the burial place of our Lord, is now no more! On the following information the reader may depend: "On the night of October 11, 1808, the Church of the Holy Sepulchre was discovered to be on fire; and between five and six in the morning the burning cupola, with all the melting and boiling lead upon it, fell in. The excessive heat which proceeded from this immense mass of liquid fire, caused not only the marble columns, which supported the gallery, to burst; but likewise the marble floor of the Church, together with the pilasters and images in bas relief that decorate the chapel, containing the holy sepulchre, situated in the centre of the church. Shortly after, the massive columns which supported the gallery, fell down, together with the whole of the walls."Thus has perished the famous church raised by the Empress Helena fourteen hundred years ago, over the place where the body of our blessed Lord was supposed to have been deposited, while he lay under the power of death. And thus has perished an engine of superstition, fraud, and imposture. To the most sinful purposes has this holy sepulchre been abused. The Greeks and Armenians have pretended that, on every Easter-eve, fire descends from heaven, and kindles all the lamps and candles in the place; and immense crowds of pilgrims frequent this place, on these occasions, in order to witness this ceremony, to light a taper at this sacred flame, and with these candles to singe and daub pieces of linen, which are afterwards to serve for winding sheets; for, says Mr. Maundrell, who was present, April 3rd, 1697, and witnessed the whole of this absurd and abominable ceremony, "it is the opinion of these poor people that, if they can but have the happiness to be buried in a shroud smutted with this celestial fire, it will certainly secure them from the flames of hell.

See the whole of his circumstantial account of this imposture, and the ridiculous and abominable ceremonies with which it is accompanied, in his Journey from Aleppo to Jerusalem, edit. 5th, pp. 94-97; and let the reader thank God that he is not degraded with a superstition that renders the grace of the Gospel of none effect.

Calvin: Joh 19:1 - Then Pilate therefore took Jesus 1.Then Pilate therefore took Jesus Pilate adheres to his original intention; but to the former ignominy he adds a second, hoping that, when Christ sh...

1.Then Pilate therefore took Jesus Pilate adheres to his original intention; but to the former ignominy he adds a second, hoping that, when Christ shall have been scourged, the Jews will be satisfied with this light chastisement. When he labors so earnestly, and without any success, we ought to recognize in this the decree of Heaven, by which Christ was appointed to death. Yet his innocence is frequently attested by the testimony of the judge, in order to assure us that he was free from all sin, and that he was substituted as a guilty person in the room of others, and bore the punishment due to the sins of others. We see also in Pilate a remarkable example of a trembling conscience. He acquits Christ with his mouth, and acknowledges that there is no guilt in him, and yet inflicts punishment on him, as if he were guilty. Thus, they who have not so much courage as to defend, with unshaken constancy, what is right, must be driven hither and thither, and led to adopt opposite and conflicting opinions.

We all condemn Pilate; and yet, it is shameful to relate that there are so many Pilates 157 in the world, who scourge Christ, not only in his members, but also in his doctrine. There are many who, for the purpose of saving the life of those who are persecuted for the sake of the Gospel, constrain them wickedly to deny Christ. What is this, but to expose Christ to ridicule, that he may lead a dishonorable life? Others select and approve of certain parts of the Gospel, and yet tear the whole Gospel to pieces. They think that they have done exceedingly well, if they have corrected a few gross abuses. It would be better that the doctrine should be buried for a time, than that it should be scourged in this manner, for it would spring up again ill spite of the devil and of tyrants; but nothing is more difficult than to restore it to its purity after having been once corrupted.

Calvin: Joh 19:2 - And the soldiers, platting a crown of thorns 2.And the soldiers, platting a crown of thorns This was unquestionably done by the authority of Pilate, in order to affix a mark of infamy on the Son...

2.And the soldiers, platting a crown of thorns This was unquestionably done by the authority of Pilate, in order to affix a mark of infamy on the Son of God, for having made himself a king; and that in order to satisfy the rage of the Jews, as if he had been convinced that the accusations which they brought against Christ were well founded. Yet the wickedness and insolence of the soldiers is indulged more freely than had been ordered by the judge; as ungodly men eagerly seize on the opportunity of doing evil whenever it is offered to them. But we see here the amazing cruelty of the Jewish nation, 158 whose minds are not moved to compassion by so piteous a spectacle; but all this is directed by God, in order to reconcile the world to himself by the death of his Son.

Calvin: Joh 19:6 - Take you him 6.Take you him He did not wish to deliver Christ into their hands, or to abandon him to their fury; only he declares that he will not be their execut...

6.Take you him He did not wish to deliver Christ into their hands, or to abandon him to their fury; only he declares that he will not be their executioner. This is evident from the reason immediately added, when he says that he finds no guilt in him; as if he had said, that he will never be persuaded to shed innocent blood for their gratification. That it is only the priests and officers who demand that he shall be crucified, is evident from the circumstance that the madness of the people was not so great, except so far as those bellows contributed afterwards to kindle it.

Calvin: Joh 19:7 - We have a law 7.We have a law They mean that, in proceeding against Christ, they do what is right, and are not actuated by hatred or sinful passion; for they perce...

7.We have a law They mean that, in proceeding against Christ, they do what is right, and are not actuated by hatred or sinful passion; for they perceived that Pilate had indirectly reproved them. Now, they speak as in the presence of a man who was ignorant of the law; as if they had said, “We are permitted to live after our own manner, and our religion does not suffer any man to boast of being the Son of God. ” Besides, this accusation was not altogether void of plausibility, but they erred grievously in the application of it. The general doctrine was undoubtedly true, that it was not lawful for men to assume any honor which is due to God, and that they who claimed for themselves what is peculiar to God alone deserved to be put to death. But the source of their error related to the person of Christ, because they did not consider what are the titles given by Scripture to the Messiah, from which they might easily have learned that he was the Son of God, and did not even deign to inquire whether or not Jesus was the Messiah whom God had formerly promised.

We see, then, how they drew a false conclusion from a true principle, for they reason badly. This example warns us to distinguish carefully between a general doctrine and the application of it, 159 for there are many ignorant and unsteady persons who reject the very principles of Scripture, if they have once been deceived by the semblance of truth; and such licentiousness makes too great progress in the world every day. Let us, therefore, remember that we ought to guard against imposition, so that principles which are true may remain in all their force, and that the authority of Scripture may not be diminished.

On the other hand, we may easily find a reply to wicked men, who falsely and improperly allege the testimony of Scripture, and the principles which they draw from it, to support their bad designs; just as the Papists, when they extol in lofty terms the authority of the Church, bring forward nothing about which all the children of God are not agreed. They maintain that the Church is the mother of believers, that she is the pillar of truth, that she ought to be heard, that she is guided by the Holy Spirit. 160 All this we ought to admit, but when they wish to appropriate to themselves all the authority that is due to the Church, they wickedly, and with sacrilegious presumption, seize what does not at all belong to them. For we must inquire into the grounds of what they assume as true, that they deserve the title of The Church; and here they utterly fail. In like manner, when they exercise furious cruelty against all the godly, they do so on this pretence, that they have been ordained to defend the faith and peace of the Church. But when we examine the matter more closely, we plainly see that there is nothing which they have less at heart than the defense of true doctrine, that nothing affects them less than a care about peace and harmony, but that they only fight to uphold their own tyranny. They who are satisfied with general principles, and do not attend to the circumstances, imagine that the Papists do right in attacking us; but the investigation of the matter quickly dissipates that smoke by which they deceive the simple. 161

Calvin: Joh 19:8 - He was the more afraid 8.He was the more afraid These words may be explained in two ways. The first is, that Pilate dreaded lest some blame should be imputed to him, if a t...

8.He was the more afraid These words may be explained in two ways. The first is, that Pilate dreaded lest some blame should be imputed to him, if a tumult arose, because he had not condemned Christ. The second is, that, after having heard the name of the Son of God, his mind was moved by religion. This second view is confirmed by what immediately follows:

Calvin: Joh 19:9 - And he entered again into the hall, and said to Jesus; Whence Art Thou? // And Jesus gave him no answer 9.And he entered again into the hall, and said to Jesus; Whence Art Thou? It is evident from this that he was in a state of perplexity and anguish, b...

9.And he entered again into the hall, and said to Jesus; Whence Art Thou? It is evident from this that he was in a state of perplexity and anguish, because he was afraid that he would be punished for sacrilege, if he laid his hand on the Son of God It ought to be observed that, when he asks whence Christ is, he does not inquire about his country, but the meaning is, as if he had said, “Art thou a man born on the earth, or art thou some god?” The interpretation which I give to this passage, therefore, is, that Pilate, struck with the fear of God, was in perplexity and doubt as to what he ought to do; 162 for he saw, on the one hand, the excitement of a mutiny, and, on the other hand, conscience held him bound not to offend God for the sake of avoiding danger.

This example is highly worthy of observation. Though the countenance of Christ was so disfigured, yet, as soon as Pilate hears the name of God, he is seized with the fear of violating the majesty of God in a man who was utterly mean and despicable. If reverence for God had so much influence on an irreligious man, must not they be worse than reprobate, who now judge of divine things in sport and jest, carelessly, and without any fear? for, indeed, Pilate is a proof that men have naturally a sentiment of religion, which does not suffer them to rush fearlessly in any direction they choose, when the question relates to divine things. This is the reason why I said that those who, in handling the doctrine of Scripture, are not more impressed with the majesty of God, than if they had been disputing about the shadow of an ass, are given up to a reprobate mind, (Rom 1:28.) Yet they will one day feel to their destruction, what veneration is due to the name of God, which they now treat with such disdainful and outrageous mockery. It is shocking to relate how haughtily the Papists condemn the plain and ascertained truth of God, and with what cruelty they shed innocent blood. Whence, I beseech you, comes that drunken stupidity, but because they do not recollect that they have anything to do with God?

And Jesus gave him no answer We ought not to think it strange that Jesus makes no reply; at least, if we keep in mind what I have formerly mentioned, that he did not stand before Pilate to plead his own cause, — as is customary with persons accused who are desirous to be acquitted, — but rather to suffer condemnation; for it was proper that he should be condemned, when he appeared in our room. This is the reason why he makes no defense; and yet Christ’s silence is not inconsistent with what Paul says,

Remember that Christ, before Pilate, made a good confession,
(1Ti 6:13;)

for there he maintained the faith of the Gospel, as far as was necessary, and his death was nothing else than the sealing of the doctrine delivered by him. Christ left nothing undone of what was necessary to make a lawful confession, but he kept silence as to asking an acquittal. Besides, there was some danger that Pilate would acquit Christ as one of the pretended gods, as Tiberius wished to rank him among the gods of the Romans. Justly, therefore, does Christ, by his silence, frown on this foolish superstition.

Calvin: Joh 19:10 - Knowest thou not that I have power to crucify thee? 10.Knowest thou not that I have power to crucify thee? This shows that the dread with which Pilate had been suddenly seized was transitory, and had n...

10.Knowest thou not that I have power to crucify thee? This shows that the dread with which Pilate had been suddenly seized was transitory, and had no solid root; for now, forgetting all fear, he breaks out into haughty and monstrous contempt of God. He threatens Christ, as if there had not been a Judge in heaven; but this must always happen with irreligious men, that, shaking off the fear of God, they quickly return to their natural disposition. Hence also we infer, that it is not without good reason that the heart of man is called deceitful, (Jer 17:9;) for, though some fear of God dwells in it, there likewise comes from it mere impiety. Whoever, then, is not regenerated by the Spirit of God, though he pretend for a time to reverence the majesty of God, will quickly show, by opposite facts, that this fear was hypocritical.

Again, we see in Pilate an image of a proud man, who is driven to madness by his ambition; for, when he wishes to exalt his power, he deprives himself of all praise and reputation for justice. He acknowledges that Christ is innocent, and therefore he makes himself no better than a robber, when he boasts that he has power to cut his throat! Thus, wicked consciences, in which faith and the true knowledge of God do not reign, must necessarily be agitated, and there must be within them various feelings of the flesh, which contend with each other; and in this manner God takes signal vengeance on the pride of men, when they go beyond their limits, so as to claim for themselves infinite power. By condemning themselves for injustice, they stamp on themselves the greatest reproach and disgrace. No blindness, therefore, is greater than that of pride; and we need not wonder, since pride feels the hand of God, against which it strikes, to be armed with vengeance. Let us therefore remember, that we ought not rashly to indulge in foolish boastings, lest we expose ourselves to ridicule; and especially that those who occupy a high rank ought to conduct themselves modestly, and not to be ashamed of being subject to God and to his laws.

Calvin: Joh 19:11 - Thou wouldest have no power // Therefore he who delivered me to thee 11.Thou wouldest have no power Some explain this in a general sense, that nothing is done in the world but by the permission of God; as if Christ had...

11.Thou wouldest have no power Some explain this in a general sense, that nothing is done in the world but by the permission of God; as if Christ had said, that Pilate, though he thinks that he can do all things, will do nothing more than God permits. The statement is, no doubt, true, that this world is regulated by the disposal of God, and that, whatever may be the efforts of wicked men, still they cannot even move a finger but as the secret power of God directs. But I prefer the opinion of those who confine this passage to the office of the magistrate; for by these words Christ rebukes the foolish boasting of Pilate, in extolling himself, as if his power had not been from God; as if he had said, Thou claimest every thing for thyself’, as if thou hadst not to render an account one day to God; but it was not without His providence that thou wast made a judge. Consider, then, that His heavenly throne is far higher than thy tribunal. It is impossible to find any admonition better fitted to repress the insolence of those who rule over others, that they may not abuse their authority. The father imagines that he may do what he pleases towards his children, the husband towards his wife, the master towards his servants, the prince towards his people, unless when they look to God, who hath determined that their authority shall be limited by a fixed rule.

Therefore he who delivered me to thee Some think that this declares the Jews to be more guilty than Pilate, because, with wicked hatred and malicious treachery, they are enraged against an innocent man, that is, those of them who were private individuals, and not clothed with lawful authority. But I think that this circumstance renders their guilt more heinous and less excusable on another ground, that they constrain a divinely appointed government to comply with their lawless desires; for it is a monstrous sacrilege to pervert a holy ordinance of God for promoting any wickedness. The robber, who, with his own hand, cuts the throat of a wretched passenger, is justly held in abhorrence; but he who, under the forms of a judicial trial, puts to death an innocent man, is much more wicked. Yet Christ does not aggravate their guilt, for the purpose of extenuating that of Pilate; for he does not institute a comparison between him and them, but rather includes them all in the same condemnation, because they equally pollute a holy power. There is only this difference, that he makes direct attack on the Jews, but indirectly censures Pilate, who complies with their wicked desire.

Calvin: Joh 19:12 - From that time Pilate sought to release him // Thou art not Caesar’s friend 12.From that time Pilate sought to release him Though Pilate does not conduct himself conscientiously, and is actuated more by ambition than by a r...

12.From that time Pilate sought to release him Though Pilate does not conduct himself conscientiously, and is actuated more by ambition than by a regard to justice, and, on that account, is wretchedly irresolute, yet his modesty is commendable on this ground, that, when he is severely reproved by Christ, he does not fly into a passion, but, on the contrary, is still more disposed to release him. He is a judge, and yet he meekly permits the accused person to be his reprover; and, indeed, scarcely one person in a hundred will be found, who so mildly suffers a reproof, even from one who is his equal.

Thou art not Caesar’s friend By threats they prevail on Pilate to condemn Christ; for they could do nothing that was more hateful, or more fitted to produce terror, than to hold him suspected of disloyalty to Caesar. “Thou showest,” say they, “that thou dost not care about Caesar’s authority, if thou acquit him who has endeavored to throw every thing into confusion.” This wickedness at length broke down the resolution of Pilate, who, till now, had only been shaken by their furious clamours. Nor is it without a good reason that the Evangelist so laboriously examines and details those circumstances; for it is of great importance to us to know, that Pilate did not condemn Christ, before he had several times acquitted him with his own mouth, in order that we may learn from it, that it was for our sins that he was condemned, and not on his own account. We may also learn from it, how voluntarily he offered himself to die, when he disdained to avail himself of the favorable disposition of the judge towards him; and, indeed, it was this obedience that caused his death to be a sacrifice of sweet savour, (Eph 5:2,) for blotting out all sins.

Calvin: Joh 19:13 - And sat down on the judgment-seat // In the place which is called the Stone-pavement, but in the Hebrew, Gabbatha 13.And sat down on the judgment-seat Hence we see what conflicting opinions passed through the mind of Pilate, as if he had been a stage-player who w...

13.And sat down on the judgment-seat Hence we see what conflicting opinions passed through the mind of Pilate, as if he had been a stage-player who was acting two characters. He ascends the judgment-seat, in order to pronounce sentence of death on Christ solemnly, and in the customary form; 164 and yet he declares openly, that he does so reluctantly and against his conscience. When he calls Christ king, he speaks ironically, meaning that it was a trivial charge which the Jews brought against him; or rather, for the purpose of allaying their fury, he warns them, that it would bring disgrace on the whole nation, if a report were spread abroad, that a person of that nation had been condemned to die for aspiring to kingly power.

In the place which is called the Stone-pavement, but in the Hebrew, Gabbatha When the Evangelist says, that גבתא ( Gabbatha) was the name of the place in Hebrew he means the Chaldaic or Syriac language, which was then in common use; for in Hebrew, גבה ( Gabach) means to be lofty. It was proper, therefore, that Christ should be condemned from a lofty place, that he, coming from heaven as the supreme Judge, may acquit us at the last day.

Calvin: Joh 19:14 - About the sixth hour 14.About the sixth hour The Evangelists appear to differ, and even to contradict each other, in the computation of time. The other three Evangelists ...

14.About the sixth hour The Evangelists appear to differ, and even to contradict each other, in the computation of time. The other three Evangelists say that the darkness came on about the sixth hour, while Christ was hanging on the cross, (Mat 27:45; Mar 15:33; Luk 23:44.) Mark, too says expressly that it was the third hour when the sentence was pronounced on him, (Mar 15:25.) But this may be easily explained. It is plain enough from other passages that the day was at that time divided into four parts, as the night also contained four watches; in consequence of which, the Evangelists sometimes allot not more than four hours to each day, and extend each hour to three, and, at the same time, reckon the space of an hour, which was drawing to a close, as belonging to the next part. According to this calculation, John relates that Christ was condemned about the sixth hour, because the time of the day was drawing towards the sixth hour, or towards the second part of the day. Hence we infer that Christ was crucified at or about the sixth hour; for, as the Evangelist afterwards mentions, (Joh 19:20,) the place was near to the city. The darkness began between the sixth and ninth hour, and lasted till the ninth hour, at which time Christ died.

Calvin: Joh 19:15 - We have no king but Caesar 15.We have no king but Caesar This is a display of shocking madness, that the priests, who ought to have been well acquainted with the Law, reject Ch...

15.We have no king but Caesar This is a display of shocking madness, that the priests, who ought to have been well acquainted with the Law, reject Christ, in whom the salvation of the people was wholly contained, on whom all the promises depended, and on whom the whole of their religion was founded; and, indeed, by rejecting Christ, they deprive themselves of the grace of God and of every blessing. We see, then, what insanity had seized them. Let us suppose that Jesus Christ was not the Christ; 165 still they have no excuse for acknowledging no other king but Caesar. For, first, they revolt from the spiritual kingdom of God; and, secondly, they prefer the tyranny of the Roman Empire, which they greatly abhorred, to a just government, such as God had promised to them. Thus wicked men, in order to fly from Christ, not only deprive themselves of eternal life, but draw down on their heads every kind of miseries. On the other hand, the sole happiness of the godly is, to be subject to the royal authority of Christ, whether, according to the flesh, they are placed under a just and lawful government, under the oppression of tyrants.

Calvin: Joh 19:16 - Then, therefore, he delivered him to them to be crucified 16.Then, therefore, he delivered him to them to be crucified Pilate was, no doubt constrained by their importunity to deliver Christ; and yet this ...

16.Then, therefore, he delivered him to them to be crucified Pilate was, no doubt constrained by their importunity to deliver Christ; and yet this was not done in a tumultuous manner, but he was solemnly condemned in the ordinary form, because there were also two robbers who, after having been tried, were at the same time condemned to be crucified. But John employs this expression, in order to make it more fully evident that Christ, though he had not been convicted of any crime, was given up to the insatiable cruelty of the people.

Calvin: Joh 19:17 - He went forth to a place 17.He went forth to a place The circumstances which are here related contribute greatly, not only to show the truth of the narrative, but likewise to...

17.He went forth to a place The circumstances which are here related contribute greatly, not only to show the truth of the narrative, but likewise to build up our faith. We must look for righteousness through the satisfaction made by Christ. To prove that he is the sacrifice for our sins, he wished both to be led out of the city, and to be hanged on a tree; for the custom was, in compliance with the injunction of the Law, that the sacrifices, the blood of which was shed for sin, were carried out of the camp, (Lev 6:30;) and the same Law declares that

he who hangeth on a tree is accursed,
(Deu 21:23.)

Both were fulfilled in Christ, that we might be fully convinced that atonement has been made for our sins by the sacrifice of his death; that

he was made subject to the curse, in order that he might redeem us from the curse of the law,
(Gal 3:13;)

that

he was made sin, in order that we might be the righteousness of God in him,
(2Co 5:21;)

that he was led out of the city, in order that he might carry with him, and take away, our defilements which were laid on him, (Heb 12:12.) To the same purpose is the statement about the robbers, which immediately follows: —

Calvin: Joh 19:18 - And two others with him, on either side one, and Jesus in the midst 18.And two others with him, on either side one, and Jesus in the midst As if the severity of the punishment had not been sufficient of itself, he is ...

18.And two others with him, on either side one, and Jesus in the midst As if the severity of the punishment had not been sufficient of itself, he is hanged in the midst between two robbers, as if he not only had deserved to be classed with other robbers, but had been the most wicked and the most detestable of them all. We ought always to remember, that the wicked executioners of Christ did nothing but what had been determined by the hand and purpose of God; 167 for God did not surrender his Son to their lawless passions, but determined that, according to his own will and good pleasure, he should be offered as a sacrifice. And if there were the best reasons for the purpose of God in all those things which he determined that his Son should suffer, we ought to consider, on the one hand, the dreadful weight of his wrath against sin, and, on the other hand, his infinite goodness towards us. In no other way could our guilt be removed than by the Son of God becoming a curse for us. We see him driven out into an accursed place, as if he had been polluted by a mass of all sorts of crimes, that there he might appear to be accursed before God and men. Assuredly we are prodigiously stupid, if we do not plainly see in this mirror with what abhorrence God regards sin; and we are harder than stones, if we do not tremble at such a judgment as this.

When, on the other hand, God declares that our salvation was so dear to him, that he did not spare his only-begotten Son, what abundant goodness and what astonishing grace do we here behold! Whoever, then, takes a just view of the causes of the death of Christ, together with the advantage which it yields to us, will not, like the Greeks, regard the doctrlne of the cross as foolishness, nor, like the Jews, will he regard it as an offense, (1Co 1:23,) but rather as an invaluable token and pledge of the power, and wisdom, and righteousness, and goodness of God.

When John says, that the name of the place was Golgotha, he means that, in the Chaldaic or Syriac language, it was called גלגלתא , ( Gulgaltha.) The name is derived from גלגל , ( Gilgel, 168) which signifies, to roll; because a skull is round like a ball or globe. 169

Calvin: Joh 19:19 - And Pilate wrote also a title 19.And Pilate wrote also a title The Evangelist relates a memorable action of Pilate, after having pronounced the sentence. It is perhaps true that i...

19.And Pilate wrote also a title The Evangelist relates a memorable action of Pilate, after having pronounced the sentence. It is perhaps true that it was customary to affix titles, when malefactors were executed, that the cause of the punishment might be known to all, and might serve the purpose of an example. But in Christ there is this extraordinary circumstance, that the title which is affixed to him implies no disgrace; for Pilate’s intention was, to avenge himself indirectly on the Jews, (who, by their obstinacy, had extorted from him an unjust sentence of death on an innocent man,) and, in the person of Christ, to throw blame on the whole nation. Thus he does not brand Christ with the commission of any crime.

But the providence of God, which guided the pen of Pilate, had a higher object in view. It did not, indeed, occur to Pilate to celebrate Christ as the Author of salvation, and the Nazarene of God, and the King of a chosen people; but God dictated to him this commendation of the Gospel, though he knew not the meaning of what he wrote. It. was the same secret guidance of the Spirit that caused the title to be published in three languages; for it is not probable that this was an ordinary practice, but the Lord showed, by this preparatory arrangement, that the time was now at hand, when the name of his Son should be made known throughout the whole earth.

Calvin: Joh 19:21 - The chief priests of the Jews said therefore to Pilate 21.The chief priests of the Jews said therefore to Pilate They feel that they are sharply rebuked; and, therefore, they would wish that the title w...

21.The chief priests of the Jews said therefore to Pilate They feel that they are sharply rebuked; and, therefore, they would wish that the title were changed, so as not to involve the nation in disgrace, but to throw the whole blame on Christ. But yet they do not conceal their deep hatred of the truth, since the smallest spark of it is more than they are able to endure. Thus Satan always prompts his servants to endeavor to extinguish, or, at least, to choke, by their own darkness, the light of God, as soon as the feeblest ray of it appears.

Calvin: Joh 19:22 - What I have written I have written 22.What I have written I have written Pilate’s firmness must be ascribed to the providence of God; for there can be no doubt that they attempted, i...

22.What I have written I have written Pilate’s firmness must be ascribed to the providence of God; for there can be no doubt that they attempted, in various ways, to change his resolution. Let us know, therefore, that he was held by a Divine hand, so that he remained unmoved. Pilate did not yield to the prayers of the priests, and did not allow himself to be corrupted by them; but God testified, by his mouth, the firmness and stability of the kingdom of his Son. And if, in the writing of Pilate, the kingdom of Christ was shown to be so firm that it could not be shaken by all the attacks of its enemies, what value ought we to attach to the testimonies of the Prophets, whose tongues and hands God consecrated to his service?

The example of Pilate reminds us, also, that it is our duty to remain steady in defending the truth. A heathen refuses to retract what he has justly and properly written concerning Christ, though he did not understand or consider what he was doing. How great, then, will be our dishonor, if, terrified by threatenigs or dangers, we withdraw from the profession of his doctrine, which God hath sealed on our hearts by his Spirit! Besides, it ought to be observed how detestable is the tyranny of the Papists, which prohibits the reading of the Gospel, and of the whole of the Scripture, by the common people. Pilate, though he was a reprobate man, and, in other respects, an instrument of Satan, was nevertheless, by a secret guidance, appointed to be a herald of the Gospel, that he might publish a short summary of it in three languages. What rank, therefore, shall we assign to those who do all that they can to suppress the knowledge of it, since they show that they are worse than Pilate?

Calvin: Joh 19:23 - Then the soldiers 23.Then the soldiers The other Evangelists also mention the parting of Christ’s garments among the soldiers, (Mat 27:35; Mar 15:24; Luk 23:34.)...

23.Then the soldiers The other Evangelists also mention the parting of Christ’s garments among the soldiers, (Mat 27:35; Mar 15:24; Luk 23:34.) There were four soldiers who parted among themselves all his garments, except the coat, which, being without seam could not be divided, and therefore they cast lots on it. To fix our minds on the contemplation of the purpose of God, the Evangelists remind us that, in this occurrence also, there was a fulfillment of Scripture. It may be thought, however, that the passage, which they quote from Psa 22:19, is inappropriately applied to the subject in hand; for, though David complains in it that he was exposed as a prey to his enemies, he makes use of the word garments to denote metaphorically all his property; as if he had said, in a single word, that “he had been stripped naked and bare by wicked men;” and, when the Evangelists disregard the figure, they depart from the natural meaning of the passage. But we ought to remember, in the first place, that the psalm ought not to be restricted to David, as is evident from many parts of it, and especially from a clause in which it is written, I will proclaim thy name among the Gentiles, (Psa 22:22) which must be explained as referring to Christ. We need not wonder, therefore, if that which was faintly shadowed out in David is beheld in Christ with all that superior clearness which the truth ought to have, as compared with the figurative representation of it.

Let us also learn that. Christ was stripped of his garments, that he might clothe us with righteousness; that his naked body was exposed to the insults of men, that we may appear in glory before the judgment-seat of God. As to the allegorical meaning to which some men have tortured this passage, by making it mean, that heretics tear Scripture in pieces, it is too far-fetched; though I would not object to such a comparison as this, —that, as the garments of Christ were once divided by ungodly soldiers, so, in the present day, there are perverse men who, by foreign inventions, tear the whole of the Scripture, with which Christ is clothed, in order that he may be manifested to us. But the wickedness of the Papists, accompanied by shocking blasphemy against God, is intolerable. They tell us, that Scripture is torn to pieces by heretics, but that the coat that is, the Church — remains entire; and thus they endeavor to prove that, without paying any attention to the authority of Scripture, the unity of faith consists in the mere title of the Church; as if the unity of the Church were itself founded on any thing else than the authority of Scripture. When, therefore, they separate faith from Scripture, so that it may continue to be attached to the Church alone, by such a divorce they not only strip Christ of his garments, but tear in pieces his body by shocking sacrilege. And though we should admit what they maintain, that the coat without seam is a figure of the Church, they will be very far from gaining their point: for it will still remain to be proved, that the Church is placed under their authority, of which they show no sign whatever.

Calvin: Joh 19:25 - Now there stood by the cross of Jesus // Mary of Cleophas, and Mary Magdalene 25.Now there stood by the cross of Jesus The Evangelist here mentions incidentally, that while Christ obeyed God the Father, he did not fail to perfo...

25.Now there stood by the cross of Jesus The Evangelist here mentions incidentally, that while Christ obeyed God the Father, he did not fail to perform the duty which he owed, as a son, towards his mother. True, he forgot himself, and he forgot every thing, so far as was necessary for the discharge of obedience to his Father, but, after having performed that duty, he did not neglect what he owed to his mother. Hence we learn in what manner we ought to discharge our duty towards God and towards men. It often happens that, when God calls us to the performance of any thing, our parents, or wife, or children, draw us in a contrary direction, so that we cannot give equal satisfaction to all. If we place men in the same rank with God, we judge amiss. We must, therefore, give the preference to the command, the worship, and the service of God; after which, as far as we are able, we must give to men what is their due.

And yet the commands of the first and second table of the Law never jar with each other, though at first sight they appear to do so; but we must begin with the worship of God, and afterwards assign to men an inferior place. Such is the import of the following statements:

He who loveth father or mother more than me, is not worthy of me,
(Mat 10:41;)

and,

If any one hate not his father, and mother, and wife, and children, and brethren, and sisters, he cannot be my disciple,
(Luk 14:26.)

We ought, therefore, to devote ourselves to the interests of men, so as not in any degree to interfere with the worship and obedience which we owe to God. When we have obeyed God, it will then be the proper time to think about parents, and wife, and children; as Christ attends to his mother, but it is after that he is on the cross, to which he has been called by his Father’s decree.

Yet, if we attend to the time and place when these things happened, Christ’s affection for his mother was worthy of admiration. I say nothing about the severe tortures of his body; I say nothing about the reproaches which he suffered; but, though horrible blasphemies against God filled his mind with inconceivable grief, and though he sustained a dreadful contest with eternal death and with the devil, still, none of these things prevent him from being anxious about his mother. We may also learn from this passage, what is the honor which God, by the Law, commands us to render to parents, (Exo 20:12.) Christ appoints the disciple to be his substitute, and charges him to support and take care of his mother; and hence it follows, that the honor which is due to parents consists, not in cold ceremony, 171 but in the discharge of all necessary duties.

On the other hand, we ought to consider the faith of those holy women 172 It is true that, in following Christ to the cross, they displayed more than ordinary affection; but, if they had not been supported by faith they could never have been present at this exhibition. As to John himself, we infer that, though his faith was choked for a short time, it was not wholly extinguished. How shameful will it be, if the dread of the cross deters us from following Christ, when the glory of his resurrection is placed before our eyes, whereas the women beheld in it nothing but disgrace and cursing!

Mary of Cleophas, and Mary Magdalene He calls her either the wife or the daughter of Cleophas; but I prefer the latter interpretation. 173 He says, that she was the sister of the mother of Jesus, and, in saying so, he adopts the phraseology of the Hebrew language, which includes cousins, and other relatives, 174 under the term brothers. We see that it was not in vain that Mary Magdalene was delivered from seven devils, (Mar 16:9; Luk 8:2;) since she showed hersclf, to the last, to be so faithful a disciple to Christ.

Calvin: Joh 19:26 - Woman, behold thy son! // Behold thy mother! 26.Woman, behold thy son! 175 As if he had said, “Henceforth I shall not be an inhabitant of the earth, so as to have it in my power to discharge t...

26.Woman, behold thy son! 175 As if he had said, “Henceforth I shall not be an inhabitant of the earth, so as to have it in my power to discharge to thee the duties of a son; and, therefore, I put this man in my room, that he may perform my office.” The same thing is meant, when he says to John,

Behold thy mother! For by these words he charges him to treat her as a mother, and to take as much care of her as if she had been his own mother.

In refraining from mentioning his mother’s name and in simply calling her Woman! some think that he did so, in order not to pierce her heart with a deeper wound. I do not object to this view; but there is another conjecture which is equally probable, that Christ intended to show that, after having completed the course of human life, he lays down the condition in which he had lived, and enters into the heavenly kingdom, where he will exercise dominion over angels and men; for we know that Christ was always accustomed to guard believers against looking at the flesh, and it was especially necessary that this should be done at his death.

Calvin: Joh 19:27 - The disciple took her to his own home 27.The disciple took her to his own home It is a token of the reverence due by a disciple to his master, that John so readily obeys the command of ...

27.The disciple took her to his own home It is a token of the reverence due by a disciple to his master, that John so readily obeys the command of Christ. Hence also it is evident, that the Apostles had their families; for John could not have exercised hospitality towards the mother of Christ, or have taken her to his own home, if he had not had a house and a regular way of living. Those men, therefore, are fools, who think that the Apostles relinquished their property, and came to Christ naked and empty; but they are worse than fools, who make perfection to consist in beggary.

Calvin: Joh 19:28 - Jesus, knowing that all things were now accomplished // That the Scripture might be fulfilled // I thirst 28.Jesus, knowing that all things were now accomplished John purposely passes by many things which are related by the other three Evangelists. He now...

28.Jesus, knowing that all things were now accomplished John purposely passes by many things which are related by the other three Evangelists. He now describes the last act, which was an event of the greatest importance.When John says that a vessel was placed there, he speaks of it as a thing that was customary. There has been much controversy on this subject; but I agree with those who think (and, indeed, the custom is proved by histories) that it was a kind of beverage usually administered for the purpose of accelerating the death of wretched malefactors, when they had undergone sufficient torture 176 Now, it ought to be remarked, that Christ does not ask any thing to drink till all things have been accomplished; and thus he testified his infinite love towards us, and the inconceivable earnestness of his desire to promote our salvation. No words can fully express the bitterness of the sorrows which he endured; and yet he does not desire to be freed from them, till the justice of God has been satisfied, and till he has made a perfect atonement. 177

But how does he say, that all things were accomplished, while the most important part still remained to be performed, that is, his death? Besides, does not his resurrection contribute to the accomplishment of our salvation? I answer, John includes those things which were immediately to follow. Christ had not yet died: and had not yet risen again; but he saw that nothing now remained to hinder him from going forward to death and resurrection. In this manner he instructs us, by his own example, to render perfect obedience, that we may not think it hard to live according to his good pleasure, even though we must languish in the midst of the most excruciating pains.

That the Scripture might be fulfilled From what is stated by the other Evangelists, (Mat 27:48; Mar 15:23; Luk 23:36,) it may readily be concluded that the passage referred to is Psa 69:21,

They gave me gall for my food, and in my thirst they gave me vinegar to drink.

It is, undoubtedly, a metaphorical expression, and David means by it, not only that they refused to him the assistance which he needed, but that they cruelly aggravated his distresses. But there is no inconsistency in saying that what had been dimly shadowed out in David was more clearly exhibited in Christ: for thus we are enabled more fully to perceive the difference between truth and figures, when those things which David suffered, only in a figurative manner, are distinctly and perfectly manifested in Christ. To show that he was the person whom David represented, Christ chose to drink vinegar; and he did so for the purpose of strengthening our faith.

I thirst Those who contrive a metaphorical meaning for the word thirst, as if he meant that, instead of a pleasant and agreeable beverage, they gave him bitterness, as if they intended to flay his throat, 178 are more desirous to be thought ingenious than to promote true edification; and, indeed, they are expressly refuted by the Evangelist, who says that Christ asked for vinegar when he was near death; from which it is evident that he did not desire any luxuries. 179

Calvin: Joh 19:29 - And, having filled a sponge with vinegar, they fixed it on hyssop 29.And, having filled a sponge with vinegar, they fixed it on hyssop When he says that they fixed the sponge on hyssop, the meaning is, that they f...

29.And, having filled a sponge with vinegar, they fixed it on hyssop When he says that they fixed the sponge on hyssop, the meaning is, that they fastened it to the end of a bunch of hyssop, that it might be raised to Christ’s mouth; for, in that country, hyssops grow as large as small shrubs, 180

Calvin: Joh 19:30 - It is finished // He yielded up his breath 30.It is finished He repeats the same word which he had lately employed, 181 Now this word, which Christ employs, well deserves our attention; for it...

30.It is finished He repeats the same word which he had lately employed, 181 Now this word, which Christ employs, well deserves our attention; for it shows that the whole accomplishment of our salvation, and all the parts of it, are contained in his death. We have already stated that his resurrection is not separated from his death, but Christ only intends to keep our faith fixed on himself alone, and not to allow it to turn aside in any direction whatever. The meaning, therefore, is, that every thing which contributes to the salvation of men is to be found in Christ, and ought not to be sought anywhere else; or — which amounts to the same thing — that the perfection of salvation is contained in him.

There is also an implied contrast; for Christ contrasts his death with the ancient sacrifices and with all the figures; as if he had said,” Of all that was practiced under the Law, there was nothing that had any power in itself to make atonement for sins, to appease the wrath of God, and to obtain justification; but now the true salvation is exhibited and manifested to the world.” On this doctrine depends the abolition of all the ceremonies of the Law; for it would be absurd to follow shadows, since we have the body in Christ.

If we give our assent to this word which Christ pronounced, we ought to be satisfied with his death alone for salvation, and we are not at liberty to apply for assistance in any other quarter; for he who was sent by the Heavenly Father to obtain for us a full acquittal, and to accomplish our redemption, knew well what belonged to his office, and did not fail in what he knew to be demanded of him. It was chiefly for the purpose of giving peace and tranquillity to our consciences that he pronounced this word, It is finished. Let us stop here, therefore, if we do not choose to be deprived of the salvation which he has procured for us. 182

But the whole religion of Popery tends to lead men to contrive for themselves innumerable methods of seeking salvation; and hence we infer, that it is full to overflowing with abominable sacrileges. More especially, this word of Christ condemns the abomination of the Mass. All the sacrifices of the Law must have ceased, for the salvation of men has been completed by the one sacrifice of the death of Christ. What right, then, have the Papists, or what plausible excuse can they assign for saying, that they are authorised to prepare a new sacrifice, to reconcile God to men? They reply that it is not a new sacrifice, but the very sacrifice which Christ offered. But this is easily refuted; for, in the first place, they have no command to offer it; and, secondly, Christ, having once accomplished, by a single oblation, all that was necessary to be done, declares, from the cross, that all is finished. They are worse than forgers, therefore, for they wickedly corrupt and falsify the testament sealed by the precious blood of the Son of God.

He yielded up his breath All the Evangelists take great care to mention the death of Christ, and most properly; for we obtain from it our confident hope of life, and we likewise obtain from it a fearless triumph over death, because the Son of God has endured it in our room, and, in his contest with it, has been victorious. But we must attend to the phraseology which John employs, and which teaches us, that all believers, who die with Christ, peacefully commit their souls to the guardianship of God, who is faithful, and will not suffer to perish what he hath undertaken to preserve. The children of God, as well as the reprobate, die; but there is this difference between them, that the reprobate give up the soul, without knowing where it goes, or what becomes of it; 183 while the children of God commit it, as a precious trust, to the protection of God, who will faithfully guard it till the day of the resurrection. The word breath is manifestly used here to denote the immortal soul.

Calvin: Joh 19:31 - For it was the preparation // And it was the great day of that Sabbath 31.For it was the preparation This narrative also tends to the edification of our faith; first, because it shows that what had been foretold in the S...

31.For it was the preparation This narrative also tends to the edification of our faith; first, because it shows that what had been foretold in the Scriptures is fulfilled in the person of Christ; and, secondly, because it contains a mystery of no ordinary value. The Evangelist says, that the Jews besought that the bodies might be taken down from the crosses. This had undoubtedly been enjoined by the Law of God; but the Jews, as is usually the case with hypocrites, direct their whole attention to small matters, and yet pass by the greatest crimes without any hesitation; for, in order to a strict observance of their Sabbath, they are careful to avoid outward pollution; and yet they do not consider how shocking a crime it is to take away the life of an innocent man. Thus we saw a little before, that

they did not enter into the governor’s hall, that they might not be defiled,
(Joh 18:28,)

while the whole country was polluted by their wickedness. Yet, by their agency, the Lord carries into effect what was of the greatest importance for our salvation, that, by a wonderful arrangement, the body of Christ remains uninjured, and blood and water low out of his side.

And it was the great day of that Sabbath 185 Another reading more generally approved is, and that Sabbath-day was great; but the reading which I have adopted is supported by many manuscripts that are ancient and of great authority. Let the reader choose for himself. If we read ἐκείνου in the genitive case, (ἐκείνου τοῦ σαββάτου of that Sabbath) the word Sabbath must be understood to denote the week; as if the Evangelist had said, that the festival of that week was very solemn, on account of the Passover. Note, the Evangelist speaks of the following day, which began at sunset. But, if we choose rather to read ἐκείνη, in the nominative case, ἦν γὰρ μεγάλη ἡ ἡμέρα ἐκείνη τοῦ σαββάτου, and That was the great day of the Sabbath, the meaning will be nearly the same in substance; only there would be this difference in the words, that the Passover, which was to take place on the following day, would render that Sabbath more solemn.

Calvin: Joh 19:33 - But when they came to Jesus, and saw that he was already dead 33.But when they came to Jesus, and saw that he was already dead That they break the legs of the two robbers, and after having done so, find that Chr...

33.But when they came to Jesus, and saw that he was already dead That they break the legs of the two robbers, and after having done so, find that Christ is already dead, and therefore do not touch his body, appears to be a very extraordinary work of the providence of God. Ungodly men will, no doubt, say that it happens naturally that one man dies sooner than another; but, if we examine carefully the whole course of the narrative, we shall be constrained to ascribe it to the secret purpose of God, that the death of Christ was brought on much more rapidly than men could have at all expected, and that this prevented his legs from being broken.

Calvin: Joh 19:34 - But one of the soldiers pierced his side with a spear // And immediately there came out blood and water 34.But one of the soldiers pierced his side with a spear When the soldier pierced Christ’s side with his spear, he did so for the purpose of asce...

34.But one of the soldiers pierced his side with a spear When the soldier pierced Christ’s side with his spear, he did so for the purpose of ascertaining if he was dead; but God had a higher object in view, as we shall immediately see. It was a childish contrivance of the Papists, when, out of the Greek word λόγχε, which means a spear, 186 they manufactured the proper name of a man, and called this soldier Longinus, and, to give an air of plausibility to their story, foolishly alleged that he had been formerly blind, and that, after having received his sight, he was converted to the faith. Thus they have placed him in the catalogue of the saints. 187 Since their prayers, whenever they call on God, rest on such intercessors, what, I ask, will they ever be able to obtain? But they who despise Christ, and seek the intercessions of the dead, deserve that the devil should drive them to ghosts and phantoms.

And immediately there came out blood and water Some men have deceived themselves by imagining that this was a miracle; for it is natural that the blood, when it is congealed, should lose its red color, and come to resemble water. It is well known also that water is contained in the membrane which immediately adjoins the intestines. What has led them astray is, that the Evangelist takes so much pains to explain that blood flowed along with the water, as if he were relating something unusual and contrary to the order of nature. But he had quite a different intention; namely, to accommodate his narrative to the passages of Scripture which he immediately subjoins, and more especially that believers might infer from it what he states elsewhere, that Christ came with water and blood, (1Jo 5:6.) By these words he means that Christ brought the true atonement and the true washing; for, on the one hand, forgiveness of sins and justification, and, on the other hand, the sanctification of the soul, were prefigured in the Law by those two symbols, sacrifices and washings. In sacrifices, blood atoned for sins, and was the ransom for appeasing the wrath of God. Washings were the tokens of true holiness, and the remedies for taking away uncleanness and removing the pollutions of the flesh.

That faith may no longer rest on these elements, John declares that the fulfillment of both of these graces is in Christ; and here he presents to us a visible token of the same fact. The sacraments which Christ has left to his Church have the same design; for the purification and sanctification of the soul, which consists in newness of life, (Rom 6:4,) is pointed out to us in Baptism, and the Lord’s Supper is the pledge of a perfect atonement. But they differ widely from the ancient figures of the Law; for they exhibit Christ as being present, whereas the figures of the Law pointed out that he was still at a distance. For this reason I do not object to what Augustine says, that our sacraments have flowed from Christ’s side; for, when Baptism and the Lord’s Supper lead us to Christ’s side, that by faith we may draw from it, as from a fbuntain, what they represent, then are we truly washed from our pollutions, and renewed to a holy life, and then do we truly live before God, redeemed from death, and delivered from condemnation.

Calvin: Joh 19:36 - A bone of him shall not be broken 36.A bone of him shall not be broken This citation is made from Exo 12:46, and Num 9:12, where Moses treats of the paschal lamb. Note, Moses takes fo...

36.A bone of him shall not be broken This citation is made from Exo 12:46, and Num 9:12, where Moses treats of the paschal lamb. Note, Moses takes for granted that that lamb was a figure of the true and only sacrifice, by which the Church was to be redeemed. Nor is this inconsistent with the fact, that it was sacrificed as the memorial of a redemption which had been already made; for, while God intended that it should celebrate the former favor, he also intended that it should exhibit the spiritual deliverance of the Church, which was still future. On that account Paul, without any hesitation, applies to Christ the rule which Moses lays down about eating the lamb:

for even Christ, our Passover, is sacred for us. Therefore let us keep the feast, not with old leaven, neither with, the leaven of malice and wickedness, but with the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth,
(1Co 5:7.)

From this analogy, or resemblance, faith derives no ordinary advantage, for, in all the ceremonies of the Law, it beholds the salvation which has been manifested in Christ. Such is also the design of the Evangelist John, when he says that Christ was not only the pledge of our redemption, but also the price of it, because in him we see accomplished what was formerly exhibited to the ancient people under the figure of the passover. Thus also the Jews are reminded that they ought to seek in Christ the substance of all those things which the Law prefigured, but did not actually accomplish.

Calvin: Joh 19:37 - They shall look on him whom they pierced 37.They shall look on him whom they pierced This passage is violently tortured by those who endeavor to explain it literally as referring to Christ. ...

37.They shall look on him whom they pierced This passage is violently tortured by those who endeavor to explain it literally as referring to Christ. Nor is this the purpose for which the Evangelist quotes ib but rather to show that Christ is that God who formerly complained, by Zechariah, that the Jews had pierced his heart, (Zec 12:10) Now, God speaks there after the manner of men, declaring that He is wounded by the sins of his people, and especially by their obstinate contempt of his word, in the same manner as a mortal man receives a deadly wound, when his heart is pierced; as he says, elsewhere, that his Spirit was deeply grieved, 188 Now, as Christ is God manifested in the flesh (1Ti 3:16,) John says that in his visible flesh was plainly accomplished what his Divine Majesty had endured from the Jews, so far as it was capable of enduring; not that God can be at all affected by the outrages of men, or that the reproaches which are cast at him from the earth ever reach him, but because by this mode of expression he intended to declare with what enormous sacrilege the wickedness of men is chargeable, when it rises in rebellion against heaven. What was done by the hand of a Roman soldier the ]Evangelist John justly imputes to the Jews; as they are elsewhere said to have crucified the Son of God, (Act 2:36,) though they did not lay a finger on his body.

A question now arises as to this passage taken from the prophet, 189 Does God promise to the Jews repentance to salvation, or, does he threaten that he will come as an avenger? For my own part, when I closely examine the passage, I think that it includes both; namely, that out of a worthless and unprincipled nation God will gather a remnant for salvation, and that, by his dreadful vengeance, he will show to despisers who it is with whom they have to do; for we know that they were wont to treat the prophets as insolently as if the prophets had told nothing but fables, and had received no commission from God. God declares that they will not pass unpunished, for he will at length maintain his cause.

Calvin: Joh 19:38 - Joseph of Arimathea besought Pilate // Secretly, through fear of the Jews // Who was a disciple of Jesus 38.Joseph of Arimathea besought Pilate John now relates by whom, and in what place, and with what magnificence, Christ was buried. He mentions two pe...

38.Joseph of Arimathea besought Pilate John now relates by whom, and in what place, and with what magnificence, Christ was buried. He mentions two persons who buried Christ; namely, Joseph and Nicodemus, the former of whom requested Pilate to give him the dead body, which otherwise would have been exposed to the lawless violence of the soldiers. Matthew (Mat 27:57) says, that he was a rich man, and Luke (Luk 23:50) says, that he was a counsellor; that is, he held the rank of a senator. As to Nicodemus, we have seen, in the Third Chapter of this Gospel, that he held an honorable rank among his own countrymen; and that he was also rich, may be easily inferred from the great expense which he laid out in procuring this mixture.

Till now, therefore, riches had prevented them from professing to be the disciples of Christ, and might afterwards have no less influence in keeping them from making a profession so much hated and abhorred. The Evangelist expressly says, that Joseph has formerly been kept back by this fear from venturing to declare openly that he was a disciple of Christ; and as to Nicodemus, he repeats what we have already seen, that he came to Jesus secretly, and by night, (Joh 3:2 and Joh 7:50.) Whence, therefore, do they derive such heroic magnanimity that, when affairs are at the lowest ebb, they fearlessly come forth to public view? I say nothing of the great and evident danger which they must have incurred; but the most important point is, that they did not scruple to place themselves in a state of perpetual warfare with their own nation. It is therefore certain that this was effected by a heavenly impulse, so that they who, through, fear, did not render the honor due to him while he was alive, now run to his dead body, as if they had become new men.

They bring their spices to embalm the body of Christ; but they would never have done so, if they had been perfumed with the sweet sayour of his death. This shows the truth of what Christ had said,

Unless a grain of corn die, it remaineth alone;
but when it is dead, it bringeth forth much fruit,
(Joh 12:24.)

For here we have a striking proof that his death was more quickening than his life; and so great was the efficacy of that sweet sayour which the death of Christ conveyed to the minds of those two men, that it quickly extinguished all the passions belonging to the flesh. So long as ambition and the love of money reigned in thenb the grace of Christ had no charms for them; but now they begin to disrelish the whole world.

Besides, let us learn that their example points out to us what we owe to Christ. Those two men, as a testimony of their faith, not only took down Christ from the cross with great hazard, but boldly carried him to the grave. Our slothfulness will be base and shameful if, now that he reigns in the heavenly glory, we withhold from him the confession of our faith. So much the less excusable is the wickedness of those who, though they now deny Christ by base hypocrisy, plead in his behalf the example of Nicodemus. In one thing, I admit, they resemble him, that they endeavor, as far as lies in their power, to bury Christ; but the time for burying is past, since he hath ascended to the right hand of the Father, that he may reign gloriously over angels and men, and that every tongue may proclaim his dominion, (Phi 2:9.)

Secretly, through fear of the Jews As this fear is contrasted with the holy boldness which the Spirit of the Lord wrought in the heart of Joseph, there is reason to believe that it was not free from blame. Not that all fear, by which believers guard against tyrants and enemies of the Church, is faulty, but because the weakness of faith is manifested, whenever the confession of faith is withheld through fear. We ought always to consider what the Lord commands, and how far he bids us advance. He who stops in the middle of the course shows that he does not trust in God, and he who sets a higher value on his own life than on the command of God is without excuse.

Who was a disciple of Jesus When we perceive that the Evangelist bestows on Joseph the honorable designation of a disciple, at a time when he was excessively timid, and did not venture to profess his faith before the world, we learn from it how graciously God acts towards his people, and with what fatherly kindness he forgives their offenses. And yet the false Nicodemites have no right to flatter themselves, who not only keep their faith concealed within their own breast, but, by pretending to give their consent to wicked superstitions, do all that is in their power to deny that they are disciples of Christ.

Calvin: Joh 19:40 - As the custom of the Jews is to bury 40.As the custom of the Jews is to bury When Christ had endured extreme ignominy on the cross, God determined that his burial should be honourable, t...

40.As the custom of the Jews is to bury When Christ had endured extreme ignominy on the cross, God determined that his burial should be honourable, that it might serve as a preparation for the glory of his resurrection. The money expended on it by Nicodemus and Joseph is very great, and may be thought by some to be superfluous; but we ought to consider the design of God, who even led them, by his Spirit, to render this honor to his own Son, that, by the sweet savor of his grave he might take away our dread of the cross. But those things which are cut of the ordinary course ought not to be regarded as an example.

Besides, the Evangelist expressly states that he was buried according to the custom of the Jews. By these words he informs us that this was one of the ceremonies of the Law; for the ancient people, who did not receive so clear a statement of the resurrection, and who had not such a demonstration and pledge of it as we have in Christ, needed such aids to support them, that they might firmly believe and expect the coming of the Mediator 190 We ought, therefore, to attend to the distinction between us, who have been enlightened by the brightness of the Gospel, and the rather, to whom the figures supplied the absence of Christ. This is the reason why allowance could then be made for a greater pomp of ceremonies, which, at the present day, would not be free from blame; for those who now bury the dead at so great an expense do not, strictly speaking, bury dead men, but rather, as far as lies in their power, draw down from heaven Christ himself, the King of life, and lay him in the tomb, for his glorious resurrection 191 abolished those ancient ceremonies.

Among the heathen, too, there was great anxiety and ceremony in burying the dead, which unquestionably derived its origin from the ancient Fathers of the Jews, 192 in the same manner as sacrifices; but, as no hope of the resurrection existed along them, they were not imitators of the Fathers, but apes of them; for the promise and word of God is, as it were, the soul, which gives life to ceremonies. Take away the word, and all the ceremonies which men observe, though outwardly they may resemble the worship of godly persons, is nothing else than foolish or mad superstition. For our part, as we have said, we ought now to maintain sobriety and moderation in this matter, for immoderate expense quenches the sweet savour of Christ’s resurrection.

Calvin: Joh 19:41 - Now, in the place where he was crucified there was a garden 41.Now, in the place where he was crucified there was a garden This is the third point, as I have said, which ought to be observed in the history o...

41.Now, in the place where he was crucified there was a garden This is the third point, as I have said, which ought to be observed in the history of the burial. It is related by the Evangelist for various reasons. In the first place, it did not happen by accident, but by an undoubted providence of God, that the body of Christ was buried in a new sepulchre; for although he died as all other men die, still, as he was to be the first-born from the dead, (Col 1:18,) and the first-fruits of them that rise, (1Co 15:20) he had a new sepulcher, in which no person had ever been laid True, Nicodemus and Joseph had a different object in view; for, in consequence of the short time that now remained till sunset, which was the commencement of the Sabbath, they looked to the convenience of the place, but, contrary to their intention God provided for his own Son a sepulchre which had not yet been used. The good men are merely gratified by the place being near at hand, that they might not violate the Sabbath; but God offers them what they did not seek, that the burial of his Son might have some token to distinguish him from the rank of other men. The local situation served also to prove the truth of his resurrection, and to throw no small light on the narrative which is contained in the following chapter.

Defender: Joh 19:1 - scourged him The Roman scourge, customarily used on criminals prior to crucifixion, was a whip with several thongs, each with several pieces of bone or metal attac...

The Roman scourge, customarily used on criminals prior to crucifixion, was a whip with several thongs, each with several pieces of bone or metal attached, and its use inflicted extremely painful stripes. At first, Pilate hoped to satisfy the accusers with the scourging of Jesus (Luk 23:22), but they insisted on His execution. However, in so doing, they were merely fulfilling prophecy: "he was wounded for our transgressions, he was bruised for our iniquities: the chastisement of our peace was upon him; and with his stripes we are healed" (Isa 53:5)."

Defender: Joh 19:3 - King of the Jews Jesus had never claimed such a title, and Pilate had tried without success to get Him to acknowledge it (Joh 18:33). Perhaps Pilate gave him this titl...

Jesus had never claimed such a title, and Pilate had tried without success to get Him to acknowledge it (Joh 18:33). Perhaps Pilate gave him this title in a sarcastic put-down of the hateful Jewish leaders (Joh 18:39). The soldiers mocked Jesus with it by nailing it to the cross (Joh 19:19)."

Defender: Joh 19:4 - forth to you Scourging was sometimes used to extract a confession from a criminal, but Jesus still did not acknowledge that He had assumed the role of King of the ...

Scourging was sometimes used to extract a confession from a criminal, but Jesus still did not acknowledge that He had assumed the role of King of the Jews, so Pilate again judged Him guiltless and tried to persuade the crowd that He should be released. But they chose the murderer and seditionist Barabbas instead."

Defender: Joh 19:5 - Behold the man Pilate, evidently trying to show the crowd that Jesus was a pitiable shell rather than a king (thus, demonstrating the absurdity of their charge), urg...

Pilate, evidently trying to show the crowd that Jesus was a pitiable shell rather than a king (thus, demonstrating the absurdity of their charge), urged them to behold Him in this forlorn state and ridiculous caricature of kingly apparel, thinking thereby to displace their hatred with pity. But when he said, "Behold the man," he was unwittingly using prophetic language. Through the prophet Isaiah, God had said concerning the coming Messiah, "Behold your God!" and "Behold my servant" (Isa 40:9; Isa 42:1). Through the prophet Zechariah, God said concerning Him, "Behold the man" and "behold thy King" (Zec 6:12; Zec 9:9). Note how these four scenes we are urged to behold correspond to the respective pictures of Christ in the four gospels - "King" in Matthew, "Servant" in Mark, "Man" in Luke, "God" in John. Pilate sarcastically used two of these titles: "Behold the man" in Joh 19:5, "behold your King" in Joh 19:14."

Defender: Joh 19:6 - no fault For the third time, Pilate insisted there was no fault in Jesus (Joh 18:38; Joh 19:4), but the Jews were determined to see Him crucified."

For the third time, Pilate insisted there was no fault in Jesus (Joh 18:38; Joh 19:4), but the Jews were determined to see Him crucified."

Defender: Joh 19:8 - more afraid The Romans were pagan polytheists and had many tales about the "gods" appearing as men. Pilate had been awed by the demeanor of Jesus under questionin...

The Romans were pagan polytheists and had many tales about the "gods" appearing as men. Pilate had been awed by the demeanor of Jesus under questioning and persecution, and when he heard about Jesus' claims to deity, he became fearful that this might be such a case."

Defender: Joh 19:11 - greater sin This assessment confirms the fact that there are differing degrees of guilt and, therefore, degrees of future punishment. Judas committed a greater si...

This assessment confirms the fact that there are differing degrees of guilt and, therefore, degrees of future punishment. Judas committed a greater sin than Pilate because he had much greater light than Pilate."

Defender: Joh 19:12 - not Caesar's friend Pilate desperately wanted to release Jesus because of his superstitious fear of what the gods might do if he executed one of their own. His immediate ...

Pilate desperately wanted to release Jesus because of his superstitious fear of what the gods might do if he executed one of their own. His immediate fear of what Caesar would do to him in the present world, however, soon outweighed his fear of any future world."

Defender: Joh 19:16 - delivered he him Pilate thought he was the one who "delivered" Jesus to be crucified. However the fact is, that He, "being delivered by the determinate counsel and for...

Pilate thought he was the one who "delivered" Jesus to be crucified. However the fact is, that He, "being delivered by the determinate counsel and foreknowledge of God, ye have taken, and by wicked hands have crucified and slain" (Act 2:23)."

Defender: Joh 19:17 - skull "Skull" in the Greek is kranion and in Aramaic Golgotha or in the Latin Calvary. The small 18-foot hill recognized as Mount Calvary in modern Jerusa...

"Skull" in the Greek is kranion and in Aramaic Golgotha or in the Latin Calvary. The small 18-foot hill recognized as Mount Calvary in modern Jerusalem does, indeed, have a skull-like appearance."

Defender: Joh 19:22 - What I have written Pilate, tormented by his conscience, decided at this point that the Jews had intimidated him far enough and refused to change the title on the cross. ...

Pilate, tormented by his conscience, decided at this point that the Jews had intimidated him far enough and refused to change the title on the cross. As a response to what they had forced him to do, Pilate cast their charge back in their faces by officially declaring that the pitiable figure dying on the cross was their king, in effect, threatening that their nation would soon be like their dying king if they persisted in their malevolence against Rome."

Defender: Joh 19:24 - scripture might be fulfilled These actions were in precise fulfillment of an unlikely prophecy given a thousand years before (Psa 22:18). It is one of the few events in the life o...

These actions were in precise fulfillment of an unlikely prophecy given a thousand years before (Psa 22:18). It is one of the few events in the life of Christ recorded in all four Gospels."

Defender: Joh 19:26 - behold thy son These brief conversations, with John and His mother, constituted the second word from the cross (see Luk 23:34 for the first). Even in the midst of Hi...

These brief conversations, with John and His mother, constituted the second word from the cross (see Luk 23:34 for the first). Even in the midst of His own sufferings, He shared His mother's sufferings (compare Luk 2:35). It is sad to note that His brothers were not present with their mother. Presumably, they had remained in Galilee while Mary had decided to journey to Jerusalem with Jesus and the other women."

Defender: Joh 19:27 - Behold thy mother Jesus was providing here for His mother, not for John as some have thought. John's own mother was also there at the crucifixion (Mat 27:56)."

Jesus was providing here for His mother, not for John as some have thought. John's own mother was also there at the crucifixion (Mat 27:56)."

Defender: Joh 19:28 - accomplished The Greek word for "accomplished" (teleo) is the same as "finished" in Joh 19:30 and is very similar to that for "fulfilled" (teleloo). All three coul...

The Greek word for "accomplished" (teleo) is the same as "finished" in Joh 19:30 and is very similar to that for "fulfilled" (teleloo). All three could well be translated "accomplished."

Defender: Joh 19:28 - fulfilled There was only one Scripture yet to be "accomplished;" the word used here is not the customary word for "fulfilled." The reference is to Psa 69:21 : "...

There was only one Scripture yet to be "accomplished;" the word used here is not the customary word for "fulfilled." The reference is to Psa 69:21 : "In my thirst they gave me vinegar to drink.""

Defender: Joh 19:29 - to his mouth When Jesus was first being nailed to the cross, the soldiers offered to give him a drink of vinegar and gall (Mat 27:34), and also a drink of wine and...

When Jesus was first being nailed to the cross, the soldiers offered to give him a drink of vinegar and gall (Mat 27:34), and also a drink of wine and myrrh (Mar 15:23), each designed as a drug to alleviate the pain. He would not accept them, for it was His intention to drink the full cup of God's wrath on sin (Joh 18:11) without mitigation. However, it had now been fully accomplished, and this one Scripture remained to be fulfilled. The thirst associated with crucifixion was very intense and was a real part of His sufferings (Luk 16:24), for it is part of the torment of Hades. As a result, He has made a wonderful, eternal provision to relieve our thirst (Joh 7:37; Rev 22:17)."

Defender: Joh 19:30 - It is finished This is the great victory cry (Mat 27:50) of the Lord Jesus Christ, for He had finished the work He had come to do (Joh 4:34; Joh 17:4). Long ago He h...

This is the great victory cry (Mat 27:50) of the Lord Jesus Christ, for He had finished the work He had come to do (Joh 4:34; Joh 17:4). Long ago He had finished the work of creation (Gen 2:1-3; Heb 4:3); now He had finished the work of salvation. This is also the sixth of the seven words from the cross.

Defender: Joh 19:30 - bowed his head The words "bowed his head" are the same as "laid His head." The first of the eighty times Jesus called Himself "the Son of man" was when he said, "The...

The words "bowed his head" are the same as "laid His head." The first of the eighty times Jesus called Himself "the Son of man" was when he said, "The Son of man hath not where to lay his head" (Mat 8:20). In the Old Testament (but see also Luk 24:5), the term "bow the head" is equivalent to "worship," that is, to "bow down to the will of God" (see notes on Gen 22:5). During His earthly ministry, we never read of Jesus worshipping God, though He taught others to do so. He had nowhere to "bow[ed] his head," to "worship." He had come to do the will of God and to finish His work and that was still unfinished until He went to the cross. But now the work was accomplished; He had perfectly finished the will of God so at last He could "bow(ed) his head;" He finally had a place to worship the Father."

Defender: Joh 19:34 - blood and water The gushing forth of a fountain of blood to wash our sins away (Rev 1:5) is a natural metaphor drawn from this scene, but it is not clear how both blo...

The gushing forth of a fountain of blood to wash our sins away (Rev 1:5) is a natural metaphor drawn from this scene, but it is not clear how both blood and water could flow from such a wound. Some have suggested Jesus literally died of a broken heart, with the collapse of the ruptured heart cavity resulting in separation of the watery serum from the clotted blood in the pericardium. On the other hand, Jesus' death was supernatural; He did not die naturally like others but volitionally "gave up the ghost" (Joh 19:30; see note on Luk 23:46), so there may not be a natural explanation for this phenomenon. He had promised to provide "living water" (Joh 7:37) to those who would "come unto me and drink" (Joh 7:37), and the water flowing from His side would at least be symbolic of the "water of life" that would be eternally "proceeding out of the throne of God and of the Lamb" (Rev 22:1). The blood and water flowing from His opened side thus would represent both the cleansing blood of the slain Lamb and the life-sustaining water from the smitten Rock (Exo 17:6; 1Co 10:4); it might even speak of the opened side of the first Adam, from which God made Eve (Gen 2:21-24). Also see John's application of the water and the blood in 1Jo 5:6-8."

Defender: Joh 19:35 - that ye might believe John's emphatic assertion here, that he was recording what really happened, was necessary both because of the unique nature of the phenomenon and also...

John's emphatic assertion here, that he was recording what really happened, was necessary both because of the unique nature of the phenomenon and also to emphasize that Jesus was really dead, thus anticipating the later skeptical attempt to explain the resurrection by supposing that He merely swooned and had not actually died."

Defender: Joh 19:36 - scripture should be fulfilled This volitional death of Jesus before His legs could be broken (Joh 19:31-33) was in fulfillment of the prophecy in Psa 34:19, Psa 34:20. Also, Jesus ...

This volitional death of Jesus before His legs could be broken (Joh 19:31-33) was in fulfillment of the prophecy in Psa 34:19, Psa 34:20. Also, Jesus was fulfilling the symbolism of the sacrificial Passover lamb (1Co 5:7), the bones of which were not to be broken (Exo 12:46; Num 9:12)."

Defender: Joh 19:37 - another scripture This terrible piercing of Jesus' side fulfilled the prophecy in Zec 12:10. The wound marks were still visible in His resurrected body (Joh 20:27) and ...

This terrible piercing of Jesus' side fulfilled the prophecy in Zec 12:10. The wound marks were still visible in His resurrected body (Joh 20:27) and will be with Him forever (Rev 1:7)."

Defender: Joh 19:38 - secretly On the account of Jesus' burial, see also Mat 27:57-60, note; Mar 15:42-46, note; and Luk 23:50-53, note. Joseph was a member of the Council which had...

On the account of Jesus' burial, see also Mat 27:57-60, note; Mar 15:42-46, note; and Luk 23:50-53, note. Joseph was a member of the Council which had condemned Jesus, though he did not consent to this (Luk 23:51). He had been a disciple of Jesus for some time, but "secretly." This does not suggest cowardice, however, but strategy. In fact, the Greek word for "secretly" is krupto from which we get our word "cryptic." It actually means "under cover" or "in hiding." It may well suggest that Joseph was hiding in the tomb he had built, watching the crucifixion, so that he would know exactly when Jesus died and could go immediately to Pilate, who was surprised to learn Jesus was already dead."

Defender: Joh 19:39 - an hundred pound weight Nicodemus was also a member of the Council, and he too had defended Jesus (Joh 7:50-52). He must also have been waiting in the tomb with all the spice...

Nicodemus was also a member of the Council, and he too had defended Jesus (Joh 7:50-52). He must also have been waiting in the tomb with all the spices and graveclothes. These could not have been procured on a sudden impulse, but must have been prepared earlier. Furthermore, Nicodemus was "a master of Israel" (Joh 3:10) and so must have been an elderly man; he could hardly have carried a hundred pounds very far. This all leads to the further inference that the two Counselors were friends; both had become "disciples" of Jesus and so must have spent much time studying about Jesus and the Messianic promises in their Scriptures. It is possible that they had studied with John (see note on Joh 18:15) or even, from time to time, with Jesus Himself. The intriguing conversation with Jesus on the first occasion (John 3:1-21) surely stimulated Nicodemus to much further study, especially of such passages as Isa 53:1-12. There he and Joseph would learn (even if Jesus did not actually tell them) that He would be executed "with the wicked" but then be buried "with the rich" (Isa 53:9). They somehow had decided that they were called to be the rich men who would provide proper burial for Him after He was put to death with the criminals. They also knew His death would be by crucifixion, since Nicodemus had been told that He must be "lifted up" like "the serpent in the wilderness" (Joh 3:14). They could only conclude that He would be crucified by the Romans on Golgotha, the regular hill where criminals were crucified. Joseph, therefore, had arranged to buy a tract nearby where they could bury Him quickly when the time came. They knew He would not be in the tomb very long, so there was no need to find a more serene location."

Defender: Joh 19:40 - bury The manner of the Jews to bury was not like that of Egyptian mummies; the cloths were entwined lengthwise, and there was a separate cloth for the head...

The manner of the Jews to bury was not like that of Egyptian mummies; the cloths were entwined lengthwise, and there was a separate cloth for the head."

Defender: Joh 19:41 - never man yet laid The area had been purchased and specially constructed by Joseph, including even a garden, evidently as a special act of devotion to Christ. Since his ...

The area had been purchased and specially constructed by Joseph, including even a garden, evidently as a special act of devotion to Christ. Since his home was in Arimathaea, not Jerusalem, he would hardly have prepared such a place for himself or any members of his family, especially within sight and sound of dying criminals. The only reasonable inference is that he - possibly with Nicodemus - had prepared the tomb and the graveclothes well in advance of the time they would be needed, precisely for this very temporary but eternally significant ministry."

Defender: Joh 19:42 - Jews preparation day This was the day before the Sabbath, spent in "preparation" for this special Sabbath - the Sabbath of the Passover week. The Jews were scrupulous abou...

This was the day before the Sabbath, spent in "preparation" for this special Sabbath - the Sabbath of the Passover week. The Jews were scrupulous about allowing no work on the Sabbath, so it was necessary for the two friends to finish the burial necessities to the extent they could before the sun went down. Thus, just as the Lord rested one day after finishing the work of His creation week, so He would also rest another full day after finishing His redemption work."

TSK: Joh 19:1 - Pilate // scourged Pilate : Mat 27:26-31; Mar 15:15-20; Luk 23:16, Luk 23:23 scourged : Psa 129:3; Isa 50:6, Isa 53:5; Mat 20:19, Mat 23:34; Mar 10:33, Mar 10:34; Luk 18...

TSK: Joh 19:2 - the soldiers the soldiers : Joh 19:5; Psa 22:6; Isa 49:7, Isa 53:3; Mat 27:27-31; Mar 15:17-20; Luk 23:11

TSK: Joh 19:3 - Hail // King Hail : Mat 26:49, Mat 27:29; Luk 1:28 King : Joh 19:19-22, Joh 18:33

TSK: Joh 19:4 - that ye that ye : Joh 19:6, Joh 18:38; Mat 27:4, Mat 27:19, Mat 27:24, Mat 27:54; Luk 23:41, Luk 23:47; 2Co 5:21; Heb 7:26; 1Pe 1:19; 1Pe 2:22, 1Pe 3:18; 1Jo ...

TSK: Joh 19:5 - Behold Behold : Joh 1:29; Isa 7:14, Isa 40:9, Isa 43:1; Lam 1:12; Heb 12:2

TSK: Joh 19:6 - the chief priests // Take the chief priests : Joh 19:15; Mat 27:22; Mar 15:12-15; Luk 22:21-23; Act 2:23, Act 3:13-15, Act 7:52; Act 13:27-29 Take : Pilate neither did nor coul...

the chief priests : Joh 19:15; Mat 27:22; Mar 15:12-15; Luk 22:21-23; Act 2:23, Act 3:13-15, Act 7:52; Act 13:27-29

Take : Pilate neither did nor could say this seriously; for crucifixion was not a Jewish but a Roman mode of punishment. The cross was made of two beams, either crossing at the top, at right angles, like a T, or in the middle of their length like an X; with a piece on the centre of the transverse beam for the accusation, and another piece projecting from the middle, on which the person sat. The cross on which our Lord suffered was of the former kind, being thus represented on all old monuments, coins, and crosses. The body was usually fastened to the upright beam by nailing the feet to it, and on the transverse piece by nailing the hands; and the person was frequently permitted to hang in this situation till he perished through agony and lack of food. This horrible punishment was usually inflicted only on slaves for the worst of crimes. Joh 18:31; Mat 27:24

TSK: Joh 19:7 - We have // because We have : Lev 24:16; Deu 18:20 because : Joh 5:18, Joh 8:58, Joh 8:59, Joh 10:30-33, Joh 10:36-38; Mat 26:63-66, Mat 27:42, Mat 27:43; Mar 14:61-64; M...

TSK: Joh 19:8 - heard heard : Joh 19:13; Act 14:11-19

TSK: Joh 19:9 - Whence // But Whence : Joh 8:14, Joh 9:29, Joh 9:30; Jdg 13:6 But : Psa 38:13-15; Isa 53:7; Mat 27:12-14; Mar 15:3-5; Act 8:32, Act 8:33; Phi 1:28

TSK: Joh 19:10 - knowest knowest : Joh 18:39; Dan 3:14, Dan 3:15, Dan 5:19

TSK: Joh 19:11 - Thou // he // the greater Thou : Joh 3:27, Joh 7:30; Gen 45:7, Gen 45:8; Exo 9:14-16; 1Ch 29:11; Psa 39:9, Psa 62:11; Jer 27:5-8; Lam 3:37; Dan 4:17, Dan 4:25, Dan 4:32, Dan 4:...

TSK: Joh 19:12 - from // thou art from : Mar 6:16-26; Act 24:24-27 thou art : Joh 18:33-36; Luk 23:2-5; Act 17:6, Act 17:7

TSK: Joh 19:13 - heard // and sat heard : Joh 19:8; Pro 29:25; Isa 51:12, Isa 51:13, Isa 57:11; Luk 12:5; Act 4:19 and sat : Psa 58:1, Psa 58:2, Psa 82:5-7, Psa 94:20,Psa 94:21; Ecc 5:...

TSK: Joh 19:14 - the preparation // the sixth // Behold the preparation : Joh 19:31, Joh 19:32, Joh 19:42; Mat 27:62; Mar 15:42; Luk 23:54 the sixth : Instead of εκτη [Strong’ s G1623], sixth, s...

the preparation : Joh 19:31, Joh 19:32, Joh 19:42; Mat 27:62; Mar 15:42; Luk 23:54

the sixth : Instead of εκτη [Strong’ s G1623], sixth, several manuscripts and fathers have τριτη [Strong’ s G5154], third, as in the parallel place. Mar 15:25, Mar 15:33, Mar 15:34

Behold : Joh 19:3, Joh 19:5, Joh 19:19-22

TSK: Joh 19:15 - Away // We have Away : Joh 19:6; Luk 23:18; Act 21:36, Act 22:22 We have : Joh 18:31; Gen 49:10; Eze 21:26, Eze 21:27

TSK: Joh 19:16 - -- Mat 27:26-31; Mar 15:15-20; Luk 23:24

TSK: Joh 19:17 - he // went // Golgotha he : Mat 10:38, Mat 16:24, Mat 27:31-33; Mar 8:34, Mar 10:21, Mar 15:21, Mar 15:22; Luk 9:23, Luk 14:27; Luk 23:26, Luk 23:33 went : Lev 16:21, Lev 16...

he : Mat 10:38, Mat 16:24, Mat 27:31-33; Mar 8:34, Mar 10:21, Mar 15:21, Mar 15:22; Luk 9:23, Luk 14:27; Luk 23:26, Luk 23:33

went : Lev 16:21, Lev 16:22, Lev 24:14; Num 15:35, Num 15:36; 1Ki 21:13; Luk 23:33; Act 7:58; Heb 13:11-13

Golgotha : Golgotha, of which Κρανιον [Strong’ s G2898] and Calvaria are merely translations, is supposed to have been a hill, or a rising on a greater hill, on the north-west of Jerusalem. Mat 27:33, Mat 27:34; Mar 15:21, Mar 15:22; Luk 23:33

TSK: Joh 19:18 - -- Joh 18:32; Psa 22:16; Isa 53:12; Mat 27:35-38, Mat 27:44; Mar 15:24-28; Luk 23:32-34; Gal 3:13; Heb 12:2

TSK: Joh 19:19 - wrote // And the // Jesus wrote : Mat 27:37; Mar 15:26; Luk 23:38 And the : The apparent discrepancy between the accounts of this title given by the Evangelists, which has been...

wrote : Mat 27:37; Mar 15:26; Luk 23:38

And the : The apparent discrepancy between the accounts of this title given by the Evangelists, which has been urged as an objection against their inspiration and veracity, has been most satisfactorily accounted for by Dr. Townson; who supposes that, as it was written in Hebrew, Greek, and Latin, it might have slightly varied in each language; and that, as Luke and John wrote for the Gentiles, they would prefer the Greek inscription, that Matthew, addressing the Jews, would use the Hebrew, and that Mark, writing to the Romans, would naturally give the Latin.

Jesus : Joh 19:3, Joh 19:12, Joh 1:45, Joh 1:46, Joh 1:49, Joh 18:33; Act 3:6, Act 26:9

TSK: Joh 19:20 - in // and Greek in : Joh 19:13, Joh 5:2; Act 21:40, Act 22:2, Act 26:14; Rev 16:16 and Greek : Act 21:37; Rev 9:11

TSK: Joh 19:22 - What What : Joh 19:12; Psa 65:7, Psa 76:10; Pro 8:29

TSK: Joh 19:23 - the soldiers // now // woven the soldiers : Mat 27:35; Mar 15:24; Luk 23:34 now : Such was the χιτων [Strong’ s G5509], or coat, of the Jewish high-priest, as describ...

the soldiers : Mat 27:35; Mar 15:24; Luk 23:34

now : Such was the χιτων [Strong’ s G5509], or coat, of the Jewish high-priest, as described by Josephus.

woven : or, wrought, Exo 39:22, Exo 39:23

TSK: Joh 19:24 - that // They parted that : Joh 19:28, Joh 19:36, Joh 19:37, Joh 10:35, Joh 12:38, Joh 12:39 They parted : Psa 22:18; Isa 10:7; Act 13:27

TSK: Joh 19:25 - his mother // and his // Cleophas // and Mary his mother : Luk 2:35 and his : Mat 27:55, Mat 27:56; Mar 15:40,Mar 15:41; Luk 23:49 Cleophas : or, Cleopas, Luk 24:18 and Mary : Joh 20:1, Joh 20:11-...

his mother : Luk 2:35

and his : Mat 27:55, Mat 27:56; Mar 15:40,Mar 15:41; Luk 23:49

Cleophas : or, Cleopas, Luk 24:18

and Mary : Joh 20:1, Joh 20:11-18; Mar 16:9; Luk 8:2

TSK: Joh 19:26 - whom // Woman whom : Joh 13:23, Joh 20:2, Joh 21:7, Joh 21:20,Joh 21:24 Woman : Joh 2:4

TSK: Joh 19:27 - Behold // took // his Behold : Gen 45:8, Gen 47:12; Mat 12:48-50, Mat 25:40; Mar 3:34; 1Ti 5:2-4 took : 1Jo 3:18, 1Jo 3:19 his : Joh 1:11, Joh 16:32

TSK: Joh 19:28 - Jesus // that the Jesus : Joh 19:30, Joh 13:1, Joh 18:4; Luk 9:31, Luk 12:50, Luk 18:31, Luk 22:37; Act 13:29 that the : Psa 22:15, Psa 69:21

TSK: Joh 19:29 - was set // hyssop was set : Mat 27:34, Mat 27:48; Mar 15:36; Luk 23:36 hyssop : This hyssop is termed a reed by Matthew and Mark; and it appears that a species of hysso...

was set : Mat 27:34, Mat 27:48; Mar 15:36; Luk 23:36

hyssop : This hyssop is termed a reed by Matthew and Mark; and it appears that a species of hyssop, with a reedy stalk, about two feet long, grew about Jerusalem. Exo 12:22; Num 19:18; 1Ki 4:33; Psa 51:7

TSK: Joh 19:30 - It is // and he It is : Joh 19:28 *Gr: Joh 4:34, Joh 17:4; Gen 3:15; Psa 22:15; Isa 53:10,Isa 53:12; Dan 9:24, Dan 9:26; Zec 13:7; Mat 3:15; Rom 3:25, Rom 10:4; 1Co 5...

TSK: Joh 19:31 - because // that the // that sabbath // their because : Joh 19:14, Joh 19:42; Mat 27:62; Mar 15:42 that the : Deu 21:22, Deu 21:23 that sabbath : Lev 23:7-16 their : Lactantius says that it was a ...

because : Joh 19:14, Joh 19:42; Mat 27:62; Mar 15:42

that the : Deu 21:22, Deu 21:23

that sabbath : Lev 23:7-16

their : Lactantius says that it was a custom to break the legs of criminals upon the cross; which was done, we are told, at the instep with an iron mallet; and appears to have been a kind of coup de grace , the sooner to put them out of pain. Joh 19:1; Pro 12:10; Mic 3:3

TSK: Joh 19:32 - of the first of the first : Joh 19:18; Luk 23:39-43

of the first : Joh 19:18; Luk 23:39-43

TSK: Joh 19:34 - came came : Joh 13:8-10; Psa 51:7; Eze 36:25; Zec 13:1; Mat 27:62; Act 22:16; 1Co 1:30; 1Co 6:11; Eph 5:26; Tit 2:14, Tit 3:5-7; Heb 9:13, Heb 9:22, Heb 10...

TSK: Joh 19:35 - he that // that ye he that : Joh 19:26, Joh 21:24; Act 10:39; Heb 2:3, Heb 2:4; 1Pe 5:1; 1Jo 1:1-3 that ye : Joh 11:15, Joh 11:42, Joh 14:29, Joh 17:20,Joh 17:21, Joh 20...

TSK: Joh 19:36 - that the that the : Exo 12:46; Num 9:12; Psa 22:14, Psa 34:20, Psa 35:10

TSK: Joh 19:37 - They They : Psa 22:16, Psa 22:17; Zec 12:10; Rev 1:7

TSK: Joh 19:38 - Joseph // but Joseph : Mat 27:57-60; Mar 15:42-46; Luk 23:50 but : Joh 9:22, Joh 12:42; Pro 29:25; Phi 1:14

TSK: Joh 19:39 - Nicodemus // a Nicodemus : John 3:1-21, Joh 7:50-52; Mat 12:20, Mat 19:30 a : Joh 12:7; 2Ch 16:14; Son 4:6, Son 4:14

Nicodemus : John 3:1-21, Joh 7:50-52; Mat 12:20, Mat 19:30

a : Joh 12:7; 2Ch 16:14; Son 4:6, Son 4:14

TSK: Joh 19:40 - wound wound : Joh 11:44, Joh 20:5-7; Act 5:6

TSK: Joh 19:41 - and in and in : Joh 20:15; 2Ki 23:30; Isa 22:16; Mat 27:60,Mat 27:64-66; Luk 23:53

TSK: Joh 19:42 - laid // because laid : Psa 22:15; Isa 53:9; Mat 12:40; Act 13:29; 1Co 15:4; Col 2:12 because : Joh 19:14, Joh 19:31

kecilkan semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per Ayat)

Poole: Joh 19:1 - -- Joh 19:1-4 Jesus is scourged, crowned with thorns, mocked, and buffeted by the soldiers. Joh 19:5-7 Pilate declareth his innocence: the Jews cha...

Joh 19:1-4 Jesus is scourged, crowned with thorns, mocked, and

buffeted by the soldiers.

Joh 19:5-7 Pilate declareth his innocence: the Jews charge him

with assuming the title of the Son of God.

Joh 19:8-16 Pilate upon further examination is more desirous to

release him, but, overcome with the clamours of the

Jews, delivereth him to be crucified.

Joh 19:17,18 He is led to Golgotha, and crucified between two

malefactors.

Joh 19:19-22 Pilate’ s inscription on his cross.

Joh 19:23,24 The soldiers part his garments.

Joh 19:25-27 He commendeth his mother to John,

Joh 19:28-30 receiveth vinegar to drink, and dieth.

Joh 19:31-37 The legs of the others are broken, and the side of

Jesus pierced.

Joh 19:38-42 Joseph of Arimathea begs his body, and, assisted

by Nicodemus, buries it.

It was the custom of the Romans, when any one was to be crucified, first to scourge him; but (as it appears) Pilate ordered it, hoping that, though he could not prevail by any other art with them, yet by this he might; and they might possibly be satisfied with this lighter punishment; for it appeareth by Joh 19:4,12 , that Pilate had a mind to release him, if he could have satisfied the Jews; though he had not courage enough to oppose the stream, and to do what himself thought was just, in despite of their opposition.

Poole: Joh 19:2 - -- The other evangelists also mention a reed put into his right hand. The crown, and the purple robe, and a sceptre, are all regal ensigns; they give t...

The other evangelists also mention a reed put into his right hand. The crown, and the purple robe, and a sceptre, are all regal ensigns; they give them to Christ in derision of his pretence to a kingdom, and in the mean time themselves proclaim what he had said, that his kingdom was not of this world; for though earthly kings wear crowns, yet they use to be of gold, not of thorns; and their sceptres use to be gold, not reeds.

Poole: Joh 19:3 - -- They mocked him when they said, Hail, King of the Jews! But yet spake a great truth, though not in their sense. The other evangelists speak of more...

They mocked him when they said, Hail, King of the Jews! But yet spake a great truth, though not in their sense. The other evangelists speak of more indignities offered him: See Poole on "Mar 15:19" .

Poole: Joh 19:4 - -- Pilate appeareth convinced in his own conscience that Christ had done nothing worthy either of death or bonds, and a great while resisted that stron...

Pilate appeareth convinced in his own conscience that Christ had done nothing worthy either of death or bonds, and a great while resisted that strong temptation which he was under to please the people, and to secure his own station, lest any complaint made to the Roman emperor against him should have prejudiced him.

Poole: Joh 19:5 - -- He therefore, after Jesus had been scourged, and dressed up in this mock dress, brings him out again to the people to move their pity.

He therefore, after Jesus had been scourged, and dressed up in this mock dress, brings him out again to the people to move their pity.

Poole: Joh 19:6 - -- Our Lord finds more compassion from Pilate, though a heathen, than he found from those of his own nation; yea, those that pretended highest to relig...

Our Lord finds more compassion from Pilate, though a heathen, than he found from those of his own nation; yea, those that pretended highest to religion amongst them: Pilate would have saved him; they cry out for his blood. Pilate leaves another testimony behind him, that what he did, at last overborne with a great temptation, he did contrary to the conviction of his own conscience, and as yet declineth the guilt of innocent blood.

Poole: Joh 19:7 - the Son of God here The law they mean, is the law for putting false prophets to death, Deu 18:20 . By the Son of God here they mean the eternal Son of God, in all th...

The law they mean, is the law for putting false prophets to death, Deu 18:20 . By

the Son of God here they mean the eternal Son of God, in all things equal with his Father; otherwise it was a term applicable to themselves, whom God calls his son, his firstborn, &c. Now for any in this sense to arrogate to himself this title who indeed was not so, was blasphemy, and that in the highest degree, and brought him under the notion of a false prophet of the deepest dye: but this was injuriously applied to Christ, who thought it no robbery to be equal with the Father, and who was so declared by God himself at his baptism and transfiguration; and who had made his Divine power appear by such works as no mere man ever did.

Poole: Joh 19:8 - -- It should seem that the Romans permitted judgments to the Jews according to their own laws, which the Roman governor was to see executed; or else, s...

It should seem that the Romans permitted judgments to the Jews according to their own laws, which the Roman governor was to see executed; or else, seeing the rabble in such a heat and disorder, he feared some breaking out.

Poole: Joh 19:9 - -- Our Lord, who knew the secrets of all men’ s hearts, very well knew, that though Pilate had for some time withstood his temptations, yet he wou...

Our Lord, who knew the secrets of all men’ s hearts, very well knew, that though Pilate had for some time withstood his temptations, yet he would at last yield: he also was ready to lay down his life, as he knew was determined for him; having therefore made a reasonable defence, he thinks fit to add no more of that nature.

Poole: Joh 19:10 - -- Pilate seemeth something displeased that Christ would be no more free: men in worldly power are too prone to forget from whom they derive it.

Pilate seemeth something displeased that Christ would be no more free: men in worldly power are too prone to forget from whom they derive it.

Poole: Joh 19:11 - -- Our Lord checks Pilate modestly for boasting of his authority as a judge to absolve or condemn him; declaring, that all the power he had was derived...

Our Lord checks Pilate modestly for boasting of his authority as a judge to absolve or condemn him; declaring, that all the power he had was derived from God, who in his eternal counsels had determined this thing, which must therefore come to pass: but withal lets him know, that this neither excused him, nor much less the Jews, who were to execute the Divine purposes. Pilate was to look to God’ s revealed will, not his secret counsels, of which he could have no knowledge; but he saith, they who had delivered him to him had the greater sin: he did act but as a judge upon their accusations; they procured the false witness, they would not be satisfied without his blood, and they sinned against much more light.

Poole: Joh 19:12 - -- He sought all fair and plausible means to release him being convinced in his own conscience that he was an innocent man: but the Jews double their...

He sought all fair and plausible means to release him being convinced in his own conscience that he was an innocent man: but the Jews double their clamours, and (according to the usual acts of sycophants) quit their charge as to religion, though that was the true and real cause of all their malice, and pursue only the charge which was proper for the cognizance of the Roman governor, of sedition or rebellion; and tacitly accuse Pilate as a traitor, and being false to his trust, if he should let our Saviour go; for no man could set up himself as a king, but he must proclaim himself a traitor to the Roman emperor.

Poole: Joh 19:13 - That saying // He brought Jesus forth, and sat down in a place called the Pavement That saying that if he let Jesus go he was not Caesar’ s friend. Pilate was a man that loved the honour that was from men more than the honour a...

That saying that if he let Jesus go he was not Caesar’ s friend. Pilate was a man that loved the honour that was from men more than the honour and praise which is from God; he was more afraid of losing his place than his soul, and could no longer resist the temptation he was under.

He brought Jesus forth, and sat down in a place called the Pavement because it was paved with stone, but in the Hebrew (mixed with the Syriac), Gabbatha that is, a high place; for it was their manner to have their judgment seats higher than other parts of the room where they were.

Poole: Joh 19:14 - The preparation // about the sixth hour The preparation to any feast signifies the day before it, because on that day they prepared whatsoever according to the law was necessary for the sol...

The preparation to any feast signifies the day before it, because on that day they prepared whatsoever according to the law was necessary for the solemnization. Some much doubt whether in this place the passover signifies strictly the paschal supper, which it could not do if the Jews strictly this year kept to the law; for the fourteenth day of the month Nisan at evening was the time when most certainly Christ kept it, who ate it the night before. It is therefore more probably thought, that by the passover here is meant their great festival, which was upon the fifteenth day. See Poole on "Joh 18:28" . John tells us it was

about the sixth hour that is, in the latter part of the interval between nine o’ clock in the morning and twelve at noon: for the division of the day according to the Jews was in four parts; the first was from the rising of the sun till our nine in the morning, and was called the third hour; the other was from the third hour to the sixth, that is, twelve o’ clock at noon; the third division was from their sixth hour to the ninth, that is, three o’ clock with us in the afternoon; the fourth division was from the ninth hour to sunset, that is, with us six o’ clock in the evening, when the sun is in the equinox. Now, not only the time when any of these hours came was called either the third or sixth hour, but the space of three hours allotted to each division was so called, when the next division began: so the time of our Saviour’ s crucifixion is recorded by Mark to be the third hour; that is, the whole space from nine o’ clock to twelve was not quite gone, though it was near at an end; and by the evangelist here it is said, that it was about the sixth hour, that is, near our twelve o’ clock. And thus the different relations are clearly reconciled.

Poole: Joh 19:15 - Shall I crucify your King? // We have no king but Caesar The more Pilate sought to quiet them, the more they rage, contrary to all dictates of reason; when God hath determined a thing, all things shall con...

The more Pilate sought to quiet them, the more they rage, contrary to all dictates of reason; when God hath determined a thing, all things shall concur to bring it about. Pilate mocks them when he saith,

Shall I crucify your King? Yet so fierce was their malice against Christ, that to compel the governor to condemn him, (though there were not a people under heaven more zealous for their liberties, nor more impatient of a foreign yoke), they cry out,

We have no king but Caesar that is, the Roman emperor, who had conquered them.

Poole: Joh 19:16 - -- This must be at or about twelve of the clock, for that must be signified by the sixth hour, Joh 19:14 . Pilate condemned him, and delivered him to ...

This must be at or about twelve of the clock, for that must be signified by the sixth hour, Joh 19:14 . Pilate condemned him, and delivered him to the executioner, who (as the manner is in such cases) led him away.

Poole: Joh 19:17 - See Poole on "Mat 27:31" See Poole on "Mat 27:31" , and